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1

Universal Designated-Verifier Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by privacy issues associated with dissemination of signed digital certiflcates, we deflne a new type of signature scheme called a 'Universal Designated-Verifler Signature' (UDVS). A UDVS scheme can function as a standard publicly-veriflable digital signature but has additional functionality which allows any holder of a signature (not nec- essarily the signer) to designate the signature to any desired designated-

Ron Steinfeld; Laurence Bull; Huaxiong Wang; Josef Pieprzyk

2003-01-01

2

Verifying properties using sequential ATPG [IC design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a novel approach for formally verifying both safety and liveness properties of designs using sequential ATPG tools. The properties are automatically mapped into a monitor circuit with a target fault so that finding a test for the fault corresponds to formally establishing the property. The mapping of the properties to the monitor circuit is described in detail

Jacob A. Abraham; Vivekananda M. Vedula

2002-01-01

3

Seismic Isolation Design for JSFR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the seismic design of Japan Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), which includes the seismic condition, the seismic isolation system, and the seismic evaluation of the primary components. Since the design seismic loading is set out severely than ever since The Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007, an advanced seismic isolation system is aimed to reduce the seismic force loaded

Shigeki OKAMURA; Yoshio KAMISHIMA; Kazuo NEGISHI; Yoshihiko SAKAMOTO; Seiji KITAMURA; Shoji KOTAKE

2011-01-01

4

Seismic Qualification of Large Equipment with Test-Verified Analytical Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic qualification of large structural items by analytical methods gains considerable credibility if the analytical techniques are verified by test-obtained modal data. Analytical seismic qualification of the McGuire Nuclear Station main control boards for Duke Power Company provide an example of the types of analysis procedures which are well suited to large structural pieces of equipment, and illustrate the

C. K. Wood; J. F. Jenkins; R. M. Walker

1979-01-01

5

Assessment of seismic design response factors of concrete wall buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To verify the seismic design response factors of high-rise buildings, five reference structures, varying in height from 20- to 60-stories, were selected and designed according to modern design codes to represent a wide range of concrete wall structures. Verified fiber-based analytical models for inelastic simulation were developed, considering the geometric nonlinearity and material inelasticity of the structural members. The ground motion uncertainty was accounted for by employing 20 earthquake records representing two seismic scenarios, consistent with the latest understanding of the tectonic setting and seismicity of the selected reference region (UAE). A large number of Inelastic Pushover Analyses (IPAs) and Incremental Dynamic Collapse Analyses (IDCAs) were deployed for the reference structures to estimate the seismic design response factors. It is concluded that the factors adopted by the design code are adequately conservative. The results of this systematic assessment of seismic design response factors apply to a wide variety of contemporary concrete wall buildings with various characteristics.

Mwafy, Aman

2011-03-01

6

DISPLACEMENT SPECTRA FOR SEISMIC DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Displacement-based seismic design and assessment of structures require the reliable definition of displacement spectra for a wide range of periods and damping levels. The displacement spectra derived from acceleration spectra in existing seismic codes do not provide a suitable answer and there are no existing frequency-dependent attenuation relationships derived specifically for this purpose. Using a carefully processed dataset of European

JULIAN J. BOMMER; AMR S. ELNASHAI

1999-01-01

7

Threshold subliminal channel based on designated verifier signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subliminal channel is used to send a secret message to an authorized receiver; the message cannot be discovered by any\\u000a unauthorized receivers. Designated verifier signature(DVS) provide authentication of a message, we design a DVS scheme with\\u000a message recovery mechanism and use it as a subliminal channel. In order to share a message among n users securely and allows\\u000a t

Su Li; Cui Guohua; Yang Muxiang; Chen Jing

2006-01-01

8

Verifying adequacy of the seismic deformation method by using real examples of earthquake damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a seismic design, the dynamic loads are generally dependent on the inertial interaction caused by earthquake. But for the foundations embedded in soil, the dynamic loads are influenced by both the inertial and kinematic interactions among superstructure, foundation and soil. Especially, when a foundation is embedded in soft surface ground, the effects due to the kinematic interaction increase and

Xiu Luo; Yoshitaka Murono; Akihiko Nishimura

2002-01-01

9

Seismic design in reinforced masonry  

Microsoft Academic Search

CIB working commission W23, which deals with structural walls, has published design Recommendations for both reinforced and unreinforced masonry. The procedures set out for seismic design in reinforced masonry have been tested in a research project in Italy, and the results are presented here by Professors Calvi and Macchi from the University of Pavia. They show that buildings of 4

M. Calvi; G. Macchi

1988-01-01

10

Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

1999-03-29

11

DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA  

SciTech Connect

The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

HOFMAYER,C.H.

1999-03-29

12

Seismic Design for Police and Fire Stations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project attempts to explore, define, and develop seismic design considerations to be used by the architectural and public safety professions in the planning, design, construction, and operation of police and fire stations so that they can remain func...

B. A. Blackner B. W. Beall H. Christiansen J. P. Eberhard P. W. Homer

1978-01-01

13

Design and Fabrication of a Seismic Mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The availability of a seismic mass at the David Florida Laboratory (Canada) is discussed. The design, construction, and evaluation of a seismic mass are discussed. The 67 sq m, 366 ton block, is supported on a set of 42 pneumatic springs located at the pe...

T. D. Harrison

1990-01-01

14

MARDS Antenna Design for Seismic Detection Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical and experimental program has been conducted to determine an optimal antenna design for use with the MARDS (Medium Artillery Delivered Sensors) seismic detection system. Several models of MARDS antennas (vertically polarized) were evaluated o...

F. Reggia

1972-01-01

15

Structural concepts and details for seismic design  

SciTech Connect

This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

Not Available

1991-09-01

16

Progress in Seismic Design and Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Japan, seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities is examined according to the “Regulatory Guide for Examining\\u000a Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities” [1]. Therefore, the seismic design of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is conducted\\u000a based on this guide.

Shohei Motohashi

17

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the

Steven G. Vick; Gail M. Atkinson; Charles I. Wilmot

1985-01-01

18

Seismic upgrade design for an exhaust stack building  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust stack building of a nuclear reactor facility with complex structural configuration has been analyzed and evaluated and retrofitted for seismic forces. The building was built in the 1950's and had not been designed to resist seismic forces. A rigorous analysis and evaluation program was implemented to minimize costly retrofits required to upgrade the building to resist high seismic

M. E. Maryak; L. E. Malik

1991-01-01

19

Seismic upgrade design for an exhaust stack building  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exhaust stack building of a nuclear reactor facility with complex structural configuration has been analyzed and evaluated and retrofitted for seismic forces. The building was built in the 1950`s and had not been designed to resist seismic forces. A rigorous analysis and evaluation program was implemented to minimize costly retrofits required to upgrade the building to resist high seismic

M. E. Maryak; L. E. Malik

1991-01-01

20

Seismic Design of Bridges Design Example No. 3: Single Span AASHTO Precast Girder Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes one of seven seismic design examples that illustrate 'how' to apply AASHTO's seismic analysis and design requirements on actual different bridge types across the United States. Each provides a complete set of 'designer's notes' cov...

C. Spry J. Guarre L. Marsh R. Griebenow R. Mast S. Johnson W. Wilson

1996-01-01

21

Optimal design of seismic resistant planar steel frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic-resistant design of planar rectangular braced or unbraced steel frames is discussed. Nonlinear step by step integration is used as the analysis technique within the design process itself. The method directly quantifies the accepted seismic-resistant design philosophy that a structure: (1) resists moderate ground motion without structural damage, and (2) resists severe ground motion without collapse. Actual ground motion accelerograms

R. J. Balling; V. Ciampi; K. S. Pister; E. Polak

1981-01-01

22

Design of the IPIRG-2 simulated seismic forcing function  

SciTech Connect

A series of pipe system experiments was conducted in IPIRG-2 that used a realistic seismic forcing function. Because the seismic forcing function was more complex than the single-frequency increasing-amplitude sinusoidal forcing function used in the IPIRG-1 pipe system experiments, considerable effort went into designing the function. This report documents the design process for the seismic forcing function used in the IPIRG-2 pipe system experiments.

Olson, R.; Scott, P.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-02-01

23

Design of seismic retrofit measures for concrete and masonry structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of seismic retrofit of older concrete and masonry structures possessing substandard seismic resistance using jackets or skins of composite fibres bonded with a polymer matrix to the surface is discussed. Results from extensive experimental research are presented to support simple design models enabling retrofit measures to be designed for enhanced shear strength, flexural ductility or lap-slice performance.

M. J. N. Priestley; F. Seible

1995-01-01

24

Risk analysis for seismic design of (tailings dams)  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic seismic risk analysis is a promising method for evaluating design options and establishing seismic design parameters. However, there have been few examples in the literature to guide practitioners in its use. (This paper demonstrates the value of risk analysis for mine tailings dams and provides a case-history application for a seismically active portion of Nevada. Risk analysis provided the basis for selecting among design options having varying liquefaction resistance, and for establishing input parameters for dynamic analysis. Ranges are presented for the quantity and cleanup cost of tailings released in seismic failures to aid in determining expected failure consequences. It is shown that for many tailings dams, accepted lifetime failure probabilities of a few percent may provide a reasonable basis for probabilistic determination of seismic design criteria.)

Vick, S.G.; Atkinson, G.M.; Wilmot, C.I.

1985-07-01

25

Seismic design study on cantilever cylindrical shells. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to design a nuclear steam generating system to withstand seismic stresses is to establish a mathematical model, to which seismic loading can be applied, to determine the dynamic responses of the system. A practical approach for establishing such a model is to idealize the components in terms of beam elements which form the essential building blocks of the

J. N. C. Wu; J. F. Jr. Cory

1975-01-01

26

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Seismic design and construction standards for...REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards...

2009-01-01

27

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seismic design and construction standards for...REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards...

2010-01-01

28

Seismic Endoscopy: Design of New Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform 3D images around shallow-depth boreholes, in conditions in the field and within reasonable times of data acquisitions, several instrumental developments have been performed. The first development concerns the design of a directional probe working in the 20-100 kHz frequency range; the idea is to create a tool composed of multiple elementary piezoelectric entities able to cover the whole space to explore; made of special polyurethane rigid foam with excellent attenuation performances, the prototypes are covered by flexible polyurethane electric resin. By multiplying the number of elementary receptors around the vertical axes and piling up each elementary sensor, a complete design of multi-azimuth and multi-offset has been concepted. In addition to this, a test site has been built in order to obtain a controlled medium at typical scales of interest for seismic endoscopy and dedicated to experiment near the conditions in the field. Various reflectors are placed in well known positions and filled in an homogeneous cement medium; the whole edifice (2.2 m in diameter and 8 metres in depth) also contains 4 PVC tubes to simulate boreholes. The second part of this instrumental developments concern the synthesis of input signals; indeed, many modern devices used in ultrasonic experiment have non linear output response outside their nominal range: this is especially true in geophysical acoustical experiments when high acoustical power is necessary to insonify deep geological targets. Thanks to the high speed electronic and computerised devices now available, it is possible to plug in experimental set-ups into non linear inversions algorithms like simulated annealing. First experiments showed the robustness of the method in case of non linear analogic architecture. Large wavelet families have or example been constructed thanks to the method and multiscale Non Destructive Testing Method have been performed as an efficient method to detect and characterise discontinuities or velocities variations of a material.

Conil, F.; Nicollin, F.; Gibert, D.

2003-04-01

29

Seismic Design Criteria for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general criteria for seismic resistant design for structures, systems and components of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are presented and discussed. Site dependency of the maximum ground accelerations for the Operating Basis Earthquake ...

A. Morrone J. L. Bitner G. B. Sigal

1975-01-01

30

Verifying seismic design of nuclear reactors by testing. Technical evaluation report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to develop a program plan to provide assurance by physical demonstration that nuclear power plants are earthquake resistant and to allow nuclear power plant operators to: (1) decide whether tests should be conducted on their facilities; (2) specify the tests that should be performed; and (3) estimate the cost of the effort to complete

B. Barclay; J. A. Malthan; S. F. Masri; F. B. Safford

1980-01-01

31

Verifying Seismic Design of Nuclear Reactors by Testing. Volume 1: Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document sets forth recommendations for a verification program to test the ability of operational nuclear power plants to achieve safe shutdown immediately following a safe-shutdown earthquake. The purpose of the study is to develop a program plan to...

1979-01-01

32

Cost reduction through improved seismic design  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade, many significnt seismic technology developments have been accomplished by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) programs. Both base technology and major projects, such as the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant, have contributed to seismic technology development and validation. Improvements have come in the areas of ground motion definitions, soil-structure interaction, and structural analysis methods and criteria for piping, equipment, components, reactor core, and vessels. Examples of some of these lessons learned and technology developments are provided. Then, the highest priority seismic technology needs, achievable through DOE actions and sponsorship are identified and discussed. Satisfaction of these needs are expected to make important contributions toward cost avoidances and reduced capital costs of future liquid metal nuclear plants. 23 references, 12 figures.

Severud, L.K.

1984-01-01

33

Earthquake effects on low-rise steel buildings in high seismicity areas: a designer's view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern seismic design codes impose severe ductility requirements for the design of steel structures in high seismicity areas, such as Greece. However, in practice, the design of low-rise and especially single storey steel buildings, which cover the majority of cases, is usually governed by loading combinations other than the seismic-load combination, even if seismic forces are determined for nondissipative behaviour.

Anthony S. Karamanos; Spyros A. Karamanos

1997-01-01

34

New Extensions of Pairing-based Signatures into Universal (Multi) Designated Verifier Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of universal designated verier signatures was introduced by Steinfeld, Bull, Wang and Pieprzyk at Asiacrypt 2003. These signatures can be used as standard publicly veriable digital signatures but have an additional functionality which allows any holder of a sig- nature to designate the signature to any desired verier. This designated verier can check that the message was indeed

Damien Vergnaud

2008-01-01

35

Seismic Design and Development for Fast Reactors: A Design-Application Perspective with Directions for Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Applications of seismic design criteria and qualification methods to the US breeder reactor projects have developed new findings, improvements in design methods, and identified areas for further development. Discussions are presented regarding site free f...

L. K. Severud

1979-01-01

36

Next generation seismic fragility curves for California bridges incorporating the evolution in seismic design philosophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the seismic risk to highway bridges is crucial in pre-earthquake planning, and post-earthquake response of transportation systems. Such assessments provide valuable knowledge about a number of principal effects of earthquakes such as traffic disruption of the overall highway system, impact on the regions’ economy and post-earthquake response and recovery, and more recently serve as measures to quantify resilience. Unlike previous work, this study captures unique bridge design attributes specific to California bridge classes along with their evolution over three significant design eras, separated by the historic 1971 San Fernando and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes (these events affected changes in bridge seismic design philosophy). This research developed next-generation fragility curves for four multispan concrete bridge classes by synthesizing new knowledge and emerging modeling capabilities, and by closely coordinating new and ongoing national research initiatives with expertise from bridge designers. A multi-phase framework was developed for generating fragility curves, which provides decision makers with essential tools for emergency response, design, planning, policy support, and maximizing investments in bridge retrofit. This framework encompasses generational changes in bridge design and construction details. Parameterized high-fidelity three-dimensional nonlinear analytical models are developed for the portfolios of bridge classes within different design eras. These models incorporate a wide range of geometric and material uncertainties, and their responses are characterized under seismic loadings. Fragility curves were then developed considering the vulnerability of multiple components and thereby help to quantify the performance of highway bridge networks and to study the impact of seismic design principles on the performance within a bridge class. This not only leads to the development of fragility relations that are unique and better suited for bridges in California, but also leads to the creation of better bridge classes and sub-bins that have more consistent performance characteristics than those currently provided by the National Bridge Inventory. Another important feature of this research is associated with the development of damage state definitions and grouping of bridge components in a way that they have similar consequences in terms of repair and traffic implications following a seismic event. These definitions are in alignment with the California Department of Transportation’s design and operational experience, thereby enabling better performance assessment, emergency response, and management in the aftermath of a seismic event. The fragility curves developed as a part of this research will be employed in ShakeCast, a web-based post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data and generates potential damage assessment notifications for emergency managers and responders.

Ramanathan, Karthik Narayan

37

Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

2006-10-01

38

Yield displacement-based seismic design of RC wall buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method is presented for the performance-based seismic design of ductile RC wall buildings. The design method is based on an estimate of the roof displacement at yield. The required base shear strength is determined using Yield Point Spectra based on an “equivalent” single-degree-of-freedom (ESDOF) system representation of the wall system. The walls are designed for a single base

Tjen N. Tjhin; Mark A. Aschheim; John W. Wallace

2007-01-01

39

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792...Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings....

2013-01-01

40

EVALUATING DESIGN AND VERIFYING COMPLIANCE OF CREATED WETLANDS IN THE VICINITY OF TAMPA, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Completed mitigation projects are being studied by the Wetlands Research Program nationwide to identify critical design features, develop methods for evaluating projects, determine the functions they perform, and describe how they change with time. his report is the second in a s...

41

Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basing the displacement-capacity design method and capacity spectrum method, a new rigid-plastic seismic design procedure is proposed to describe the behavior of shear wall structure under strong earthquakes. Firstly the concept of rigid-plastic hinge is used to choose a collapse mechanism of shear wall, then according to the dynamic performance criterion the yield load of structure is determined through rigid-plastic

Chang Lin Fan; Shan Yuan Zhang

2008-01-01

42

Malargüe seismic array: Design and deployment of the temporary array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the goals and the current status of the Malargüe seismic array. Our main goal is imaging and monitoring the subsurface below the Malargüe region, Mendoza, Argentina. More specifically, we focus on the Planchon-Peteroa Volcano and an area just east of the town of Malargüe. We start our project installing a temporary array of 38 seismic stations, which records continuously for one year. The array consists of two subarrays: one array located on the flanks of the volcano; the other spread out on a plateau just east of the Andes. The imaging targets, like the Moho and the Nazca slab, are relatively deep. Yet, the array has a dense station spacing, allowing exploration-type processing. For high-resolution imaging, also a dense source spacing is required. This we aim to achieve by creating virtual sources at the receiver positions, with a technique called seismic interferometry (SI). The array is designed such that a recent improvement of SI can be applied to the recordings. Other goals are to collect high-quality core-phase measurements and to characterize sources of microseism noise in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, we plan to collaborate with researchers from the Pierre Auger Collaboration to study coupling of seismic, atmospheric, and cosmic signals using data from our instruments and from the Pierre Auger detectors.

Ruigrok, E.; Draganov, D.; Gómez, M.; Ruzzante, J.; Torres, D.; Lópes Pumarega, I.; Barbero, N.; Ramires, A.; Castaño Gañan, A. R.; van Wijk, K.; Wapenaar, K.

2012-10-01

43

Salt Repository Project input to seismic design: Revision 0. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Repository Program (SRP) Input to Seismic Design (ISD) documents the assumptions, rationale, approaches, judgments, and analyses that support the development of seismic-specific data and information to be used for shaft design in accordance with the SRP Shaft Design Guide (SDG). The contents of this document are divided into four subject areas: (1) seismic assessment, (2) stratigraphy and material properties for seismic design, (3) development of seismic design parameters, and (4) host media stability. These four subject areas have been developed considering expected conditions at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The ISD should be used only in conjunction with seismic design of the exploratory and repository shafts. Seismic design considerations relating to surface facilities are not addressed in this document. 54 refs., 55 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

44

Seismic Endoscopy: Design of New Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to perform 3D images around shallow-depth boreholes, in conditions in the field and within reasonable times of data acquisitions, several instrumental developments have been performed. The first development concerns the design of a directional probe working in the 20-100 kHz frequency range; the idea is to create a tool composed of multiple elementary piezoelectric entities able to cover

F. Conil; F. Nicollin; D. Gibert

2003-01-01

45

Seismic-damage analysis and design of unreinforced masonry buildings  

SciTech Connect

A model for evaluating the structural damage to masonry buildings subjected to earthquake ground motion is proposed. Damage is expressed as a combination of the effects of excessive deformation and repeated loadings. Model parameters for unreinforced brick masonry were obtained from cyclic load tests of masonry-wall specimens. A random-vibration method using a nonlinear hysteretic restoring force model to describe the load-deformation behavior of masonry was adopted to evaluate the response statistics required for damage assessment. The proposed damage model was calibrated using observed damages to masonry buildings during past earthquakes. A simplified method for damage assessment, in which seismic damage is expressed as a ratio of the seismic loading to the structural resistance, is proposed. A damage-limiting design method, based on the equivalent lateral load procedure used in may building codes, is developed in which the base shear coefficient is expressed as a function of the damage level. Two design examples indicate the effectiveness of the design method to limit seismic damage to a tolerable level.

Kwok, Y.H.

1987-01-01

46

Seismic design technology for Breeder Reactor structures. Volume 3: special topics in reactor structures  

SciTech Connect

This volume is divided into six chapters: analysis techniques, equivalent damping values, probabilistic design factors, design verifications, equivalent response cycles for fatigue analysis, and seismic isolation. (JDB)

Reddy, D.P. (ed)

1983-04-01

47

Seismic hazard: analysis and design of large ground-based telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss analysis and design of large ground based telescopes for seismic hazard. Seismic hazard is an important issue for both the observatory and the telescope structure. Properly defined seismic specifications are vital. These specifications should include performance objective that matches performance levels and probabilistic based hazard levels for operational and survival conditions. The paper will discuss specific

Frank W. Kan; Joseph Antebi

2008-01-01

48

Standardized seismic design (SSD) for nuclear power plants - a utility perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

US nuclear power plants are designed, engineered, and constructed to stringent standards. Their seismic adequacy is assured by compliance with regulatory standards and demonstrated by both probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and seismic margin studies. Future seismic siting criteria, however, require fundamental changes in the philosophy of how the rule should be written as well as in the actual application of

T. F. OHara; J. P. Jacobson; F. X. Bellini; W. J. Briggs

2009-01-01

49

Seismicity and seismic response of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. On December 7, 1988, another strong earthquake struck northwest Armenia about 90 km north of the Armenia plant. Extensive damage of residential and industrial facilities occurred in the vicinity of the epicenter. The earthquake did not damage the Armenia plant. Following this event, the Soviet government announced that the plant would be shutdown permanently by March 18, 1989, and the station converted to a fossil-fired plant. This paper presents the results of the seismic analyses of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) plants. Also presented is the information concerning seismicity in the regions where VVERs are located and information on seismic design of VVERs. The reference units are the VVER-440 model V230 (similar to the two units of the Armenia plant) and the VVER-1000 model V320 units at Kozloduy in Bulgaria. This document provides an initial basis for understanding the seismicity and seismic response of VVERs under seismic events. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Purvis, E.E. III

1989-01-01

50

SRS Bedrock Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) Design Basis Justification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS se...

2006-01-01

51

A seismic design method for subsea pipelines against earthquake fault movement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As there are no specific guidelines on design of subsea pipelines crossing active seismic faults, methods for land buried pipelines have been applied to. Taking the large seismic fault movement into account, this paper proposes improved methods for seismic designs of subsea pipelines by comprehensively investigating the real constraining of soil on the pipelines, the interaction processes of soil with the pipeline, the plastic slippage of the soil, and the elastic-plastic properties of the pipeline materials. New formulas are given to calculate the length of transition section and its total elongation. These formulas are more reasonable in mechanism, and more practical for seismic design of subsea pipelines crossing active faults.

Duan, Meng-Lan; Mao, Dong-Feng; Yue, Zhi-Yong; Estefen, Segen; Li, Zhi-Gang

2011-06-01

52

SEISMICITY AND DESIGN CODES IN CHILE: CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES AND A COMPARISON WITH SOME OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE ROMANIAN SEISMIC CODE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account on the characteristics of the seismic region and events in Chile reveals interesting indices in understanding the present day Chilean seismic design code. The present article points out some of the most important provision in the Chilean code that could have led to the relatively small number of casualties at the seismic event of February 27 th

Diana ENE; Iolanda-Gabriela CRAIFALEANU

2010-01-01

53

Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

Not Available

1985-04-01

54

Energy-based seismic design of structures with buckling-restrained braces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified seismic design procedure for steel structures with buckling-restrained braces (BRB) was proposed based on the energy balance concept and the equal energy assumption. The input seismic energy was estimated from a design spectrum, and the elastic and hysteretic energy were computed using energy balance concept. The size of braces was determined so that the hysteretic energy demand was

Jinkoo Kim; Hyunhoon Choi; Lan Chung

2004-01-01

55

Towards Improved Considerations of Risk in Seismic Design (Plinius Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftermath of recent earthquakes is a reminder that seismic risk is a very relevant issue for our communities. Implicit within the seismic design standards currently in place around the world is that minimum acceptable levels of seismic risk will be ensured through design in accordance with the codes. All the same, none of the design standards specify what the minimum acceptable level of seismic risk actually is. Instead, a series of deterministic limit states are set which engineers then demonstrate are satisfied for their structure, typically through the use of elastic dynamic analyses adjusted to account for non-linear response using a set of empirical correction factors. From the early nineties the seismic engineering community has begun to recognise numerous fundamental shortcomings with such seismic design procedures in modern codes. Deficiencies include the use of elastic dynamic analysis for the prediction of inelastic force distributions, the assignment of uniform behaviour factors for structural typologies irrespective of the structural proportions and expected deformation demands, and the assumption that hysteretic properties of a structure do not affect the seismic displacement demands, amongst other things. In light of this a number of possibilities have emerged for improved control of risk through seismic design, with several innovative displacement-based seismic design methods now well developed. For a specific seismic design intensity, such methods provide a more rational means of controlling the response of a structure to satisfy performance limit states. While the development of such methodologies does mark a significant step forward for the control of seismic risk, they do not, on their own, identify the seismic risk of a newly designed structure. In the U.S. a rather elaborate performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework is under development, with the aim of providing seismic loss estimates for new buildings. The PBEE framework consists of the following four main analysis stages: (i) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to give the mean occurrence rate of earthquake events having an intensity greater than a threshold value, (ii) structural analysis to estimate the global structural response, given a certain value of seismic intensity, (iii) damage analysis, in which fragility functions are used to express the probability that a building component exceeds a damage state, as a function of the global structural response, (iv) loss analysis, in which the overall performance is assessed based on the damage state of all components. This final step gives estimates of the mean annual frequency with which various repair cost levels (or other decision variables) are exceeded. The realisation of this framework does suggest that risk-based seismic design is now possible. However, comparing current code approaches with the proposed PBEE framework, it becomes apparent that mainstream consulting engineers would have to go through a massive learning curve in order to apply the new procedures in practice. With this in mind, it is proposed that simplified loss-based seismic design procedures are a logical means of helping the engineering profession transition from what are largely deterministic seismic design procedures in current codes, to more rational risk-based seismic design methodologies. Examples are provided to illustrate the likely benefits of adopting loss-based seismic design approaches in practice.

Sullivan, T. J.

2012-04-01

56

Seismic analysis and base isolation retrofit design of a steel truss vertical lift bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridges with steel superstructures are frequently ideal candidates for seismic retrofit utilizing base isolation. The seismic assessment and retrofit design of the Three Mile Slough Bridge included both the evaluation of a conventional retrofit scenario and a base isolation retrofit scenario. The structure is a five span riveted steel truss bridge with a vertical center lift span attached to the

Itunumi Savage; John C. Eddy; Gregory I. Orsolini

1999-01-01

57

optimization of seismic network design: application to a geophysical international lunar network  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the next decade, some lunar seismic experiments are planned under the international lunar network initiative, such as NASA ILN Anchor nodes mission or Lunette DISCOVERY proposal, JAXA SELENE-2 and LUNA-GLOB penetrator missions, during which 1 to 4 seismic stations will be deployed on the lunar surface. Yamada et al. (submitted) have described how to design the optimized network in

R. Yamada; R. F. Garcia; P. Lognonne; M. Calvet; J. Gagnepain-Beyneix; M. Le Feuvre

2010-01-01

58

Seismic design of steel structures with buckling-restrained knee braces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical models and a performance-based seismic design procedure were developed for a structure with buckling-restrained knee-braces. The hinge-connected main structural members, such as beams and columns, were designed only for gravity loads, and the knee-braces were designed to resist all the lateral seismic load. The cross-sectional size of knee-braces was estimated using the equivalent damping required to be supplied to

Jinkoo Kim; Youngill Seo

2003-01-01

59

Seismic design and analysis considerations for high level nuclear waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

A high level nuclear waste repository, like the one at Nevada`s Yucca Mountain that is being investigated for site suitability, will have some unique seismic design and analysis considerations. These are discussed, and a design philosophy that can rationally account for the unique performance objectives of such facilities is presented. A case is made for the use of DOE`s performance goal-based seismic design and evaluation methodology that is based on a hybrid ``deterministic`` and ``probabilistic`` concept. How and to what extent this methodology should be modified to adopt it for a potential site like Yucca Mountain is also outlined. Finally, the issue of designing for seismic fault rupture is discussed briefly, and the desirability of using the proposed seismic design philosophy in fault rupture evaluation is described.

Hossain, Q.A.

1993-09-30

60

Simplified Procedures for Seismic Analysis and Design of Piers and Wharves in Marine Oil and LNG Terminals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation developed simplified procedures for the seismic analysis and design of pile supported wharves and piers in Marine Oil and LNG Terminals. A simplified coefficient-based approach is proposed for estimating seismic displacement demand for ...

R. K. Goel

2010-01-01

61

Proceedings of the Second PRC-US Workshop on Seismic Analysis and Design of Special Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This seismic analysis and design of special bridges (SADSB) workshop series is based on a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), University at Buffalo, State University of New Yo...

2004-01-01

62

Spent nuclear fuel project seismic design criteria, NRC equivalency evaluation report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Paper provides the basis for concluding that using the seismic design criteria, defined in DOE order 4580.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and its implementing standards provides safety equivalent to NRC criteria.

L. J. Garvin

1996-01-01

63

An alternative construction of normalized seismic design spectra for near-fault regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a methodology for constructing seismic design spectra in near-fault regions. By analyzing the characteristics of near-fault pulse-type ground motions, an equivalent pulse model is proposed, which can well represent the characteristics of the near-fault forward-directivity and fling-step pulse-type ground motions. The normalized horizontal seismic design spectra for near-fault regions are presented using recorded near-fault pulse-type ground motions and equivalent pulse-type ground motions, which are derived based on the equivalent pulse model coupled with ground motion parameter attenuation relations. The normalized vertical seismic design spectra for near-fault regions are obtained by scaling the corresponding horizontal spectra with the vertical-to-horizontal acceleration spectral ratios of near-fault pulse-type ground motions. The proposed seismic design spectra appear to have relatively small dispersion in a statistical sense. The seismic design spectra for both horizontal and vertical directions can provide alternative spectral shapes for seismic design codes.

Ni, Shunhao; Li, Shuang; Chang, Zhiwang; Xie, Lili

2013-09-01

64

Verifying RET mask layouts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mask layouts with reticle enhancement techniques (RET) - including optical proximity correction (OPC), phase shift mask (PSM), Off-axis illumination, assist features (AF) - no longer closely resemble the design or wafer layouts. RET techniques are also applied with varying degrees of rigor to different portions of the layout, to constrain overall mask complexity while maintaining design requirements in critical areas. These factors make verifying RET mask layouts much more challenging. The simulation-based verification principle is straightforward: a wafer layout is simulated from the RET mask layout and compared to the intended design layout or 'target'. The required simulation technologies are mature and available today in commercial tools capable of handling large data files. The challenge in efficient verification is to establish comprehensive required for sub- wavelength lithography. Today, some simple criteria are inferred from the design or lithographic effects. Ideally, more specific information related to design 'intent' and tolerances should be built into the physical design for use in RET synthesis and verification, as well as in circuit and timing analysis. In this paper we explore emerging RET verification strategies that offer a high degree of flexibility and programmability. We will also illustrate how these techniques can take advantage of 'design intent' information embedded in the physical design, resulting in robust verification that is not confused by the complex tradeoffs required for today's sophisticated RET methodologies.

Mayhew, Jeffrey P.; Rieger, Michael L.; Li, Jiangwei; Zhang, Lin; Tang, Zongwu; Shiely, James P.

2002-07-01

65

Revision of seismic design codes corresponding to building damages in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of buildings were seriously damaged or collapsed in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake. Based on field surveys\\u000a and studies of damage to different types of buildings, seismic design codes have been updated. This paper briefly summarizes\\u000a some of the major revisions that have been incorporated into the “Standard for classification of seismic protection of building\\u000a constructions GB50223-2008” and

Yayong Wang

2010-01-01

66

Cyclic seismic testing of steel moment connections reinforced with welded straight haunch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified seismic design procedure as well as force transfer model for seismic steel moment connections using a welded straight haunch was recently proposed. As a follow-up study, cyclic seismic testing was conducted to verify the proposed procedure and to develop strategies that would prevent cracking at the haunch tip. All the specimens based on the proposed procedure effectively pushed

Cheol-Ho Lee; Jong-Hyun Jung; Myoung-Ho Oh; En-Sook Koo

2003-01-01

67

Revision of seismic design codes corresponding to building damages in the ``5.12'' Wenchuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of buildings were seriously damaged or collapsed in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake. Based on field surveys and studies of damage to different types of buildings, seismic design codes have been updated. This paper briefly summarizes some of the major revisions that have been incorporated into the “Standard for classification of seismic protection of building constructions GB50223-2008” and “Code for Seismic Design of Buildings GB50011-2001.” The definition of seismic fortification class for buildings has been revisited, and as a result, the seismic classifications for schools, hospitals and other buildings that hold large populations such as evacuation shelters and information centers have been upgraded in the GB50223-2008 Code. The main aspects of the revised GB50011-2001 code include: (a) modification of the seismic intensity specified for the Provinces of Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu; (b) basic conceptual design for retaining walls and building foundations in mountainous areas; (c) regularity of building configuration; (d) integration of masonry structures and pre-cast RC floors; (e) requirements for calculating and detailing stair shafts; and (f) limiting the use of single-bay RC frame structures. Some significant examples of damage in the epicenter areas are provided as a reference in the discussion on the consequences of collapse, the importance of duplicate structural systems, and the integration of RC and masonry structures.

