These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Seismic methods for verifying nuclear test bans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismological research of the past 25 years related to verification of a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TIBT) indicates that a treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in all environments, including underground explosions, can be monitored with high reliablility down to explosions of very small size (about one kiloton). There would be high probability of successful identification of explosions of that size even if elaborate measures were taken to evade detection. Seismology provides the principal means of detecting, locating and identifying underground explosions and of determining their yields. We discuss a number of methods for identifying detected seismic events as being either explosions or earthquakes including the event's location, depth and spectral character. The seismic waves generated by these two types of sources differ in a number of fundamental ways that can be utilized for identification or discrimination. All of the long-standing issues related to a comprehensive treaty were resolved in principle (and in may cases in detail) in negotiations between the U.S., the U.S.S.R. and Britian from 1977 to 1980. Those negotiations have not resumed since 1980. Inadequate seismic means of verifying a CTBT, Soviet cheating on the 150-kt limit of the Treshold Test Ban Treaty of 1976, and the need to develop and test new nuclear weapons were cited in 1982 by the U.S. government as reasons for not continuing negotiations for a CTBT. The first two reservations, which depend heavily on seismological information, are not supported scientifically. A CTBT could help to put a lid on the seemingly endless testing of new generations of nuclear weapons by both superpowers.

Sykes, Lynn R.; Evernden, Jack F.; Cifuentes, Inés

1983-10-01

2

The seismic design handbook  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on the planning, analysis, and design of earthquake resistant building structures. Theories and concepts of earthquake resistant design and their implementation in seismic design practice are presented.

Naeim, F. (John A. Martin and Associates, Los Angeles, CA (US))

1989-01-01

3

Position paper: Seismic design criteria  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

Farnworth, S.K.

1995-05-22

4

The Hob system for verifying software design properties  

E-print Network

This dissertation introduces novel techniques for verifying that programs conform to their designs. My Hob system, as described in this dissertation, allows developers to statically ensure that implementations preserve ...

Lam, Patrick, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01

5

Verifying the self-affine nature of regional seismicity using nonextensive Tsallis statistics  

E-print Network

The aspect of self-affine nature of faulting and fracture is widely documented from the data analysis of both field observations and laboratory experiments. In this direction, Huang and Turcotte have stated that the statistics of regional seismicity could be merely a macroscopic reflection of the physical processes in earthquake source, namely, the activation of a single fault is a reduced self-affine image of regional seismicity. This work verifies the aforementioned proposal. More precisely we show that the population of: (i) the earthquakes that precede of a significant event and occur around its the epicentre, and (ii) the "fracto-electromagnetic earthquakes" that are emerged during the fracture of strong entities distributed along the activated single fault sustaining the system follow the same statistics, namely, the relative cumulative number of earthquakes against magnitude. The analysis is mainly performed by means of a recently introduced nonextensive model for earthquake dynamics which leads to a G...

Minadakis, G; Stonham, J; Nomicos, C; Eftaxias, K

2012-01-01

6

Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

1999-03-29

7

DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA  

SciTech Connect

The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

HOFMAYER,C.H.

1999-03-29

8

DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.  

SciTech Connect

A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

2003-07-15

9

How to design, verify, and validate emergency shutdown systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes one method to select equipment data and to use engineering tools to design, verify or validate Emergency Shutdown System (ESS) performance. The paper demonstrates {open_quotes}how to{close_quotes} in a manner that is easy to follow and understand; thus, allowing users to duplicate the approach in a way that reflects their company`s operating environment and needs. A hierarchy of equipment data sources is discussed as to desirability, applicability and selection. From quantitative methodologies and representative engineering tools, one is chosen and validated--a simple fault tree analysis software tool. The tool is used to illustrate how to evaluate hypothetical designs to develop validated qualitative {open_quotes}cookbooks{close_quotes} can speed up the design process for the majority of ESSs. Design verification is applying the tool to the actual equipment and the configuration proposed and can be used if the {open_quotes}cookbook{close_quotes} PIPs do not meet the operation`s needs. Validation is applying the tool to systems as installed and maintained, using actual documented equipment performance. Installed ESSs performance can be validated to support documented maintenance procedures, such as test frequencies.

Green, D.L. [Rohm and Haas Co., Bristol, PA (United States); Dowell, A.M. III [Rohm and Haas Texas Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

10

Design of a verifiable subset for HAL/S  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt to evaluate the applicability of program verification techniques to the existing programming language, HAL/S is discussed. HAL/S is a general purpose high level language designed to accommodate the software needs of the NASA Space Shuttle project. A diversity of features for scientific computing, concurrent and real-time programming, and error handling are discussed. The criteria by which features were evaluated for inclusion into the verifiable subset are described. Individual features of HAL/S with respect to these criteria are examined and justification for the omission of various features from the subset is provided. Conclusions drawn from the research are presented along with recommendations made for the use of HAL/S with respect to the area of program verification.

Browne, J. C.; Good, D. I.; Tripathi, A. R.; Young, W. D.