Wang, Yayong

2010-06-01

68

Effective Parameters on Seismic Design of Rectangular Underground Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground structures are a significant part of the transportation in the modern society and in the seismic zones should withstand against both seismic and static loadings. Embedded structures should conform to ground deformations during the earthquake but almost exact evaluation of structure to ground distortion is critical. Several two-dimensional finite difference models are used to find effective parameters on racking ratio (structure to ground distortion) including flexibility ratio, various cross sections, embedment depth, and Poisson's ratio of soil. Results show that influence of different cross sections, by themselves is negligible but embedment depth in addition to flexibility ratio and Poisson's ratio is known as a consequential parameter. A comparison with pseudo-static method (simplified frame analysis) is also performed. The results show that for a stiffer structure than soil, racking ratio decreases as the depth of burial decreases; on the other hand, shallow and flexible structures can suffer greater distortion than deeper ones up to 30 percents.

Amiri, G. Ghodrati; Maddah, N.; Mohebi, B.

2008-07-01

69

Seismic design factors for RC special moment resisting frames in Dubai, UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the seismic design factors for three reinforced concrete (RC) framed buildings with 4, 16 and 32-stories in Dubai, UAE utilizing nonlinear analysis. The buildings are designed according to the response spectrum procedure defined in the 2009 International Building Code (IBC'09). Two ensembles of ground motion records with 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years (10/50 and 2/50, respectively) are used. The nonlinear dynamic responses to the earthquake records are computed using IDARC-2D. Key seismic design parameters are evaluated; namely, response modification factor ( R), deflection amplification factor ( C d), system overstrength factor ( ? o), and response modification factor for ductility ( R d ) in addition to inelastic interstory drift. The evaluated seismic design factors are found to significantly depend on the considered ground motion (10/50 versus 2/50). Consequently, resolution to the controversy of Dubai seismicity is urged. The seismic design factors for the 2/50 records show an increase over their counterparts for the 10/50 records in the range of 200%-400%, except for the ? o factor, which shows a mere 30% increase. Based on the observed trends, perioddependent R and C d factors are recommended if consistent collapse probability (or collapse prevention performance) in moment frames with varying heights is to be expected.

Alhamaydeh, Mohammad; Abdullah, Sulayman; Hamid, Ahmed; Mustapha, Abdilwahhab

2011-12-01

70

DESIGN CRITERIA FOR FRP SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF MASONRY WALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masonry structures have been the primary building typology for millennia in many countries and also nowadays many masonry buildings are realized. Seismic events have shown their vulnerability to in-plane actions even if they behave properly for gravity loads. This often requests to retrofit masonry walls for in-plane loads and a sound solution is provided by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials. FRP

F. Nardone; A. Prota

71

Controller Design of Hybrid Experimental System for Seismic Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid experimental system is one of powerful tools to perform various seismic tests for unknown and\\/or huge structures, where an actuator-excited experimental vibratory system and a computational response analysis are online combined and are simultaneously conducted. This paper presents a control methodology for high performance hybrid experimental systems. A 2-degrees-of-freedom compensator is applied from the view point of control techniques,

K. Seki; M. Iwasaki; M. Kawafuku; H. Hirai; K. Kishida

2007-01-01

72

Practical Controller Design of Hybrid Experimental System for Seismic Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid experimental system is one of the powerful tools to perform various seismic tests for unknown and\\/or huge structures, where an actuator-excited experimental vibratory system and a computational response analysis are simultaneously combined and implemented. This paper presents a control methodology for high-performance hybrid experimental systems. A 2-DOF control framework is applied from the viewpoint of control techniques, where

Kenta Seki; Makoto Iwasaki; Motohiro Kawafuku; Hiromu Hirai; Kazuyoshi Kishida

2009-01-01

73

Development and implementation of seismic design and evaluation criteria for NIF  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as an international research center for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This paper will provide an overview of NIF, review NIF seismic criteria, and briefly discuss seismic analyses of NIF optical support structures that have been performed by LLNL and the Ralph M. Parsons Company, the Architect and Engineer (A&E) for NIF. The NIF seismic design and evaluation criteria is based on provisions in DOE Standard 1020 (DOE-STD-1020), the Uniform Building Code (UBC), and the LLNL Mechanical Engineering Design Safety Standards (MEDSS). Different levels of seismic requirements apply to NIF structures, systems, and components (SSCs) based on their function. The highest level of requirements are defined for optical support structures and SSCs which could influence the performance of optical support structures, while the minimum level of requirements are Performance Category 2 (PC2) requirements in DOE-STD-1020. To demonstrate that the NIF seismic criteria is satisfied, structural analyses have been performed by LLNL and Parsons to evaluate the responses of optical support structures and other SSCs to seismic-induced forces.

Sommer, S.C.; MacCalden, P.B.

1998-03-17

74

Probabilistic impedance of foundation: Impact of the seismic design on uncertain soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the linear seismic design of buildings, the (deterministic) substructure method is a customary and efficient approach. However, the existence of spatial variability in the parameters of the mechanical model of the soil, as well as parametric errors, calls for the use of probabilistic approaches in order to provide a reliable design of the structure. The construction of probabilistic

Didier Clouteau; Christian Soize

2008-01-01

75

Re-evaluation of seismic design for JOYO buildings and equipments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hyougo-ken southern earthquake broke out in 1997/01/17. The Atomic Energy Safety Commission considered reasonable of the design guide for seismic design. And the Science and Technology Agency (STA) required reevaluation of atomic power facilities built by...

K. Isozaki N. Tomita

1997-01-01

76

41 CFR 102-76.30 - What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of Federal facilities? 102-76.30 Section...REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction § 102-76.30 What seismic safety...

2013-01-01

77

Deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria to meet probabilistic performance goals  

SciTech Connect

For DOE facilities across the United States, seismic design and evaluation criteria are based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and IPEEE for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a deterministic specification of earthquake loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic seismic hazard curves for specification of earthquake loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 12 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Short, S.A. (ABB Impell Corp., Mission Viejo, CA (USA)); Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Hill, J.R. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Safety Appraisals)

1990-12-01

78

Seismic design analysis of the country masonry school buildings in the meizoseismal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several reinforcing schemes are illustrated that are based on the loading characteristics of typical country masonry school buildings with sparsely spaced transversal walls and large depth. From the seismic damage observed following the Wenchuan Earthquake, the effects of reinforcing schemes, tie-columns and tie-beams on the seismic resistance of masonry buildings are analyzed. The concept of improving the ductility of these types of buildings is presented. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for the design of masonry buildings with sparsely spaced transversal walls and large depth.

Feng, Yuan; Yi, Dan; Bi, Qiong

2011-09-01

79

Seismic Assessment of High-Raised Designed Structures Based on 2800 Iranian Seismic Code (same as UBC1997)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic design codes have been applied by researchers to employ an appropriate performance of structures during earthquakes, in this regard, variety of load patterns, history and location of plastic hinges, ultimate capacity of structure, demand capacity of structure and response to many other questions about actual and assumptive performance of structures during earthquake have been considered by experts in this fields. In order to decline the retrofit cost of structure, evaluation of non-linear behavior of structure during the earthquake has been studied more. Since last 1980's the first generation of structural retrofit codes was established while designing codes were using linear behavior of structure. Consequently, comparison of design and retrofit code results, which are evaluated the actual behavior of the structure, has been considered. This research evaluates structures designed by 2800 code with performance levels, described in FEMA356, and also it compares results of modal analysis with outcomes of static non-linear analysis by application of load patterns mentioned in FEMA356. This structure designed and controlled by all regulations in 2800 code then it is evaluated by FEMA356 regulations. Finally, results are presented performance point of structure and distribution of plastic hinges over the whole structure when it collapses.

Negar, Moharrami Gargari; Rassol, Mirgaderi

2008-07-01

80

Seismic Assessment of High-Raised Designed Structures Based on 2800 Iranian Seismic Code (same as UBC1997)  

SciTech Connect

Seismic design codes have been applied by researchers to employ an appropriate performance of structures during earthquakes, in this regard, variety of load patterns, history and location of plastic hinges, ultimate capacity of structure, demand capacity of structure and response to many other questions about actual and assumptive performance of structures during earthquake have been considered by experts in this fields. In order to decline the retrofit cost of structure, evaluation of non-linear behavior of structure during the earthquake has been studied more. Since last 1980's the first generation of structural retrofit codes was established while designing codes were using linear behavior of structure. Consequently, comparison of design and retrofit code results, which are evaluated the actual behavior of the structure, has been considered. This research evaluates structures designed by 2800 code with performance levels, described in FEMA356, and also it compares results of modal analysis with outcomes of static non-linear analysis by application of load patterns mentioned in FEMA356. This structure designed and controlled by all regulations in 2800 code then it is evaluated by FEMA356 regulations. Finally, results are presented performance point of structure and distribution of plastic hinges over the whole structure when it collapses.

Negar, Moharrami Gargari [Ministry of Roads and Transportation, Ports and Shipping Organization, P.S.O Building, South Didar St, Shahid Haghani Highway, Vanak Sq, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rassol, Mirgaderi [University of Tehran, Englab Square, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

81

Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A secret sharing scheme allows to share a secret among several participants such that only certain groups of them can recover it. Verifiable secret sharing has been proposed to achieve security against cheating participants. Its first realization had the special property that everybody, not only the participants, can verify that the shares are correctly distributed. We will call such

Markus Stadler

1996-01-01

82

Verifying Exchange Rate Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

July 2000One reason intermediate exchange rate regimes have fallen out of favor is that they are not transparent or easy to verify. A simple peg or a simple float may be easier for market participants to verify than a more complicated intermediate regime.Credibility and transparency are at the core of the current debate about exchange rate regimes. The steady growth

Sergio Schmukler; Jeffrey Frankel; Eduardo Fajnzylber

1999-01-01

83

Best Estimate Method vs Evaluation Method: a comparison of two techniques in evaluating seismic analysis and design  

SciTech Connect

The concept of how two techniques, Best Estimate Method and Evaluation Method, may be applied to the traditional seismic analysis and design of a nuclear power plant is introduced. Only the four links of the seismic analysis and design methodology chain (SMC) - seismic input, soil-structure interaction, major structural response, and subsystem response - are considered. The objective is to evaluate the compounding of conservatisms in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants, to provide guidance for judgments in the SMC, and to concentrate the evaluation on that part of the seismic analysis and design which is familiar to the engineering community. An example applies the effects of three-dimensional excitations on a model of a nuclear power plant structure. The example demonstrates how conservatisms accrue by coupling two links in the SMC and comparing those results to the effects of one link alone. The utility of employing the Best Estimate Method vs the Evaluation Method is also demonstrated.

Bumpus, S.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Smith, P.D.

1980-05-01

84

Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part I: Theoretical formulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The insertion of steel braces equipped with dissipative devices proves to be very effective in order to enhance the performance of a framed building under horizontal seismic loads. Multi-level design criteria were proposed according to the Performance-Based Design, in order to get, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance objective of the building (e.g., an assigned damage level of either the framed structure or non-structural elements). In this paper a design procedure aiming to proportion braces with hysteretic dampers in order to attain, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance level of the building is proposed. Exactly, a proportional stiffness criterion, which assumes the elastic lateral storey-stiffness due to the braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame, is combined with the Direct Displacement-Based Design, in which the design starts from target deformations. A computer code has been prepared for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, using a step-by-step procedure. Frame members and hysteretic dampers are idealized by bilinear models.

Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

2008-07-01

85

On the design of a sampling plan to verify compliance with EPA standards for radium-226 in soil at uranium mill tailings remedial action sites  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses design aspects of a two-stage compliance sampling program being developed to verify that removal of soil at windblown uranium mill-tailings sites are results in /sup 226/Ra concentrations that meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. In the first stage, gamma scans of surface soil would be conducted over the entire remediated region using a tractor-mounted gamma-ray counting system (RTRAK) to measure /sup 214/Bi (Bismuth), which is an indicator of /sup 226/Ra in soil. In the second stage, composite soil samples would be collected from a systematic sample of 10-m by 10-m plots, where the number of plots is determined using a compliance acceptance sampling plan. These soil samples are analyzed for /sup 226/Ra and compared with the EPA standard of 5 pCi/g above background using a selected statistical rule.

Gilbert, R.O.; Miller, M.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1987-09-01

86

Upgradation of gravity load designed sub-assemblages subjected to seismic type loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a methodology based on strength hierarchy has been proposed for upgradation of original gravity load designed (GLD) reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Exterior beam–column joint of an RC structure has been considered as the target sub-assemblage and the target strength of the deficient sub-assemblage was decided from that of a seismically designed ‘Ductile’ one. Three different types

Saptarshi Sasmal; Balthasar Novák; K. Rmanjaneyulu; Constanze Roehm; V. Srinivas; N. Lakshmanan; Nagesh R. Iyer

2011-01-01

87

Seismic design, analysis, and testing of the HTGR MK-IVA steam generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the design of the helically coiled economizer-evaporator-superheater (EES) portion of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) MK-IVA steam generator. The MK-IVA steam generator must sustain seismic loads resulting from ground level accelerations up to 0.3 g, safe shutdown earthquake (SSE), for an envelope of varying soil conditions. This presents a challenging design problem, because the high-temperature structure must

J. D. Orr; R. W. Schleicher; K. Tong

1982-01-01

88

Seismic shear force magnification in RC cantilever structural walls, designed according to Eurocode 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains a discussion of the inelastic dynamic magnification of seismic shear forces in cantilever walls with rectangular\\u000a cross-sections. An extensive parametric study was performed in order to determine the reliability of the procedure in Eurocode\\u000a 8 (EC8). A large number of single cantilever walls which are characteristic for the design practice in Europe and designed\\u000a to satisfy all

Klemen Rejec; Tatjana Isakovi?; Matej Fischinger

89

XIV CNIS SEISMIC DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR SHEAR-WALL DOMINANT BUILDING STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear-wall dominant buildings are the prevailing multi-story RC buildings type particularly in the regions prone to high seismic risk. To identify their most essential design parameters, dynamic and inelastic static pushover analyses were conducted on the backbone of performance based design methodology. That attempt facilitates the investigation on impacts of wall-to-wall and wall-to-slab interactions and effects of wall-openings on the

Erol Kalkan

90

Life cycle cost oriented seismic design optimization of steel moment frame structures with risk-taking preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle cost is considered in this paper for multiobjective design optimization of seismic steel moment-resisting frame (SMRF) structures. Initial material\\/construction cost and lifetime seismic damage cost, which are usually added up in the existing literature to form the total life cycle cost measure, are considered as two separate cost measures. The number of different standard steel section types is

Min Liu; Y. K. Wen; Scott A. Burns

2004-01-01

91

Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

92

Effect of URM infills on seismic vulnerability of Indian code designed RC frame buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unreinforced Masonry (URM) is the most common partitioning material in framed buildings in India and many other countries. Although it is well-known that under lateral loading the behavior and modes of failure of the frame buildings change significantly due to infill-frame interaction, the general design practice is to treat infills as nonstructural elements and their stiffness, strength and interaction with the frame is often ignored, primarily because of difficulties in simulation and lack of modeling guidelines in design codes. The Indian Standard, like many other national codes, does not provide explicit insight into the anticipated performance and associated vulnerability of infilled frames. This paper presents an analytical study on the seismic performance and fragility analysis of Indian code-designed RC frame buildings with and without URM infills. Infills are modeled as diagonal struts as per ASCE 41 guidelines and various modes of failure are considered. HAZUS methodology along with nonlinear static analysis is used to compare the seismic vulnerability of bare and infilled frames. The comparative study suggests that URM infills result in a significant increase in the seismic vulnerability of RC frames and their effect needs to be properly incorporated in design codes.

Haldar, Putul; Singh, Yogendra; Paul, D. K.

2012-03-01

93

Seismic design of the waste-handling building at the prospective Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site for the first prospective high-level nuclear waste repository is located in Yucca Mountain at the southwest corner of the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. The preliminary site investigation and seismic hazard evaluation indicate that the design ground acceleration in the horizontal direction of 0.40 g (with a vertical acceleration equal to two-thirds the horizontal) has a

C. V. Subramanian; C. L. Wu; C. D. DeGabriele

1988-01-01

94

Optimum Design of Bridge Abutments Under High Seismic Loading Using Modified Pseudo-Static Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the optimum design of bridge abutments when subjected to earthquake loading. Planar failure surface has been used in conjunction with modified pseudo-static approach to compute the seismic active earth pressures on an abutment. The proposed modified Mononobe-Okabe method considers the effects of strain localization in the backfill soil and associated post-peak reduction in the shear resistance

B. Munwar Basha; G. L. Sivakumar Babu

2010-01-01

95

Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures

A. H. Hadjian; W. D. Iwan

1980-01-01

96

Verifying Reference Counting Implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a widely-used resource management idiom which maintains a count of references to each resource by incrementing the count upon an acquisition, and decrementing upon a release; resources whose counts fall to zero may be recycled. We present an algorithm to verify the correctness of reference counting with minimal user interaction. Our algorithm performs com- positional verification through

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Eddie Kohler; Rupak Majumdar

2009-01-01

97

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA OF DOE-STD-1189-2008 APPENDIX A [FULL PAPER  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the approach taken by two Fluor Hanford projects for implementing of the seismic design criteria from DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A. The existing seismic design criteria and the new seismic design criteria is described, and an assessment of the primary differences provided. The gaps within the new system of seismic design criteria, which necessitate conduct of portions of work to the existing technical standards pending availability of applicable industry standards, is discussed. Two Hanford Site projects currently in the Control Decision (CD)-1 phase of design have developed an approach to implementation of the new criteria. Calculations have been performed to determine the seismic design category for one project, based on information available in early CD-1. The potential effects of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A seismic design criteria on the process of project alternatives analysis is discussed. Present of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008.

OMBERG SK

2008-05-14

98

Decision making with epistemic uncertainty under safety constraints: An application to seismic design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The problem of accounting for epistemic uncertainty in risk management decisions is conceptually straightforward, but is riddled with practical difficulties. Simple approximations are often used whereby future variations in epistemic uncertainty are ignored or worst-case scenarios are postulated. These strategies tend to produce sub-optimal decisions. We develop a general framework based on Bayesian decision theory and exemplify it for the case of seismic design of buildings. When temporal fluctuations of the epistemic uncertainties and regulatory safety constraints are included, the optimal level of seismic protection exceeds the normative level at the time of construction. Optimal Bayesian decisions do not depend on the aleatory or epistemic nature of the uncertainties, but only on the total (epistemic plus aleatory) uncertainty and how that total uncertainty varies randomly during the lifetime of the project. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Veneziano, D.; Agarwal, A.; Karaca, E.

2009-01-01

99

Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trust in an international agreement to limit future greenhouse gas emissions will depend on the ability of each nation to make accurate estimates of its own emissions, monitor their changes over time, and verify one another’s estimates with independent information. A recent National Research Council committee assessed current capabilities for estimating and verifying emissions from greenhouse gases that result from human activities, have long lifetimes in the atmosphere, and are likely to be included in an international agreements. These include CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6, and CFCs. The analysis shows that countries have the capability to estimate their CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel use with sufficient accuracy to support monitoring of an international treaty, but accurate methods are not universally applied and the estimates cannot be checked against independent data. Deployment of existing methods and technologies could, within 5 years, yield a capability to both estimate and verify CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel use and deforestation, which comprise approximately three-quarters of greenhouse emissions likely covered by a treaty. Estimates of emissions of other greenhouse gases will remain uncertain in the near term.

Linn, A. M.; Law, B.

2010-12-01

100

Seismic design repair and retrofit strategies for steel roof deck diaphragms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural engineers will often rely on the roof diaphragm to transfer lateral seismic loads to the bracing system of single-storey structures. The implementation of capacity-based design in the NBCC 2005 has caused an increase in the diaphragm design load due to the need to use the probable capacity of the bracing system, thus resulting in thicker decks, closer connector patterns and higher construction costs. Previous studies have shown that accounting for the in-plane flexibility of the diaphragm when calculating the overall building period can result in lower seismic forces and a more cost-efficient design. However, recent studies estimating the fundamental period of single storey structures using ambient vibration testing showed that the in-situ approximation was much shorter than that obtained using analytical means. The difference lies partially in the diaphragm stiffness characteristics which have been shown to decrease under increasing excitation amplitude. Using the diaphragm as the energy-dissipating element in the seismic force resisting system has also been investigated as this would take advantage of the diaphragm's ductility and limited overstrength; thus, lower capacity based seismic forces would result. An experimental program on 21.0m by 7.31m diaphragm test specimens was carried out so as to investigate the dynamic properties of diaphragms including the stiffness, ductility and capacity. The specimens consisted of 20 and 22 gauge panels with nailed frame fasteners and screwed sidelap connections as well a welded and button-punch specimen. Repair strategies for diaphragms that have previously undergone inelastic deformations were devised in an attempt to restitute the original stiffness and strength and were then experimentally evaluated. Strength and stiffness experimental estimations are compared with those predicted with the Steel Deck Institute (SDI) method. A building design comparative study was also completed. This study looks at the difference in design and cost yielded by previous and current design practice with EBF braced frames. Two alternate design methodologies, where the period is not restricted by code limitations and where the diaphragm force is limited to the equivalent shear force calculated with RdR o = 1.95, are also used for comparison. This study highlights the importance of incorporating the diaphragm stiffness in design and the potential cost savings.

Franquet, John-Edward

101

Seismic design evaluation guidelines for buried piping for the DOE HLW Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground piping for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-Level-Waste (HLW) Facilities. The underground piping includes both single and double containment steel pipes and concrete pipes with steel lining, with particular emphasis on the double containment piping. The design and evaluation guidelines presented in this paper follow the generally accepted beam-on-elastic-foundation analysis principle and the inertial response calculation method, respectively, for piping directly in contact with the soil or contained in a jacket. A standard analysis procedure is described along with the discussion of factors deemed to be significant for the design of the underground piping. The following key considerations are addressed: the design feature and safety requirements for the inner (core) pipe and the outer pipe; the effect of soil strain and wave passage; assimilation of the necessary seismic and soil data; inertial response calculation for the inner pipe; determination of support anchor movement loads; combination of design loads; and code comparison. Specifications and justifications of the key parameters used, stress components to be calculated and the allowable stress and strain limits for code evaluation are presented.

Lin, Chi-Wen [Consultant, Martinez, CA (United States); Antaki, G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bandyopadhyay, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bush, S.H. [Review & Synthesis Association, Richland, WA (United States); Costantino, C. [City Univ. of New York, New York, NY (United States); Kennedy, R. [RPK Structural Mechanics, Yorba Linda, CA (United States). Consultant

1995-05-01

102

Improvement of the Damping Constants for Seismic Design of Piping System for NPP  

SciTech Connect

The present design damping constants for nuclear power plant (NPP)'s piping system in Japan were developed through discussion among expert researchers, electric utilities and power plant manufactures. They are standardized in 'Technical guidelines for seismic design of Nuclear Power Plants' (JEAG 4601-1991 Supplemental Edition). But some of the damping constants are too conservative because of a lack of experimental data. To improve this excessive conservatism, piping systems supported by U-bolts were chosen and U-bolt support element test and piping model excitation test were performed to obtain proper damping constants. The damping mechanism consists of damping due to piping materials, damping due to fluid interaction, damping due to plastic deformation of piping and supports, and damping due to friction and collision between piping and supports. Because the damping due to friction and collision was considered to be dominant, we focused our effort on formulating these phenomena by a physical model. The validity of damping estimation method was confirmed by comparing data that was obtained from the elemental tests and the actual scale piping model test. New design damping constants were decided from the damping estimations for piping systems in an actual plant. From now on, we will use the new design damping constants for U-bolt support piping systems, which were proposed from this study, as a standard in the Japanese piping seismic design. (authors)

Kei Kobayashi; Takashi Satoh [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan); Nobuyuki Kojima [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Kiyoshi Hattori [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Masaki Nakagawa [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan); Akihito Otani [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Company Ltd., 1 Shin-Nakaharacho, Isogoku, Yokohama 235-8501 (Japan)

2002-07-01

103

Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design Chapuis F.1, Bauer H.1, Grataloup S.1, Leynet A.1, Bourgine B.1, Castagnac C.1, Fillacier, S.2, Lecomte A.2, Le Gallo Y.2, Bonijoly D.1. 1 BRGM, 3 av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex, France, f.chapuis@brgm.fr, d.bonijoly@brgm.fr 2 Geogreen, 7, rue E. et A. Peugeot, 92563 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France, ylg@greogreen.fr The

Flavie Chapuis; Hugues Bauer; Sandrine Grataloup; Aurélien Leynet; Bernard Bourgine; Claire Castagnac; Simon Fillacier; Antony Lecomte; Yann Le Gallo; Didier Bonijoly

2010-01-01

104

Verifying versus falsifying banknotes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of counterfeit Dutch, German, English, and U.S. banknotes was examined with respect to the various modi operandi to imitate paper based, printed and post-printed security features. These features provide positive evidence (verifiability) as well as negative evidence (falsifiability). It appears that the positive evidence provided in most cases is insufficiently convincing: banknote inspection mainly rests on negative evidence. The act of falsifying (to prove to be false), however, is an inefficacious procedure. Ergonomic verificatory security features are demanded. This demand is increasingly met by security features based on nano- technology. The potential of nano-security has a twofold base: (1) the unique optical effects displayed allow simple, fast and unambiguous inspection, and (2) the nano-technology they are based on, makes successful counterfeit or simulation extremely improbable.

van Renesse, Rudolf L.

1998-04-01

105

Three-Dimensional Seismic Response of a Full-Scale Light-Frame Wood Building: Numerical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental seismic responses of a full-scale two-story light-frame wood townhouse building, designed to modern U.S. engineered seismic design requirements, were compared against the predictions of a new software package entitled seismic analysis package for woodframe structures SAPWood developed recently within the NEESWood Project. The main objective of this paper was to verify the accuracy of the predictions from the

John W. van de Lindt; Shiling Pei; Hongyan Liu; Andre Filiatrault

2010-01-01

106

Seismicity and Seismic Response of the Soviet-Designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water Moderated Energy Reactor) Reactor Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. O...

D. C. Ma J. Gvildys C. Y. Wang B. W. Spencer J. J. Sienicki

1989-01-01

107

SEISMIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS AND OPTIMUM DESIGN OF A CONCAVE-BALL SUPPORT ISOLATED SYSTEM FOR A THREE STORY CONCRETE STRUCTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the seismic response and optimum design of a base isolation system for earthquake protection of structures. The system incorporates spherical supports for the base, a specially designed spring-cam system to keep the base rigidly supported under normal conditions and to allow it to move for the duration of the earthquake under the constraint of a spring with

Melik Dölen; Halit Kaplan

108

Report on seismic design of buildings incorporated with cool storage roof system. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates the seismic design of buildings incorporated with Cool Storage Roof (CSR) system developed by the Davis Energy Group Inc. The CSR system is designed to provide a cost-effective cooling system for commercial buildings. The basic co...

Y. H. Chai K. M. Romstad

1994-01-01

109

A Multi-Objective Advanced Design Methodology of Composite Beam-to-Column Joints Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads  

SciTech Connect

A multi-objective advanced design methodology dealing with seismic actions followed by fire on steel-concrete composite full strength joints with concrete filled tubes is proposed in this paper. The specimens were designed in detail in order to exhibit a suitable fire behaviour after a severe earthquake. The major aspects of the cyclic behaviour of composite joints are presented and commented upon. The data obtained from monotonic and cyclic experimental tests have been used to calibrate a model of the joint in order to perform seismic simulations on several moment resisting frames. A hysteretic law was used to take into account the seismic degradation of the joints. Finally, fire tests were conducted with the objective to evaluate fire resistance of the connection already damaged by an earthquake. The experimental activity together with FE simulation demonstrated the adequacy of the advanced design methodology.

Pucinotti, Raffaele [Department of Mechanics and Materials, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, loc. Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, 89126 (Italy); Ferrario, Fabio; Bursi, Oreste S. [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 7, Trento, 38050 (Italy)

2008-07-08

110

A Multi-Objective Advanced Design Methodology of Composite Beam-to-Column Joints Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-objective advanced design methodology dealing with seismic actions followed by fire on steel-concrete composite full strength joints with concrete filled tubes is proposed in this paper. The specimens were designed in detail in order to exhibit a suitable fire behaviour after a severe earthquake. The major aspects of the cyclic behaviour of composite joints are presented and commented upon. The data obtained from monotonic and cyclic experimental tests have been used to calibrate a model of the joint in order to perform seismic simulations on several moment resisting frames. A hysteretic law was used to take into account the seismic degradation of the joints. Finally, fire tests were conducted with the objective to evaluate fire resistance of the connection already damaged by an earthquake. The experimental activity together with FE simulation demonstrated the adequacy of the advanced design methodology.

Pucinotti, Raffaele; Ferrario, Fabio; Bursi, Oreste S.

2008-07-01

111

Prediction of seismic damage in reinforced concrete frames. Seismic behavior and design of buildings, report no. 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and testing of a rigorous model to identify and predict local damage in reinforced concrete frames under seismic loads are reported. Analytical models for inelastic behavior of reinforced concrete members were used to analyze a set of static load tests under a variety of loading conditions. Other damage indicators such as dissipated energy and cumulative plastic rotation were measured for each test. Results of the sample were used to develop a stochastic model of damage for reinforced concrete members.

Banon, H.; Biggs, J. M.; Irvine, H. M.

1980-05-01

112

On the Need for Reliable Seismic Input Assessment for Optimized Design and Retrofit of Seismically Isolated Civil and Industrial Structures, Equipment, and Cultural Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the experience of recent violent earthquakes, the limits of the methods that are currently used for the definition of seismic hazard are becoming more and more evident to several seismic engineers. Considerable improvement is felt necessary not only for the seismic classification of the territory (for which the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment—PSHA—is generally adopted at present), but also for the evaluation of local amplification. With regard to the first item, among others, a better knowledge of fault extension and near-fault effects is judged essential. The aforesaid improvements are particularly important for the design of seismically isolated structures, which relies on displacement. Thus, such a design requires an accurate definition of the maximum value of displacement corresponding to the isolation period, and a reliable evaluation of the earthquake energy content at the low frequencies that are typical of the isolated structures, for the site and ground of interest. These evaluations shall include possible near-fault effects even in the vertical direction; for the construction of high-risk plants and components and retrofit of some cultural heritage, they shall be performed for earthquakes characterized by very long return periods. The design displacement shall not be underestimated, but neither be excessively overestimated, at least when using rubber bearings in the seismic isolation (SI) system. In fact, by decreasing transverse deformation of such SI systems below a certain value, their horizontal stiffness increases. Thus, should a structure (e.g. a civil defence centre, a masterpiece, etc.) protected in the aforesaid way be designed to withstand an unnecessarily too large earthquake, the behaviour of its SI system will be inadequate (i.e. it will be too stiff) during much more frequent events, which may really strike the structure during its life. Furthermore, since SI can be used only when the room available to the structure laterally is sufficient to create a structural gap compatible with the design displacement, overestimating this displacement may lead to unnecessarily renouncing of the use of such a very efficient method, especially in the case of retrofits of existing buildings. Finally, for long structures (e.g. several bridges or viaducts and even some buildings) an accurate evaluation of the possibly different ground displacements along the structure is required (this also applies to conventionally built structures). In order to overcome the limits of PSHA, this method shall be complemented by the development and application of deterministic models. In particular, the lack of displacement records requires the use of modelling, once they are calibrated against more commonly available velocity or acceleration records. The aforesaid remarks are now particularly important in the P.R. China and Italy, to ensure safe reconstruction after the Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008 and the Abruzzo earthquake of April 6, 2009: in fact, wide use of SI and other anti-seismic systems has been planned in the areas struck by both events.

Martelli, Alessandro

2011-01-01

113

Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results  

SciTech Connect

For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso [Dipartimento di Modellistica per l'Ingegneria, Universita della Calabria, 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

2008-07-08

114

Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

2008-07-01

115

Computational fluid dynamics verified the advantages of streamlined impeller design in improving flow patterns and anti-haemolysis properties of centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology was applied to predict the flow patterns in the authors' streamlined blood pump and an American bio-pump with straight vanes and shroud, respectively. Meanwhile, haemolysis comparative tests of the two pumps were performed to verify the theoretical analysis. The results revealed that the flow patterns in the streamlined impeller are coincident with its logarithmic vanes and parabolic shroud, and there is neither separate flow nor impact in the authors' pump. In the bio-pump, the main flow has the form of logarithmic spiral in vertical section and parabola in cross section, thus there are both stagnation and swirl between the main flow and the straight vanes and shroud. Haemolysis comparative tests demonstrated that the authors' pump has an index of haemolysis of 0.030, less than that of the bio-pump (0.065). PMID:17060163

Qian, K X; Wang, F Q; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y; Feng, Z G

116

Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures and equipment during earthquakes. Four separate panels discussed issues on (1) soil-structure interaction and structural response, (2) modeling, materials, and boundary conditions, (3) damping in structures and equipment, and (4) fragility levels of equipment. The international character of the seminar was particularly helpful in the cross-pollination of ideas regarding the issues and the steps required to enhance the cause of safety of nuclear plants.

Hadjian, A.H. (Bechtel Power Corp., Los Angeles, CA); Iwan, W.D.

1980-09-01

117

Simulation of complete seismic surveys for evaluation of experiment design and processing  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of complete seismic survey data sets allows analysis and optimization of all stages in an acquisition/processing sequence. The characteristics of available survey designs, parameter choices, and processing algorithms may be evaluated prior to field acquisition to produce a composite system in which all stages have compatible performance; this maximizes the cost effectiveness for a given level of accuracy, or for targets with specific characteristics. Data sets synthesized for three salt structures provide representative comparisons of time and depth migration, post-stack and prestack processing, and illustrate effects of varying recording aperture and shot spacing, iterative focusing analysis, and the interaction of migration algorithms with recording aperture. A final example demonstrates successful simulation of both 2-D acquisition and processing of a real data line over a salt pod in the Gulf of Mexico.

Oezdenvar, T.; McMechan, G.A. [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Lithospheric Studies; Chaney, P. [ORYX Energy Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-03-01

118

CHARACTERIZING THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR DEVELOPING SEISMIC DESIGN GROUND MOTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the designated site for the first long-term geologic repository to safely dispose spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste in the U.S. Yucca Mountain consists of stacked layers of welded and non-welded volcanic tuffs. Site characterization studies are being performed to assess its future performance as a permanent geologic repository. These studies include the characterization of the shear-wave velocity (Vs) structure of the repository block and the surface facilities area. The Vs data are an input in the calculations of ground motions for the preclosure seismic design and for postclosure performance assessment and therefore their accurate estimation is needed. Three techniques have been employed: 24 downhole surveys, 15 suspension seismic logging surveys and 95 spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) surveys have been performed to date at the site. The three data sets were compared with one another and with Vs profiles developed from vertical seismic profiling data collected by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and with Vs profiles developed independently by the University of Nevada, Reno using the refraction microtremor technique. Based on these data, base case Vs profiles have been developed and used in site response analyses. Since the question of adequate sampling arises in site characterization programs and a correlation between geology and Vs would help address this issue, a possible correlation was evaluated. To assess the influence of different factors on velocity, statistical analyses of the Vs data were performed using the method of multi-factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results of this analysis suggest that the effect of each of three factors, depth, lithologic unit, and spatial location, on velocity is statistically significant. Furthermore, velocity variation with depth is different at different spatial locations: Preliminary results show that the lithologic unit alone explains about 54% and 42% of the velocity variation in the suspension and downhole data sets, respectively. The three factors together explain about 73% and 81% of the velocity variation in the suspension and downhole data sets, respectively. Development of a relationship, using multiple regression analysis, which may be used as a predictive tool to estimate velocity at a new location, is currently being examined.

S. Upadhyaya, I. Wong, R. Kulkarni, K. Stokoe, M. Dober, W. Silva, and R. Quittmeyer

2006-02-24

119

Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS time delays clearly separated for the shot of IMI explosives (characterized by much higher detonation velocity than ANFO). Additionally acoustic records at close distances from WSMR explosions Distant Image (2440 tons of ANFO) and Minor Uncle (2725 tons of ANFO) were used to extend the charge and distance range for the SS delay scaled relationship, that showed consistency with SMR ANFO shots. The developed specific charge design contributed to the success of this unique dual Sayarim explosion experiment, providing the strongest GT0 sources since the establishment of the IMS network, that demonstrated clearly the most favorable westward/ eastward infrasound propagation up to 3400/6250 km according to appropriate summer/winter weather pattern and stratospheric wind directions, respectively, and thus verified empirically common models of infrasound propagation in the atmosphere. The research was supported by the CTBTO, Vienna, and the Israel Ministry of Immigrant Absorption.

Gitterman, Y.

2012-04-01

120

Enhancement of Seismic Performance Using Shear Link Braces in a Building Designed Only for Gravity Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work attempts to study the behaviour of building designed for gravity loads only under the effect of lateral seismic load. Such a building is generally deficient against lateral forces and need to be retrofitted against lateral earthquake forces. A retrofitting scheme by providing aluminium shear link with chevron braces is suggested to improve its performance. Past earthquakes have shown a great deal of damages to the deficient RC frame buildings designed without any consideration to the lateral earthquake forces. Chevron braces with the aluminium shear link can be implemented as an effective retrofit measure. A comparison of the performance of building initially designed for gravity load only with the retrofitted building using chevron braces with the aluminium shear link is presented in this paper. The behaviour of building is worked out by performing nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear time history analyses. A parametric study has also been carried out to study the effect of shear link and braces on the retrofitted building. The performance of RC building designed for gravity loads only as evaluated from the nonlinear static pushover analysis lies in life safety and collapse prevention range for DBE and MCE level of earthquakes respectively. The same building when retrofitted by using chevron braces with aluminium shear link show improved performance. This device is very simple, economic, effective and can be placed in a building very easily. The dissipation of damaging energy/damage is localised in shear link which can be replaced after a major earthquake.

Maniyar, S. U.; Paul, D. K.

2012-02-01

121

Development of a Versatile Section Analysis Tool (VSAT) for use in structural design with a seismic emphasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of structural members subjected to seismic activity has progressed in recent years but does not yet include the effects of cold temperatures. In areas such as Alaska, the Midwest, East Coast, and even in some parts of the West Coast, this approach introduces a real deficiency as it is likely that an earthquake will occur during winter months.

Jared C. Levings

2009-01-01

122

Nonlinear experimental design applied to seismic network extension at Kawerau geothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate earthquake locations underpin many facets of seismological analysis. The resolution obtainable from seismic data, however, is inherently circumscribed by the geometry of the network used to acquire these data. Here we address the question of how to maximise this resolution by designing an optimal extension of an existing seismic network. Given a set of expected earthquake locations, we develop and implement a nonlinear statistical experimental design algorithm that yields an optimal network extension, where optimality is defined in terms of the network configuration that maximises earthquake location resolution. Seismic stations are added to the network iteratively, with each new station location chosen in order to maximise the difference between the variance of the set of expected earthquake locations, and the variance of the data uncertainty. The algorithm incorporates methods for the realistic representation of 3D velocity structures and attenuation models for both P and S travel times, a surface noise model, and the ability to apply complex weighting functions to the earthquake set. We apply this algorithm to inform and assist the expansion of an existing seismic network in the high-temperature, liquid-dominated Kawerau geothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Our results demonstrate the utility of the algorithm in even simplistic cases, and show how each new parameter incorporated into the design model affects the optimal network design obtained. This emphasises the complexity of optimally instrumenting a region of interest when taking into account variations in velocity and attenuation, and surface noise or other siting constraints.

Rawlinson, Z. J.; Townend, J.; Arnold, R.; Bannister, S. C.

2011-12-01

123

Significance of Various Design and Assessment Parameters on Seismic Collapse Safety Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary goal of the seismic design requirements of building codes is to protect life safety of building inhabitants during extreme earthquakes. First and foremost, this requires ensuring that the likelihood of structural collapse remains at an acceptably low level. In achieving this goal, the typical approach has been to develop prescriptive and empirical building code requirements for structural strength,

Curt B. HASELTON; Abbie B. LIEL; Gregory G. DEIERLEIN

124

Development of design guidelines for seismically isolated nuclear reactors and research and development work performed by ENEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENEA began work on seismic isolation in Italy in 1988 in cooperation with ISMES. Until now, work has been limited to horizontal systems and focused on high-damping steel-laminated elastomer bearings. Work consists of both the assessment of proposed design guidelines for isolated nuclear reactors (developed in collaboration with General Electric Company) and research and development (R and D) experimental and

A. Martelli; M. Forni; M. Indirli; P. Masoni; B. Spadoni; G. Bonacina; G. Di Pasquale; T. Sano; E. L. Gluekler

1992-01-01

125

Seafloor seismic data study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant consideration in the design of offshore platforms, for seismically-active regions, is their response to earthquakes. However, the comprehensive inclusion of such considerations in a design activity is a formidable task. Elements of this task include characterization of projected seismicity, respone of the (saturated) soils, transfer of the seismic energy from the soil to the platform, platform response to

Engi

1986-01-01

126

Uncertainty in Phase Arrival Time Picks for Regional Seismic Events: An Experimental Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detection and timing of seismic arrivals play a critical role in the ability to locate seismic events, especially at low magnitude. Errors can occur with the determination of the timing of the arrivals, whether these errors are made by automated proce...

A. A. Velasco C. J. Young D. N. Anderson

2001-01-01

127

Design of an implantable seismic sensor placed on the ossicular chain.  

PubMed

This paper presents a design guideline for matching a fully implantable middle ear microphone with the physiology of human hearing. The guideline defines the first natural frequency of a seismic sensor placed at the tip of the manubrium mallei with respect to the frequency-dependence hearing of the human ear as well as the deflection of the ossicular chain. A transducer designed in compliance with the guideline presented reduces the range of the output signal while preserving all information obtained by the ossicular chain. On top of a output signal compression, static deflections, which can mask the tiny motions of the ossicles, are reduced. For guideline verification, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based on silicon on insulator technology was produced and tested. This prototype is capable of resolving 0.4pm/Hz with a custom made read-out circuit. For a bandwidth of 0.1kHz, this deflection is comparable with the lower threshold of speech (?40phon). PMID:23810385

Sachse, M; Hortschitz, W; Stifter, M; Steiner, H; Sauter, T

2013-06-27

128

Site study plan for EDBH (Engineering Design Boreholes) seismic surveys, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This site study plan describes seismic reflection surveys to run north-south and east-west across the Deaf Smith County site, and intersecting near the Engineering Design Boreholes (EDBH). Both conventional and shallow high-resolution surveys will be run. The field program has been designed to acquire subsurface geologic and stratigraphic data to address information/data needs resulting from Federal and State regulations and Repository program requirements. The data acquired by the conventional surveys will be common-depth- point, seismic reflection data optimized for reflection events that indicate geologic structure near the repository horizon. The data will also resolve the basement structure and shallow reflection events up to about the top of the evaporite sequence. Field acquisition includes a testing phase to check/select parameters and a production phase. The field data will be subjected immediately to conventional data processing and interpretation to determine if there are any anamolous structural for stratigraphic conditions that could affect the choice of the EDBH sites. After the EDBH's have been drilled and logged, including vertical seismic profiling, the data will be reprocessed and reinterpreted for detailed structural and stratigraphic information to guide shaft development. The shallow high-resulition seismic reflection lines will be run along the same alignments, but the lines will be shorter and limited to immediate vicinity of the EDBH sites. These lines are planned to detect faults or thick channel sands that may be present at the EDBH sites. 23 refs. , 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Hume, H.

1987-12-01

129

Seismic structural analysis of a conceptual waste package design for disposal of high level nuclear waste in a geologic repository  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the methodology used to perform seismic structural analyses on a conceptual waste package design for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a geologic respository. The waste package design analyzed is intended to hold uncanistered spent fuel. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if the proposed waste package design can withstand the seismic loads caused by nearby fault movement during the preclosure period of the repository without breaching the inner or outer waste package barriers or damaging the internal structures, which would affect their ability to separate the waste forms. For uncanistered spent fuel waste packages, this is interpreted to mean that no yielding of the basket structure is permitted.

Ceylan, Z.; Bennett, S.M.; Doering, T.W.

1995-12-31

130

ACV: an arithmetic circuit verifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a hierarchical verification methodology, we present an arithmetic circuit verifier ACV, in which circuits expressed in a hard- ware description language, also called ACV, are symbolically verified using Binary Decision Diagrams for Boolean functions and multi- plicative Binary Moment Diagrams (*BMDs) for word-level func- tions. A circuit is described in ACV as a hierarchy of modules. Each module

Yirng-an Chen; Randal E. Bryant

1996-01-01

131

Conceptual Design and Experimental Investigation of Polymer Matrix Composite Infill Panels for Seismic Retrofitting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research, three prefabricated PMC infill panel systems for seismic retrofitting were proposed. The PMC infill panels were studied using experimental methods to assess their effectiveness and response under simulated earthquake loading. Applying th...

A. J. Aref M. Chiewanichakorn W. Jung

2006-01-01

132

Light-Frame Design Aids: Correlating Seismic Forces and Wind Rocking Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes seismic provisions of the Uniform Building Code and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and recommendations of the Applied Technology Council as they apply to the main frame resisting system of one -, two -, and three -...

1982-01-01

133

A finite element approach for seismic design of arch dam-abutment structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 3-D finite element (FE) approach to find the optimal distribution of seismic reinforcement force to secure high\\u000a arch dam-abutment structures against certain earthquake actions. Nonlinear FE time history analysis is performed on the structure\\u000a to find the seismic responses, using the associated elastic-perfectly plastic material description. The concept of plastic\\u000a complementary energy is introduced to structural dynamics

Qiang Yang; KuangDai Leng; YaoRu Liu

2011-01-01

134

Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further needs.

Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit

2012-07-01

135

DNA repair: trust but verify.  

PubMed

Damage recognition is a key initial step in DNA repair. A recent study puts to rest the debate of whether XPD helicase 'verifies' the appropriateness of the DNA damage to be mended by the nucleotide excision repair machinery. PMID:23391386

Spies, Maria

2013-02-01

136

Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design Chapuis F.1, Bauer H.1, Grataloup S.1, Leynet A.1, Bourgine B.1, Castagnac C.1, Fillacier, S.2, Lecomte A.2, Le Gallo Y.2, Bonijoly D.1. 1 BRGM, 3 av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex, France, f.chapuis@brgm.fr, d.bonijoly@brgm.fr 2 Geogreen, 7, rue E. et A. Peugeot, 92563 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France, ylg@greogreen.fr The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the techno-economical potential of storing 200 000 tCO2 per year produced by a sugar beat distillery. To reach this goal, an accurate hydro-geological characterisation of a CO2 injection site is of primary importance because it will strongly influence the site selection, the storage design and the risk management. Geological investigation for CO2 storage is usually set in the center or deepest part of sedimentary basins. However, CO2 producers do not always match with the geological settings, and so other geological configurations have to be studied. This is the aim of this project, which is located near the South-West border of the Paris Basin, in the Orléans region. Special geometries such as onlaps and pinch out of formation against the basement are likely to be observed and so have to be taken into account. Two deep saline aquifers are potentially good candidates for CO2 storage. The Triassic continental deposits capped by the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic continental shales and the Dogger carbonate deposits capped by the Callovian and Oxfordian shales. First, a data review was undertaken, to provide the palaeogeographical settings and ideas about the facies, thicknesses and depth of the targeted formations. It was followed by a seismic interpretation. Three hundred kilometres of seismic lines were reprocessed and interpreted to characterize the geometry of the studied area. The main structure identified is the Étampes fault that affects all the formations. Apart from the vicinity of the fault where drag folds appear, the layers are sub-horizontal and gently dip and thicken eastwards. Then, interpreted seismic lines, together with well data from more than 50 boreholes were integrated into a 2D-model of the main surfaces using geostatistics (Isatis® and Petrel® softwares). The main difficulty of this step was to generate a realistic model accounting for both the specific geometries linked to the basin border (onlapping, pinching out...) and the faults. If the former only concerns the Triassic, the latter also affects the overlying formations. Regarding the Dogger top surface, it is less than 700m deep in the western area, which is too shallow for supercritical state injection. Consequently, the next part of the study focused on the Triassic reservoir and integrated changes in petrophysical properties as a function of lateral lithological variation. This ultimately led to upgrade the model from 2D to 3D in order to perform the simulation of CO2 migration. To achieve this objective, we first applied sequence stratigraphy concepts on Triassic deposits to compensate the lack of quantitative petrophysical data. It provided qualitative data about the reservoir heterogeneities which are crucial for a realistic 3D-modelling. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions show that the sediment supply direction is WSW-ENE, implying more proximal deposits to the West, and so better reservoir properties. The final step is to use this 3D-model to elaborate a flow model to estimate the injectivity rate and the extension of the overpressure within the open aquifer and the CO2 plume after 30 years of injection. Two injection rates as well as two well locations were hypothesized into four scenarios considering several locations and injections rates. In any case, the fault has been considered as a barrier to the CO2 migration and the system as a closed one. In the four cases, results are satisfying, the overpressure is less than 30% of the initial pressure and the reservoir capacity is enough regarding the goal of the project. The results of these simulations will then be integrated into the

Chapuis, Flavie; Bauer, Hugues; Grataloup, Sandrine; Leynet, Aurélien; Bourgine, Bernard; Castagnac, Claire; Fillacier, Simon; Lecomte, Antony; Le Gallo, Yann; Bonijoly, Didier

2010-05-01

137

Model verifies design of mobile data modem  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed to use differential minimum shift keying (DMSK) modems in spacecraft-based mobile communications systems. For an employment of these modems, it is necessary that the transmitted carrier frequency be known prior to signal detection. In addition, the time needed by the receiver to lock onto the carrier frequency must be minimized. The present article is concerned with

F. Davarian; J. Sumida

1986-01-01

138

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances  

SciTech Connect

This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

1995-10-01

139

Human verifiable authentication schemes geared to smart wallet applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart wallet is a mobile enabled application and payment service provider to make convenient payments to any designated merchant over the Internet. In this paper, we propose human verifiable authentication schemes geared to smart wallet that prevent man-in-the-middle attack with neither a prior context nor a PKI. The Human Verifiable authentication scheme verifies a shared key for both parties to

Gun Il Ma; Hyeong Chan Lee; Jeong Hyun Yi; Hyunsik Ki; Daeseon Choi; Seung Hun Jin

2011-01-01

140

Lessons learned from the ``5.12'' Wenchuan Earthquake: evaluation of earthquake performance objectives and the importance of seismic conceptual design principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many different types of buildings were severely damaged or collapsed during the May 12, 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake. Based on survey data collected in regions that were subjected to moderate to severe earthquake intensities, a comparison between the observed building damage, and the three earthquake performance objectives and seismic conceptual design principles specifi ed by the national “Code for Seismic Design of Buildings GB50011-2001,” was carried out. Actual damage and predicted damage for a given earthquake level for different types of structures is compared. Discussions on seismic conceptual design principles, with respect to multiple defense lines, strong column-weak beam, link beam of shear walls, ductility detailing of masonry structures, exits and staircases, and nonstructural elements, etc. are carried out. Suggestions for improving the seismic design of structures are also proposed. It is concluded that the seismic performance objectives for three earthquake levels, i.e., “no failure under minor earthquake level,” “repairable damage under moderate earthquake level” and “no collapse under major earthquake level” can be achieved if seismic design principles are carried out by strictly following the code requirements and ensuring construction quality.

Wang, Yayong

2008-09-01

141

Utilization of a finite element model to verify spent nuclear fuel storage rack welds  

SciTech Connect

Elastic and plastic finite element analyses were performed for the inner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack designed for installation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The model was specifically developed to verify the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for this task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the inner tie welds when the rack was subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as defined by the rack`s designer. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The results confirm that the welds joining the inner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. The analysis results verified that the inner tie block welds should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

Nitzel, M.E.

1998-07-01

142

Seismic design of steel structures with lead-extrusion dampers as knee braces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the effective methods in decreasing the seismic response of structure against dynamic loads due to earthquake is using energy dissipating systems. Lead-extrusion dampers (LED)are one of these systems that dissipate energy in to one lead sleeve because of steel rod movement. Hysteresis loops of these dampers are approximately rectangular and acts independent from velocity in frequencies that are in the seismic frequency rang. In this paper lead dampers are considered as knee brace in steel frames and are studied in an economical view. Considering that lead dampers don't clog structural panels, so this characteristic can solve brace problems from architectural view. The behavior of these dampers is compared with the other kind of dampers such as XADAS and TADAS. The results indicate that lead dampers act properly in absorbing the induced energy due to earthquake and good function in controlling seismic movements of multi-story structures

Monir, Habib Saeed; Naser, Ali

2008-07-01

143

Seismic surveillance test plan  

SciTech Connect

This test plan provides a justification and description of surface and borehole seismic surveillance networks operated for the purpose of providing characterization data on the tectonic setting of the reference repository location (RRL) and surrounding area, providing input for seismic design and seismic design confirmation, and providing input to pre- and post-closure performance assessment to support development of a nuclear repository in basalt. Specific seismic surveillance objectives supportive of this purpose are: (1) determine occurrence of seismic events in the RRL, Cold Creek syncline, Pasco Basin, and the Columbia Plateau (i.e., region); (2) determine the locations (hypocenters) of seismic events in the same areas; (3) determine source parameters of causative faults in the RRL and vicinity; and (4) determine characteristics of subsurface vibratory motion due to seismic events.

Rohay, A.C.; Rasmussen, N.H.; Tallman, A.M.

1983-03-30

144

Seismic safety of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substantial conservatisms built into seismic resistant design for nuclear power plants are discussed. Uncertainties in seismic parameters and engineering practices which necessitate these conservatisms are also discussed.

Hou

1976-01-01

145

VVCS: Verifiable Visual Cryptography Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual cryptography is a cryptographic technique to achieve visual secret sharing. Shares are distributed to every participant and overlapping a number of shares can recover the original secret. The participants' cheating is discussed more in previous literatures. However, the issue of the distribution center's dishonesty exists similarly in visual cryptography. In this paper, a verifiable visual cryptography scheme is proposed

Han Yanyan; Cheng Xiaoni; Yao Dong; He Wencai

2011-01-01

146

Verifiable Secret-Ballot Elections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privacy in secret-ballot elections has traditionally been attained by using a ballot box or voting booth to disassociate voters from ballots. Although such a system might achieve privacy, there is often little confidence in the accuracy of the announced tally. This thesis describes a practical scheme for conducting secret-ballot elections in which the outcome of an election is verifiable by

Josh Daniel Cohen Benaloh

1987-01-01

147

Verifiable digital object identity system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification is a two part system comprising of a token or label (an identifier) that can be used to reference an en- tity and a process that can be used to create label-entity associations and verify that the reference and entity belong together. There are a number of identity systems for digital objects that provide identifiers (such as the Handle

Alapan Arnab; Andrew Hutchison

2006-01-01

148

ATV: an abstract timing verifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss implementation and extensions of the Abstract Timing Verifier proposed in [WaS86], in particular, several new operations and a new algorithm for analyzing critical paths that extend through transparent latches and stretch over multiple machine cycles. By placing events in different reference frames that can be translated relative to one another, the program can be used either to check

David E. Wallace; Carlo H. Séquin

1988-01-01

149

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

2000-01-26

150

Stress analysis, code evaluation, and design modification of a plate resulting from seismic loads and hypothetical core disruptive accident loads  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the structural analysis and evaluation of a design modification for a plate in the Fast Flux Test Facility heat temperature control system. The plate being considered is near a fuel transfer port system. The plate is flat and is supported by six long studs, five of which are along one side of the plate. Their location makes the plate act as a cantilever.The plate itself provides support to three vertical neutron shields on its free edges. During service, a uranium shield ring under the fuel transfer port nozzle oxidized and expanded. To prevent this expansion from causing damage to the surrounding components, this ring was removed and replaced with lead blocks. Approximately one-fourth of the lead blocks rest on a free edge of the plate. This new configuration of the plate required updated seismic and hypothetical core disruptive accident analyses. Seismic and hypothetical core disruptive accident analyses were performed and checked against the requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code. The result showed that the design of the existing plate supports (the six studs) was not adequate for the added weight of the lead blocks. The design was modified to restrain the lead blocks. When the final design with modified boundary conditions was reevaluated, the stress results satisfied the Code requirements.

Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.

1992-01-01

151

A Proposal of Design Spectrum Based on Uniform Hazard Spectral Format Using 4th Generation Seismic Hazard Maps of Canada for CHBDC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent developments have come into the forefront with reference to updating the seismic design provisions for codes: (i) publication of new seismic hazard maps for Canada by the Geological Survey of Canada, and (ii) emergence of the concept of new spectral format outdating the conventional standardized spectral format. The 4th generation seismic hazard maps are based on enriched seismic data, enhanced knowledge of regional seismicity and improved seismic hazard modeling techniques. Therefore, the new maps are more accurate and need to incorporate into the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC) for its next edition similar to its building counterpart (NBCC 2005). In fact the code writers expressed such intentions with comments in the commentary of CHBCD 2006 as "New methods for defining ground motion (e.g., uniform hazard spectra) are being investigated for possible inclusion in future codes." During the process of updating codes, NBCC 2005 and AASHTO 2009 lowered the probability level from 10% to 2% and 10% to 5%, respectively. This study has brought three sets of hazard maps (corresponding to 2%, 5% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years) developed by the GSC under investigation. To have a sound statistical inference, 389 Canadian cities are selected. The statistical analyses reveal that the design spectra under consideration need modification. A scheme of modification is developed to make the modified spectra work. Finally, validity of modified AASHTO spectrum is established and its adoption in the future CHBDC is recommended.

Ahmed, Ali

152

Verifying Programs with Unreliable Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the verification of a particular class of infinite-state systems, namely systems consisting of finite-state processes that communicate via unbounded lossy FIFO channels. This class is able to model, e.g., link protocols such as the Alternating Bit Protocol and HDLC. For this class of systems, we show that several interesting verification problems are decidable by giving algorithms for verifying

Parosh Aziz Abdulla; Bengt Jonsson

1996-01-01

153

Verifying Programs with Unreliable Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the verification of a particular class of infinite-state systems, namely systems consisting of finite-state processes that communicate via unbounded lossy FIFO channels. This class is able to model e.g. link protocols such as the Alternating Bit Protocol and HDLC. For this class of systems, we show that several interesting verification problems are decidable by giving algorithms for verifying

Parosh Aziz Abdulla; Bengt Jonsson

1993-01-01

154

Seismic Review Table.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Seismic Review Table is a summary of Engineering Design parameters that were employed in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants. The table covers 71 reactors licensed to operate by the U.S.N.R.C. The information contained is listed pl...

B. Koplik J. Lane M. Reich M. Subudhi

1980-01-01

155

A Seismic Isolation Application Using Rubber Bearings; Hangar Project in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Seismic isolation is an effective design strategy to mitigate the seismic hazard wherein the structure and its contents are protected from the damaging effects of an earthquake. This paper presents the Hangar Project in Sabiha Goekcen Airport which is located in Istanbul, Turkey. Seismic isolation system where the isolation layer arranged at the top of the columns is selected. The seismic hazard analysis, superstructure design, isolator design and testing were based on the Uniform Building Code (1997) and met all requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code (2007). The substructure which has the steel vertical trusses on facades and RC H shaped columns in the middle axis of the building was designed with an R factor limited to 2.0 in accordance with Turkish Earthquake Code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the isolation system, nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are performed. The analysis revealed that isolated building has lower base shear (approximately 1/4) against the non-isolated structure.

Sesigur, Haluk; Cili, Feridun [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Division of Theory of Structures 34434, Taskisla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2008-07-08

156

Numerical analysis on seismic response of Shinkansen bridge-train interaction system under moderate earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is intended to evaluate the influence of dynamic bridge-train interaction (BTI) on the seismic response of the Shinkansen system in Japan under moderate earthquakes. An analytical approach to simulate the seismic response of the BTI system is developed. In this approach, the behavior of the bridge structure is assumed to be within the elastic range under moderate ground motions. A bullet train car model idealized as a sprung-mass system is established. The viaduct is modeled with 3D finite elements. The BTI analysis algorithm is verified by comparing the analytical and experimental results. The seismic analysis is validated through comparison with a general program. Then, the seismic responses of the BTI system are simulated and evaluated. Some useful conclusions are drawn, indicating the importance of a proper consideration of the dynamic BTI in seismic design.

He, Xingwen; Kawatani, Mitsuo; Hayashikawa, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Takashi

2011-03-01

157

An evaluation of the design and analytical seismic response of a seven-story reinforced concrete frame-wall structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the analytical studies regarding the response of a reinforced concrete test building that have been conducted at the University of California, Berkeley, as part of a US-Japan cooperative research program on the behavior of structures subjected to earthquake induced loading. This work, which begins with a review of the prototype design according to the 1979 Uniform Building Code specifications for seismic resistant buildings, shows that while the test building, a 1/5 scale model of a 7-story reinforced concrete frame-wall structure, does not satisfy all code specifications, it can be considered to be a good design from the point of view of the strong column-weak beam philosophy. The elastic properties of the structure are investigated through the use of flexibility matrices and the inelastic response of the structure to monotonically increasing lateral loads is studied.

Charney, F. A.; Bertero, V. V.

1982-08-01

158

Experimentally Verified Numerical Model of Thixoforming Process  

SciTech Connect

A new mathematical model of thixotropic casting based on the two-phase approach for the semi-solid metal alloys is presented. The corresponding numerical algorithm has been implemented in original computer software using the finite element method in the 3-D geometry and using the Lagrangian approach to flow description. The model has been verified by means of an original experiment of thixoforming in a model die specially designed for this purpose. Some particular cases of such casting and influence of operating parameters on the segregation phenomenon have been discussed.

Bialobrzeski, Andrzej [Foundry Institute Krakow, Zakopianska 73, 30-418 Cracow (Poland); Kotynia, Monika; Petera, Jerzy [Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 213, 93-005 Lodz (Poland)

2007-04-07

159

Verifiable visualization for isosurface extraction.  

PubMed

Visual representations of isosurfaces are ubiquitous in the scientific and engineering literature. In this paper, we present techniques to assess the behavior of isosurface extraction codes. Where applicable, these techniques allow us to distinguish whether anomalies in isosurface features can be attributed to the underlying physical process or to artifacts from the extraction process. Such scientific scrutiny is at the heart of verifiable visualization--subjecting visualization algorithms to the same verification process that is used in other components of the scientific pipeline. More concretely, we derive formulas for the expected order of accuracy (or convergence rate) of several isosurface features, and compare them to experimentally observed results in the selected codes. This technique is practical: in two cases, it exposed actual problems in implementations. We provide the reader with the range of responses they can expect to encounter with isosurface techniques, both under "normal operating conditions" and also under adverse conditions. Armed with this information--the results of the verification process--practitioners can judiciously select the isosurface extraction technique appropriate for their problem of interest, and have confidence in its behavior. PMID:19834193

Etiene, Tiago; Scheidegger, Carlos; Nonato, L Gustavo; Kirby, Robert M; Silva, Cláudio T

160

A very high-resolution, deep-towed, multichannel seismic streamer, part I: technical design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to allow very high resolution seismic data collection a new deep towed multichannel seismic streamer was developed within the gas hydrate initiative of the "Geotechnologien" program. The essential factor in terms of lateral resolution is determined by the size of the Fresnel zone. Using migration algorithms resolution could be enhanced up to half a wavelength, but this is only valid for the inline direction and will not recognize side effects. As the Fresnel zone is specified by the depth of source and receiver, as well as the velocity and frequency of the acoustic waves a lowering of source and receiver towards the sea floor will increase the lateral resolution. In our case we concentrated on the lowering of the receiver array resulting in hybrid system architecture, still using conventional surface operated airguns. Assuming a working depth of 3000 m and a source signal of 200 Hz the radius will be reduced from 106 m for surface configuration to 26 m for the hybrid case. The digital streamer comprises of single hydrophone nodes, which are coupled by cable sections of individual length. Due to this modular architecture the streamer lay out could be adapted to the source and target requirements. Currently 26 hydrophones are available which are sampled at 0.25 ms using a 24-bit A/D converter. Together with high-resolution data acquisition the request for good positioning is another issue. Therefore three of the hydrophone modules are extended to engineering modules. These nodes include a depth sensor as well as a compass, enabling the online display of a relative positioning of the streamer. Absolute coordinates of the deep towed system are measured through an ultra short baseline (USBL) system. Using a depth sensor within the deployed transponder the position could measured within 1% of the slant range even at very large offsets to the surface vessel. A permanent online connection to the deployed system is provided by a telemetry system, which is capable to handle the connection for the additional side scan sonar at the same time. Onboard the vessel the data are distributed online to the quality control and recording systems of the side scan and seismic applications using Ethernet connections. In case of a reduced bandwidth only a portion of data is transmitted while all raw data is stored within the Linux based PC system installed at the bottom side. Navigation and data processing is described within poster part II by Breitzke and Bialas.

Bialas, J.; Breitzke, M.

2003-04-01

161

The verified software repository: a step towards the verifying compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Verie d Software Repository is dedicated to a long-term vision of a future in which all computer systems justify the trust that Society increasingly places in them. This will be accompanied by a substantial reduction in the current high costs of programming error, incurred during the design, devel- opment, testing, installation, maintenance, evolution, and retirement of computer software. An

Juan Bicarregui; C. A. R. Hoare

2006-01-01

162

Development of design guidelines for seismically isolated nuclear reactors and research and development work performed by ENEA  

SciTech Connect

ENEA began work on seismic isolation in Italy in 1988 in cooperation with ISMES. Until now, work has been limited to horizontal systems and focused on high-damping steel-laminated elastomer bearings. Work consists of both the assessment of proposed design guidelines for isolated nuclear reactors (developed in collaboration with General Electric Company) and research and development (R and D) experimental and numerical studies, partly performed in support of the guideline development. Experiments include static and dynamic characterization of single bearings, analysis of a full-scale isolated structure and an actual building with in situ techniques, and shake table tests of scaled isolated structures. In this paper the main features of the guidelines document and R and D studies are described, and some initial measured data are presented.