1979-01-01

11

Structural concepts and details for seismic design  

SciTech Connect

This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

Not Available

1991-09-01

12

Simplified seismic performance assessment and implications for seismic design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade or so has seen the development of refined performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) approaches that now provide a framework for estimation of a range of important decision variables, such as repair costs, repair time and number of casualties. This paper reviews current tools for PBEE, including the PACT software, and examines the possibility of extending the innovative displacement-based assessment approach as a simplified structural analysis option for performance assessment. Details of the displacement-based s+eismic assessment method are reviewed and a simple means of quickly assessing multiple hazard levels is proposed. Furthermore, proposals for a simple definition of collapse fragility and relations between equivalent single-degree-of-freedom characteristics and multi-degree-of-freedom story drift and floor acceleration demands are discussed, highlighting needs for future research. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, performance measures obtained from the simplified method are compared with those computed using the results of incremental dynamic analyses within the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering framework, applied to a benchmark building. The comparison illustrates that the simplified method could be a very effective conceptual seismic design tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the simplified approach are discussed and potential implications of advanced seismic performance assessments for conceptual seismic design are highlighted through examination of different case study scenarios including different structural configurations.

Sullivan, Timothy J.; Welch, David P.; Calvi, Gian Michele

2014-08-01

13

Minimum recommended SSC Laboratory seismic design requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory has been strategically located in Ellis County, Texas where design, construction, operation, and maintenance costs would be minimized. One of the parameters that affects costs during the design and construction phases of the laboratory life-cycle is the geological stability of the area with respect to seismic ground motion. Historical records demonstrate that bedrock accelerations

M. Butalla

1993-01-01

14

Design Strategy for a Formally Verified Reliable Computing Platform  

E-print Network

­28, 1991 in Gaithersburg, MD. major tasks: 1. Quantifying the probability of system failure due to physical of the system architecture that is designed to tolerate physical failures. The second task must not only for a scientific approach to fault­tolerant system design. Using these models, the impact of architectural design

Butler, Ricky W.

15

Flexible 3-D seismic survey design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using all available subsurface information in the design of a 3-D seismic survey, we can better adjust the acquisition effort to the demands of illum ination of the target horizon. I present a method that poses the choice of the acquisition parameters as an integer opti- mization problem. Rays are shot from grid points on the target reflector at uniform

Gabriel Alvarez

2003-01-01

16

1 INTRODUCTION Modern seismic design of reinforced concrete (RC)  

E-print Network

be particularly useful for seismic retrofitting. Most re- search studies conducted to date on strengthening1 INTRODUCTION Modern seismic design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures is generally based cause of constructions collapse is column failure, specific retrofitting techniques have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Seismic network design to detect felt ground motions from induced seismicity  

E-print Network

Seismic network design to detect felt ground motions from induced seismicity John Douglas BRGM earthquake ground motions. A difficulty in quickly settling or rejecting insurance claims to the policy. To overcome this problem a local seismic network could be installed prior to injection to constrain the ground-motion

Boyer, Edmond

18

Design of the IPIRG-2 simulated seismic forcing function  

SciTech Connect

A series of pipe system experiments was conducted in IPIRG-2 that used a realistic seismic forcing function. Because the seismic forcing function was more complex than the single-frequency increasing-amplitude sinusoidal forcing function used in the IPIRG-1 pipe system experiments, considerable effort went into designing the function. This report documents the design process for the seismic forcing function used in the IPIRG-2 pipe system experiments.

Olson, R.; Scott, P.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-02-01

19

Solution-Verified Reliability Analysis and Design of Compliant Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems  

E-print Network

Solution-Verified Reliability Analysis and Design of Compliant Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems M-based design optimization. Typically crafted of silicon, polymers, metals, or a combination thereof, MEMS serve as micro-scale sensors, actuators, switches, and machines with applications including robotics, biology

20

Seismic design of the ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor)  

SciTech Connect

Within an advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) plant, the principal safety-related system is the reactor and its auxiliary equipment, all housed within a tornado-hardened, seismic category I structure called the reactor facility. The PRISM reactor module selected for the ALMR program, with a 6.05-m (19-ft, 10-in.)-diam and a height of {approximately}18.9 m (62 ft) was considered to be the safety-related equipment most vulnerable to earthquakes. With its tall, slender shape and support from the top of the reactor module, the core and internal structures would be subject to amplification of horizontal ground motion during an earthquake. Consequently, ALMR seismic design has focused on ways to mitigate these seismic effects, simplify reactor design, and enhance seismic design margin. Initially, seismic keys within the reactor module and between the reactor module and the reactor facility were considered. Later, seismic isolation was incorporated.

Snyder, C.R.; Tajirian, F.F.

1990-06-01

21

Design of seismic retrofit measures for concrete and masonry structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of seismic retrofit of older concrete and masonry structures possessing substandard seismic resistance using jackets or skins of composite fibres bonded with a polymer matrix to the surface is discussed. Results from extensive experimental research are presented to support simple design models enabling retrofit measures to be designed for enhanced shear strength, flexural ductility or lap-slice performance.