Martelli, A.; Forni, M.; Indirli, M.; Masoni, P.; Spadoni, B. (ENEA, Dept. of Innovative Reactors, Bologna (IT)); Bonacina, G. (ISMES S.p.A., Seriate, Bergamo (IT)); Di Pasquale, G.; Sano, T. (ENEA, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Health Protection, Roma (IT)); Gluekler, E.L. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States). Nuclear Energy Div.)

1992-02-01

163

Verifying a Computer Algorithm Mathematically.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an example of mathematics from an algorithmic point of view, with emphasis on the design and verification of this algorithm. The program involves finding roots for algebraic equations using the half-interval search algorithm. The program listing is included. (JN)|

Olson, Alton T.

1986-01-01

164

Dual-Level Approach for Seismic Design of Asymmetric-Plan Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings should be designed to resist moderate ground motion without structural damage and resist intense ground motion with controlled damage. However, most codes do not consider both these requirements explicitly and specify a single design earthquake that generally corresponds to intense ground motion. Investigated in this study is the response of one-story, asymmetric-plan systems designed according to torsional provisions of

Rakesh K. Goel; Anil K. Chopra

1994-01-01

165

Seismic hazard analyses for Taipei city including deaggregation, design spectra, and time history with excel applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the difficulty of earthquake forecast, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been a method to best estimate site-specific ground motion or response spectra in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology. In this paper, the first in-depth PSHA study for Taipei, the economic center of Taiwan with a six-million population, was carried out. Unlike the very recent PSHA study for Taiwan, this study includes the follow-up hazard deaggregation, response spectra, and the earthquake motion recommendations. Hazard deaggregation results show that moderate-size and near-source earthquakes are the most probable scenario for this city. Moreover, similar to the findings in a few recent studies, the earthquake risk for Taipei should be relatively high and considering this city's importance, the high risk should not be overlooked and a potential revision of the local technical reference would be needed. In addition to the case study, some innovative Excel applications to PSHA are introduced in this paper. Such spreadsheet applications are applicable to geosciences research as those developed for data reduction or quantitative analysis with Excel's user-friendly nature and wide accessibility.

Wang, Jui-Pin; Huang, Duruo; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Shao, Kuo-Shin; Wu, Yuan-Chieh; Chang, Chih-Wei

2013-03-01

166

Seismic Hazard Assessment: Issues and Alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used interchangeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been proclaimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications.

Wang, Zhenming

2011-01-01

167

Optimum Design Approaches for Improving the Seismic Performance of 3D RC Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a number of design approaches for 3D reinforced concrete (RC) buildings are formulated in the framework of structural optimization problems and are assessed in terms of their performance under earthquake loading. In particular, three design approaches for RC buildings are considered in this study. In the first, the initial construction cost is considered as the objective function

Nikos D. Lagaros; Nikolaos Bakas; Manolis Papadrakakis

2009-01-01

168

Preclosure seismic design methodology for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Topical report YMP/TR-003-NP  

SciTech Connect

This topical report describes the methodology and criteria that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to use for preclosure seismic design of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the proposed geologic repository operations area that are important to safety. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60 (10 CFR 60), Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, states that for a license to be issued for operation of a high-level waste repository, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must find that the facility will not constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public. Section 60.131 (b)(1) requires that SSCs important to safety be designed so that natural phenomena and environmental conditions anticipated at the geologic repository operations area will not interfere with necessary safety functions. Among the natural phenomena specifically identified in the regulation as requiring safety consideration are the hazards of ground shaking and fault displacement due to earthquakes.

NONE

1996-10-01

169

Seismic analysis of diagrid structural frames with shear-link fuse devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new concept for enhancing the seismic ductility and damping capacity of diagrid structural frames by using shear-link fuse devices and its seismic performance is assessed through nonlinear static and dynamic analysis. The architectural elegancy of the diagrid structure attributed to its triangular leaning member configuration and high structural redundancy make this system a desirable choice for tall building design. However, forming a stable energy dissipation mechanism in diagrid framing remains to be investigated to expand its use in regions with high seismicity. To address this issue, a diagrid framing design is proposed here which provides a competitive design option in highly seismic regions through its increased ductility and improved energy dissipation capacity provided by replaceable shear links interconnecting the diagonal members at their ends. The structural characteristics and seismic behavior (capacity, stiffness, energy dissipation, ductility) of the diagrid structural frame are demonstrated with a 21-story building diagrid frame subjected to nonlinear static and dynamic analysis. The findings from the nonlinear time history analysis verify that satisfactory seismic performance can be achieved by the proposed diagrid frame subjected to design basis earthquakes in California. In particular, one appealing feature of the proposed diagrid building is its reduced residual displacement after strong earthquakes.

Moghaddasi B, Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng

2013-09-01

170

Self-verifying names for read-only named data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information-centric networks must ensure the authenticity and integrity of named data. ICN designs such as Content-Centric Networking apply a digital signature to a collection of packets for this purpose. This paper shifts the mode of ICN authentication: Self-verifying names ensure data authenticity for read-only named data; signatures or other means ensure name authenticity. The paper considers how self-verifying names might

Mark Baugher; Bruce Davie; Ashok Narayanan; Dave Oran

2012-01-01

171

Seismic verification of a comprehensive test ban.  

PubMed

The capabilities of in-country seismic monitoring systems for verifying the absence of underground nuclear explosions are compared against challenges posed by possible clandestine testing schemes. Although analysis indicate that extensive networks of in-country seismic arrays are needed to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, such networks cannot ensure that all underground nuclear explosions will be identified. Political and military judgments will determine the level of risk acceptable to each nation. PMID:17742085

Hannon, W J

1985-01-18

172

Steel Plate Shear Walls for Seismic Design and Retrofit of Building Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) are investigated in this report, for use in retrofit and new design as a lateral force resisting system in building structures. Limits for sizing (for moment strength) of anchor beams, at the upper and lowermost levels of a...

D. Vian M. Bruneau

2005-01-01

173

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulation (40CFR Part 258) went into effect. hese regulations are applicable to landfills reclining solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operations, and closure of MSW landfills. hese regulat...

174

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

175

Seismic design of low-level nuclear waste repositories and toxic waste management facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of the elements of typical hazardous waste facilities (HFWs) that are the major contributors to the risk are focussed on as the elements which require additional considerations in the design and construction of low-level nuclear waste management repositories and HWFs. From a recent study of six typical HWFs it was determined that the factors that contribute most to the

D. H. Chung; D. L. Bernreuter

1984-01-01

176

Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and

W. R. Walter; K. M. Mayeda; P. Goldstein; H. J. Patton; S. Jarpe; L. Glenn

1995-01-01

177

LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly

W. R. Walter; K. M. Mayeda; P. Goldstein

1995-01-01

178

Plug-in timing models for an abstract timing verifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed the concept of an abstract timing verifier that accepts plug-compatible timing models in a common framework containing the scheduling algorithms and the user interface. Depending on the design phase and the particular level of design representation used, the most suitable timing model can be plugged into this framework and operated in a standard way.This paper formally introduces

David E. Wallace; Carlo H. Séquin

1986-01-01

179

Seismic performance analysis and design suggestion for frame buildings with cast-in-place staircases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many staircases in reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures suffered severe damage during the Wenchuan earthquake. Elastic analyses for 18 RC structure models with and without staircases are conducted and compared to study the influence of the staircase on the stiffness, displacements and internal forces of the structures. To capture the yielding development and damage mechanism of frame structures, elasto-plastic analysis is carried out for one of the 18 models. Based on the features observed in the analyses, a new type of staircase design i.e., isolating them from the master structure to eliminate the effect of K-type struts, is proposed and discussed. It is concluded that the proposed method of staircase isolation is effective and feasible for engineering design, and does not significantly increase the construction cost.

Feng, Yuan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yaoqing; Li, Congchun; Yang, Wen

2013-06-01

180

A structural design and analysis of a piping system including seismic load  

SciTech Connect

The structural design/analysis of a piping system at a nuclear fuel facility is used to investigate some aspects of current design procedures. Specifically the effect of using various stress measures including ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel (B PV) Code formulas is evaluated. It is found that large differences in local maximum stress values may be calculated depending on the stress criterion used. However, when the global stress maximum for the entire system are compared the differences are much smaller, being nevertheless, for some load combinations, of the order of 50 percent. The effect of using an Equivalent Static Method (ESM) analysis is also evaluated by comparing its results with those obtained from a Response Spectrum Method (RSM) analysis with the modal responses combined by using the absolute summation (ABS), by using the square root of the squares (SRSS), and by using the 10 percent method (10PC). It is shown that for a spectrum amplification factor (equivalent static coefficient greater than unity) of at least 1.32 must be used in the current application of the ESM analysis in order to obtain results which are conservative in all aspects relative to an RSM analysis based on ABS. However, it appears that an adequate design would be obtained from the ESM approach even without the use of a spectrum amplification factor. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.

1991-01-01

181

Artificial Seismic Shadow Zone by Acoustic Metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a new method of earthquake-proof engineering to create an artificial seismic shadow zone using acoustic metamaterials. By designing huge empty boxes with a few side-holes corresponding to the resonance frequencies of seismic waves and burying them around the buildings that we want to protect, the velocity of the seismic wave becomes imaginary. The meta-barrier composed of many meta-boxes attenuates the seismic waves, which reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially by dissipating the seismic energy. This is a mechanical method of converting the seismic energy into sound and heat. We estimated the sound level generated from a seismic wave. This method of area protection differs from the point protection of conventional seismic design, including the traditional cloaking method. The artificial seismic shadow zone is tested by computer simulation and compared with a normal barrier.

Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

2013-08-01

182

Correlation of Seismic Velocities with Earthwork Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was made to determine whether seismic data can be used to obtain satisfactory design earthwork factors for roadway excavation. The study shows an apparent correlation between seismic velocity and earthwork factor for the three types of rock stud...

T. Smith M. McCauley R. Mearns K. Baumeister

1972-01-01

183

Correlation of Seismic Velocities with Earthwork Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was made to determine whether seismic data can be used to obtain satisfactory design earthwork factors for roadway excavation. The study shows an apparent correlation between seismic velocity and earthwork factor for the sedimentary rock types e...

T. Smith M. McCauley K. Baumeister

1972-01-01

184

Correlation of Seismic Velocities with Earthwork Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was made to determine whether seismic data can be used to obtain satisfactory design earthwork factors for roadway excavation. The study shows an apparent correlation between seismic velocity and earthwork factor for the three metamorphic rock t...

T. Smith M. McCauley R. Mearns K. Baumeister

1972-01-01

185

Performance-based design and evaluation for liquefaction-related seismic hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil liquefaction can cause serious damage both during and following strong ground shaking. The liquefaction-induced hazards discussed in this research include ground motion modification, flow slides, lateral spreading, and ground surface settlement. With the exception of ground motion modification, all of these post-liquefaction hazards are commonly estimated using empirical methods. Uncertainty in these empirical relationships is usually not explicitly accounted for, which affects the accuracy and consistency of liquefaction-induced hazard prediction. Some investigators have proposed probabilistic models to deal with post-liquefaction problems, such as residual strength and lateral spreading displacement. A probabilistic model for post-liquefaction settlement, however, is not currently available. The goal of this dissertation is to provide improved procedures for estimation of post-liquefaction hazards, and to suggest procedures for computing the probability of exceeding a damage level of concern. This has been accomplished by implementing the performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) into a limit state exceedance formulation, which involves concepts of demand (loading) and capacity (resistance). In the proposed procedures, the demand of a post-liquefaction hazard is estimated using PEER PBEE framework, and the capacity is characterized probabilistically for various damage levels. For design purposes, a limit state exceedance for a specific damage level is a special case in the PBEE computations. The mean annual rate of exceeding this specific damage level for a liquefaction-related hazard of interest then can be computed and applied to engineering design. An important accomplishment of this research was the development of procedures for performance-based analysis of post-liquefaction settlement. The development required characterization of a maximum volumetric strain. A complete procedure for estimating post-liquefaction settlement was developed based on the PEER PBEE framework with consideration of maximum volumetric strain. An analysis tool for this research was developed as a final product. WSLiq, the analysis tool, provides a user-friendly interface and various features to help engineers understand and evaluate liquefaction-related hazards using conventional, advanced, and performance-based procedures. WSLiq provides a tool that can be used assist engineers with liquefaction hazard evaluation and design.

Huang, Yi-Min

186

Seismic zones for Azores based on statistical criteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to define seismic zones in the Azores based on statistical criteria. These seismic zones will likely be used in seismic simulations of occurrences in the Azores Archipelago. The data used in this work cover the time period from 1915 to 2011. The Azores region was divided into 1° × 1° area units, for which the seismicity and the maximum magnitudes of events were calculated. The seismicity, the largest earthquakes recorded and the geological characteristics of the region were used to group these area units because similar seismic zones must delineate areas with homogeneous seismic characteristics. We have identified seven seismic zones. To verify that the defined areas differ statistically, we considered the following dissimilarity measures (variables): time, size and seismic conditions - the number of seismic events with specific characteristics. Statistical tests, particularly goodness-of-fit tests, allowed us to conclude that, considering these three variables, the seven earthquake zones defined here are statistically distinct.

Rodrigues, M. C. M.; Oliveira, C. S.

2013-09-01

187

Verifying Uniqueness in a Logical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for verifying that some specified arguments of an inductively defined relation in a dependently typed - calculus are uniquely determined by some other arguments. We prove it correct and also show how to exploit this uniqueness information in cov- erage checking, which allows us to verify that a definition of a function or relation covers all

Penny Anderson; Frank Pfenning

2004-01-01

188

Verifying Mixed Real-Integer Quantifier Elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formally verified quantifier elimination proce- dure for the first order theory over linear mixed real-integer arithmetics in higher-order logic based on a work by Weispfenning. To this end we provide two verified quantifier elimination procedures: for Presburger arithmitics and for linear real arithmetics.

Amine Chaieb

2006-01-01

189

Verifiable secret sharing for monotone access structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several verifiable secret sharing schemes for threshold schemes based on polynomial interpolation have been presented in the literature. Simmons and others introduced secret sharing (also called shared control) schemes based on finite geometries, which allow istributing a secret according to any monotone access structure.In this paper we present a verifiable secret sharing scheme for a class of these geometry-based secret

Thomas Beth; Hans-Joachim Knobloch; Marcus Otten

1993-01-01

190

Azimuthal variation of radiation of seismic energy from cast blasts  

SciTech Connect

As part of a series of seismic experiments designed to improve the understanding of the impact of mining blasts on verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, a sixteen station network of three-component seismic sensors were deployed around a large cast shot in the Black Thunder Mine. The seismic stations were placed, where possible, at a range of 2.5 kilometers with a constant inter-station spacing of 22.5 degrees. All of the data were recorded with the seismometers oriented such that the radial component pointed to the middle point of the approximately 2 kilometer long shot. High quality data were recorded at each station. Data were scaled to a range of 2.5 kilometers and the sum of the absolute value of the vertical, radial, and transverse channels computed. These observations were used to construct radiation patterns of the seismic energy propagating from the cast shot. It is obvious that cast shots do not radiate seismic energy isotropically. Most of the vertical motion occurs behind the highwall while radial and transverse components of motion are enhanced in directions parallel to the highwall. These findings have implications for local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and possibly for regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic observations of cast blasting. Locally, it could be argued that peak particle velocities could be scaled not only by range but also by azimuthal direction from the shot. This result implies that long term planning of pit orientation relative to sensitive structures could mitigate problems with vibration levels from future blasting operations. Regionally, the local radiation pattern may be important in determining the magnitude of large scale cast blasts. Improving the transparency of mining operations to international seismic monitoring systems may be possible with similar considerations.

Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martin, R.L. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States)

1996-12-31

191

Verifiable Secret Redistribution for Threshold Sharing Schemes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a new protocol for verifiably redistributing secrets from an (m, n) threshold sharing scheme to an (m', n') scheme. Our protocol guards against dynamic adversaries. We observe that existing protocols either cannot be readily extended to allow r...

C. Wang J. M. Wing T. M. Wong

2002-01-01

192

Neural networks in seismic discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Neural networks are powerful and elegant computational tools that can be used in the analysis of geophysical signals. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have developed neural networks to solve problems in seismic discrimination, event classification, and seismic and hydrodynamic yield estimation. Other researchers have used neural networks for seismic phase identification. We are currently developing neural networks to estimate depths of seismic events using regional seismograms. In this paper different types of network architecture and representation techniques are discussed. We address the important problem of designing neural networks with good generalization capabilities. Examples of neural networks for treaty verification applications are also described.

Dowla, F.U.

1995-01-01

193

Seismic upgrades of healthcare facilities.  

PubMed

Before 1989 seismic upgrading of hospital structures was not a primary consideration among hospital owners. However, after extensive earthquake damage to hospital buildings at Loma Prieta in Northern California in 1989 and then at Northridge in Southern California in 1994, hospital owners, legislators, and design teams become concerned about the need for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. Because the damage hospital structures sustained in the earthquakes was so severe and far-reaching, California has enacted laws that mandate seismic upgrading for existing facilities. Now hospital owners will have to upgrade buildings that do not conform to statewide seismic adequacy laws. By 2030, California expects all of its hospital structures to be sufficiently seismic-resistant. Slowly, regions in the Midwest and on the East Coast are following their example. This article outlines reasons and ways for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. PMID:10168656

Yusuf, A

1997-06-01

194

Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 2. Special topics in soil/structure interaction analyses  

SciTech Connect

This volume is divided into six chapters: definition of seismic input ground motion, review of state-of-the-art procedures, analysis guidelines, rock/structure interaction analysis example, comparison of two- and three-dimensional analyses, and comparison of analyses using FLUSH and TRI/SAC Codes. (DLC)

Reddy, D.P.

1983-04-01

195

SEISMIC DESIGN AND RESPONSE OF BARE AND MASONRY-INFILLED REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS. PART II: INFILLED STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of masonry infills on the global seismic response of reinforced concrete structures is studied through numerical analyses. Response spectra of elastic SDOF frames with nonlinear infills show that, despite their apparent stiffening effect on the system, infills reduce spectral displacements and forces mainly through their high damping in the first large post-cracking excursion. Parametric analyses on a large

M. N. FARDIS; T. B. PANAGIOTAKOS

1997-01-01

196

Code Approaches to Seismic Design of Masonry-Infilled?Reinforced?Concrete Frames: A State-of-the-Art Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masonry infill MI walls are remarkable in increasing the initial stiffness of reinforced concrete RC frames, and being the stiffer component, attract most of the lateral seismic shear forces on buildings, thereby reducing the demand on the RC frame members. However, behavior of MI is difficult to predict because of significant variations in material properties and because of failure modes

Hemant B. Kaushik; Durgesh C. Rai; Sudhir K. Jain

2006-01-01

197

Seismic offset balancing  

SciTech Connect

The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L. [Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1994-01-01

198

Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1988-01-01

199

Seismic Survey  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologists conduct a seismic survey in New Orleans, Louisiana. The survey was one of several geophysical methods used during USGS applied research on the utility of the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) seismic method (no pictured here) for non-invasive assessment of earthen leve...

2009-05-01

200

Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments  

SciTech Connect

The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

1998-05-01

201

Seismic Waves: How Earthquakes Move the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the types of seismic waves produced by earthquakes and how they move the Earth. The dangers of earthquakes are presented as well as the necessity for engineers to design structures for earthquake-prone areas that are able to withstand the forces of seismic waves. Students learn how engineers build shake tables that simulate the ground motions of the Earth caused by seismic waves in order to test the seismic performance of buildings.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

202

Impact of lateral force-resisting system and design/construction practices on seismic performance and cost of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local design and construction practices in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), together with Dubai's unique rate of development, warrant special attention to the selection of Lateral Force-Resisting Systems (LFRS). This research proposes four different feasible solutions for the selection of the LFRS for tall buildings and quantifies the impact of these selections on seismic performance and cost. The systems considered are: Steel Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF), Concrete SMRF, Steel Dual System (SMRF with Special Steel Plates Shear Wall, SPSW), and Concrete Dual System (SMRF with Special Concrete Shear Wall, SCSW). The LFRS selection is driven by seismic setup as well as the adopted design and construction practices in Dubai. It is found that the concrete design alternatives are consistently less expensive than their steel counterparts. The steel dual system is expected to have the least damage based on its relatively lesser interstory drifts. However, this preferred performance comes at a higher initial construction cost. Conversely, the steel SMRF system is expected to have the most damage and associated repair cost due to its excessive flexibility. The two concrete alternatives are expected to have relatively moderate damage and repair costs in addition to their lesser initial construction cost.

AlHamaydeh, Mohammad; Galal, Khaled; Yehia, Sherif

2013-09-01

203

Verifying and Validating Clinical Data Management Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most clinical research studies employ clinical data management (CDM) software for entering and verifying data from case report forms (CRFs). CDM software may capture data from paper CRFs, or it may include an Electronic Data Capture (EDC) (electronic Case Report Form (eCRF)) module. With an EDC module, the paper CRF usually becomes a web page. While some companies build their

Sarah Hammond; David Hammond

2008-01-01

204

Firms Verify Online IDs Via Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Companies selling services to protect children and teenagers from sexual predators on the Internet have enlisted the help of schools and teachers to verify students' personal information. Those companies are also sharing some of the information with Web sites, which can pass it along to businesses for use in targeting advertising to young…

Davis, Michelle R.

2008-01-01

205

Verifiable Partial Sharing of Integer Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not known to date how to partially share the factors of an integer (e.g., an RSA modulus) with verifiability. We construct\\u000a such a scheme on exploitation of a significantly lowered complexity for factoring n = pq using a non-trivial factor of ?(n).

Wenbo Mao

206

Verifying -calculus Processes by Promela Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the possibility of verifying -calculus processes via Promela translation is investigated. A general translation method from -calculus processes to Promela models is presented and its useful- ness is shown by performing verication tasks with translated -calculus examples and SPIN. Model checking translated -calculus processes in SPIN is shown to overcome shortcomings of the Mobility Workbench, which implements

Hosung Song; Kevin J. Compton

2003-01-01

207

Using Simulated Execution in Verifying Distributed Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for using simulated exe- cution to assist a theorem prover in verifying safety properties of distributed systems. Execution-based techniques such as testing can increase confidence in an implementation, provide intuition about behavior, and detect simple errors quickly. They cannot by themselves demonstrate correctness. How- ever, they can aid theorem provers by suggesting necessary lemmas and

Toh Ne Win; Michael D. Ernst; Stephen J. Garland; Dilsun Kirli Kaynar; Nancy A. Lynch

2003-01-01

208

Verifying 10 Years of Ecmwf Seasonal Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1997 the ECMWF seasonal forecast coupled ocean-atmosphere model has gen- erated ensembles of real-time seasonal forecasts, hindcasts are available from 1991 onwards. Together, ten years of temperature and precipitation predictions with lead times of 1 to 6 months are now available. These have been verified against observa- tions and compared with statistical forecasts. The main source of predictability on

Geert Jan van Oldenborgh; David Anderson; Tim Stockdale

2002-01-01

209

DNA Algorithm of Verifiable Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to estimate, when n>30, it seems impossible that compute Hamilton problem etc. For solving this lager and more complications problems, we apply LZW coding method, and put forward the DNA algorithm of the verifiable secret sharing. Every participant is regarded as a point and any participantspsila transmission is an edge. So, a known secret sharing problem is being a

Liu Feng; Gao Dong-Mei

2009-01-01

210

Using History Invariants to Verify Observers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes a technique that expands the set of object in- variants that one can reason about in modular verification. The technique uses history invariants, two-state invariants that describe the evolution of data values. The technique enables a flexible new way to specify and verify variations of the observer pattern, including iterators. The paper details history invariants and the

K. Rustan M. Leino; Wolfram Schulte

2007-01-01

211

Verifying ET-LOTOS programmes with KRONOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that real-time systems described in a reasonable subset of ET-LOTOScan be verified with Kronos by compiling them into timed automata. We illustrate thepractical interest of our approach with a case study: the Tick-Tock protocol

Conrado Daws; Alfredo Olivero; Sergio Yovine

1994-01-01

212

Firms Verify Online IDs Via Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies selling services to protect children and teenagers from sexual predators on the Internet have enlisted the help of schools and teachers to verify students' personal information. Those companies are also sharing some of the information with Web sites, which can pass it along to businesses for use in targeting advertising to young…

Davis, Michelle R.

2008-01-01

213

Seismic stratigraphy of shelf and slope, northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic stratigraphic framework of the shelf in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico near Destin dome is established by correlating multifold seismic lines with deep wells that penetrate to the Middle Jurassic Louann Salt and with a previously published seismic stratigraphic study based on shallow core holes. Nine depositional sequences or seismic units are recognized and are designated A through

S. K. Addy; R. T. Buffler

1984-01-01

214

Seismic upgrade of hydraulic fill dam by buttressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of hydraulic fill dams under strong earthquake shaking has long been recognized. When located in areas of high seismic hazard, seismic upgrading of these types of dams is often required to meet current dam safety standards. Selection of an appropriate design concept for seismic upgrading of such dams requires careful consideration of seismically induced deformations when the hydraulic

L. H. Mejia; J. I. Sun; K. K. Leung

2005-01-01

215

Seismic site characterization for nuclear structures and power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic site characterization is carried out for the co n- struction of nuclear structures and power plants in earthquake-prone areas to establish the occurrence of severe seismic hazards such as tectonic rupture, surface faulting, large scale liquefaction, sliding and seismic settlement which may alter the overall stability of the site. Seismic characterization is required to finalize the design earthquake parameters

A. Boominathan

216

Annual Hanford seismic report -- fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site.

Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

1996-12-01

217

Broadband seismic energy source  

SciTech Connect

A vibratory seismic energy source capable of generating significant energy over a broad frequency band is described. The vibrating baseplate and associated structure are designed to have minimum weight while still retaining sufficient structural integrity to permit the use of high actuator forces. This, coupled with a large reaction mass results in the generation of significant energy levels in the earth at high frequencies.

Bedenbender, J.W.; Weber, R.M.

1981-03-03

218

Seafloor seismic data study  

SciTech Connect

A significant consideration in the design of offshore platforms, for seismically-active regions, is their response to earthquakes. However, the comprehensive inclusion of such considerations in a design activity is a formidable task. Elements of this task include characterization of projected seismicity, respone of the (saturated) soils, transfer of the seismic energy from the soil to the platform, platform response to this energy deposition, and consequences associated with the platform response. A substantial amount of effort has been directed toward the synthesis of capabilities to provide these phenomenological characterizations. This effort has resulted in the development of a variety of analytical techniques. Collectively, these techniques can serve as the methodological basis for evaluation of seismic aspects pertaining to offshore platform design. Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in the design, development, installation, and interrogation of a Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System (SEMS) for nearly ten years. This R and D activity has produced an instrumentation system which is currently operating in the Shell Oil Company Beta Field, offshore Long Beach, California. The current SEMS unit (Hickerson, et al, 1986) is an upgraded version of the original unit which was also fielded offshore California. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Engi, D.

1986-01-01

219

Seismic waves and seismic barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic idea of seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers are suggested. For example, vertical barriers resembling a wall in a soil can protect from Rayleigh and bulk waves. The FEM simulation reveals that to be effective, such a barrier should be (i) composed of layers with contrast physical properties allowing "trapping" of the wave energy inside some of the layers, and (ii) depth of the barrier should be comparable or greater than the considered seismic wave length. Another type of seismic barrier represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents some types of surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning non-propagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of non-existence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.

Kuznetsov, S. V.

2011-05-01

220

How to Delegate and Verify in Public: Verifiable Computation from Attribute-based Encryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide variety of small, computationally weak devices, and the growing number of computationally intensive tasks makes it appealing to delegate computation to data centers. However, outsourcing computation is useful only when the returned result can be trusted, which makes verifiable computation (VC) a must for such scenarios. In this work we extend the definition of verifiable computation in two

Bryan Parno; Mariana Raykova; Vinod Vaikuntanathan

2012-01-01

221

Using simulated execution in verifying distributed algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents a methodology,for using simulated execution to assist a theorem prover in verifying safety properties of distributed systems. Execution-based techniques such as testing can increase confidence in an implementation, provide intuition about behavior, and detect simple errors quickly. They cannot by themselves demonstrate,correctness. However, they can aid theorem provers by suggesting necessary lemmas,and providing tactics to structure

Toh Ne Win; Michael D. Ernst; Stephen J. Garland; Dilsun Kirli Kaynar; Nancy A. Lynch

2004-01-01

222

Lamport clocks: verifying a directory cache-coherence protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern shared-memory multiprocessors use complex memory sys- tem implementations that include a variety of non-trivial and inter- acting optimizations. More time is spent in verifying the correctness of such implementations than in designing the system. In particular, large-scale Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) sys- tems usually rely on a directory cache-coherence protocol to pro- vide the illusion of a sequentially consistent

Manoj Plakal; Daniel J. Sorin; Anne E. Condon; Mark D. Hill

1998-01-01

223

A Threshold Subliminal Channel for MANET Using Publicly Verifiable Hybrid Signcryption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed a publicly verifiable hybrid signcryption scheme which has no restriction to the message length. Based on the signcryption scheme, we designed a (t, n) threshold subliminal channel scheme for conveying a subliminal message to a group of users. The validity of signcryptions can be verified by anyone, but only the designated receiver can get the plaintext from the

Aihong Ping; Minghui Zheng; Jun Li

2007-01-01

224

Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

I. Wong

2004-11-05

225

Seismic isolation and passive response-control buildings in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief introduction to seismic isolation and passive structural response-control buildings in Japan. A total number of 287 projects on seismic-isolated building structures had obtained the required special permission in Japan by the end of September 1996. The effectiveness of seismic isolation buildings has been demonstrated and verified through the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. It has resulted

Yoshikazu Kitagawa; Mitsumasa Midorikawa

1998-01-01

226

Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges  

SciTech Connect

There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

Pilat, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25

227

Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Islamabad, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is prone to seismic activity, and its capital, Islamabad, is located close to the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) fault. On October 8th, 2005 the disastrous Muzaffarabad earthquake shook Islamabad and damaged many high-rise buildings. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis technique was used to estimate strong ground motion parameters for a closely spaced 1 km grid. Traditionally, PGA is calculated, which is then used in structural earthquake resistant design or seismic safety assessment. However, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is not sufficient to design for seismic load or to account for the modern building code's emphasis on the use of spectral acceleration values. Therefore, a seismic hazard analysis was performed for Islamabad, and the design parameters that are required by codes to account for seismic loading were derived.

Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Hassan, Syed Zamir Ul; Rafi, Zahid; Khatoon, Zubeda; Ali, Qurban

2011-08-01

228

Seismic Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inversion of seismic travel-time data for radially varying media was initially investigated by Herglotz, Wiechert, and Bateman (the HWB method) in the early part of the 20th century [1]. Tomographic inversions for laterally varying media began in seismology starting in the 1970’s. This included early work by Aki, Christoffersson, and Husebye who developed an inversion technique for estimating lithospheric structure beneath a seismic array from distant earthquakes (the ACH method) [2]. Also, Alekseev and others in Russia performed early inversions of refraction data for laterally varying upper mantle structure [3]. Aki and Lee [4] developed an inversion technique using travel-time data from local earthquakes.

Nowack, Robert L.; Li, Cuiping

229

Verifiable process monitoring through enhanced data authentication.  

SciTech Connect

To ensure the peaceful intent for production and processing of nuclear fuel, verifiable process monitoring of the fuel production cycle is required. As part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-EURATOM collaboration in the field of international nuclear safeguards, the DOE Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Directorate General-Energy (DG-ENER) developed and demonstrated a new concept in process monitoring, enabling the use of operator process information by branching a second, authenticated data stream to the Safeguards inspectorate. This information would be complementary to independent safeguards data, improving the understanding of the plant's operation. The concept is called the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS). EDAS transparently captures, authenticates, and encrypts communication data that is transmitted between operator control computers and connected analytical equipment utilized in nuclear processes controls. The intent is to capture information as close to the sensor point as possible to assure the highest possible confidence in the branched data. Data must be collected transparently by the EDAS: Operator processes should not be altered or disrupted by the insertion of the EDAS as a monitoring system for safeguards. EDAS employs public key authentication providing 'jointly verifiable' data and private key encryption for confidentiality. Timestamps and data source are also added to the collected data for analysis. The core of the system hardware is in a security enclosure with both active and passive tamper indication. Further, the system has the ability to monitor seals or other security devices in close proximity. This paper will discuss the EDAS concept, recent technical developments, intended application philosophy and the planned future progression of this system.

Goncalves, Joao G. M. (European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy); Schwalbach, Peter (European Commission Directorate General%3CU%2B2014%3EEnergy, Luxemburg); Schoeneman, Barry Dale; Ross, Troy D.; Baldwin, George Thomas

2010-09-01

230

Seismic Rehabilitation of Concrete Frame Beam-Column Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reinforced concrete frame structures were designed and constructed before the development of seismic codes or according to earlier versions of seismic codes. Thus, these structures were designed only for gravity loads or for much lower lateral loads than the loads specified by the current seismic codes. Non-ductile reinforcement details in the form of insufficient shear reinforcement in the joint

Tarek Abbas El-Amoury

2004-01-01

231

Seismic rehabilitation of concrete frame beam-column joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reinforced concrete frame structures were designed and constructed before the development of seismic codes or according to earlier versions of seismic codes. Thus, these structures were designed only for gravity loads or for much lower lateral loads than the loads specified by the current seismic codes. Non-ductile reinforcement details in the form of insufficient shear reinforcement in the joint

Tarek Abbas El-Amoury

2004-01-01

232

A Framework for Verifying Bit-Level Pipelined Machines Based on Automated Deduction and Decision Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an approach to verifying bit-level pipelined machine models using a combination of deductive reasoning and decision\\u000a procedures. While theorem-proving systems such as ACL2 have been used to verify bit-level designs, they typically require\\u000a extensive expert user support. Decision procedures such as those implemented in UCLID can be used to automatically and efficiently\\u000a verify term-level pipelined machine models, but

Panagiotis Manolios; Sudarshan K. Srinivasan

2006-01-01

233

Black Thunder Coal Mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory experimental study of seismic energy generated by large scale mine blasting  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to better understand the impact that large mining shots will have on verifying compliance with the international, worldwide, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT, no nuclear explosion tests), a series of seismic and videographic experiments has been conducted during the past two years at the Black Thunder Coal Mine. Personnel from the mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory have cooperated closely to design and perform experiments to produce results with mutual benefit to both organizations. This paper summarizes the activities, highlighting the unique results of each. Topics which were covered in these experiments include: (1) synthesis of seismic, videographic, acoustic, and computer modeling data to improve understanding of shot performance and phenomenology; (2) development of computer generated visualizations of observed blasting techniques; (3) documentation of azimuthal variations in radiation of seismic energy from overburden casting shots; (4) identification of, as yet unexplained, out of sequence, simultaneous detonation in some shots using seismic and videographic techniques; (5) comparison of local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic measurements leading to determine of the relationship between local and regional seismic amplitude to explosive yield for overburden cast, coal bulking and single fired explosions; and (6) determination of the types of mining shots triggering the prototype International Monitoring System for the CTBT.

Martin, R.L.; Gross, D. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1996-12-31

234

Design of an UML conceptual model and implementation of a GIS with metadata information for a seismic hazard assessment cooperative project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work illustrates the advantages of using a Geographic Information System in a cooperative project with researchers of different countries, such as the RESIS II project (financed by the Norwegian Government and managed by CEPREDENAC) for seismic hazard assessment of Central America. As input data present different formats, cover distinct geographical areas and are subjected to different interpretations, data inconsistencies may appear and their management get complicated. To achieve data homogenization and to integrate them in a GIS, it is required previously to develop a conceptual model. This is accomplished in two phases: requirements analysis and conceptualization. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to compose the conceptual model of the GIS. UML complies with ISO 19100 norms and allows the designer defining model architecture and interoperability. The GIS provides a frame for the combination of large geographic-based data volumes, with an uniform geographic reference and avoiding duplications. All this information contains its own metadata following ISO 19115 normative. In this work, the integration in the same environment of active faults and subduction slabs geometries, combined with the epicentres location, has facilitated the definition of seismogenetic regions. This is a great support for national specialists of different countries to make easier their teamwork. The GIS capacity for making queries (by location and by attributes) and geostatistical analyses is used to interpolate discrete data resulting from seismic hazard calculations and to create continuous maps as well as to check and validate partial results of the study. GIS-based products, such as complete, homogenised databases and thematic cartography of the region, are distributed to all researchers, facilitating cross-national communication, the project execution and results dissemination.

Torres, Y.; Escalante, M. P.

2009-04-01

235

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section B, Renovation calculations/supporting data  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part V, Section B - Structural/Seismic Information provides a description of the seismic and structural analyses performed on the NMSF and their results.

NONE

1995-07-14

236

Seismic Reflection and Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides a brief introduction to the process of seismic exploration. Included are a definition of seismic exploration, a listing of possible applications of seismic methods, definitions of seismic reflection and refraction, and an explanation of data processing with seismic methods. The text descriptions are accompanied by visualizations helping to aid the reader in their understanding of the concepts discussed.

237

Adaptive Tabulation for Verified Equations of State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over forty years, large hydrodynamic calculations have used tabulated equation of state (EOS) models to reduce the computation cost associated with complex EOS models. Ideally, these tables would be verified, in that values interpolated from them match the direct EOS model calculations within some level of accuracy. For typical rectangular-gridded tables, and associated interpolation schemes, the verification error is often found to be quite large. Outstanding issues include grid coarseness and difficulty in reproducing phase boundary topology. Decreasing the grid spacing quickly becomes inefficient, due to increasing storage requirements. Instead, a tabulation approach is demonstrated that naturally incorporates the phase boundary topology through a triangulated interpolation domain. A given verification level as well as thermodynamic consistency and stability are ensured through an adaptive refinement process. Improvements are demonstrated on a simple multi-phase EOS model. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Carpenter, John H.

2011-06-01

238

Seismic Testing of Switchgear and Control Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical electrical equipment used in nuclear generating stations are required to perform their safety functions during a seismic disturbance. Continuous sine testing has been conducted to verify the capability of particular switchgear and motor control centers to withstand such excitations. This paper presents the rationale used to arrive at required test levels and discusses the equipment dynamic response characteristics obtained

K. E. Rouch; K. S. Joung; S. H. Telander; D. S. Totten

1973-01-01

239

Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the different types of seismic waves in an environment they can control. Using an interactive, online wave generator, they will study P waves, S waves, Love waves, and Rayleigh waves, and examine a combination of P and S waves that crudely simulates the wave motion experienced during an earthquake. A tutorial is provided to show how the wave generator is used.

240

Seismic Signals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not so long ago, people living near volcanoes had little that might help them to anticipate an eruption. A deep rumble, a puff of smoke, and ash might foreshadow a major volcanic event. Or a volcano might erupt with no warning at all. This interactive feature illustrates some of the types of seismic activity that may precede an eruption, which modern seismologists are studying in hopes of improving their ability to predict eruptions.

2010-11-30

241

Seismic Signals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not so long ago, people living near volcanoes had little that might help them to anticipate an eruption. A deep rumble, a puff of smoke, and ash might foreshadow a major volcanic event. Or a volcano might erupt with no warning at all. This interactive feature illustrates some of the types of seismic activity that may preceed an eruption, which modern seismologists are studying in hopes of improving their ability to predict eruptions.

242

SEISMIC DESIGN OF LOS QUILLAYES TAILINGS DAMS IN CHILE DISEÑO SISMICO DE LA PRESA DE RELAVES LOS QUILLAYES IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the characteristics of Los Quillayes high tailings dam currently in operation at Los Pelambres copper mine in Chile and also includes a description of the selected design earthquake, the geotechnical characterization of tailings sand including cyclic strength, and the stability analysis originally carried out, both 2D and 3D, and other design considerations. A description of the current

Luis Valenzuela

243

Seismic engineering -- 1994: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 of this 2-volume set is divided into three main sections: Design rules for Section III piping; International trends in design and analysis; and New trends and advanced topics in the seismic analysis of piping, equipment, and components. Two additional papers by student participants are also included. Thirty papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

McCabe, S.L.; Liu, T.H.; Ware, A.G.; Geraets, L.H.; Suzuki, K.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Chung, H.H.; Rawls, G.B. (eds.)

1994-01-01

244

Strong Motion Instrumentation of Seismically-Strengthened Port Structures in California by CSMIP  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) has instrumented five port structures. Instrumentation of two more port structures is underway and another one is in planning. Two of the port structures have been seismically strengthened. The primary goals of the strong motion instrumentation are to obtain strong earthquake shaking data for verifying seismic analysis procedures and strengthening schemes, and for post-earthquake evaluations of port structures. The wharves instrumented by CSMIP were recommended by the Strong Motion Instrumentation Advisory Committee, a committee of the California Seismic Safety Commission. Extensive instrumentation of a wharf is difficult and would be impossible without the cooperation of the owners and the involvement of the design engineers. The instrumentation plan for a wharf is developed through study of the retrofit plans of the wharf, and the strong-motion sensors are installed at locations where specific instrumentation objectives can be achieved and access is possible. Some sensor locations have to be planned during design; otherwise they are not possible to install after construction. This paper summarizes the two seismically-strengthened wharves and discusses the instrumentation schemes and objectives. ?? 2009 ASCE.

Huang, M. J.; Shakal, A. F.

2009-01-01

245

Web seismic Un ?x: making seismic reflection processing more accessible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web Seismic Un ?x is a browser-based user interface for the Seismic Un ?x freeware developed at Colorado School of Mines. The interface allows users to process and display seismic reflection data from any remote platform that runs a graphical Web browser. Users access data and create processing jobs on a remote server by completing form-based Web pages whose Common Gateway Interface scripts are written in Perl. These scripts supply parameters, manage files, call Seismic Un ?x routines and return data plots. The interface was designed for undergraduate commuter students taking geophysics courses who need to: (a) process seismic data and other time series as a class using computers in campus teaching labs and (b) complete course assignments at home. Students from an undergraduate applied geophysics course tested the Web user interface while completing laboratory assignments in which they acquired and processed common-depth-point seismic reflection data into a subsurface image. This freeware, which will be publicly available by summer 1999, was developed and tested on a Solaris 2.5 server and will be ported to other versions of Unix, including Linux.

Templeton, M. E.; Gough, C. A.

1999-05-01

246

Verifying LOC based functional and performance constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of billion-transistor design, it is critical to establish effective verification methodologies from the system level all the way down to the implementations. Assertion languages (e.g. IBM's Sugar2.0, Synopsys's OpenVera) have gained wide acceptance for specifying functional properties for automatic validation. They are, however, based on linear temporal logic (LTL), and hence have certain limitations. Logic of constraints

Xi Chen; Harry Hsieh; Felice Balarin; Yosinori Watanabe

2003-01-01

247

Assessment of seismic hazard in Uttarakhand Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – For a state like Uttarakhand, which is located in the seismically active Himalayan region and in the vicinity of plate boundaries, estimation of seismic hazards and the preparation of a zoning map are an urgent necessity. This paper aims to focus on this hazard. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 32 potential seismo-tectonic source zones were identified in a very

Prabhat Kumar; Ashwini Kumar; Amita Sinvhal

2011-01-01

248

Seismic stability procedures for solid-waste landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

US federal regulations require that municipal solid-waste landfills located in seismic impact zones be designed to resist earthquake hazards. However, due to the lack of well-documented case histories, analytical procedures for evaluating the seismic performance of waste fills are not well established. Typically, procedures that were developed to analyze the seismic stability of earth embankments are applied to landfills, but

Jonathan D. Bray; Anthony J. Augello; Gerald A. Leonards; Pedro C. Repetto; R. John Byrne

1995-01-01

249

Proposal for a seismic facility for reactor safety research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain problem areas in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear reactors are enumerated and the way in which an experimental program might contribute to each area is examined. The use of seismic simulation testing receives particular attention, especially with regard to the verification of structural response analysis. The importance of scale modeling used in conjunction with seismic simulation is

C. A. Anderson; R. C. Dove; R. L. Rhorer

1976-01-01

250

Seismic analysis of liquid storage container in nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic analysis of liquid storage containers is always difficult in the seismic design of nuclear reactor equipment. The main reason is that the liquid will generate significant seismic loads under earthquake. These dynamic liquid loads usually form the main source of the stresses in the container. For this kind of structure–fluid coupling problem, some simplified theoretical methods were usually used

Zhang Zhengming; He Shuyan; Xu Ming

2007-01-01

251

Modelling methods of historic masonry buildings under seismic excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic masonry buildings in seismically active regions are severely damaged by earthquakes, since they certainly have not been explicitly designed by the original builders to withstand seismic effects, at least not in a ‘scientific’ way from today’s point of view. The assessment of their seismic safety is an important first step in planning the appropriate interventions for improving their pertinent

M. Mistler; C. Butenweg; K. Meskouris

2006-01-01

252

Seismic no-data zone, offshore Mississippi delta: depositional controls on geotechnical properties, velocity structure, and seismic attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Seismic acquisition problems plague exploration and production offshore the Mississippi delta. Geologic and geotechnical analyses of 300-ft borings and 20-ft piston cores, combined with subbottom acoustic measurements, help identify and predict the locations, types, and magnitudes of anomalous seismic zones. This knowledge is used to design acquisition and processing techniques to circumvent the seismic problems.

May, J.A.; Meeder, C.A.; Tinkle, A.R.; Wener, K.R.

1986-09-01

253

New generation seismic vessel deployed  

SciTech Connect

A uniquely shaped and outfitted seismic vessel, the Ramform Explorer, has been launched by Petroleum GeoServices, and is already at work. The ship`s design is the result of extensive model-tank testing and theoretical studies and was selected to provide motion characteristics that would produce savings for the operator in terms of all-weather capability. The vessel`s unique wedge shape results in an extreme beam aft (131 ft), compared to its overall length of 262 ft, which gives high stability and volumetric load capacity. In addition, the resulting large deck area overcomes traditional limits to seismic equipment handling. The ship is designed to two up to 12 full-length seismic-recording streamers, compared to the traditional six streamers. The ship has been fitted with Syntron, Inc.`s Syntrak 480 marine digital telemetry system, and plans call for acquiring four additional hardware packages that would allow for subsequent deployment of 12 full streamers.

NONE

1995-09-01

254

Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01

255

49 CFR 1112.6 - Verified statements; contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Verified statements; contents. 1112.6 Section 1112.6 Transportation...PROCEDURES § 1112.6 Verified statements; contents. A verified statement should contain...it contains arguments, they should be based only on those facts. Parties filing...

2011-10-01

256

49 CFR 1112.6 - Verified statements; contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Verified statements; contents. 1112.6 Section 1112.6 Transportation...PROCEDURES § 1112.6 Verified statements; contents. A verified statement should contain...it contains arguments, they should be based only on those facts. Parties filing...

2012-10-01

257

Induced seismicity after borehole fluid injections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the temporal distribution of microseismic events induced by borehole fluid injections into reservoirs. We put the focus on seismicity induced after the stop of fluid injections. Here, our main concern is the identification of parameters controlling the decay rate of seismicity after injection stops. The particular importance of a theoretical model for the occurrence of seismicity after stop of injection is underlined by observations after stimulations of geothermal reservoirs at different locations. These stimulations have shown that the post injection phase contains a high seismic risk, which is up to now uncontrollable, because the processes leading to the occurrence of post injection events are not well understood. Based on the assumption that pore pressure diffusion is the governing mechanism leading to the triggering of seismic events, we develop a method to calculate the seismicity rate during and after fluid injections. We show that the obtained solution after injection is very similar to the frequency scaling law of aftershocks, namely the Omori law. We propose a modified Omori law, which describes how post injection seismicity depends on parameters of injection source and reservoir rock and the strength of a pre-existing fracture system in the reservoir. We analyze two end members of fracture strength, representing stable and unstable pre-existing fracture systems. Our results shows, that the decay rate of post injection seismicity is highly dependent on the strength of the fracture system. Furthermore, we show that the existence of an unstable fracture system in a reservoir results in a critical trend of seismic activity, which explains the occurrence of events with the largest magnitude close after the stop of injection. This result coincides with observations made after the stimulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). We verify our theoretical model by an application to synthetic data sets resulting from finite element modeling and real data collected in case studies performed at Fenton Hill and Soultz-sous-Foret.

Langenbruch, Cornelius; Shapiro, Serge

2010-05-01

258

LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O. [and others

1997-01-01

259

A high-speed transmission method for large-scale marine seismic prospecting systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A marine seismic prospecting system is a kind of data acquisition and transmission system with large-scale coverage and synchronous multi-node acquisition. In this kind of system, data transmission is a fundamental and difficult technique. In this paper, a high-speed data-transmission method is proposed, its implications and limitations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The method we propose has obvious advantages over traditional techniques with respect to long-distance operation, high speed, and real-time transmission. A marine seismic system with four streamers, each 6000 m long and capable of supporting up to 1920 channels, was designed and built based on this method. The effective transmission baud rate of this system was found to reach up to 240 Mbps, while the minimum sampling interval time was as short as 0.25 ms. This system was found to achieve a good synchronization: 83 ns. Laboratory and in situ experiments showed that this marine-prospecting system could work correctly and robustly, which verifies the feasibility and validity of the method proposed in this paper. In addition to the marine seismic applications, this method can also be used in land seismic applications and certain other transmission applications such as environmental or engineering monitoring systems.

KeZhu, Song; Ping, Cao; JunFeng, Yang; FuMing, Ruan

2012-12-01

260

Seismic refraction exploration  

SciTech Connect

In seismic exploration, refracted seismic energy is detected by seismic receivers to produce seismograms of subsurface formations. The seismograms are produced by directing seismic energy from an array of sources at an angle to be refracted by the subsurface formations and detected by the receivers. The directivity of the array is obtained by delaying the seismic pulses produced by each source in the source array.

Ruehle, W.H.

1980-12-30

261

IMPLEMENTATION OF SEISMIC STOPS IN PIPING SYSTEMS.  

SciTech Connect

Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station -Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

BEZLER,P.

1993-02-01

262

Implementation of Seismic Stops in Piping Systems  

SciTech Connect

Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station-Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent Linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

Bezler, P.; Simos, N.; Wang, Y.K.

1993-02-01

263

Seismic sources  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

1987-04-20

264

Seismic analysis of the HFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-flux beam reactor (HFBR) is located in the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island. The upgraded design calls for operation at 60 MW; however, it is currently operating at 30 MW pending resolution of pertinent safety issues. Both the internal and the seismic probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) have been carried out for the 60 MW operation. Preliminary results indicate

Musicki

1992-01-01

265

Correlation of Seismic Velocities with Earthwork Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research project is intended to determine if seismic velocities can be used to improve the accuracy of design earthwork factors. The procedures used by the contractor for earthwork construction were investigated. Densities were taken in the cut areas ...

T. Smith M. McCauley R. Mearns B. Lister B. John

1971-01-01

266

Seismic Shears and Overturning Moments in Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic force distributions for simplified computation of shears and over-turning moment for preliminary design of buildings have been generated. A parameter study of the significant variables has been made to determine the applicability of the proposed d...

N. M. Newmark R. Smilowitz

1977-01-01

267

Seismic behavior of buried pipelines constructed by design criteria and construction specifications of both Korea and the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake loss estimation systems in the US, for example HAZUS (Hazard in US), have been established based on sufficient damage records for the purpose of prevention and efficient response to earthquake hazards; however, in Korea, insufficient data sets of earthquakes and damage records are currently available. In this study, the earthquake damages to pipelines in Korea using the pipeline repair rate (RR) recommended in HAZUS was reevaluated with the degree of confidence when RR is used without modification for the damage estimation of pipelines in Korea. The numerical analyses using a commercial finite element model, ABAQUS, were carried out to compare stresses and strains mobilized in both brittle and ductile pipelines constructed by the design criteria and construction specifications of both Korea and the US. These pipelines were embedded in dense sand overlying three different in situ soils (clay, sand, and gravel) subjected to earthquake excitations with peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 0.2 to 1.2 g and 1994 Northridge and 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake loadings. The numerical results show that differences in the stress and strain rates are less than 10%. This implies that RR in HAZUS can be used for earthquake damage estimation of pipelines with a 90% confidence level in Korea.

Jeon, S.-S.

2013-09-01

268

Seismic Performance Requirements for WETF  

SciTech Connect

This report develops recommendations for requirements on the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) performance during seismic events. These recommendations are based on fragility estimates of WETF structures, systems, and components that were developed by LANL experts during facility walkdowns. They follow DOE guidance as set forth in standards DOE-STD-1021-93, ''Natural Phenomena Hazards Performance Categorization Guidelines for Structures, Systems, and Components'' and DOE-STD-1020-94, ''Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities''. Major recommendations are that WETF institute a stringent combustible loading control program and that additional seismic bracing and anchoring be provided for gloveboxes and heavy equipment.

Hans Jordan

2001-01-01

269

A flexible implementation for Doppler radar to verify various base-band array signal processing algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a flexible hardware system of the Doppler radar which is designed to verify various baseband array signal processing algorithms. In this work we design the Doppler radar system simulator for baseband signal processing in laboratory level. Based on this baseband signal processor, a PN-code pulse doppler radar simulator is developed. More specifically, this simulator consists of an echo

Eunjung Yang; Jonghyun Lee; Byungwook Jung; Joohwan Chun

2005-01-01

270

Seismic qualification of unanchored equipment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes procedures used to design and qualify unanchored equipment to survive Seismic events to the PC = 4 level in a moderate seismic area. The need for flexibility to move experimental equipment together with the requirements for remote handling in a highly-radioactive non-reactor nuclear facility precluded normal equipment anchorage. Instead equipment was designed to remain stable under anticipated DBE floor motions with sufficient margin to achieve the performance goal. The equipment was also designed to accommodate anticipated sliding motions with sufficient. The simplified design criteria used to achieve these goals were based on extensive time-history simulations of sliding, rocking, and overturning of generic equipment models. The entire process was subject to independent peer review and accepted in a Safety Evaluation Report. The process provides a model suitable for adaptation to similar applications and for assessment of the potential for seismic damage of existing, unanchored equipment In particular, the paper describes: (1) Two dimensional sliding studies of deformable equipment subject to 3-D floor excitation as the basis for simplified sliding radius and sliding velocity design criteria. (2) Two dimensional rocking and overturning simulations of rigid equipment used to establish design criteria for minimum base dimensions and equipment rigidity to prevent overturning. (3) Assumed mode rocking analyses of deformable equipment models used to establish uplift magnitudes and subsequent impacts during stable rocking motions. The model used for these dynamic impact studies is reported elsewhere.

Moran, T.J.

1995-12-01

271

Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate  

SciTech Connect

We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

Amos Nur

2009-01-08

272

Seismic data acquisition method  

SciTech Connect

The field locations of seismic shot points are chosen to produce partial multifold data, the static correction equations of which are at least partially coupled. The seismic cross sections resulting therefrom are substantially improved.

Johnson, P.W.

1984-08-21

273

Seismic interferometry for seismic source location and interpolation of three-dimensional ocean bottom seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops new seismic interferometry algorithms for estimation of seismic source locations and for the interpolation of sparse three-dimensional (3D) ocean bottom seismic (OBS) data. Unlike the conventional source location and interpolation methods, which heavily rely on the accuracy of the velocity models, the interferometric techniques extract the multiple scattering information in the data, and provide reliable results without knowledge of the velocity models. There are three main chapters in this dissertation. In Chapter 2 an interferometric imaging scheme, which is formulated as time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) in acoustics, is developed to backpropagate and refocus incident wave-fields to their actual source location, with the subsequent benefits of imaging with super-resolution and super-stacking properties. These benefits of TRMs have been previously verified with computer simulations and tank experiments, but not with exploration-scale seismic data. We now demonstrate, for the first time, the super-resolution and the super-stacking properties of TRMs with field seismic data. Tests on both synthetic data and field data show that TRM has the potential to exceed the Rayleigh resolution limit by factors of 7 or more. Results also show that TRM has a significant resilience to strong Gaussian noise, and that accurate imaging of source locations from passive seismic data can be accomplished with traces having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 0.001. Synthetic tests also demonstrate that TRMs enhance the signal by a factor proportional to the square root of the product of the number of traces and the number of events in the traces. This enhancement property is denoted as super-stacking and greatly exceeds the well-known square-root number-of-traces factor. Super-resolution and super-stacking are properties also enjoyed by seismic interferometry and reverse-time migration (RTM) with the exact velocity model. In Chapter 3 the equation for the vertical resolution limit Delta z is derived for the images obtained by cross-correlation migration (CCM). The analytical formula shows that Deltaz CCM = 4zo2 lLg 2 compared to the vertical resolution limit Deltaz post. = l2 for conventional migration; here lambda is the dominant wavelength; zo is the depth of the scatterer, and Lg is the half length of the recording aperture. This result explains the degraded vertical resolution in CCM images compared to those obtained from poststack migration, and suggests that a good resolution at depth requires a large recording aperture. I extend the interferometric interpolation of ocean bottom seismic (OBS) traces from 2D data to 3D data in Chapter 4. The sparse OBS data are interferometrically correlated with the model-based Green's functions for the sea-floor model to generate the densely recorded OBS traces, and a local matching filter is applied to reduce the artifacts in the interpolated data. Information about the source wavelet and the multilayered velocity model below the sea floor is not needed. Results with 3D synthetic data show that the OBS traces can be faithfully interpolated from a sparse sampling interval of 50 m, about one half of the minimum horizontal wavelength, in both the x and y directions. Interpolation results are also computed using sparse OBS data of different recording intervals, and the error analysis shows degrading interpolation accuracy when the recording interval increases. To mitigate the artifacts in the interferometry correlation results, an anti-aliasing condition is derived and demonstrated with a simple numerical example. The anti-aliasing theory developed here is a new development that establishes a fundamental criterion for numerically applying seismic interferometry to seismic data of any type.

Cao, Weiping

274

Seismic intrusion detector system  

DOEpatents

A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

Hawk, Hervey L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hawley, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Portlock, John M. (Albuquerque, NM); Scheibner, James E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01

275

A Practical Scheme for Non-interactive Verifiable Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extremely efficient, non-interactive protocol for verifiable secret sharing. Verifiable secret sharing (VSS) is a way of bequeathing information to a set of processors such that a quorum of processors is needed to access the information. VSS is a fundamental tool of cryptography and distributed computing. Seemingly difficult problems such as secret bidding, fair voting, leader election,

Paul Feldman

1987-01-01

276

20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...information over open networks such as the Internet...form on our Web site, and encryption...information (such as your social security number...must verify your relationship to the minor or...required to verify your relationship to the minor...

2009-04-01

277

20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...information over open networks such as the Internet...form on our Web site, and encryption...information (such as your social security number...must verify your relationship to the minor or...required to verify your relationship to the minor...

2010-04-01

278

Seismic Response Of Masonry Plane Walls: A Numerical Study On Spandrel Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the results of a numerical investigation on masonry walls subjected to in-plane seismic loads. This research aims to verify the formulae of shear and flexural strength of masonry spandrels which are given in the recent Italian Standards [1]. Seismic pushover analyses have been carried out using finite element models of unreinforced walls and strengthened walls introducing reinforced

Michele Betti; Luciano Galano; Andrea Vignoli

2008-01-01

279

Seismic exploration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic exploration method in arctic regions involving the generation of a seismic disturbance in the water beneath the ice in areas where conventional marine and land exploration methods are functionally inadequate. Seismic disturbances are generated by an air gun assembly which automatically executes lowering air guns through apertures in the ice and retrieving them while carrying out preventive measures against

Arlton H. White

1983-01-01

280

VISION - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that - if implemented - would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deployment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential "exit" or "off ramp" approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. It is based on the current AFCI system analysis tool "DYMOND-US" functionalities in addition to economics, isotopic decay, and other new functionalities. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI and Generation IV reactor development studies.

Steven J. Piet; A. M. Yacout; J. J. Jacobson; C. Laws; G. E. Matthern; D. E. Shropshire

2006-02-01

281

67 FR 47745 - Geological and Seismological Characteristics for Siting and Design of Dry Cask Independent Spent...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seismological Characteristics for Siting and Design of Dry Cask Independent Spent Fuel Storage...amendments would update the seismic siting and design criteria, including geologic, seismic...hereafter as eastern U.S. A seismic design requirement, equivalent to the...

2002-07-22

282

Revolutionary seismic vessel sees first action in North Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the design of a new seismic surveying vessel which was developed in response to the increased need for 3D seismic data acquisition. To help in the distribution of the seismic equipment in tow, this ship was developed to have a wide, continuous beam to allow uniform distribution of a large number of seismic streamers. This width to length ratio also provides better stability of the ship as it moves through the water increasing the quality of the seismic data. The propulsion systems have also been constructed to better drag the arrays through the water. Specifications and cost benefit analysis of this new seismic vessel are reviewed and compared to conventional seismic survey methods and vessels.

Greenway, J. [PGS Exploration AS, Oslo (Norway)

1995-08-28

283

Basis for seismic provisions of DOE-STD-1020  

SciTech Connect

DOE-STD-1020 provides for a graded approach for the seismic design and evaluation of DOE structures, systems, and components (SSC). Each SSC is assigned to a Performance Category (PC) with a performance description and an approximate annual probability of seismic-induced unacceptable performance, P{sub F}. The seismic annual probability performance goals for PC 1 through 4 for which specific seismic design and evaluation criteria are presented. DOE-STD-1020 also provides a seismic design and evaluation procedure applicable to achieve any seismic performance goal annual probability of unacceptable performance specified by the user. The desired seismic performance goal is achieved by defining the seismic hazard in terms of a site-specified design/evaluation response spectrum (called herein, the Design/Evaluation Basis Earthquake, DBE). Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates are used to establish the DBE. The resulting seismic hazard curves define the amplitude of the ground motion as a function of the annual probability of exceedance P{sub H} of the specified seismic hazard. Once the DBE is defined, the SSC is designed or evaluated for this DBE using adequately conservative deterministic acceptance criteria. To be adequately conservative, the acceptance criteria must introduce an additional reduction in the risk of unacceptable performance below the annual risk of exceeding the DBE. The ratio of the seismic hazard exceedance probability P{sub H} to the performance goal probability P{sub F} is defined herein as the risk reduction ratio. The required degree of conservatism in the deterministic acceptance criteria is a function of the specified risk reduction ratio.

Kennedy, R.C. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States); Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

284

Seismic Performance of Masonry Infill Walls Retrofitted With CFRP Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis: Synopsis: Synopsis: Synopsis: Synopsis: A significant portion of existing building stock that was constructed prior to the enactment of modern seismic design provisions consists of gravity-load-designed reinforced concrete frames, infilled with unreinforced masonry walls. These structures are susceptible to extensive seismic damage when subjected to strong earthquakes and require retrofitting in order to comply with the provisions of current

M. Saatcioglu; F. Serrato; S. Foo

285

Marine Seismic Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Marine Seismic Data Center (MSDC) of the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). MSDC's purpose is to organize seismic reflection and refraction data into a modern relational database management system accessible through the Internet. The web site provides access to metadata, SEG-Y (seismic shot record conversion) files, navigation files, seismic profile images, processing histories and more. The main features of the web site include a geographic search engine, a metadata search engine, and metadata pages for the cruises. A tool for plotting seismic sections is being tested and will be added in the future.

286

SEISMIC MODELING ENGINES PHASE 1 FINAL REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic modeling is a core component of petroleum exploration and production today. Potential applications include modeling the influence of dip on anisotropic migration; source\\/receiver placement in deviated-well three-dimensional surveys for vertical seismic profiling (VSP); and the generation of realistic data sets for testing contractor-supplied migration algorithms or for interpreting AVO (amplitude variation with offset) responses.;\\u000aThis project was designed to

BRUCE P. MARION

2006-01-01

287

Feed-forward control of active variable stiffness systems for mitigating seismic hazard in structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a practical two-stage approach (design and operation) to the seismic control of structures equipped with active variable stiffness (AVS) systems, as a means to mitigate or eliminate resonance or near-resonance phenomena in structures due to seismic ground motion. During the design stage, past seismic events are processed to extract the characteristic frequency content against which

Nikos G. Pnevmatikos; Loukas F. Kallivokas; Charis J. Gantes

2004-01-01

288

Benefits of Vertical and Horizontal Seismic Isolation for LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) Nuclear Reactor Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic isolation has been shown to be able to reduce transmitted seismic force and lower response accelerations of a structure. When applied to nuclear reactors, it will minimize seismic influence on the reactor design and provide a design which is less ...

T. Wu Y. W. Chang R. W. Seidensticker

1988-01-01

289

Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR (liquid metal reactor) nuclear reactor units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic isolation has been shown to be able to reduce transmitted seismic force and lower response accelerations of a structure. When applied to nuclear reactors, it will minimize seismic influence on the reactor design and provide a design which is less site dependent. In liquid metal reactors where components are virtually at atmospheric pressure but under severe thermal conditions, thin-walled

Ting-shu Wu; Y. W. Chang; R. W. Seidensticker

1988-01-01

290

CONSTANT-DAMAGE DESIGN SPECTRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of the conventional seismic design approach based on the well-known concept of “constant ductility” is investigated. More than 130 earthquake ground motion records are employed to represent seismic loadings of various characteristics. The design approach is considered valid if structures designed according to the approach can withstand these seismic loadings without sustaining excessive damage. The investigation is limited

PENNUNG WARNITCHAI; PHAIBOON PANYAKAPO

1999-01-01

291

Differences between self-reported and verified adverse cardiovascular events in a randomised clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives In clinical trials, adverse events are usually self-reported but may be adjudicated if serious or of particular interest. After adjudicating cardiovascular events for a 5-year calcium supplement trial, we observed discrepancies between self-reported and verified events. We systematically analysed those differences to assess their importance. Design Secondary analysis of adverse cardiovascular events in a 5-year, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of calcium supplementation (1?g calcium daily) in 1471 postmenopausal women (mean age 74?years). Setting Clinical research centre. Methods The participant's medical records were reviewed for all self-reported myocardial infarctions (MIs) or strokes, and the event independently adjudicated. Cause of death was obtained from hospital records or death certificates. To identify unreported events, the national hospital discharge database was searched and related hospital records were reviewed. Results 45 women reported 64 MIs, of which 33 (52%) were verified after adjudication. An additional 25 MIs were identified: 1 during adjudication of other events, 21 from the hospital discharge database, 3 from death certificates. 68 women reported 86 strokes of which 50 (58%) were verified. An additional 13 strokes were identified: 7 during adjudication of reported transient ischaemic attacks, 5 from the hospital discharge database, 1 from death certificates. Therefore, 43% of verified MIs and 21% of verified strokes were not reported to investigators. For non-adjudicated discharge codes, 10% of MIs and 22% of strokes were not verified after adjudication. Nineteen per cent of verified MIs and 27% of verified strokes were not identified in discharge coding or death certificates. Neither the event source nor the level of adjudication altered the relationship between treatment allocation and cardiovascular events. Conclusions When adverse event accuracy is critical, researchers should consider adjudicating self-reported events and hospital discharge codes, and attempt to identify unreported events. Trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials registry: ACTRN 012605000242628.