M. J. N. Priestley; F. Seible

1995-01-01

22

Designs for buried pipeline can reduce seismic hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here are some practical methods for designing flexibility into pipelines to cope with seismic hazards. Seismic hazards which are most likely to affect pipelines are ground failures and vibratory ground motion. Marine pipelines may be subjected to the wave action of tsunamis and seiches, especially in coastal areas and offshore platforms. Pipelines usually cross a variety of soil conditions, some

J. A. Whitelaw; D. W. Reppond

1988-01-01

23

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section 1792...ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the...

2014-01-01

24

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section 1792...ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the...

2011-01-01

25

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section 1792...ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the...

2010-01-01

26

Seismic upgrade design for an exhaust stack building  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust stack building of a nuclear reactor facility with complex structural configuration has been analyzed and evaluated and retrofitted for seismic forces. The building was built in the 1950's and had not been designed to resist seismic forces. A rigorous analysis and evaluation program was implemented to minimize costly retrofits required to upgrade the building to resist high seismic forces. Seismic evaluations were performed for the building in its as-is configuration, and as modified for several upgrade schemes. Soil-structure-interaction, basemat flexibility and the influence of the nearby reactor building were considered in rigorous seismic analyses. These analyses and evaluations enabled limited upgrades to qualify the stack building for the seismic forces. Some of the major conclusions of this study are: a phased approach of seismic analyses, utilizing simplified models to evaluate practicable upgrade schemes, and, then incorporating the most suitable scheme in a rigorous model to obtain design forces for upgrades, is an efficient and cost- effective approach for seismic qualification of nuclear facilities to higher seismic criteria; and finalizing the upgrade of a major nuclear facility is an iterative process, which continues throughout the construction of the upgrades.

Maryak, M.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Malik, L.E. (Advanced Engineering Consultants Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

27

Seismic upgrade design for an exhaust stack building  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust stack building of a nuclear reactor facility with complex structural configuration has been analyzed and evaluated and retrofitted for seismic forces. The building was built in the 1950`s and had not been designed to resist seismic forces. A rigorous analysis and evaluation program was implemented to minimize costly retrofits required to upgrade the building to resist high seismic forces. Seismic evaluations were performed for the building in its as-is configuration, and as modified for several upgrade schemes. Soil-structure-interaction, basemat flexibility and the influence of the nearby reactor building were considered in rigorous seismic analyses. These analyses and evaluations enabled limited upgrades to qualify the stack building for the seismic forces. Some of the major conclusions of this study are: a phased approach of seismic analyses, utilizing simplified models to evaluate practicable upgrade schemes, and, then incorporating the most suitable scheme in a rigorous model to obtain design forces for upgrades, is an efficient and cost- effective approach for seismic qualification of nuclear facilities to higher seismic criteria; and finalizing the upgrade of a major nuclear facility is an iterative process, which continues throughout the construction of the upgrades.

Maryak, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Malik, L.E. [Advanced Engineering Consultants Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1991-12-31

28

Designs for buried pipeline can reduce seismic hazards  

SciTech Connect

Here are some practical methods for designing flexibility into pipelines to cope with seismic hazards. Seismic hazards which are most likely to affect pipelines are ground failures and vibratory ground motion. Marine pipelines may be subjected to the wave action of tsunamis and seiches, especially in coastal areas and offshore platforms. Pipelines usually cross a variety of soil conditions, some of which could pose a danger when subjected to seismic movement. The most common ground-failure hazards associated with seismic events, including faults, liquefaction, densification, and landslides will be discussed in this article. Current design practices to limit seismic damage including locating the pipeline away from active faults, steep hillsides, and soft soils, increasing the flexibility of the system by use of more ductile materials and providing ''failsafe'' systems at sites where damage may be anticipated.

Whitelaw, J.A. (Southern Pacific Pipe Lines Inc., Los Angeles, CA (US)); Reppond, D.W. (D. Russell Associates, Inc., Point Richmond, CA (US))

1988-10-17

29

Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy utilizes deterministic seismic design/evaluation criteria developed to achieve probabilistic performance goals. These seismic design and evaluation criteria are intended to apply equally to the design of new facilities and to the evaluation of existing facilities. In addition, the criteria are intended to cover design and evaluation of buildings, equipment, piping, and other structures. Four separate sets of seismic design/evaluation criteria have been presented each with a different performance goal. In all these criteria, earthquake loading is selected from seismic hazard curves on a probabilistic basis but seismic response evaluation methods and acceptable behavior limits are deterministic approaches with which design engineers are familiar. For analytical evaluations, conservatism has been introduced through the use of conservative inelastic demand-capacity ratios combined with ductile detailing requirements, through the use of minimum specified material strengths and conservative code capacity equations, and through the use of a seismic scale factor. For evaluation by testing or by experience data, conservatism has been introduced through the use of an increase scale factor which is applied to the prescribed design/evaluation input motion.

Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States); Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

30

Seismic Endoscopy: Design of New Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform 3D images around shallow-depth boreholes, in conditions in the field and within reasonable times of data acquisitions, several instrumental developments have been performed. The first development concerns the design of a directional probe working in the 20-100 kHz frequency range; the idea is to create a tool composed of multiple elementary piezoelectric entities able to cover the whole space to explore; made of special polyurethane rigid foam with excellent attenuation performances, the prototypes are covered by flexible polyurethane electric resin. By multiplying the number of elementary receptors around the vertical axes and piling up each elementary sensor, a complete design of multi-azimuth and multi-offset has been concepted. In addition to this, a test site has been built in order to obtain a controlled medium at typical scales of interest for seismic endoscopy and dedicated to experiment near the conditions in the field. Various reflectors are placed in well known positions and filled in an homogeneous cement medium; the whole edifice (2.2 m in diameter and 8 metres in depth) also contains 4 PVC tubes to simulate boreholes. The second part of this instrumental developments concern the synthesis of input signals; indeed, many modern devices used in ultrasonic experiment have non linear output response outside their nominal range: this is especially true in geophysical acoustical experiments when high acoustical power is necessary to insonify deep geological targets. Thanks to the high speed electronic and computerised devices now available, it is possible to plug in experimental set-ups into non linear inversions algorithms like simulated annealing. First experiments showed the robustness of the method in case of non linear analogic architecture. Large wavelet families have or example been constructed thanks to the method and multiscale Non Destructive Testing Method have been performed as an efficient method to detect and characterise discontinuities or velocities variations of a material.

Conil, F.; Nicollin, F.; Gibert, D.

2003-04-01

31

Feasibility study and verified design concept for new improved hot gas facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MSFC Hot Gas Facility (HGF) was fabricated in 1975 as a temporary facility to provide immediate turnaround testing to support the SRB and ET TPS development. This facility proved to be very useful and was used to make more than 1300 runs, far more than ever intended in the original design. Therefore, it was in need of constant repair and needed to be replaced with a new improved design to support the continuing SRB/ET TPS product improvement and/or removal efforts. MSFC contracted with Lockheed-Huntsville to work on this improved design through contract NAS8-36304 Feasibility Study and Verified Design Concept for the New Improved Hot Gas Facility. The results of Lockheed-Huntsville's efforts under this contract are summarized.

1986-01-01

32

Seismic design and analysis of underground structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground facilities are an integral part of the infrastructure of modern society and are used for a wide range of applications, including subways and railways, highways, material storage, and sewage and water transport. Underground facilities built in areas subject to earthquake activity must withstand both seismic and static loading. Historically, underground facilities have experienced a lower rate of damage than

Youssef M. A. Hashash; Jeffrey J. Hook; Birger Schmidt; John I-Chiang Yao

2001-01-01

33

Toward subsurface illumination-based seismic survey design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual approach to the acquisition of 2-D and 3-D seismic surveys is to use a record- ing template designed from the maximum target dips and depths. This template is used through out the survey area irrespective of changes in the dips, depths or propagation velocities of the targets. I propose to base the survey design on an initial structural

Gabriel Alvarez

34

Investigation of techniques for the development of seismic design basis using the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to form a group of experts to assist them in revising the seismic and geologic siting criteria for nuclear power plants, Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This document describes a deterministic approach for determining a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) Ground Motion for a nuclear power plant site. One disadvantage of this approach is the difficulty of integrating differences of opinions and differing interpretations into seismic hazard characterization. In answer to this, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies incorporate differences of opinion and interpretations among earth science experts. For this reason, probabilistic hazard methods were selected for determining SSEs for the revised regulation, 10 CFR Part 100.23. However, because these methodologies provide a composite analysis of all possible earthquakes that may occur, they do not provide the familiar link between seismic design loading requirements and engineering design practice. Therefore, approaches used to characterize seismic events (magnitude and distance) which best represent the ground motion level determined with the probabilistic hazard analysis were investigated. This report summarizes investigations conducted at 69 nuclear reactor sites in the central and eastern U.S. for determining SSEs using probabilistic analyses. Alternative techniques are presented along with justification for key choices. 16 refs., 32 figs., 60 tabs.

Bernreuter, D.L.; Boissonnade, A.C.; Short, C.M.

1998-04-01

35

Coupling induced seismic hazard analysis with reservoir design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hazard and risk perspective in research on induced seismicity usually focuses on the question how to reduce the occurrence of induced earthquakes. However, it is also well accepted that shear-dilatancy accompanied by seismic energy radiation is a required process for reservoir creation in low permeability rock. Assessment of induced seismic hazard for a planned stimulation experiment must take into account the target reservoir properties. We present a generic modelling study, in which induced seismic hazard can be analysed in balance with the permeability enhancement and the size of the stimulated reservoir. The model has two coupled components: 1) a flow model that solves the pressure diffusion equations, and 2) a stochastic seismicity model, which uses the transient pressure disturbances to trigger seismic events at so-called seed points. At triggering, a magnitude is randomly drawn from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution with a local b-value that depends on the stress state at the seed point. In the source area of the events the permeability is increased depending on the amount of slip, but only by a maximum factor of 200. Due to the stochastic nature of the modelling approach, a representative number of 500 model realizations are computed. The results demonstrate that planning and controlling of reservoir engineering operation may be compromised by the considerable variability of maximum observed magnitude, reservoir size, b-value and seismogenic index arising from the intrinsic virtually random nature of induced seismicity. We also find that injection volume has the highest impact on both reservoir size and seismic hazard, while changing injection rate and strategy at constant final injection volume has a negligible effect. However, the impact of site-specific parameters on seismicity and reservoir properties is greater than the volume effect. In particular, conditions that lead to high b-values - for instance a low differential stress level - have a high positive impact on seismic hazard. However, as smaller magnitudes contribute less to permeability enhancement the efficiency of stimulation is degraded in case of high b-value conditions. Nevertheless, target permeability enhancement can be still be achieved under high b-value condition without reaching an unacceptable seismic hazard level, if either initial permeability is already high or if several fractures are stimulated. The proposed modelling approach is a first step towards including induced seismic hazard analysis into the design of reservoir stimulation.