Bolland, Mark J; Barber, Alan; Doughty, Robert N; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Reid, Ian R

2013-01-01

292

Design of a myo-seismic transducer for non-invasive transcutaneous vectorial recording of locally fast muscle-fibre micro-contractions.  

PubMed

Mechanical recording usually concerns the analysis of movements in bio-mechanical research projects. Mechanical recording of locally fast muscle-fibre micro-contractions, however, is a little-developed and rarely-applied myographic technique. In the last decade, acoustic or myophonic measurements came increasingly into the picture when they were also applied to research on general muscle activity, such as in muscle fatigue studies. In this paper, a new micro-seismic recording technique is introduced. The technique registers extremely local activity in the velocity and force vector of skin movement as a function in time. The recording method is sensitive to micro excursions caused by muscle fibres under the skin. The resolution in time is at least 100 us, which is demonstrated in an experiment where a mechanical contraction is provoked by electrical stimulation of the median nerve. This indicates a seismic variant, refered to as seismic-myography (SMG), of surface EMG's, and offers complementary features. The most important features are: 1. Insensitivity to low frequent, large movement artefacts. 2. Sensitivity to fast mechanical micro-excursions and velocities. 3. Fast and precise discrimination of local mechanical events. 4. Vectorial reconstruction of superficial mechanic activity which can be used for the identification and functional behaviour of subcutaneous muscle fibres and, in addition, for the localisation of motor endplate zones. 5. The method is easy to use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7649066

Journée, H L; de Jonge, A B

293

Seismic margins and calibration of piping systems  

SciTech Connect

The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-funded, multiyear program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Its objective is to develop a complete, fully coupled analysis procedure for estimating the risk of earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant and to determine major contributors to the state-of-the-art seismic and systems analysis process and explicitly includes the uncertainties in such a process. The results will be used to improve seismic licensing requirements for nuclear power plants. In Phase I of SSMRP, the overall seismic risk assessment methodology was developed and assembled. The application of this methodology to the seismic PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) at the Zion Nuclear Power Plant has been documented. This report documents the method deriving response factors. The response factors, which relate design calculated responses to best estimate values, were used in the seismic response determination of piping systems for a simplified seismic probablistic risk assessment. 13 references, 31 figures, 25 tables.

Shieh, L.C.; Tsai, N.C.; Yang, M.S.; Wong, W.L.

1985-01-01

294

VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. We use Microsoft Excel 2003 and have not tested VISION with Microsoft Excel 2007. The VISION team uses both Powersim Studio 2005 and 2009 and it should work with either.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

2009-08-01

295

Verifying Heap-Manipulating Programs with Unknown Procedure Calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Verification of programs with invocations to unknown procedures is a practical problem, because in many scenarios not all\\u000a codes of programs to be verified are available. Those unknown calls also pose a challenge for their verification. This paper\\u000a addresses this problem with an attempt to verify the full functional correctness of such programs using pointer-based data\\u000a structures. Provided with a

Shengchao Qin; Chenguang Luo; Guanhua He; Florin Craciun; Wei-Ngan Chin

2010-01-01

296

Subocean bottom explosive seismic system  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides a system having at least one subocean bottom seismic device, such as a seismic source or a seismic detector, and a planting unit. When the planting unit is lowered it selectively implants the seismic device at predetermined locations in the ocean bottom, it releases from the implanted seismic device, and, when raised, uncoils a signal cable from the implanted seismic device. The signal cable which is capable of retrieving the implanted seismic device is connected to an anchored buoy which contains a first communications unit. A second seismic device is carried in a predetermined pattern near the implanted seismic device and is connected to a second communication unit.

Wener, K. R.; Tinkle, A. R.

1985-05-07

297

Combining fault injection and model checking to verify fault tolerance in multi-agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to guarantee that a system will continue to oper- ate correctly under degraded conditions is key to the success of adopting multi-agent systems (MAS) as a paradigm for designing complex agent based fault tolerant systems. In or- der to provide such a guarantee, practically usable tools and techniques for verifying fault tolerant MAS architectures are urgently required. In

Jonathan Ezekiel; Alessio Lomuscio

2009-01-01

298

Seismic investigations of the HDR Safety Program. Summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the seismic investigations, performed at the HDR facility in Kahl\\/Main, FRG was to validate calculational methods for the seismic evaluation of nuclear-reactor systems, using experimental data from an actual nuclear plant. Using eccentric mass shaker excitation the HDR soil\\/structure system was tested to incipient failure, exhibiting highly nonlinear response and demonstrating that structures not seismically designed

L. Malcher; D. Schrammel; H. Steinhilber; C. A. Kot

1994-01-01

299

Seismic rehabilitation of RC structural walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural walls in existing buildings designed to pre 1970s codes may have deficient shear reinforcement and lap splice detailing. Lap splices at the bottom of the walls were designed in compression with anchorage length of 24-bar diameter. When the structural wall is subjected to lateral loads during a major seismic event, the lap splice is in the zone of maximum

Mohamed Mohamed Ebrahim Elnady

2008-01-01

300

Seismic Imaging of Stress Transient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-varying stress field at seismogenic depth is perhaps the single most crucial parameter for understanding the earthquake triggering process. As a result, measuring stress transients within seismically active fault zones has been a long-sought goal of seismology. One promising approach for designing an earthquake stress meter is to exploit the stress dependence of seismic wave speed. It is well known from laboratory experiments that seismic velocities vary with the level of applied stress. We have used repeatable seismic sources, both natural and controlled, to investigate stress-induced changes in the subsurface velocity field along the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault. By applying time-lapse seismic imaging techniques to repeating-earthquake data, we were able to identify robust changes in the scattered wavefield associated with the 1993 Parkfield aseismic transient event, and the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. In particular, a scatterer within the fault zone at ~3 km depth appears to have responded to the 1993 aseismic and 2004 seismic events regularly, acting as an "in-situ" stress meter. Repeating earthquakes are ideal sources to illuminate stress transients at seismogenic depth, given their depth and large size. It is however difficult to use them to monitor the transients because of the uncontrollable timing of the earthquakes and uncertainly in location. With a novel imaging technique based on decorrelation index data, we were able to confirm the migration of the same scatter from seismograms of two explosions set up on the fault near the Middle Mountain station before and after the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. This suggests that powerful and repeatable controlled sources are suitable for large-scale stress monitoring experiments. We also approach the problem by using the natural laboratory provided by the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). We conducted a continuous active-source cross-well experiment at the Parkfield SAFOD drill site to measure in-situ seismic velocity changes across a ~10 m baseline at ~1 km depth. Over a two-month period, we found a 0.3% change in the average S-wave velocity, which shows a good negative correlation with barometric pressure, corresponding to a stress sensitivity of 2.4x10-7Pa-1. We also observed two large excursions in the delay time measurement, corresponding to 0.55% and 0.15% decreases of seismic velocity, that are coincident with two earthquakes that are among those predicted to produce the largest coseismic stress changes at SAFOD. Interestingly, the two excursions started approximately 10 and 2 hours before the events, respectively, suggesting that they may be related to pre-rupture dilatancy observed in the early laboratory studies, and that 4D seismic imaging might provide an effective tool for understanding the stress changes that accompany and perhaps precede seismic activity.

Niu, F.; Silver, P.; Daley, T.; Nadeau, R.; Taira, T.; Cheng, X.; Majer, E.

2008-12-01

301

The SCALE Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data - VALID  

SciTech Connect

The Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) at ORNL contains high quality, independently reviewed models and results that improve confidence in analysis. VALID is developed and maintained according to a procedure of the SCALE quality assurance (QA) plan. This paper reviews the origins of the procedure and its intended purpose, the philosophy of the procedure, some highlights of its implementation, and the future of the procedure and associated VALID library. The original focus of the procedure was the generation of high-quality models that could be archived at ORNL and applied to many studies. The review process associated with model generation minimized the chances of errors in these archived models. Subsequently, the scope of the library and procedure was expanded to provide high quality, reviewed sensitivity data files for deployment through the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE). Sensitivity data files for approximately 400 such models are currently available. The VALID procedure and library continue fulfilling these multiple roles. The VALID procedure is based on the quality assurance principles of ISO 9001 and nuclear safety analysis. Some of these key concepts include: independent generation and review of information, generation and review by qualified individuals, use of appropriate references for design data and documentation, and retrievability of the models, results, and documentation associated with entries in the library. Some highlights of the detailed procedure are discussed to provide background on its implementation and to indicate limitations of data extracted from VALID for use by the broader community. Specifically, external users of data generated within VALID must take responsibility for ensuring that the files are used within the QA framework of their organization and that use is appropriate. The future plans for the VALID library include expansion to include additional experiments from the IHECSBE, to include experiments from areas beyond criticality safety, such as reactor physics and shielding, and to include application models. In the future, external SCALE users may also obtain qualification under the VALID procedure and be involved in expanding the library. The VALID library provides a pathway for the criticality safety community to leverage modeling and analysis expertise at ORNL.

Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL

2013-01-01

302

Statistical classification methods applied to seismic discrimination  

SciTech Connect

To verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), low energy seismic activity must be detected and discriminated. Monitoring small-scale activity will require regional (within {approx}2000 km) monitoring capabilities. This report provides background information on various statistical classification methods and discusses the relevance of each method in the CTBT seismic discrimination setting. Criteria for classification method selection are explained and examples are given to illustrate several key issues. This report describes in more detail the issues and analyses that were initially outlined in a poster presentation at a recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting. Section 2 of this report describes both the CTBT seismic discrimination setting and the general statistical classification approach to this setting. Seismic data examples illustrate the importance of synergistically using multivariate data as well as the difficulties due to missing observations. Classification method selection criteria are presented and discussed in Section 3. These criteria are grouped into the broad classes of simplicity, robustness, applicability, and performance. Section 4 follows with a description of several statistical classification methods: linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, variably regularized discriminant analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, logistic discriminant analysis, K-th Nearest Neighbor discrimination, kernel discrimination, and classification and regression tree discrimination. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized in Section 5.

Ryan, F.M. [ed.; Anderson, D.N.; Anderson, K.K.; Hagedorn, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.

1996-06-11

303

Seismic-source representation for spall  

SciTech Connect

Spall may be a significant secondary source of seismic waves from underground explosions. The proper representation of spall as a seismic source is important for forward and inverse modeling of explosions for yield estimation and discrimination studies. We present a new derivation of a widely used point force representation for spall, which is based on a horizontal tension crack model. The derivation clarifies the relationship between point force and moment tensor representations of the tension crack. For wavelengths long compared with spall depth, the two representations are equivalent, and the moment tensor time history is proportional to the doubly integrated time history of the point force. Numerical experiments verify that, for regional seismic phases, this equivalence is valid for all frequencies for which the point-source (long wavelength) approximation is valid. Further analysis shows that the moment tensor and point force representations retain their validity for non-planar spall surfaces, provided that the average dip of the surface is small. The equivalency of the two representations implies that a singular inverse problem will result from attempts to infer simultaneously the spectra of both these source terms from seismic waveforms. If the spall moment tensor alone is estimated by inversion of waveform data, the inferred numerical values of its components will depend inversely upon the source depth which is assumed in the inversion formalism.

Day, S.M.; McLaughlin, K.L.

1990-11-21

304

Seismic Hazards and Mitigation Strategies for Older and Historic Unreinforced Masonry Buildings in Small Towns in Oregon and Washington. Proceedings of the Conference Held at Seattle, Washington on November 8-9, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference began with a presentation of the results of studies of seismic hazards in reinforced masonry buildings in small towns in the Pacific Northwest. Topics then addressed by the four panels were: (1) Seismicity and Seismic Design in Unreinforced...

N. M. Hawkins

1985-01-01

305

SEISMIC EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Reviews of several Soviet-built nuclear power plants have shown that most of them have an unknown earthquake safety or are under-designed seismically. In the cases where seismic strengthening of the buildings and equipment is not feasible due to economical, political and timing reasons, an active reactor protection system based on an earthquake early warning system may be the answer,

Martin WIELAND; Lothar GRIESSER; Christoph KUENDIG

306

The cost of seismic structural damage and preventive action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper first aims to estimate the economic loss due to an earthquake, such as building-related losses, the damage of debris generation and fire, and the social impact. Then, it seeks to evaluate the feasibility of retrofit to prevent buildings from seismic structural damages. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The HAZUS software is used for the seismic loss estimation using default

Mauli Vora; Zu-Hsu Lee; Wenshen Pong

2008-01-01

307

Practical secrecy-preserving, verifiably correct and trustworthy auctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a practical protocol based on homomorphic cryptography for conducting provably fair sealed-bid auctions. The system preserves the secrecy of the bids, even after the announcement of auction results, while also providing for public verifiability of the cor- rectness and trustworthiness of the outcome. No party, including the auctioneer, receives any information about bids before the auction closes, and

David C. Parkes; Michael O. Rabin; Stuart M. Shieber; C. A. Thorpe

2006-01-01

308

Verifying continuous-variable entanglement in finite spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from arbitrary Hilbert spaces, we reduce the problem to verify entanglement of any bipartite quantum state to finite-dimensional subspaces. Entanglement can be fully characterized as a finite-dimensional property, even though in general the truncation of the Hilbert space may cause fake nonclassicality. A generalization for multipartite quantum states is also given.

Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

2009-05-01

309

Verifying continuous-variable entanglement in finite spaces  

SciTech Connect

Starting from arbitrary Hilbert spaces, we reduce the problem to verify entanglement of any bipartite quantum state to finite-dimensional subspaces. Entanglement can be fully characterized as a finite-dimensional property, even though in general the truncation of the Hilbert space may cause fake nonclassicality. A generalization for multipartite quantum states is also given.

Sperling, J.; Vogel, W. [Arbeitsgruppe Quantenoptik, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)

2009-05-15

310

Verifiable secret sharing and multiparty protocols with honest majority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the assumption that each participant can broadcast a message to all other participants and that each pair of participants can communicate secretly, we present a verifiable secret sharing protocol, and show that any multiparty protocol, or game with incomplete information, can be achieved if a majority of the players are honest. The secrecy achieved is unconditional and does not

Tal Rabin

1989-01-01

311

Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

2005-11-01

312

Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events. (ACR)

Hannon, W.J.

1987-03-06

313

Engineering a Sound Assertion Semantics for the Verifying Compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Verifying Compiler (VC) project is a core component of the Dependable Systems Evolution Grand Challenge. The VC offers the promise of automatically proving that a program or component is correct, where correctness is defined by program assertions. While several VC prototypes exist, all adopt a semantics for assertions that is unsound. This paper presents a consolidation of VC requirements

Patrice Chalin

2010-01-01

314

A verified connection management protocol for the transport layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We specify and verify a connection management protocol for use between entities connected by channels that can lose, reorder, and duplicate messages. The protocol is symmetric. Each entity is in one of the following states: closed, listen, open, active opening, passive opening, or closing. The first three are stable states to be exited only by user request, while the last

Sandra L. Murphy; A. Udaya Shankar

1987-01-01

315

On Verifying the Accuracy of Information: Philosophical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can one verify the accuracy of recorded information (e.g., information found in books, newspapers, and on Web sites)? In this paper, I argue that work in the epistemology of testimony (especially that of philosophers David Hume and Alvin Goldman) can help with this im- portant practical problem in library and information science. This work suggests that there are four

Don Fallis

316

Verifying Commit-Atomicity Using Model-Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion that certain procedures are atomic provides a valuable partial specification for many multithreaded software systems. Several existing tools verify atomicity by showing that every interleaved execution reduces to an equivalent serial execution (in which the ac- tions of each atomic procedure are not interleaved with actions of other threads). However, experiments with these tools have highlighted a num-

Cormac Flanagan

2004-01-01

317

A verifiable SSA program representation for aggressive compiler optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a verifiable low-level program representation to em- bed, propagate, and preserve safety information in high perfor- mance compilers for safe languages such as Java and C#. Our rep- resentation precisely encodes safety information via static single- assignment (SSA) (11, 3) proof variables that are first-class con- structs in the program. We argue that our representation allows a compiler

Vijay Menon; Neal Glew; Brian R. Murphy; Andrew Mccreight; Tatiana Shpeisman; Ali-reza Adl-tabatabai; Leaf Petersen

2006-01-01

318

COVERAGE: verifying multiple-agent knowledge-based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing development of distributed knowledge-based systems based upon the multiple-agent paradigm demands techniques for the verification of these systems. As a minimum requirement, it is necessary to verify that the individual agents are capable of fulfilling their advertised capabilities, and that the whole group of agent forms a complete and coherent team. Anomaly detection, as performed by the cover

Alun D. Preece

1999-01-01

319

Verifying Termination of General Logic Programs with Concrete Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method of verifying termination of logic programs with re- spect to concrete queries (instead of abstract query patterns). A necessary and sufficient condition is established and an algorithm for automatic verifica- tion is developed. In contrast to existing query pattern-based approaches, our method has the following features: (1) It applies to all general logic programs with non-floundering

Yi-Dong Shen; Li-Yan Yuan; Jia-Huai You

2000-01-01

320

On the complexity of verifiable secret sharing and multiparty computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first study the problem of doing Verifiable Secret Sharing (VSS) information theoretically secure for a gen- eral access structure. We do it in the model where pri- vate channels between players and a broadcast channel is given, and where an active, adaptive adversary can corrupt any set of players not in the access structure. In particular , we consider

Ronald Cramer; Ivan Damgård; Stefan Dziembowski

2000-01-01

321

A formally verified proof of the prime number theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prime number theorem, established by Hadamard and de la Vallee Poussin independently in 1896, asserts that the density of primes in the positive integers is asymptotic to 1\\/lnx. Whereas their proofs made serious use of the methods of complex analysis, elementary proofs were provided by Selberg and Erdos in 1948. We describe a formally verified version of Selberg's proof,

Jeremy Avigad; Kevin Donnelly; David Gray; Paul Raff

2005-01-01

322

26 CFR 301.6334-4 - Verified statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Seizure of Property for Collection...Verified statements. (a) In general. For...which the levy is served. In the absence of submission...statement. The statement in paragraph (a) of this...widower with dependent child; (2) The...

2013-04-01

323

26 CFR 301.6334-4 - Verified statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Seizure of Property for Collection...Verified statements. (a) In general. For...which the levy is served. In the absence of submission...statement. The statement in paragraph (a) of this...widower with dependent child; (2) The...

2009-04-01

324

Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

2008-07-01

325

Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Cultura del Progetto, Seconda Universita di Napoli Abbazia di S. Lorenzo ad Septimum, 81031, Aversa (Italy)

2008-07-08

326

Seismic isolation of an electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

A unique two-stage dynamic-isolation problem is presented by the conflicting design requirements for the foundations of an electron microscope in a seismic region. Under normal operational conditions the microscope must be isolated from ambient ground noise; this creates a system extremely vulnerable to seismic ground motions. Under earthquake loading the internal equipment forces must be limited to prevent damage or collapse. An analysis of the proposed design solution is presented. This study was motivated by the 1.5 MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) to be installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) located near the Hayward Fault in California.

Godden, W.G.; Aslam, M.; Scalise, D.T.

1980-01-01

327

Seismic lateral movement prediction for gravity retaining walls on granular soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, methods based on allowable displacements are frequently used in the seismic design of earth retaining structures. However, these procedures ignore both the foundation soil deformability and the seismic amplification of the soil placed behind the retaining wall. Thus, they are not able to predict neither a rotational failure mechanism nor seismic induced lateral displacements with an acceptable degree

J. C. Tiznado; F. Rodríguez-Roa

2011-01-01

328

Model Experiments on the Minimization of Structural Vibrations caused by Seismic Disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

EVEN should the design of earthquake resistant structures be based on stiff constructions, resistant even under resonance against seismic vibrations of relatively low frequencies, it has not been possible as yet to average out the pronounced peaks in the seismic vibration curves of resonances; in the seismic vibration the amplitude is particularly large in the horizontal direction and the vibration

F. Takabeya

1938-01-01

329

Seismic Hazards for Lifelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of lifelines against earthquakes and seismic hazard effects on them are studied in this paper. As lifelines pass through wide areas, it may be affected by many seismic hazards. These hazards are such as ground rupture, fault movement, landslides and large deformation due to liquefaction. Based on the experiences from past earthquakes, damages to the lifelines with attention

Farshad Vazinram; Reza Rasti

2006-01-01

330

Borehole seismic unit  

SciTech Connect

Fracture orientation can be measured by using a triaxial geophone package located at the fracture interval within the wellbore. Seismic signals produced by the fracture can be recorded and measured to determine the direction of the fracture. Reported herein is a description of a borehole seismic unit and procedures to accomplish this task.

Seavey, R.W.

1982-05-01

331

Soviet Seismicity Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A working INGRES database 'sov' has been established at the Center for Seismic Studies which contains the seismicity data reported in the annual Soviet publications, 'Earthquakes in the USSR in 1973', etc. for the 1973 through 1979 time period. The total ...

W. Helterbran

1985-01-01

332

The Kyrgyz Seismic Network (KNET)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kyrgyz Digital Seismic Network (KNET) is a regional continuous telemetric network of very broadband seismic data. KNET was installed in 1991. The telemetry system was upgraded in 1998. The seismograms are transmitted in near real time. KNET is located along part of the boundary between the northern Tien Shan Mountains and the Kazakh platform. Several major tectonic features are spanned by the network including a series of thrust faults in the Tien Shan, the Chu Valley, and the NW-SE trending ridges north of Bishkek. This network is designed to monitor regional seismic activity at the magnitude 3.5+ level as well as to provide high quality data for research projects in regional and global broadband seismology. The Kyrgyz seismic network array consists of 10 stations - 3 of them with more than 3600 m altitude, 2 mountain repeaters, 1 intermediate data base and 2 data centers. One of data centers is a remote source for IRIS data base. KNET is operated by International Research Center - Geodynamic Proving Ground in Bishkek (IGRC) with the participation of Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RS RAS) and Kyrgyz Institute of Seismology (KIS). The network consists of Streckeisen STS-2 sensors with 24-bit PASSCAL data loggers. All continuous real-time data are accessible through the IRIS DMC in Seattle with over 95% data availability, which compares favorably to the best networks currently operating worldwide. National institutes of seismology in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, National Nuclear Centre of Kazakhstan, RS RAS, divisions of the ministries on extreme situations and the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences use KNET data for estimating seismic hazards and to study deep-seated structure of researched territory. KNET data is used by National Nuclear Centre of Republic of Kazakhstan, which together with LAMONT laboratory (USA) carries out verification researches and monitoring of nuclear detonations in China, India and Pakistan. The uniform digital Catalogue of Central Asia data which will include Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and KNET seismic networks data is being developed. Chinese scientists have expressed interest in usage of KNET data, and also in association of a digital network located in the Tarim platform and KNET territory.

Bragin, V. D.; Willemann, R. J.; Matix, A. I.; Dudinskih, R. R.; Vernon, F.; Offield, G.

2007-05-01

333

Seismic yield accelerations of MSW landfills by pseudo-dynamic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of seismic yield acceleration for the municipal solid waste landfills is the basic step for design to mitigate\\u000a the hazard of earthquake on landfills. For most of the landfills constructed in the seismic zones, influence of the vertical\\u000a component of seismic acceleration is often neglected assuming that it is not in phase with the horizontal seismic acceleration\\u000a and hence

Deepankar Choudhury; Purnanand Savoikar

2011-01-01

334

Interferometric\\/daylight seismic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claerbout's daylight imaging concept is generalized to a theory of interferometric seismic imaging (II). Interferometric seismic imaging is defined to be any algorithm that inverts correlated seismic data for the reflectivity or source distribution. As examples, we show that II can image reflectivity distributions by migrating ghost reflections in passive seismic data and generalizes the receiver-function imaging method used by

G. T. Schuster; J. Yu; J. Sheng; J. Rickett

2004-01-01

335

Seismic exploration fundamentals. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book includes discussions of the new techniques in seismic exploration including vertical seismic profiles, shear wave exploration, seismic stratigraphy and interactive interpretation. The book is not about theory, but describes the techniques actually used in seismic exploration, from program planning to recommendations for drilling. Figures are used to illustrate various points throughout the book, and photographs of equipment and field work are included.

Coffeen, J.A.

1986-01-01

336

Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

2005-11-01

337

Verifying continuous-variable entanglement of intense light pulses  

SciTech Connect

Three different methods have been discussed to verify continuous variable entanglement of intense light beams. We demonstrate all three methods using the same setup to facilitate the comparison. The nonlinearity used to generate entanglement is the Kerr effect in optical fibers. Due to the brightness of the entangled pulses, standard homodyne detection is not an appropriate tool for the verification. However, we show that by using large asymmetric interferometers on each beam individually, two noncommuting variables can be accessed and the presence of entanglement verified via joint measurements on the two beams. Alternatively, we witness entanglement by combining the two beams on a beam splitter that yields certain linear combinations of quadrature amplitudes which suffice to prove the presence of entanglement.

Gloeckl, Oliver; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Leuchs, Gerd [Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, Max-Planck Forschungsgruppe, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2006-01-15

338

Piping and equipment resistance to seismic-generated missiles  

SciTech Connect

For reactor and nuclear facilities, both Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A require assessments of the interaction of non-Safety Class 1 piping and equipment with Safety Class 1 piping and equipment during a seismic event to maintain the safety function. The safety class systems of nuclear reactors or nuclear facilities are designed to the applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers standards and Seismic Category 1 criteria that require rigorous analysis, construction, and quality assurance. Because non-safety class systems are generally designed to lesser standards and seismic criteria, they may become missiles during a safe shutdown earthquake. The resistance of piping, tubing, and equipment to seismically generated missiles is addressed in the paper. Gross plastic and local penetration failures are considered with applicable test verification. Missile types and seismic zones of influence are discussed. Field qualification data are also developed for missile evaluation.

LaSalle, F.R.; Golbeg, P.R.; Chenault, D.M.

1992-02-01

339

A verifiable SSA program representation for aggressive compiler optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a verifiable low-level program representation to embed, propagate, and preserve safety information in high perfor-mance compilers for safe languages such as Java and C#. Our representation precisely encodes safety information via static single-assignment (SSA) [11, 3] proof variables that are first-class constructs in the program.We argue that our representation allows a compiler to both (1) express aggressively optimized

Vijay S. Menon; Neal Glew; Brian R. Murphy; Andrew McCreight; Tatiana Shpeisman; Ali-Reza Adl-Tabatabai; Leaf Petersen

2006-01-01

340

An Efficient Verifiable Encryption Scheme for Encryption of Discrete Logarithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A verifiable encryption scheme (VES) is useful for many cryptographic protocols. A VES may be either for (encryption of) discrete\\u000a logarithms or for (encryption of) e-th roots. So far, all the VESs for discrete logarithms are inefficient, but there exists an efficient VES for e-th roots. In this paper, we presents an efficient VES for discrete logarithms and prove its

Feng Bao; Mui Keng

1998-01-01

341

Using an induction prover for verifying arithmetic circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We show that existing theorem proving technology can be used effectively for mechanically verifying a family of arithmetic\\u000a circuits. A theorem prover implementing: (i) a decision procedure for quantifier-free Presburger arithmetic with uninterpreted\\u000a function symbols; (ii) conditional rewriting; and (iii) heuristics for carefully selecting induction schemes from terminating\\u000a recursive function definitions; and (iv) well integrated with backtracking, can automatically

Deepak Kapur; Mahadevan Subramaniam

2000-01-01

342

Seismic Category I Structures Program  

SciTech Connect

The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake.

Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

1984-01-01

343

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2005  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 337 triggers during the third quarter of fiscal year 2005. Of these triggers, 20 were earthquakes within the Hanford Seismic Network. The largest earthquake within the Hanford Seismic Network was a magnitude 1.3 event May 25 near Vantage, Washington. During the third quarter, stratigraphically 17 (85%) events occurred in the Columbia River basalt (approximately 0-5 km), no events in the pre-basalt sediments (approximately 5-10 km), and three (15%) in the crystalline basement (approximately 10-25 km). During the first quarter, geographically five (20%) earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 10 (50%) earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 5 (25%) were classified as random events.

Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Sweeney, Mark D.

2005-09-01

344

Seismic Hazard of Eritrea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of spatially smoothed seismicity developed by Frankel(1995) and later extended by Lapajne et al.(1997) , is applied to estimate the seismic hazard of Eritrea. The extended method unlike the original one involves the delineation of the whole region into subregions with statistically determined directions of seismogenic faults pertaining to the respective tectonic regions (Poljak, 2000). Fault-rupture oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing results in spatial models of expected seismicity. Seismic catalogue was compiled from ISC, NEIC, and Turyomurgyendo(1996) and homogenized to Ms. Three seismicity models suggested by Frankel(1995) which are based on different time and magnitude intervals are used in this approach, and a fourth model suggested by Lapajne et al.(2000), which is based on the seismic energy release is also used to enhance the influence of historical events on the hazard computation. Activity rates and maximum likelihood estimates of b- values for the different models are computed using the OHAZ program. The western part of the region shows no seismic activity. b -value for models 1-3 is estimated to be 0.91. Mmax has been estimated to be 7.0. Correlation distances are obtained objectively from the location error in the seismic catalogue. The attenuation relationship by Ambraseys et al .(1996) was found suitable for the region under study. PGA values for 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years (return period of 475 years) are computed for each model and a combined seismic hazard map was produced by subjectively assigning weights to each of the models. A worst case map is also obtained showing the highest PGA values at each location from the four hazard maps. The map indicates a higher hazard along the main tectonic features of the East African and the Red sea rift systems, with its highest PGA values within Eritrea exceeding 25% of g being located north of the red sea port of Massawa. In areas around Asmara PGA values exceed 10% of g.

Hagos, L.; Arvidsson, R.

2003-04-01

345

Seismic Performance Evaluation And Rehabilitation of Existing Masonry Apartment Buildings in Shanghai, China - A case study on apartment houses in the Tongji village, Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic resisting capacity of existing brick\\/block masonry buildings in Shanghai, China is discussed. Four apartment buildings are examined. The seismic capacity is evaluated by an extended application of the seismic screening method proposed in Japan for reinforced concrete buildings. The evaluated seismic capacities are examined by a dynamic response analysis applying design ground motions. Proposed and discussed is a scheme

Tetsuo Kubo

346

Seismic Wave Propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seismic wave is a mechanical disturbance or energy packet that can propagate from point to point in the Earth. Seismic waves can be generated by a sudden release of energy such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or chemical explosion. There are several types of seismic waves, often classified as body waves, which propagate through the volume of the Earth, and surface waves, which travel along the surface of the Earth. Compressional and shear waves are the two main types of body wave and Rayleigh and Love waves are the most common forms of surface wave.

Wu, Xianyun; Wu, Ru-Shan

347

Seismic liquefaction analysis of a reservoir dam foundation in the South–North Water Diversion Project in China. Part II: seismic response simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As shown in Part I of this study, the saturated surface silt of the dam foundations in Tianjin is vulnerable to liquefaction\\u000a with a seismic intensity of VII. According to the Chinese codes for the seismic design of buildings (Hydropower Research Institute\\u000a of China), specifications for seismic design of hydraulic structures (DL 5073–2000), China Water Power Press, Beijing (in\\u000a Chinese)

Yu Huang; Hu Zheng; Zhijing Zhuang

348

Seismic Hazard Characterization at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS): Status report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Seismic Hazard Characterization project for the Savannah River Site (SRS-SHC) is to develop estimates of the seismic hazard for several locations within the SRS. Given the differences in the geology and geotechnical characteristics at each location, the estimates of the seismic hazard are to allow for the specific local conditions at each site. Characterization of seismic hazard is a critical factor for the design of new facilities as well as for the review and potential retrofit of existing facilities at SRS. The scope of the SRS seismic hazard characterization reported in this document is limited to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The goal of the project is to provide seismic hazard estimates based on a state-of-the-art method which is consistent with developments and findings of several ongoing studies which are deemed to bring improvements in the state of the seismic hazard analyses.

Savy, J.B.

1994-06-24

349

Seismic Data Compression Using Linear Predictive Coding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is on the application of linear predictive coding, which has been applied successfully to many types of sample sequences taken from natural signals, to the compression of seismic data. Designs for encoding and decoding data from a single seism...

S. D. Stearns

1987-01-01

350

Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a process report on the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, a program designed to develop realistic estimates of the behavior of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake. The report gives a general description of the program, toget...

R. D. Bailey P. D. Smith C. K. Chou D. L. Bernreuter J. J. Johnson

1980-01-01

351

Seismic performance of RC shear wall structure with novel shape memory alloy dampers in coupling beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wall system is widely adopted in high rise buildings because of its high lateral stiffness in resisting earthquakes. According to the concept of ductility seismic design, coupling beams in shear wall structure are required to yield prior to the damage of wall limb. However, damage in coupling beams results in repair cost post earthquake and even in some cases it is difficult to repair the coupling beams if the damage is severe. In order to solve this problem, a novel passive SMA damper was proposed in this study. The coupling beams connecting wall limbs are split in the middle, and the dampers are installed between the ends of the two cantilevers. Then the relative flexural deformation of the wall limbs is transferred to the ends of coupling beams and then to the SMA dampers. After earthquakes the deformation of the dampers can recover automatically because of the pseudoelasticity of austenite SMA material. In order to verify the validity of the proposed dampers, seismic responses of a 12-story coupled shear wall with such passive SMA dampers in coupling beams was investigated. The additional stiffness and yielding deformation of the dampers and their ratios to the lateral stiffness and yielding displacements of the wall limbs are key design parameters and were addressed. Analytical results indicate that the displacement responses of the shear wall structure with such dampers are reduced remarkably. The deformation of the structure is concentrated in the dampers and the damage of coupling beams is reduced.