Gischig, V.; Wiemer, S.; Alcolea, A. R.

2013-12-01

36

Seismic fragility assessment of RC frame structure designed according to modern Chinese code for seismic design of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following several damaging earthquakes in China, research has been devoted to find the causes of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) building sand studying the vulnerability of existing buildings. The Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (CCSDB) has evolved over time, however, there is still reported earthquake induced damage of newly designed RC buildings. Thus, to investigate modern Chinese seismic design code, three low-, mid- and high-rise RC frames were designed according to the 2010 CCSDB and the corresponding vulnerability curves were derived by computing a probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM).The PSDM was computed by carrying out nonlinear time history analysis using thirty ground motions obtained from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Finally, the PSDM was used to generate fragility curves for immediate occupancy, significant damage, and collapse prevention damage levels. Results of the vulnerability assessment indicate that the seismic demands on the three different frames designed according to the 2010 CCSDB meet the seismic requirements and are almost in the same safety level.

Wu, D.; Tesfamariam, S.; Stiemer, S. F.; Qin, D.

2012-09-01

37

State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

2010-06-01

38

Next generation seismic fragility curves for California bridges incorporating the evolution in seismic design philosophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the seismic risk to highway bridges is crucial in pre-earthquake planning, and post-earthquake response of transportation systems. Such assessments provide valuable knowledge about a number of principal effects of earthquakes such as traffic disruption of the overall highway system, impact on the regions’ economy and post-earthquake response and recovery, and more recently serve as measures to quantify resilience. Unlike previous work, this study captures unique bridge design attributes specific to California bridge classes along with their evolution over three significant design eras, separated by the historic 1971 San Fernando and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes (these events affected changes in bridge seismic design philosophy). This research developed next-generation fragility curves for four multispan concrete bridge classes by synthesizing new knowledge and emerging modeling capabilities, and by closely coordinating new and ongoing national research initiatives with expertise from bridge designers. A multi-phase framework was developed for generating fragility curves, which provides decision makers with essential tools for emergency response, design, planning, policy support, and maximizing investments in bridge retrofit. This framework encompasses generational changes in bridge design and construction details. Parameterized high-fidelity three-dimensional nonlinear analytical models are developed for the portfolios of bridge classes within different design eras. These models incorporate a wide range of geometric and material uncertainties, and their responses are characterized under seismic loadings. Fragility curves were then developed considering the vulnerability of multiple components and thereby help to quantify the performance of highway bridge networks and to study the impact of seismic design principles on the performance within a bridge class. This not only leads to the development of fragility relations that are unique and better suited for bridges in California, but also leads to the creation of better bridge classes and sub-bins that have more consistent performance characteristics than those currently provided by the National Bridge Inventory. Another important feature of this research is associated with the development of damage state definitions and grouping of bridge components in a way that they have similar consequences in terms of repair and traffic implications following a seismic event. These definitions are in alignment with the California Department of Transportation’s design and operational experience, thereby enabling better performance assessment, emergency response, and management in the aftermath of a seismic event. The fragility curves developed as a part of this research will be employed in ShakeCast, a web-based post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data and generates potential damage assessment notifications for emergency managers and responders.

Ramanathan, Karthik Narayan

39

ABSTRACT: Modern seismic codes recommend the design of ductile structures able to absorb seismic energy through high plastic deformation. Since seismic ductile design relies on an accurate control of  

E-print Network

on the performance of capacity-designed steel-concrete composite moment resisting frames. KEY WORDS: Steel-concrete variability on the seismic capacity design of steel- concrete composite structures : a parametric study Hugues1 ABSTRACT: Modern seismic codes recommend the design of ductile structures able to absorb seismic

Boyer, Edmond

40

Review of selected recent research on US seismic design and retrofit  

E-print Network

Review of selected recent research on US seismic design and retrofit strategies for steel review of selected recent work on the development of solutions for the seismic design and retrofit limits for buildings, and shear links and truss piers for bridges. Key words: seismic; design; retrofit