Mao, Chenxi; Dong, Jinzhi; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping

2012-03-01

352

A Seismic Activity Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A seismic activity detector is described. It is specially adapted to gainranging seismometer amplifiers. To facilitate long time constants, the reference voltage generating circuit employs a digital potentiometer. The reference voltage is linearly related...

P. Mitlid

1979-01-01

353

Extraction of Seismic Waveforms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers the effects on detectability and measurability resulting from attempts to extract seismic waveforms by application of cascaded processors and polarization filters. Previous work has shown that bandpass or Wiener filters (when cascade...

A. C. Strauss

1978-01-01

354

Seismic Testing Facility 'Tournesol'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Tournesol' facility is a bi-axial facility intended for seismic simulation, which complements the one-axial simulation facility 'Vesuve'. A description of the facility is given. (Atomindex citation 10:445740)

C. Jeandidier P. Michon

1977-01-01

355

An alternative test for verifying electronic balance linearity  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an alternative method for verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy. This method is being developed for safeguards weighings (weighings for the control and accountability of nuclear material) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). With regard to balance linearity and accuracy, DOE Order 5633.3B, Control and Accountability of Nuclear Materials, Paragraph 2, 4, e, (1), (a) Scales and Balances Program, states: ``All scales and balances used for accountability purposes shall be maintained in good working condition, recalibrated according to an established schedule, and checked for accuracy and linearity on each day that the scale or balance is used for accountability purposes.`` Various tests have been proposed for testing accuracy and linearity. In the 1991 Measurement Science Conference, Dr. Walter E. Kupper presented a paper entitled: ``Validation of High Accuracy Weighing Equipment.`` Dr. Kupper emphasized that tolerance checks for calibrated, state-of-the-art electronic equipment need not be complicated, and he presented four easy steps for verifying that a calibrated balance is operating correctly. These tests evaluate the standard deviation of successive weighings (of the same load), the off-center error, the calibration error, and the error due to nonlinearity. This method of balance validation is undoubtedly an authoritative means of ensuring balance operability, yet it could have two drawbacks: one, the test for linearity is not intuitively obvious, especially from a statistical viewpoint; and two, there is an absence of definitively defined testing limits. Hence, this paper describes an alternative means of verifying electronic balance linearity and accuracy that is being developed for safeguards measurements at the INEEL.

Thomas, I.R.

1998-02-01

356

The Budget Guide to Seismic Network Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regardless of their size, there are certain tasks that all seismic networks must perform, including data collection and processing, earthquake location, information dissemination, and quality control. Small seismic networks are unlikely to possess the resources -- manpower and money -- required to do much in-house development. Fortunately, there are a lot of free or inexpensive software solutions available that are able to perform many of the required tasks. Often the available solutions are all-in-one turnkey packages designed and developed for much larger seismic networks, and the cost of adapting them to a smaller network must be weighed against the ease with which other, non-seismic software can be adapted to the same task. We describe here the software and hardware choices we have made for the New England Seismic Network (NESN), a sparse regional seismic network responsible for monitoring and reporting all seismicity within the New England region in the northeastern U.S. We have chosen to use a cost-effective approach to monitoring using free, off-the-shelf solutions where available (e.g., Earthworm, HYP2000) and modifying freeware solutions when it is easier than trying to adapt a large, complicated package. We have selected for use software that is: free, likely to receive continued support from the seismic or, preferably, larger internet community, and modular. Modularity is key to our design because it ensures that if one component of our processing system becomes obsolete, we can insert a suitable replacement with few modifications to the other modules. Our automated event detection, identification and location system is based on a wavelet transform analysis of station data that arrive continuously via TCP/IP transmission over the internet. Our system for interactive analyst review of seismic events and remote system monitoring utilizes a combination of Earthworm modules, Perl cgi-bin scripts, Java, and native Unix commands and can now be carried out via internet browser from anywhere in the world. With our current communication and processing system we are able to achieve a monitoring threshold of about M2.0 for most New England, in spite of high cultural noise and sparse station distribution, and maintain an extremely high rate of data recovery, for minimal cost.

Hagerty, M. T.; Ebel, J. E.

2007-05-01

357

Optimizing Seismic Monitoring Networks for EGS and Conventional Geothermal Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several years, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential for the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquakes at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data, and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Additionally, we account for the attenuation of the seismic signal with travel time and ambient seismic noise with depth to be able to correctly deal with borehole station networks. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. This talk will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type, and discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Bethmann, Falko; Stefan, Wiemer

2013-04-01

358

Permeameter data verify new turbulence process for MODFLOW.  

PubMed

Abstract A sample of Key Largo Limestone from southern Florida exhibited turbulent flow behavior along three orthogonal axes as reported in recently published permeameter experiments. The limestone sample was a cube measuring 0.2 m on edge. The published nonlinear relation between hydraulic gradient and discharge was simulated using the turbulent flow approximation applied in the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005 mode 2, CFPM2. The good agreement between the experimental data and the simulated results verifies the utility of the approach used to simulate the effects of turbulent flow on head distributions and flux in the CFPM2 module of MODFLOW-2005. PMID:18459958

Kuniansky, Eve L; Halford, Keith J; Shoemaker, W Barclay

2008-04-30

359

Verifying the Performance of RTDs in Nuclear Power Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a number of techniques that have been developed for nuclear power plants to ensure that optimum steady-state and transient performance is achieved with the resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) that are used in the plant for critical temperature measurements. This includes precision laboratory calibration of RTDs, the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) method for in-situ response time measurements, a cross calibration technique to verify the steady-state performance of RTDs as installed in the plant, and the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) test that is used to identify the location of a problem along RTD cables.

Hashemian, H. M.

2003-09-01

360

Verifying Galileo's discoveries: telescope-making at the Collegio Romano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jesuits of the Collegio Romano in Rome, especially the mathematicians Clavius and Grienberger, were very interested in Galilei's discoveries. After they had failed to recognize with telescopes of own construction the celestial phenomena, they expressed serious doubts. But from November 1610 onward, after they had built a better telescope and had obtained from Venice another one in addition, and could verify Galilei's observations, they completely accepted them. Clavius, who stuck to the Ptolemaic system till his death in 1612, even pointed out these facts in his last edition of Sacrobosco's Sphaera. He as well as his conpatres, however, avoided any conclusions with respect to the planetary system.

Reeves, Eileen; van Helden, Albert

361

Tunable marine seismic source  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed device is a marine seismic source which emits a constantly varying FM signal in the 10 to 100 H /SUB z/ range. The seismic source utilizes an adjustable length cantilever spring rotatably attached to stiff acoustic radiators, which create a signal in the water. Varying the length of the cantilever spring as a function of the frequency will permit the device to be continuously tuned for maximum power output.

Mifsud, J. F.

1985-12-10

362

Seismic Consequence Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

M. Gross

2004-10-25

363

SEISMIC DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS OF FREE-STANDING HIGHWAY BRIDGE ABUTMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic displacements of two typical highway bridge abutments used in Taiwan are examined based on the input ground ac- celerations suggested by both new and old aseismic design codes. A pseudo-static-based multi-wedge method is used in conjunc- tion with Newmark's sliding block theory to evaluate seismic displacement of these bridge abutments. It was found that (1) the design peak ground

Ching-Chuan Huang

364

The Seismic Category 1 Structures Program  

SciTech Connect

The Seismic Category I Structures Program entered a new phase at the end of FY 1984. During the prior fiscal years, tests on microconcrete scale model shear deformation dominated structures were completed. The results indicated that these structures responded to seismic excitations with frequencies that were reduced by factors of two or more over those calculated based on an uncracked cross section strength-of-materials approach. This reduction implies that stiffness associated with seismic working loads (loads resulting from an operating basis earthquake up to and including a safe shutdown earthquake) are down by a factor of four or more. These reductions were also consistent with those measured during quasistatic tests to an equivalent level of loading. Furthermore, though the structures themselves were shown to have sufficient reserve margin, the equipment and piping are designed to response spectra that are based on uncracked cross sectional member properties, and these spectra may not be appropriate for actual building responses.

Bennett, J.G.; Farrar, C.R.; Dunwoody, W.E.

1986-01-01

365

Seismic stratigraphy on a micro budget  

SciTech Connect

For brief period Tandy Corporation marketed an inexpensive digitizer under its Radio Shack trademark. A seismic stratigraphic analysis system has been developed using this device and a 48K Radio Shack microcomputer. This system has the capacity to enter well log curves and seismic traces at the digitizer, convert log curves to time dimension by integration of interpolation, compute synthetic seismograms and time logs, and do synthetic modeling, wavelet estimation, and inversion of seismic and synthetic traces. The system allows great flexibility, as each process is designed as a stand-alone, interactive program, and data files are in identical format. Thus almost any order of operation may be chosen, and modeling may be in either depth or time. Display is to a pen plotter or dot-matrix printer-plotter. The plot routines allow flexibility in the number, order, spacing, and scale of the curves displayed.

Clark, T.M.

1984-04-01

366

Multichannel Wiener deconvolution of vertical seismic profiles  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a technique for performing optimal, least-squares deconvolution of vertical seismic profile (VSP) data. The method is a two-step process that involves (1) estimating the source signature and (2) applying a least-squares optimum deconvolution operator that minimizes the noise not coherent with the source signature estimate. The optimum inverse problem, formulated in the frequency domain, gives as a solution an operator that can be interpreted as a simple inverse to the estimated aligned signature multiplied by semblance across the array. An application to a zero-offset VSP acquired with a dynamite source shows the effectiveness of the operator in attaining the two conflicting goals of adaptively spiking the effective source signature and minimizing the noise. Signature design for seismic surveys could benefit from observing that the optimum deconvolution operator gives a flat signal spectrum if and only if the seismic source has the same amplitude spectrum as the noise.

Haldorsen, J.B.U. (Geco Prakla, Hannover (Germany)); Miller, D.E. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Walsh, J.J. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research (United Kingdom))

1994-10-01

367

SEISMIC MODELING ENGINES PHASE 1 FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Seismic modeling is a core component of petroleum exploration and production today. Potential applications include modeling the influence of dip on anisotropic migration; source/receiver placement in deviated-well three-dimensional surveys for vertical seismic profiling (VSP); and the generation of realistic data sets for testing contractor-supplied migration algorithms or for interpreting AVO (amplitude variation with offset) responses. This project was designed to extend the use of a finite-difference modeling package, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, to the advanced applications needed by industry. The approach included a realistic, easy-to-use 2-D modeling package for the desktop of the practicing geophysicist. The feasibility of providing a wide-ranging set of seismic modeling engines was fully demonstrated in Phase I. The technical focus was on adding variable gridding in both the horizontal and vertical directions, incorporating attenuation, improving absorbing boundary conditions and adding the optional coefficient finite difference methods.

BRUCE P. MARION

2006-02-09

368

Tornado Detection Based on Seismic Signal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time the only generally accepted method for detecting when a tornado is on the ground is human observation. Based on theoretical considerations combined with eyewitness testimony, there is strong reason to believe that a tornado in contact with the ground transfers a significant amount of energy into the ground. The amount of energy transferred depends upon the intensity of the tornado and the characteristics of the surface. Some portion of this energy takes the form of seismic waves, both body and surface waves. Surface waves (Rayleigh and possibly Love) represent the most likely type of seismic signal to be detected. Based on the existence of such a signal, a seismic tornado detector appears conceptually possible. The major concerns for designing such a detector are range of detection and discrimination between the tornadic signal and other types of surface waves generated by ground transportation equipment, high winds, or other nontornadic sources.

Tatom, Frank B.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Vitton, Stanley J.

1995-02-01

369

Seismic bearing capacity and settlements of foundations  

SciTech Connect

Field and laboratory observations of seismic settlements of shallow foundations on granular soils that are not attributable to changes in density or liquefaction are explained in terms of seismic degradation of bearing capacity. Limit analysis using a Coulomb-type mechanism including inertial forces in the soil and on the footing gives expressions for seismic bearing capacity factors that are directly related to their static counterparts. Comparison of the two depicts clearly the rapid deterioration of the overall foundation capacity with increasing acceleration. Such periodic inertial fluidization causes finite settlements that are possible even in moderate earthquakes. Reduction in foundation capacity is due to both the seismic degradation of soil strength and the lateral inertial forces transmitted by shear to the foundation through the structure and any surcharge. A straightforward sliding-block procedure with examples is also presented for computing these settlements due to loss of bearing capacity for short time periods. The approach also leads to a design procedure for footings based on limiting seismic settlements to a prescribed value.

Richards, R. Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States)); Elms, D.G. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)); Budhu, M. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1993-04-01

370

A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region  

SciTech Connect

The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on data obtained by the first set of safety checks. The strengthening philosophy adopt in the projects will be described in the paper.

Zuccaro, G. [Study Centre PLINIVS-University of Naples 'Federico II', via Toledo, 402 - I 80134 - Naples (Italy); Palmieri, M.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M. [Campania Region-Civil Protection Office-Centro Direzionale, is. C3 - 80 143 - Naples (Italy); Maggio, F. [Campania Region-Public Works Office-via Cesare Battisti, 30 - I 8100, Caserta (Italy)

2008-07-08

371

Seismicity in Northern Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR in October 2012. The instrumental analysis like the determination of hypocenters, magnitudes and fault plane solutions whenever possible, is supplemented by macroseismic investigations based on reports by the public.

Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

2013-04-01

372

Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1995-10-01

373

Seismic hazard assessment in Grecce: Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greece is the most earthquake prone country in the eastern Mediterranean territory and one of the most active areas globally. Seismic Hazard Assessment (SHA) is a useful procedure to estimate the expected earthquake magnitude and strong ground-motion parameters which are necessary for earthquake resistant design. Several studies on the SHA of Greece are available, constituting the basis of the National Seismic Code. However, the recently available more complete, accurate and homogenous seismological data (the new earthquake catalogue of Makropoulos et al., 2012), the revised seismic zones determined within the framework of the SHARE project (2012), new empirical attenuation formulas extracted for several regions in Greece, as well as new algorithms of SHA, are innovations that motivated the present study. Herewith, the expected earthquake magnitude for Greece is evaluated by applying the zone-free, upper bounded Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values method. The peak ground acceleration (PGA), velocity (PGV) and displacement (PGD) are calculated at the seismic bedrock using two methods: (a) the Gumbel's first asymptotic distribution of extreme values, since it is valid for initial open-end distributions and (b) the Cornell-McGuire approach, using the CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et. al., 2007) software. The latter takes into account seismic source zones for which seismicity parameters are assigned following a Poisson recurrence model. Thus, each source is characterized by a series of seismic parameters, such as the magnitude recurrence and the recurrence rate for threshold magnitude, while different predictive equations can be assigned to different seismic source zones. Recent available attenuation parameters were considered. Moreover, new attenuation parameters for the very seismically active Corinth Gulf deduced during this study, from recordings of the RASMON accelerometric array, were used. The hazard parameters such as the most probable annual maximum earthquake magnitude (mode) and the maximum expected earthquake magnitude with 70% and 90% probability of not been exceeded in 50 and 100 years are determined and compiled into a GIS mapping scheme. The data quality allowed the estimation of strong ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV and PGD) within cells of small dimensions of 0.25° X 0.25°. The results are discussed and compared with the ones obtained by other studies.

Makropoulos, Kostas; Chousianitis, Kostas; Kaviris, George; Kassaras, Ioannis

2013-04-01

374

Robust discrimination of human footsteps using seismic signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a statistical analysis method for detecting and discriminating different seismic activity sources such as humans, animals, and vehicles using their seismic signals. A five-step process is employed for this purpose: (1) a set of signals with known seismic activities are utilized to verify the algorithms; (2) for each data file, the vibration signal is segmented by a sliding-window and its noise is reduced; (3) a set of features is extracted from each window of the signal which captures its statistical and spectral properties. This set is formed as an array and is called a feature array; (4) a portion of the labeled feature arrays are utilized to train a classifier for discriminating different types of signals; and (5) the rest of the labeled feature arrays are employed to test the performance of the developed classifier. The results indicate that the classifier achieves probability of detection (pd) above 95% and false alarm rate (pfa) less than 1%.

Faghfouri, Aram E.; Frish, Michael B.

2011-05-01

375

Shake It Up! Engineering for Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how engineers design and build shake tables to test the ability of buildings to withstand the various types of seismic waves generated by earthquakes. Just like engineers, students design and build shake tables to test their own model buildings made of toothpicks and mini marshmallows. Once students are satisfied with the performance of their buildings, they put them through a one-minute simulated earthquake challenge.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

376

A towed seafloor source for seismic exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have a new design for a pneumatically-activated, deep-towed seismic source that can be operated at or near the seafloor. This design overcomes some of the limitations of the seafloor imploder we developed three years ago. Our present working version - a 20-liter, 220 dB (re 1 \\/spl mu\\/Pa at 1 m) imploder - is robust and creates repeatable signals

A. W. Sauter; L. M. Dorman

2003-01-01

377

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 16 local earthquakes during the first quarter of FY 2011. Six earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), seven earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the pre-basalt sediments, and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, thirteen earthquakes were located in known swarm areas and three earthquakes were classified as random events. The highest magnitude event (1.8 Mc) was recorded on October 19, 2010 at depth 17.5 km with epicenter located near the Yakima River between the Rattlesnake Mountain and Horse Heaven Hills swarm areas.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2011-03-31

378

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. This includes three recently acquired Transportable Array stations located at Cold Creek, Didier Farms, and Phinney Hill. For the Hanford Seismic Network, ten local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2009. All earthquakes were considered as “minor” with magnitudes (Mc) less than 1.0. Two earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), most likely in the Columbia River basalts; five earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the sub-basalt sediments); and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, four earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2009-03-15

379

New seismic sensors for footstep detection and other military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of seismic security systems relies on the particular application of the characteristics of seismic sensors. Current seismic sensors do not yield best possible results. In addition to identifying the requirements for optimal seismic sensors, we have developed seismic sensors for defense and security applications. We show two different types of seismic sensors: a miniscule, extremely low cost sensor and a bulk sensor. The miniscule, extremely low cost sensor is an electret-based geophone for both seismic and acoustic detection systems. This geophone detects a small size object-i.e. a walking/running/crawling person or a small underwater vehicle-that moves on the surface, underground, and/or in the water. It can also detect large size objects-i.e. heavy vehicles, trucks, tanks-as well as be used in littoral warfare. The electret-based design significantly improves technical characteristics achieving performance uniqueness: expanded frequency response range in the low frequency area, improved sensitivity threshold and accuracy response, and improved sensor"s protection from electromagnetic interference. The bulk sensor has an extremely large detection surface, a nanocomposite body in special form casing, and a special electronic circuit. These sensors allow detection of footstep signals in high ambient seismic noise levels. However, installation requires significant installation groundwork effort.

Pakhomov, Alex; Goldburt, Tim

2004-09-01

380

Assessment of anaerobic power to verify VO2max attainment.  

PubMed

Across various populations, verification testing is used to confirm VO(2)max attainment and has repeatedly shown similar VO(2)max values to those obtained from incremental exercise. Yet, many individuals show meaningful differences in VO(2)max between protocols, and an explanation for this is unknown. The aim of the study was to elucidate this phenomenon in 30 men and women of similar age, fitness, and physical activity using assessment of anaerobic power. On day 1, they completed the Wingate test, and returned at least 48 h later to complete incremental cycle ergometry followed by a verification protocol. During exercise, ventilation, pulmonary gas exchange data, and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured. Mean VO(2)max was similar (P > 0.05) between protocols (42.05 +/- 5.88 ml kg(-1) per min versus 42.03 +/- 5.75 ml kg(-1) per min, respectively), although seven subjects (23%) revealed a VO(2)max that was not 'verified' by the supramaximal protocol. Indices of power output and gas exchange data were similar (P > 0.05) between subjects who revealed a 'true' VO(2)max compared to those who did not, although peak and mean power was consistently higher in persons whose VO(2)max was not 'verified.' A previously established HRmax criterion for verification testing was not met in 17% of subjects. Additional study is merited to identify alternate determinants of VO(2)max, such as muscle activation via assessment of motor unit recruitment, and to investigate utility of verification testing to confirm VO(2)max attainment in elite athletes and the elderly. PMID:20662880

Astorino, Todd A; White, Ailish C

2010-07-01

381

A Maple package for verifying ultradiscrete soliton solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a computer algebra program for verifying soliton solutions of ultradiscrete equations in which both dependent and independent variables take discrete values. The package is applicable to equations and solutions that include the max function. The program is implemented using Maple software. Catalogue identifier: AEDB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3171 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13?633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 10 Computer: PC/AT compatible machine Operating system: Windows 2000, Windows XP RAM: Depends on the problem; minimum about 1 GB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 5 Nature of problem: The existence of multi-soliton solutions strongly suggest the integrability of nonlinear evolution equations. However enormous calculation is required to verify multi-soliton solutions of ultradiscrete equations. The use of computer algebra can be helpful in such calculations. Solution method: Simplification by using the properties of max-plus algebra. Restrictions: The program can only handle single ultradiscrete equations. Running time: Depends on the complexity of the equation and solution. For the examples included in the distribution the run times are as follows. (Core 2 Duo 3 GHz, Windows XP)Example 1: 2725 sec.Example 2: 33 sec.Example 3: 1 sec.

Gao, Min; Ito, Masaaki

2009-07-01

382

Method to plan, administer, and verify supine craniospinal irradiation.  

PubMed

Craniospinal irradiation remains an important technique in the management of malignancies of the central nervous system. It is technically demanding, with potential for treatment field overlap or gaps to yield unacceptable dosimetric heterogeneity. A method to accurately simulate and verify the three-field junction is described. We use a comfortable supine position to minimize patient movement. The supine position provides airway access by anesthesiology in patients requiring sedation or anesthesia. Virtual simulation is performed with a dedicated computed tomography (CT) simulator. Multiplanar sagittal and coronal CT reconstructions allow visual confirmation of three-field matching at the cervical region. The placement of isocenters for each field, table position, and collimator angles are determined by calculation of field sizes accommodating for beam divergence. At treatment, exact matching of the three fields is assured using the record and verify confirmation of beam collimator settings and rotation, digital couch readouts, and gantry parameters. Mini-verification silver halide (Kodak XV) films (6x6 cm) are placed behind the patient's neck and are exposed by all treatment fields (posterior flash from the lateral cranial fields and entrance from the PA spine field). These films assess field placement accuracy at the junction of these three fields. Finally, placement of radio-opaque markers at the junction is visualized in each clinical portal radiograph. Patients readily accept the supine position as their treatment setup is eased. Field placement using digital couch settings is efficient and accurate. Daily mini-verification films are simple, inexpensive, and allow verification of each treatment field matching. Field placement errors of greater than 1 mm can be readily identified and corrected at subsequent treatment sessions. Virtual simulation and direct junction verification with mini-verification films allow for simple and quantitative evaluation of the junction associated with the three-field craniospinal irradiation technique. The supine patient position does not present any difficulties in field matching or verification. PMID:12383051

Michalski, Jeff M; Klein, Eric E; Gerber, Russell

2002-01-01

383

Conversion de un nucleo de alto a bajo enriquecimiento. Calculo sismico de la grilla. (High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Grid seismic calculation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The grid of a reactor under severe seismic conditions was structurally verified, considering that it must have been maintained without failure. Values obtained from tensions and displacements are under the admissible ones, the existing grid responds to th...

J. E. Magoia G. D. Benito

1990-01-01

384

Community Seismic Network (CSN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSN is a network of low-cost accelerometers deployed in the Pasadena, CA region. It is a prototype network with the goal of demonstrating the importance of dense measurements in determining the rapid lateral variations in ground motion due to earthquakes. The main product of the CSN is a map of peak ground produced within seconds of significant local earthquakes that can be used as a proxy for damage. Examples of this are shown using data from a temporary network in Long Beach, CA. Dense measurements in buildings are also being used to determine the state of health of structures. In addition to fixed sensors, portable sensors such as smart phones are also used in the network. The CSN has necessitated several changes in the standard design of a seismic network. The first is that the data collection and processing is done in the "cloud" (Google cloud in this case) for robustness and the ability to handle large impulsive loads (earthquakes). Second, the database is highly de-normalized (i.e. station locations are part of waveform and event-detection meta data) because of the mobile nature of the sensors. Third, since the sensors are hosted and/or owned by individuals, the privacy of the data is very important. The location of fixed sensors is displayed on maps as sensor counts in block-wide cells, and mobile sensors are shown in a similar way, with the additional requirement to inhibit tracking that at least two must be present in a particular cell before any are shown. The raw waveform data are only released to users outside of the network after a felt earthquake.

Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.

2011-12-01

385

Seismic source parameters  

SciTech Connect

The use of information contained on seismograms to infer the properties of an explosion source presents an interesting challenge because the seismic waves recorded on the seismograms represent only small indirect, effects of the explosion. The essential physics of the problem includes the process by which these elastic waves are generated by the explosion and also the process involved in propagating the seismic waves from the source region to the sites where the seismic data are collected. Interpretation of the seismic data in terms of source properties requires that the effects of these generation and propagation processes be taken into account. The propagation process involves linear mechanics and a variety of standard seismological methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem. The generation process presents a more difficult problem, as it involves non-linear mechanics, but semi-empirical methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem which appear to yield reasonable results. These basic properties of the seismic method are illustrated with some of the results from the NPE.

Johnson, L.R.

1994-06-01

386

Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Memphis State University has monitored the seismicity of the southern Appalachian area since late 1979 by means of the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN), which has provided good spatial coverage for earthquake location. Activity is mor...

S. C. C. Chiu A. Johnston J. M. Chiu

1994-01-01

387

Seismic Hazard Mapping for Guatemala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seismic risk study for Guatemala includes the collection and description of geological and seismological environment and the use of that information in developing iso-acceleration maps of Guatemala. Results are given on future probable seismic hazard ...

A. S. Kiremidjian H. C. Shah L. Lubetkin

1977-01-01

388

Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants  

SciTech Connect

Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

Swindle, D.W.

1990-03-01

389

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-01-01

390

Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concentrically Braced Frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrically braced frames (CBFs) are broadly used as lateral-load resisting systems in buildings throughout the US. In high seismic regions, special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) where ductility under seismic loading is necessary. Their large elastic stiffness and strength efficiently sustains the seismic demands during smaller, more frequent earthquakes. During large, infrequent earthquakes, SCBFs exhibit highly nonlinear behavior due to brace buckling and yielding and the inelastic behavior induced by secondary deformation of the framing system. These response modes reduce the system demands relative to an elastic system without supplemental damping. In design the re reduced demands are estimated using a response modification coefficient, commonly termed the R factor. The R factor values are important to the seismic performance of a building. Procedures put forth in FEMAP695 developed to R factors through a formalized procedure with the objective of consistent level of collapse potential for all building types. The primary objective of the research was to evaluate the seismic performance of SCBFs. To achieve this goal, an improved model including a proposed gusset plate connection model for SCBFs that permits accurate simulation of inelastic deformations of the brace, gusset plate connections, beams and columns and brace fracture was developed and validated using a large number of experiments. Response history analyses were conducted using the validated model. A series of different story-height SCBF buildings were designed and evaluated. The FEMAP695 method and an alternate procedure were applied to SCBFs and NCBFs. NCBFs are designed without ductile detailing. The evaluation using P695 method shows contrary results to the alternate evaluation procedure and the current knowledge in which short-story SCBF structures are more venerable than taller counterparts and NCBFs are more vulnerable than SCBFs.

Hsiao, Po-Chien

391

Oregon Seismic Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Geological Survey (USGS), with support from the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy, will be conducting an active seismic experiment in central Oregon using nine large explosions during the last week of August 1984. A major goal of this experiment is to detect kilometersize magma chambers in the upper crust below Newberry Volcano (Figure 1). The planned experiment is a small-scale version of one type of seismic-imaging experiment proposed by the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCL). Because of the required density of the recording array, the USGS recording effort will be concentrated in and around the summit caldera and leave ample opportunity for additional recording of the large shots, by interested parties, to study the rest of the volcano and surrounding geologic provinces.

Stauber, Douglas

1984-04-01

392

Submergible marine seismic source  

SciTech Connect

A marine seismic source employs a cylindrical gas exploder adapted to be supported from a surface vessel in a submerged state adjacent a marine bottom. The force of expanding gases within the exploder applies a thrust along the exploder longitudinal axis to a ground contact member operatively interconnected with the exploder to produce a seismic signal. The energy producing force is reacted by piston means within the exploder interconnected rigidly with a large area external water interacting disk. The mass of the reaction piston-disk system is sufficiently great so that the slow moving disk experiences viscous damping in the water and thus generates no significant undesirable secondary seismic signal in the water. The exploder may be oriented horizontally for maximum generation of shear waves or inclined at an acute angle to the vertical for generation of a combination of shear waves and compressional waves.

Airhart, T.P.

1980-08-26

393

Canadian Seismic Agreement  

SciTech Connect

This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. (Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

1992-05-01

394

Seismicity Associated with Geothermal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studying natural and induced seismicity associated with geothermal systems can provide information regarding the location and magnitude of hydraulic fracturing. Understanding the fracture system can aide geothermal exploration. In addition, seismicity can affect the output of a geothermal reservoir, and potentially be a seismic hazard to the surrounding area. This study focuses on two geothermal systems: the Raft River Geothermal

R. Walters; K. van Wijk

2009-01-01

395

Dynamic modelling of induced seismicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented to simulate seismicity in brittle rock under stress using a distinct element numerical modelling code. Itasca Consulting Group's particle flow code is used to model rock deformation, damage and the resulting seismicity. With this code, rock is represented by thousands of individual particles bonded together at points of contact. Seismicity results when bonds break under high

J. F. Hazzard; R. P. Young

2004-01-01

396

Multi-purpose seismic transducer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose seismic transducer includes a first seismic sensor having a first transfer function. A transfer-function shaping filter is coupled to the output of the first seismic sensor. The filter is adjustable to shape the first transfer function to match a plurality of different second transfer functions.

Hall, E.M.

1981-02-24

397

Seismic safety margins research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic methodology that realistically estimates the behavior of nuclear power plants during an earthquake was developed. Models for seismic input, soil structure interaction, dynamic response of structures and subsystems, and fragility are developed and combined using a probabilistic computational procedure. Sensitivity studies to gain engineering insight into seismic requirements were started. Degree of conservatism of the SRP seismic safety

M. P. Bohn; D. L. Bernreuter; T. Y. Chuang; J. J. Johnson; S. N. Shukla; J. E. Wells

1981-01-01

398

Building a Laboratory-Scale Biogas Plant and Verifying its Functionality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the process of building a laboratory-scale biogas plant and verifying its functionality. The laboratory-scale prototype was constructed in the Department of Safety and Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, of the Slovak University of Technology. The Department has already built a solar laboratory to promote and utilise solar energy, and designed SETUR hydro engine. The laboratory is the next step in the Department's activities in the field of renewable energy sources and biomass. The Department is also involved in the European Union project, where the goal is to upgrade all existed renewable energy sources used in the Department.

Boleman, Tomáš; Fiala, Jozef; Blinová, Lenka; Gerulová, Kristína

2011-01-01

399

Seismic Initiating Event Analysis For a PBMR Plant  

SciTech Connect

Seismic Initiating Event (IE) analysis is one of the most important tasks that control the level of effort and quality of the whole Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (SPRA). The typical problems are related to the following aspects: how the internal PRA model and its complexity can be used and how to control the number of PRA components for which fragility evaluation should be performed and finally to obtain a manageable number of significant cut-sets for seismic risk quantification. The answers to these questions are highly dependent on the possibility to improve the interface between the internal events analysis and the external events analysis at the design stage. (authors)

Van Graan, Henriette; Serbanescu, Dan; Combrink, Yolanda [PBMR, Gordon Hood Ave., 1267 Buena Vista Bldg., Centurion 0046, Gauteng province (South Africa); Coman, Ovidiu [Stevenson and Associates, Sf. Spiridon no 12, Bucharest-02098 (Romania)

2004-07-01

400

Deformation of dams with a facing and their seismic stability  

SciTech Connect

The authors determine design and engineering parameters for a hydroelectric dam constructed of soil and pebbles and faced with asphalt from the stand point of its mechanical behavior and deformation under the effect of a seismic event. Optimal slope gradients are established for the materials under consideration. Seismic effects at all stages of dam life--from construction to reservoir filling to actual full-capacity operation--are incorporated into the analysis. Limiting values of stress and strain are established under seismic and hydrostatic loading.

Groshov, M.E.; Lombardo, V.N.

1987-10-01

401

Marine seismic sensor  

SciTech Connect

A hydrophone streamer that includes several arrays of optical fiber pressure sensors. Each array consists of at least three sensors symmetrically disposed around the inside of the streamer skin to form a vertically-disposed array. Each sensor modulates a coherent light beam in accordance with the instantaneous ambient water pressure. The output signals of the sensors include an AC component due to seismic waves and a DC component due to hydrostatic pressure difference between the sensors of an array. Means are provided to resolve the AC and DC components to determine the arrival direction of the received seismic waves.

Savit, C. H.

1985-10-15

402

Seismic exploration system improvement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a seismic exploration system having geophone locations along a survey line with at least one geophone connected to separate circuits connected to corresponding terminals of a roll-along common depth point switch. A means is described for identifying a specific one of the geophone locations as the switch changes connections, comprising means for superimposing a signal outside the useful range of seismic energy signals generated by the geophones on the one of the separate circuits connected to the specific geophone location whereby the location may be identified on the changed connection side of the switch.