Bruneau, Michel

41

SEISMIC REPONSE OF GRAVITY-LOAD DESIGN FRAMES WITH MASONRY INFILLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Comprehensive experimental-analytical studies on the seismic vulnerability of existing reinforced concrete frame buildings, designed for gravity-loads only as typically found in most seismic prone countries before the introduction of adequate seismic design code provisions, confirmed the inherent weaknesses of these systems, due to inadequate detailing and the lack of capacity design principles. Controversial effects on the global inelastic mechanism

Guido MAGENES; Stefano PAMPANIN

42

Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode: Or, How Not to Design Authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Banks worldwide are starting to authenticate online card transactions using the '3-D Secure' protocol, which is branded as Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode. This has been partly driven by the sharp increase in online fraud that followed the deployment of EMV smart cards for cardholder-present payments in Europe and elsewhere. 3-D Secure has so far escaped academic scrutiny; yet it might be a textbook example of how not to design an authentication protocol. It ignores good design principles and has significant vulnerabilities, some of which are already being exploited. Also, it provides a fascinating lesson in security economics. While other single sign-on schemes such as OpenID, InfoCard and Liberty came up with decent technology they got the economics wrong, and their schemes have not been adopted. 3-D Secure has lousy technology, but got the economics right (at least for banks and merchants); it now boasts hundreds of millions of accounts. We suggest a path towards more robust authentication that is technologically sound and where the economics would work for banks, merchants and customers - given a gentle regulatory nudge.

Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

43

Review of seismicity and ground motion studies related to development of seismic design at SRS  

SciTech Connect

The NRC response spectra developed in Reg. Guide 1.60 is being used in the studies related to restarting of the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. Because it envelopes all the other site specific spectra which have been developed for SRS, it provides significant conservatism in the design and analysis of the reactor systems for ground motions of this value or with these probability levels. This spectral shape is also the shape used for the design of the recently licensed Vogtle Nuclear Station, located south of the Savannah River from the SRS. This report provides a summary of the data base used to develop the design basis earthquake. This includes the seismicity, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and attenuation relationships. A summary is provided for the studies performed and methodologies used to establish the design basis earthquake for SRS. The ground motion response spectra developed from the various studies are also summarized. The seismic hazard and PGA`s developed for other critical facilities in the region are discussed, and the SRS seismic instrumentation is presented. The programs for resolving outstanding issues are discussed and conclusions are presented.

Stephenson, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Acree, J.R. [Westinghouse Environmental and Geotechnical Services, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

1992-08-01

44

Seismic-damage analysis and design of unreinforced masonry buildings  

SciTech Connect

A model for evaluating the structural damage to masonry buildings subjected to earthquake ground motion is proposed. Damage is expressed as a combination of the effects of excessive deformation and repeated loadings. Model parameters for unreinforced brick masonry were obtained from cyclic load tests of masonry-wall specimens. A random-vibration method using a nonlinear hysteretic restoring force model to describe the load-deformation behavior of masonry was adopted to evaluate the response statistics required for damage assessment. The proposed damage model was calibrated using observed damages to masonry buildings during past earthquakes. A simplified method for damage assessment, in which seismic damage is expressed as a ratio of the seismic loading to the structural resistance, is proposed. A damage-limiting design method, based on the equivalent lateral load procedure used in may building codes, is developed in which the base shear coefficient is expressed as a function of the damage level. Two design examples indicate the effectiveness of the design method to limit seismic damage to a tolerable level.

Kwok, Y.H.

1987-01-01

45

A New Design of Seismic Stations Deployed in South Tyrol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When designing the seismic network in South Tyrol, the seismic service of Austria and the Civil defense in South Tyrol combined more that 10 years experience in running seismic networks and private communication systems. In recent years the high data return rate of > 99% and network uptime of > 99.% is achieved by the combination of high quality station design and equipment, and the use of the Antelope data acquisition and processing software which comes with suite of network monitoring & alerting tools including Nagios, etc. The new Data Center is located in city of Bolzano and is connected to the other Data Centers in Austria, Switzerland, and Italy for data back up purposes. Each Data Center uses also redundant communication system if the primary system fails. When designing the South Tyrol network, new improvements were made in seismometer installations, grounding, lighting protection and data communications in order to improve quality of data recorded as well as network up-time, and data return. The new 12 stations are equipped with 6 Channels Q330+PB14f connected to STS2 + EpiSensor sensor. One of the key achievements was made in the grounding concept for the whole seismic station - and aluminum boxes were introduced which delivered Faraday cage isolation. Lightning protection devices are used for the equipment inside the aluminum housing where seismometer and data logger are housed. For the seismometer cables a special shielding was introduced. The broadband seismometer and strong-motion sensor are placed on a thick glass plate and therefore isolated from the ground. The precise seismometer orientation was done by a special groove on the glass plate and in case of a strong earthquake; the seismometer is tide up to the base plate. Temperature stability was achieved by styrofoam sheets inside the seismometer aluminum protection box.

Melichar, P.; Horn, N.