Bearden, J.M.

1987-01-06

403

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, seven local earthquakes were recorded during the second quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the second quarter (February 3, 2008 - magnitude 2.3 Mc) was located northeast of Richland in Franklin County at a depth of 22.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, two earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), three earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and two earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, five earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and two earthquakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-06-26

404

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-03-21

405

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 506 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twenty-seven seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46-47 N latitude and 119-120 W longitude; 12 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 2 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 5 were quarry blasts. Three earthquakes appear to be related to geologic structures, eleven earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and seven earthquakes were random occurrences.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2000-07-17

406

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 506 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twenty-seven seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46--47{degree} N latitude and 119--120{degree} W longitude; 12 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 2 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 5 were quarry blasts. Three earthquakes appear to be related to geologic structures, eleven earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and seven earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the second quarter of FY 2000.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

2000-07-17

407

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its con-tractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (E WRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 818 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the third quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Thirteen seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46-47{degree} N latitude and 119-120{degree} W longitude; 7 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 1 was an earthquake in the pre-basalt sediments, and 5 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Three earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and 10 earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the third quarter of FY 2000.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

2000-09-01

408

Verifying operator fitness - an imperative not an option  

SciTech Connect

In the early morning hours of April 26, 1986, whatever credence those who operate nuclear power plants around the world could then muster, suffered a jarring reversal. Through an incredible series of personal errors, the operators at what was later to be termed one of the best operated plants in the USSR systematically stripped away the physical and procedural safeguards inherent to their installation and precipitated the worst reactor accident the world has yet seen. This challenge to the adequacy of nuclear operators comes at a time when many companies throughout the world - not only those that involve nuclear power - are grappling with the problem of how to assure the fitness for duty of those in their employ, specifically those users of substances that have an impact on the ability to function safely and productively in the workplace. In actuality, operator fitness for duty is far more than the lack of impairment from substance abuse, which many today consider it. Full fitness for duty implies mental and moral fitness, as well, and physical fitness in a more general sense. If we are to earn the confidence of the public, credible ways to verify total fitness on an operator-by-operator basis must be considered.

Scott, A.B. Jr.

1987-01-01

409

ON UTILIZATION OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF MASONRY INFILLS IN DESIGN OF LOW-RISE MIXED R. C. BUILDINGS A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early stage of civilization, people constructed mostly masonry buildings based on those low-engineered and empirical approaches. In design of new buildings, the structural behaviour of masonry elements is of interest mostly in case of infilled frames or mixed RC frames, where masonry element are also being utilized as participating in structural behaviour of the building. The infilled frames show

Amiya K. Samanta

410

Experimental Evaluation of Integrity of FBR Core under Seismic Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The core of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is designed to produce 1250 MWt at full power. PFBR is under construction at Kalpakkam, India. In PFBR, the core is of free standing type and one of the major safety criteria for the design of core subassemblies is that the integrity of the core subassemblies should not be impaired and they should not be lifted up from the grid plate even during seismic condition. The net downward force acting on the grid plate is less than the weight of the subassembly due to the hydraulic lifting forces acting on it. Experimental analysis has been carried out to ensure that the subassembly does not get lifted off due to vertical seismic excitation. This paper gives the details of the methodology adopted for the experimental seismic analysis carried out on a core subassembly and the upward displacement of the subassembly under the combined effect of upward fluid force and vertical seismic excitations.

Chellapandi, Perumal; Rajan Babu, Vinayagamoorthy; Puthiyavinayagam, Pillai; Chetal, Subhash Chander; Raj, Baldev

411

Dominant contributors to seismic risk: an appraisal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report has reviewed the published Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRA) of nuclear power plants with a viewpoint of identifying the dominant seismic risk contributors and of documenting the insights gained in performing these PRA studies. For the PRAs examined, it was found that all components important in the plant risk analysis had high confidence of low frequency of failure for events approximately twice the plant design SSE and median ground acceleration capacities significantly greater than this. Thus, it confirms that current seismic design practices for nuclear power plant structures and equipment are very conservative. Also, these PRAs have shown that certain structures and equipment possess consistently high seismic capacities; therefore, seismic margin reviews need not concentrate on them.

Ravindra, M.K.; Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.

1985-07-01

412

ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated

E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P. F. Peterson

2010-01-01

413

Korea Seismic Networks and Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modernization of seismic network in Korea was motivated by Youngweol (1996, Ml 4.5) and Gyeongju (1997, Ml 4.2) earthquakes. KMA (Korea Meteorological Agency) has built 45 digital seismic stations which compose the National Seismic Network. KEPRI (Korea Electric Power Research Institute) and KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) also have built 15 and 4 digital seismic stations, respectively. KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) also has made 37 stations until 2008 including Hyodongri complex seismic observatory where GPS, geomagnetic observation system and borehole seismic system. Since 2002 Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) has been playing main role in real-time seismic data exchange between different seismic networks operated by four earthquake monitoring institutes: KMA, KEPRI, KINS and KIGAM. Seismic data from different seismic networks are gathered into the data pool of KISS where clients can receive data in real-time. Before expanding and modernizing of Korean seismic stations, the consortium of the four institutes made the standard criteria of seismic observation such as instrument, data format, and communication protocol for the purpose of integrating seismic networks. More than 150 digital stations (velocity or accelerometer) installed from 1998 to 2008 in Korea could be easily linked to KISS in real time due to the standard criteria. When a big earthquake happens, the observed peak acceleration value can be used as the instrumental intensity on the local site and the distribution of peak accelerations shows roughly the severity of the damaged area. Real Time Intensity Color Mapping (RTICOM) is developed to generate a every second contour map of the nationwide intensity based on the peak acceleration values retrieved through KISS from local stations. RTICOM can be used to rapid evaluation of the intensity and decision making against earthquake damages.

Park, J. H.; Chi, H. C.; Lim, I. S.; Kim, G. Y.

2009-04-01

414

Verifying Protocol Conformance for Logic-Based Communicating Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication plays a fundamental role in multi-agents systems. One of the main issues in the design of agent interaction proto- cols is the verication that a given protocol implementation is \\\\confor- mant\\

Matteo Baldoni; Cristina Baroglio; Alberto Martelli; Viviana Patti; Claudio Schifanella

2004-01-01

415

Plan of Development for Detection Systems for Seismic and Infrasound Arrays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of standard array design and signal processing for teleseismic and regional seismic arrays. The review is extended to F and correlation detection for seismic and infrasound arrays, to array design for infrasound arrays, and to optimal de...

R. R. Blandford

2002-01-01

416

Seismic Proving Test of Eroded Piping (Status of Eroded Piping Component and System Test)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In FY 2000, a 3-year testing program of eroded piping was initiated with the following objectives: 1) to ascertain the seismic safety margins for eroded piping designed under the current seismic design code, 2) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of eroded nuclear piping. A series of tests on eroded piping components and eroded piping systems was planned.

Y. Namita; K. Suzuki; H. Abe; I. Ichihashi; M. Shiratori; K. Iwata; A. Nebu

417

Possibilities and comparison of structural component models for the seismic assessment of modern unreinforced masonry buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the possibilities of structural component models for the seismic assessment of masonry buildings using pushover analysis. The ultimate goal is to allow efficient design of new unreinforced masonry buildings in seismic areas. Different modelling strategies are presented and the implementation of a simple design tool based on structural component models is described in detail. The different approaches

Rui Marques; Paulo B. Lourenço

2011-01-01

418

A case study: Time-lapse seismic monitoring of a thin heavy oil reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a case study on time-lapse seismic monitoring. The target area is located at East Senlac in the vicinity of Alberta and Saskatchewan border, a heavy oil reservoir in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to observe rock property related seismic anomalies, two perpendicular seismic lines have been set up. One seismic line along the N-S direction is subject to Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) while the other seismic line along the W-E direction is not affected. This case study covers the subjects of feasibility study, processing strategy, repeatability evaluation, seismic attribute analysis, and impedance inversion. Systematic feasibility study is conducted by prediction of rock properties based on Gassmann's equation, technical risk assessment, forward modelling and seismic survey design. The first stage simulation of oil substitution by steam indicates that it is feasible to perform time-lapse seismic monitoring project, but great challenge might be encountered. Continuous gas injection barely induces seismic variations. In the aspect of seismic data processing, better seismic quality is obtained by employing the prestack simultaneous processing (PSP) strategy. The three metrics, Pearson correlation, normalized root-mean-squares and predictability are employed to quantify the post-stack seismic repeatability. Higher repeatability along the W-E direction than along the N-S direction shows different local geology environment. The non-uniform CMP stack fold distribution is found the main factor to affect seismic repeatability. The seismic attribute, power spectra calculated from the N-S seismic surveys demonstrate that higher frequency energy tend to increase with time due to the possible decrease in pore pressure and pore temperature. On the other hand, the inverted impedance using the recently proposed hybrid data transformation shows mixed impedance variations. The continuous gas injection and the simultaneous drop in temperature and pressure are possibly the main reason to result in this mixed impedance variations.

Zhang, Yajun

419

Restrain of a seismically isolated bridge by external stoppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current design of seismically isolated bridges usually combines the use of bearings and stoppers, as a second line of\\u000a defence. The stoppers allow the development of the in-service movements of the bridge deck, without transmitting significant\\u000a loads to the piers and their foundations, while during earthquake they transmit the entire seismic action. Despite the fact\\u000a that stoppers, which restrain

Stergios A. Mitoulis; Ioannis A. Tegos

2010-01-01

420

Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Pyrenean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) for the Pyrenean region has been performed by an international team\\u000a composed of experts from Spain and France during the Interreg IIIA ISARD project. It is motivated by incoherencies between\\u000a the seismic hazard zonations of the design codes of France and Spain and by the need for input data to be used to

R. Secanell; D. Bertil; C. Martin; X. Goula; T. Susagna; M. Tapia; P. Dominique; D. Carbon; J. Fleta

2008-01-01

421

An application of Marquardt's procedure to the seismic inverse problem  

SciTech Connect

The seismic inverse problem is to infer characteristics of the subsurface from measurements of the wave field at the surface. The Marquardt procedure offers one approach to this problem. In applying this procedure, a linear relationship is developed between the wave field and some parameter which describes a physical property of the subsurface. Then a selection criterion is designed to choose the subsurface parameter which provides the best match for the observed seismic data.

Keys, R.G.

1986-03-01

422

Fractal Segmentation and Clustering Analysis for Seismic Time Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractal analysis has become part of the standard approach for quantifying texture on gray-tone or colored images. In this research we introduce a multi-stage fractal procedure to segment, classify and measure the clustering patterns on seismic time slices from a 3-D seismic survey. Five fractal classifiers (c1)-(c5) were designed to yield standardized, unbiased and precise measures of the clustering of

G. Ronquillo; K. Oleschko; G. Korvin; R. D. Arizabalo

2002-01-01

423

A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

Haines, Seth S.

2007-01-01

424

Seismic evaluation of an existing complex RC building  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic evaluation of existing buildings is a more difficult task than the seismic design of new buildings. Non-linear\\u000a methods are needed if realistic results are to be obtained. However, the application to real complex structures of various\\u000a evaluation procedures, which have usually been tested on highly idealized structural models, is by no means straightforward.\\u000a In the paper, a practice-oriented

Maja Kreslin; Peter Fajfar

2010-01-01

425

The CT image standardization based on the verified PSF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study discusses a method of CT image quality standardization that uses a point-spread function (PSF) in MDCT. CT image I(x,y,z) is represented by the following formula: I(x,y,z) = O(x,y,z)***PSF(x,y,z). Standardization was performed by measuring the three-dimensional (3-D) PSFs of two CT images with different image qualities. The image conversion method was constructed and tested using the 3-D PSFs and CT images of the CT scanners of three different manufacturers. The CT scanners used were Lightspeed QX/i, Somatom Volume Zoom, and Brilliance-40. To obtain the PSF(x,y) of these CT scanners, the line spread functions of the respective reconstruction kernels were measured using a phantom described by J.M. Boone. The kernels for each scanner were: soft, standard, lung, bone, and bone plus (GE); B20f, B40f, B41f, B50f, and B60f (Siemens); and B, C, D, E, and L (Philips). Slice sensitivity profile (SSP) were measured using a micro-disk phantom (50 ?m* ?1 mm) with 5 mm slice thickness and beam pitch of 1.5 (GE, Siemens) and 0.626 (Philips). 3-D PSF was verified using an MDCT QA phantom. Real chest CT images were converted to images with contrasting standard image quality. Comparison between the converted CT image and the original standard image showed good agreement. The usefulness of the image conversion method is discussed using clinical CT images acquired by CT scanners produced by different manufacturers.

Wada, Shinichi; Ohkubo, Masaki; Kunii, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Toru; Murao, Kohei; Awai, Kazuo; Ikeda, Mitsuru

2007-03-01

426

Verifying and Quantifying Helicobacter pylori Infection Status of Research Mice  

PubMed Central

Mice used to model helicobacter gastritis should be screened by PCR prior to experimental dosing to confirm the absence of enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) that colonize the cecum and colon of mice. Natural infections with EHS are common and impact of concurrent EHS infection on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric pathology has been demonstrated. PCR of DNA isolated from gastric tissue is the most sensitive and efficient technique to confirm the H. pylori infection status of research mice after experimental dosing. To determine the level of colonization, quantitative PCR to estimate the equivalent colony-forming units of H. pylori per µg of mouse DNA is less labor-intensive than limiting dilution culture methods. Culture recovery of H. pylori is a less sensitive technique due to its fastidious in vitro culture requirements; however, recovery of viable organisms confirms persistent colonization and allows for further molecular characterization of wild-type or mutant H. pylori strains. ELISA is useful to confirm PCR and culture results and to correlate pro- and anti-inflammatory host immune responses with lesion severity and cytokine gene or protein expression. Histologic assessment with a silver stain has a role in identifying gastric bacteria with spiral morphology consistent with H. pylori but is a relatively insensitive technique and lacks specificity. A variety of spiral bacteria colonizing the lower bowel of mice can be observed in the stomach, particularly if gastric atrophy develops, and these species are not morphologically distinct at the level of light microscopy either in the stomach or lower bowel. Other less commonly used techniques to localize H. pylori in tissues include immunohistochemistry using labeled polyclonal antisera or in situ hybridization for H. pylori rRNA. In this chapter, we will summarize strategies to allow initiation of experiments with helicobacter-free mice and then focus on PCR and ELISA techniques to verify and quantify H. pylori infection of research mice.

Whary, Mark T.; Ge, Zhongming; Fox, James G.

2012-01-01

427

Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

1993-08-01

428

Hanford Seismic Network  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Hanford Seismic Network. The network consists of two instrument arrays: seismometers and strong motion accelerometers. The seismometers determine the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the strong motion accelerometers determine ground motion. Together these instruments arrays comply with the intent of DOE Order 5480.20, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.

Reidel, S.P.; Hartshorn, D.C.

1997-05-01

429

New Madrid Seismic Zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Madrid Seismic Zone is one of the most potentially dangerous natural hazards that exists anywhere in the continental United States. Having produced three of the greatest earthquakes known to man over a 60-day period during the winter of 1811-1812,...

J. D. Norwood

1998-01-01

430

A seismic activity detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic activity detector is described. It is specially adapted to gainranging seismometer amplifiers. To facilitate long time constants, the reference voltage generating circuit employs a digital potentiometer. The reference voltage is linearly related to the background noise over the detector's entire working range. The bandpass filter has plug-in frequency determining units for easy change of cut-off frequencies. A method

P. Mitlid

1979-01-01

431

Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the operation and research activities at the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR). The operation of the array in this period was dominated by the effects of the change from 22 to 7 subarrays. There have been 232 breaks in the operation o...

H. Bungum

1977-01-01

432

AUTOMATING SHALLOW SEISMIC IMAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

Our current EMSP project continues an effort begun in 1997 to develop ultrashallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method applicable to DOE facilities. The objective of the present research is to refine and demonstrate the use of an automated method of conducting shallow seis...

433

Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the operation and research activities at the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) for the period from 1 October 1978 to 31 March 1979. The performance of the NORSAR online DP system has changed very little from the previous reporting per...

H. Gjoystdal

1979-01-01

434

Advisability of seismic scram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study assesses the value of seismic trip (scram) systems on commercial nuclear power plants. Five topics were specifically addressed: (1) the likelihood that existing instrumentation would trip the plant; (2) the consequences of spurious trips; (3) the consequences of tripping during an earthquake; (4) the advantages of a controlled shutdown; and (5) the desirability of continuing operation. A comparative

G. E. Cummings; J. E. Wells; H. E. Lambert; G. S. Leger-Barter

1976-01-01

435

Seismic on screen  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses methods for interpreting seismic data on computer screens and highlights various functions and the several ways they can be performed, as well as the types of hardware that can performed these functions. Vital information for the geophysicist, petroleum engineer and geologist. Also an authoritative college text.

Coffeen, J.A.

1990-01-01

436

Hanford quarterly seismic report -- 97A seismicity on and near the Hanford Site, Pasco Basin, Washington, October 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Seismic Monitoring is part of PNNL`s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team (SMART) operates, maintains, and analyzes data from the hanford Seismic Network (HSN), extending the site historical seismic database and fulfilling US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office requirements and orders. The SMART also maintains the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN). The University of Washington uses the data from the EWRN and other seismic networks in the Northwest to provide the SMART with necessary regional input for the seismic hazards analysis at the Hanford Site. The SMART is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw seismic data from the HSN located on and around the Hanford Site. These unprocessed data are permanently archived. SMART also is tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity, monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site, and build a local earthquake database (processed data) that is permanently archived. Local earthquakes are defined as earthquakes that occur within 46 degrees to 47 degrees west longitude and 119 degrees to 120 degrees north latitude. The data are used by the Hanford contractor for waste management activities, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of an earthquake on the Hanford Site.

Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

1997-02-01

437

Seismic Behavior of Spent Fuel Dry Cask Storage Systems  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting a research program to investigate technical issues concerning the dry cask storage systems of spent nuclear fuel by conducting confirmatory research for establishing criteria and review guidelines for the seismic behavior of these systems. The program focuses on developing 3-D finite element analysis models that address the dynamic coupling of a module/cask, a flexible concrete pad, and an underlying soil/rock foundation, in particular, the soil-structure-interaction. Parametric analyses of the coupled models are performed to include variations in module/cask geometry, site seismicity, underlying soil properties, and cask/pad interface friction. The analyses performed include: 1) a rectangular dry cask module typical of Transnuclear West design at a site in Western USA where high seismicity is expected; 2) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Eastern USA where low seismicity is expected; and 3) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Western USA with medium high seismicity. The paper includes assumptions made in seismic analyses performed, results, and conclusions. (authors)

Shaukat, Syed K. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Luk, Vincent K. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0744 (United States)

2002-07-01

438

Passive Seismic Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, passive seismology connotes the use of earthquake signals from continuously recording receivers. Small time windows around the arrivals of earthquakes are then analyzed in myriad fashion. I will distinguish from this body of work, the notion of passive seismic imaging, which requires no knowledge of the time or characteristics of a source event. Instead, by using the ambient noise in the subsurface with all orders of scattering and thus randomized directionality, passive seismic imaging can produce results analogous to conventional controlled source experiments. Mathematical proof of the concept of passive seismic imaging has been presented in the literature from several foundations. The results reduce to the simple concept of cross-correlating many long recordings within a simultaneously deployed array. This generates panels with the kinematics of a shot-gather from a standard reflection seismic acquisition effort. Results from synthetic data sets show the validity of the method for point diffractor, and layered earth models. Noting the similarity of form of the standard approach to produce shot-gathers with the imaging condition of shot-profile migration, I then show that migrating the raw passive seismic data without the correlation step produces the the correct image. The synthetic data from above is used to demonstrate the technique. By comparison, this image is of better quality, and demands less compute time, than migrating the data having been cross-correlated first. Finally, both techniques are used to process a 2x2 meter, 72-channel array recorded on the beach sand of Monterey Bay, California. Approximately one meter below the sand, a six inch diameter plastic pipe was buried to serve as a target.

Artman, B. W.

2003-12-01

439

Alternate approaches to verifying the structural adequacy of the Defense High Level Waste Shipping Cask  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1980s, the US Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as one that fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. General Atomics (GA) designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This topical report presents the results of the two analytical approaches and the model testing results. The purpose of this work is to show that there are two viable analytical alternatives to verify the structural adequacy of a Type B package and to obtain an NRC license. It addition, this data will help to support the future acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing.

Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.

1991-12-01

440

Seismic Category I Structures Program  

SciTech Connect

With the use of different size scale models, the Seismic Category I Structures Program has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at working loads. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked strength-of-materials approach. The scale model structures, which are also models of each other, have demonstrated scalability between models. The current effort is to demonstrate that the use of microconcrete and other modeling effects do not introduce significant distortions that could drastically change conclusions regarding prototype behavior for these very stiff, shear-dominated structures. Working closely with the technical review group (TRG) for this program, structures have been designed and tests have been planned that will help to resolve issues surrounding the use of microconcrete scale models.

Bennett, J.G.; Dunwoody, W.E.; Farrar, C.R.

1985-01-01

441

Using Multiple Representations to Make and Verify Conjectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on the results of research, the objective of which was to document and analyze the manner in which students relate different representations when solving problems. A total of 20 students attending their first year of university studies took part in the study. In order to design the problem, the underlying information in each…

Garcia, Martha; Benitez, Alma

2011-01-01

442

Deterministic Seismic Zoning of Eastern Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deterministic seismic zoning of Cuba is performed by modelling, with modal summa- tion, the complete P-SV and SH waves fields generated by point-source earthquakes buried in flat-layered anelastic media. The results of the computation, performed for periods greater than 1 second, are presented in two sets of maps of maximum displacement (dmax), maximum velocity (6max) and design ground acceleration

LEONARDO ALVAREZ; FRANCO VACCARI; GIULIANO F. PANZA

1999-01-01

443

68 FR 54143 - Geological and Seismological Characteristics for Siting and Design of Dry Cask Independent Spent...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seismological Characteristics for Siting and Design of Dry Cask Independent Spent Fuel Storage...amendments update the seismic siting and design criteria, including geologic, seismic...certain ISFSI or MRS applicants to use a design earthquake level commensurate with...

2003-09-16

444

Verifying Erlang\\/OTP Components in mu CRL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erlang is a concurrent functional programming language with explicit support for real-time and fault-tolerant distributed\\u000a systems. Generic components encapsulated as design patterns are provided by the Open Telecom Platform (OTP) library. Although\\u000a Erlang has many high-level features, verification is still non-trivial. One (existing) approach is to perform an abstraction\\u000a of an Erlang program into the process algebra ?CRL, upon which

Qiang Guo; Regent Court

2007-01-01

445

Teaching Reflection Seismic Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Without pictures, it is difficult to give students a feeling for wave propagation, transmission, and reflection. Even with pictures, wave propagation is still static to many. However, when students use and modify scripts that generate wavefronts and rays through a geologic model that they have modified themselves, we find that students gain a real feeling for wave propagation. To facilitate teaching 2-D seismic reflection data processing (from acquisition through migration) to our undergraduate and graduate Reflection Seismology students, we use Seismic Un*x (SU) software. SU is maintained and distributed by Colorado School of Mines, and it is freely available (at www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes). Our approach includes use of synthetic and real seismic data, processing scripts, and detailed explanation of the scripts. Our real data were provided by Gregory F. Moore of the University of Hawaii. This approach can be used by any school at virtually no expense for either software or data, and can provide students with a sound introduction to techniques used in processing of reflection seismic data. The same software can be used for other purposes, such as research, with no additional expense. Students who have completed a course using SU are well equipped to begin using it for research, as well. Scripts for each processing step are supplied and explained to the students. Our detailed description of the scripts means students do not have to know anything about SU to start. Experience with the Unix operating system is preferable but not necessary -- our notes include Computer Hints to help the beginner work with the Unix operating system. We include several examples of synthetic model building, acquiring shot gathers through synthetic models, sorting shot gathers to CMP gathers, gain, 1-D frequency filtering, f-k filtering, deconvolution, semblance displays and velocity analysis, flattening data (NMO), stacking the CMPs, and migration. We use two real (marine) data sets. One of these is very easy to process, yet provides an extraordinary example of the importance of migration after stack. The other data set is a challenge to process, due to contamination by multiples. Students who complete the SU exercises learn the structure of reflection seismic data, the fundamentals of seismic data processing, and gain an introduction to signal processing, providing them with the tools required to make appropriate career choices and/or to continue their research.

Forel, D.; Benz, T.; Pennington, W. D.

2004-12-01

446

Seismic response analysis of arch dam-water-rock foundation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water compressibility on the seismic responses of arch dams is not well understood. In this paper, a numerical\\u000a model is developed with rigorous representation of the dynamic interaction between arch dam-waterrock foundation. The model\\u000a is applied to the seismic response analysis of an arch dam with a height of 292m designed to a seismic intensity of IX.

Du Xiuli; Wang Jinting

2004-01-01

447

The Algerian Seismic Network: Performance from data quality analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic monitoring in Algeria has seen a great change after the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21st, 2003. Indeed the installation of a New Digital seismic network (ADSN) upgrade drastically the previous analog telemetry network. During the last four years, the number of stations in operation has greatly increased to 66 stations with 15 Broad Band, 02 Very Broad band, 47 Short period and 21 accelerometers connected in real time using various mode of transmission ( VSAT, ADSL, GSM, ...) and managed by Antelope software. The spatial distribution of these stations covers most of northern Algeria from east to west. Since the operation of the network, significant number of local, regional and tele-seismic events was located by the automatic processing, revised and archived in databases. This new set of data is characterized by the accuracy of the automatic location of local seismicity and the ability to determine its focal mechanisms. Periodically, data recorded including earthquakes, calibration pulse and cultural noise are checked using PSD (Power Spectral Density) analysis to determine the noise level. ADSN Broadband stations data quality is controlled in quasi real time using the "PQLX" software by computing PDFs and PSDs of the recordings. Some other tools and programs allow the monitoring and the maintenance of the entire electronic system for example to check the power state of the system, the mass position of the sensors and the environment conditions (Temperature, Humidity, Air Pressure) inside the vaults. The new design of the network allows management of many aspects of real time seismology: seismic monitoring, rapid determination of earthquake, message alert, moment tensor estimation, seismic source determination, shakemaps calculation, etc. The international standards permit to contribute in regional seismic monitoring and the Mediterranean warning system. The next two years with the acquisition of new seismic equipment to reach 50 new BB stations led to densify the network and to enhance performance of the Algerian Digital Seismic Network.

Yelles, Abdelkarim; Allili, Toufik; Alili, Azouaou

2013-04-01

448

Multi-Use seismic stations offer strong deterrent to clandestine nuclear weapons testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the United States and other nations push for the signing of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, representatives are meeting in Geneva this year to develop an International Seismic Monitoring System to verify compliance with the treaty's restrictions. In addition to the official monitoring system, regional networks developed for earthquake studies and basic research can provide a strong deterrent against

C. B. Hennet; G. E. Van der Vink; P. G. Richards; V. V. Adushkin; Y. F. Kopnichev; R. Geary

1996-01-01

449

Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s-2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults.

Deif, A.; Hamed, H.; Ibrahim, H. A.; Abou Elenean, K.; El-Amin, E.

2011-12-01

450

Multilevel geophone tool strings improve well seismic projects  

SciTech Connect

Multilevel strings of geophone tools are changing the economics of well seismic because rig downtime is divided by almost the number of levels while data quality is considerably improved. Since the introduction of well seismic methods, check shots, vertical seismic profiles, and walkaway VSPs, the cost of rig downtime has been a major consideration. It has limited the use of well seismic, particularly offshore. Multilevel geophone tools were initially developed with the reduction of rig downtime in mind. Single level tools are now starting to be replaced by strings of tools. Putting tools on a string offered an opportunity to improve their mechanical characteristics. Some of these improvements resulted from design, while others were due simply to the fact that a string of tools operates simultaneously at more than one level.

Barry, W. (CGG Logging, Aberdeen, Scotland (GB)); Omnes, G. (CGG, Massy (FR))

1991-01-14

451

ELASTIC-WAVEFIELD SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY: A NEW SEISMIC IMAGING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The focus of elastic-wavefield seismic stratigraphy research shifted from onshore prospects to marine environments during this report period. Four-component ocean-bottom-cable (4-C OBC) seismic data acquired in water depths of 2400 to 2500 feet across Green Canyon Block 237 in the Gulf of Mexico were processed and analyzed. The P-P and P-SV images of strata immediately below the seafloor exhibit amazing differences in P-P and P-SV seismic facies. These data may be one of the classic examples of the basic concepts of elastic-wavefield seismic stratigraphy.

Bob A. Hardage

2004-05-06

452

Seismic capacity of switchgear  

SciTech Connect

As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

1989-01-01

453

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL`s ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002.

NONE

1995-07-14

454

A note on compression strength reduction factor for a buckled strut in seismic-resisting braced system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note has emerged as a result of developing deterministic procedures for seismic design of braced steel frames. According to the capacity design procedure, braces are chosen as the primary seismic resisting elements, which produce the overstrength axial tension and compression actions. These overstrength brace actions are then used to design the secondary elements such as beams, columns and connections.

Alexander M. Remennikov; Warren R. Walpole

1998-01-01

455

Hanford annual second quarter seismic report, fiscal year 1998: Seismicity on and near the Hanford Site, Pasco, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. The staff also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of an earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (ENN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the second quarter of FY98 for stations in the HSN was 99.92%. The operational rate for the second quarter of FY98 for stations of the EWRN was 99.46%. For the second quarter of FY98, the acquisition computer triggered 159 times. Of these triggers 14 were local earthquakes: 7 (50%) in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 3 (21%) in the pre-basalt sediments, and 4 (29%) in the crystalline basement. The geologic and tectonic environments where these earthquakes occurred are discussed in this report. The most significant seismic event for the second quarter was on March 23, 1998 when a 1.9 Mc occurred near Eltopia, WA and was felt by local residents. Although this was a small event, it was felt at the surface and is an indication of the potential impact on Hanford of seismic events that are common to the Site.

Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

1998-06-01

456

Active Seismic Imaging Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 1985 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct an active seismic experiment in the Medicine Lake area of northern California. The work is supported by the Geothermal Research Program of USGS and by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. We invite interested organizations or individuals to record our explosions from Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding areas not covered by the USGS-LLNL array.

Berge, Patricia A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Evans, John R.

457

Visualizing seismic wave propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate understanding of the propagation of seismic waves in the Earth is of fundamental importance for Earth Scientists at any level. Wave propagation is generally difficult to understand due to the spherical geometry and strong compositional layering in the Earth. 3D heterogeneity, anisotropy and attenuation create further complexities. Several tools exists, including those developed by Alan Jones (www.geol.binghamton.edu\\/faculty\\/jones\\/jones.html) or

P. van Keken; J. Tromp; D. Komatitsch; S. Venkataraman; N. Schwarz; L. Renambot; J. Leigh

2003-01-01

458

Seismic Eruption Teaching Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents educational modules for teaching about earthquakes, volcano eruptions and related plate tectonic concepts using an interactive computer program for mapping called Seismic/Eruption (also called SeisVolE). The program includes up-to-date earthquake and volcanic eruption catalogs and allows the user to display earthquake and volcanic eruption activity in "speeded up real time" on global, regional or local maps that also show the topography of the area in a shaded relief map image. SeisVolE is an interactive program that includes a number of tools that allow the user to analyze earthquake and volcanic eruption data and produce effective displays to illustrate seismicity and volcano patterns. The program can be used to sort data and provide results for statistical analysis, to generate detailed earthquake and volcano activity maps of specific areas or for specific purposes, to investigate earthquake sequences such as foreshocks and aftershocks, and to produce cross section or 3-D perspective views of earthquake locations. The Seismic/Eruption program can be a powerful and effective tool for teaching about plate tectonics and geologic hazards using earthquake and volcano locations, and for learning (or practicing) fundamental science skills such as statistical analysis, graphing, and map skills. The teaching modules describe and illustrate how to use the Seismic/Eruption program effectively in demonstrations, classroom presentations and interactive presentations, and independent study/research. Because the program has many useful options and can be used to examine earthquake activity and volcanic eruption data, the modules provide instructions and examples of quantitative analysis, graphing of results, creating useful maps and cross section diagrams, and performing in-depth exploration and research. The examples are intended to illustrate the features and capabilities of the program and stimulate interest in using the program for discovery learning in Earth science, especially earthquakes, volcanoes and plate tectonics.

Braile, Lawrence

459

Engineering seismic risk analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper introduces a method for the evaluation of the seismic risk at the site of an engineering project. The results are in terms of a ground,motion parameter (such as peak acceleration) versus average,return period. The method,incorporates the influence of all potential sources of earthquakes and the average activity rates assigned to them. Arbitrary geographical relationships between,the site and

C. A. Cornell

1968-01-01

460

Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Our primary research focus during the current three-year period of funding has been to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Recent tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' have shown that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under all conditions (please see the Status and Results of Experiments sections for details). In some easy-access environments, this device is expected to make shallow seismic surveying considerably more efficient and less expensive. Another element of our research plan involved monitoring the cone of depression around a pumping well, with the well serving as a proxy location for fluid-flow at a contaminated DOE site. To try to achieve that goal, we collected data from a well site at which drawdown equilibrium had been reached and at another site during a pumping test. Data analysis disclosed that although we were successful in imaging the water table using seismic reflection techniques (Johnson, 2003), we were not able to explicitly delineate the cone of depression (see Status and Results of Experiments).

Steeples, Don W.