2007-05-01

46

Aseismic design procedures for reinforced concrete frames. Seismic behavior and design of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve reinforced concrete frames are designed for earthquake and gravity loads using three different procedures for determining the seismic design loads. The procedures are: (1) UBC static load approach; (2) modal analysis using inelastic response spectra; and (3) substitute structure method. The frames are of 4, 8 and 10 stories. The validity of each design procedure is evaluated by time-history

J. M. Biggs; W. K. Lau; D. Persinko

1979-01-01

47

Design and Prototype of a Coercion-Resistant, Verifiable Electronic Voting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In elections, it is important that voters be able to verify that the tally reflects the sum of the votes that were actually cast, as they were intended to be cast. It is also important that voters not be subject to coercion from adversaries. Currently most proposed voting systems fall short: they either do not provide both properties, or require

Anna Shubina; Sean W. Smith

2004-01-01

48

INNOVATIVE DESIGN AND TESTING OF A SEISMIC RETROFITTED STEEL DECK TRUSS  

E-print Network

INNOVATIVE DESIGN AND TESTING OF A SEISMIC RETROFITTED STEEL DECK TRUSS BRIDGE Dr. Majid Sarraf, P at Imbsen and Associates Inc. in Sacramento, CA. He is a lead project engineer, seismic analyst and retrofit of building and bridge structures, seismic evaluation and retrofit of bridges and behavior of steel

Bruneau, Michel

49

Seismicity and seismic response of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. On December 7, 1988, another strong earthquake struck northwest Armenia about 90 km north of the Armenia plant. Extensive damage of residential and industrial facilities occurred in the vicinity of the epicenter. The earthquake did not damage the Armenia plant. Following this event, the Soviet government announced that the plant would be shutdown permanently by March 18, 1989, and the station converted to a fossil-fired plant. This paper presents the results of the seismic analyses of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) plants. Also presented is the information concerning seismicity in the regions where VVERs are located and information on seismic design of VVERs. The reference units are the VVER-440 model V230 (similar to the two units of the Armenia plant) and the VVER-1000 model V320 units at Kozloduy in Bulgaria. This document provides an initial basis for understanding the seismicity and seismic response of VVERs under seismic events. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Purvis, E.E. III

1989-01-01

50

Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches.

Not Available

1980-04-01

51

Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

2006-10-01

52

Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

Not Available

1985-04-01

53

Research on seismic survey design for doubly complex areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex geological conditions in doubly complex areas tend to result in difficult surface survey operations and poor target layer imaging in the subsurface which has a great impact on seismic data quality. In this paper, we propose an optimal crooked line survey method for decreasing the surface survey operational difficulties and improving the sub-layer event continuity. The method concentrates on the surface shooting conditions, first, selecting the proper shot positions based on the specific surface topographic features to reduce the shot difficulties and then optimizing the receiver positioning to meet the prerequisite that the subsurface reflection points remain in a straight line. Using this method cannot only lower the shooting difficulty of rough surface condition areas but also overcome the subsurface reflection point bending problem appearing in the traditional crooked line survey method. On the other hand, we use local infill shooting rather than conventional overall infill shooting to improve sublayer event continuity and uniformity with lower survey operation cost. A model has been calculated and processed with the proposed optimal crooked line survey and local infill shooting design method workflow and the results show that this new method can work for seismic surveys in double complex areas.

Zhao, Hu; Yin, Cheng; Wu, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Pan, Shu-Lin

2012-06-01

54

Sliding stability and seismic design of retaining wall by pseudo-dynamic method for passive case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the influence of soil inertia and wall inertia on the design of a retaining wall is very important and more so under earthquake conditions. In this paper, by using the pseudo-dynamic seismic forces acting both on the soil and the wall, the design weight of the wall required under seismic conditions is determined under passive earth pressure conditions.

Sanjay Nimbalkar; Deepankar Choudhury

2007-01-01

55

Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ehinger, M.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1991-01-01

56

Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

2011-07-17

57

EVALUATING DESIGN AND VERIFYING COMPLIANCE OF CREATED WETLANDS IN THE VICINITY OF TAMPA, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Completed mitigation projects are being studied by the Wetlands Research Program nationwide to identify critical design features, develop methods for evaluating projects, determine the functions they perform, and describe how they change with time. his report is the second in a s...

58

Assessment of the impact of degraded shear wall stiffnesses on seismic plant risk and seismic design loads  

SciTech Connect

Test results sponsored by the USNRC have shown that reinforced shear wall (Seismic Category I) structures exhibit stiffnesses and natural frequencies which are smaller than those calculated in the design process. The USNRC has sponsored Sandia National Labs to perform an evaluation of the effects of the reduced frequencies on several existing seismic PRAs in order to determine the seismic risk implications inherent in these test results. This report presents the results for the re-evaluation of the seismic risk for three nuclear power plants: the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, and Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit 1 (ANO-1). Increases in core damage frequencies for seismic initiated events at Peach Bottom were 25 to 30 percent (depending on whether LLNL or EPRI hazard curves were used). At the ANO-1 site, the corresponding increases in plant risk were 10 percent (for each set of hazard curves). Finally, at Zion, there was essentially no change in the computed core damage frequency when the reduction in shear wall stiffness was included. In addition, an evaluation of deterministic ``design-like`` structural dynamic calculations with and without the shear stiffness reductions was made. Deterministic loads calculated for these two cases typically increased on the order of 10 to 20 percent for the affected structures.

Klamerus, E.W.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J.J.; Asfura, A.P.; Doyle, D.J. [EQE Engineering, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-02-01

59

Optimum inelastic design of seismic-resistant reinforced concrete frame structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preliminary design phase of a proposed inelastic design procedure comprises three steps: preliminary analysis, preliminary design, and analysis of the preliminary design. Seismic design story shears are found by a spectral modal analysis technique which includes an approximation to the P-delta effect. A nonlinear optimization technique (the cutting-plane method) is employed at each story to find the beam design

S. W. Zagajeski; V. V. Bertero

1980-01-01

60

A verified design of a fault-tolerant clock synchronization circuit: Preliminary investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schneider demonstrates that many fault tolerant clock synchronization algorithms can be represented as refinements of a single proven correct paradigm. Shankar provides mechanical proof that Schneider's schema achieves Byzantine fault tolerant clock synchronization provided that 11 constraints are satisfied. Some of the constraints are assumptions about physical properties of the system and cannot be established formally. Proofs are given that the fault tolerant midpoint convergence function satisfies three of the constraints. A hardware design is presented, implementing the fault tolerant midpoint function, which is shown to satisfy the remaining constraints. The synchronization circuit will recover completely from transient faults provided the maximum fault assumption is not violated. The initialization protocol for the circuit also provides a recovery mechanism from total system failure caused by correlated transient faults.

Miner, Paul S.

1992-01-01

61

Investigation of Optimal Seismic Design Methodology for Piping Systems Supported by Elasto-plastic Dampers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the applicability of a previously developed optimal seismic design methodology, which can consider the structural integrity of not only piping systems but also elasto-plastic supporting devices, is studied for seismic waves with various frequency characteristics. This methodology employs a genetic algorithm and can search the optimal conditions such as the supporting location and the capacity and stiffness of the supporting devices. Here, a lead extrusion damper is treated as a typical elasto-plastic damper. Numerical simulations are performed using a simple piping system model. As a result, it is shown that the proposed optimal seismic design methodology is applicable to the seismic design of piping systems subjected to seismic waves with various frequency characteristics. The mechanism of optimization is also clarified.

Ito, Tomohiro; Michiue, Masashi; Fujita, Katsuhisa

62

Seismic fragility of RC frame and wall-frame dual buildings designed to EN-Eurocodes  

E-print Network

Seismic fragility of RC frame and wall-frame dual buildings designed to EN- Eurocodes, 2013 University of Patras #12;#12;The dissertation entitled "Seismic fragility of RC frame and wall;#12;Abstract 1 ABSTRACT Fragility curves are constructed for structural members of regular reinforced concrete

63

Displacement-Based Design of Supplemental Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of a Framed Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure of direct displacement-based design DBD, presented in the SEOAC Blue Book, was modified to evaluate the seismic performance of existing structures. Then an optimum number of velocity-dependent supplemental dampers, such as viscous and viscoelastic dampers, required to reduce the seismic response of existing structures to a given performance limit state was evaluated. The proposed method was applied to

Jinkoo Kim; Hyunhoon Choi

2006-01-01

64

Technical Basis for Certification of Seismic Design Criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

In August 2007, Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman approved the final seismic and ground motion criteria for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Construction of the WTP began in 2002 based on seismic design criteria established in 1999 and a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The design criteria were reevaluated in 2005 to address questions from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. DOE announced in 2006 the suspension of construction on the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities within the WTP to validate the design with more stringent seismic criteria. In 2007, the U.S. Congress mandated that the Secretary of Energy certify the final seismic and ground motion criteria prior to expenditure of funds on construction of these two facilities. With the Secretary's approval of the final seismic criteria in the summer of 2007, DOE authorized restart of construction of the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities. The technical basis for the certification of seismic design criteria resulted from a two-year Seismic Boreholes Project that planned, collected, and analyzed geological data from four new boreholes drilled to depths of approximately 1400 feet below ground surface on the WTP site. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analyses was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The absence of directly-measured seismic shear wave velocities in the sedimentary interbeds resulted in the use of a wider and more conservative range of velocities in the 2005 analyses. The Seismic Boreholes Project was designed to directly measure the velocities and velocity contrasts in the basalts and sediments below the WTP, reanalyze the ground motion response, and assess the level of conservatism in the 2005 seismic design criteria. The characterization and analysis effort included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties (including uncertainties) of the basalt/interbed sequences, 2) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core-hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole, and 3) prediction of ground motion response to an earthquake using newly acquired and historic data. The data and analyses reflect a significant reduction in the uncertainty in shear wave velocities below the WTP and result in a significantly lower spectral acceleration (i.e., ground motion). The updated ground motion response analyses and corresponding design response spectra reflect a 25% lower peak horizontal acceleration than reflected in the 2005 design criteria. These results provide confidence that the WTP seismic design criteria are conservative. (authors)

Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Youngs, R.R. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Costantino, C.J. [C.J. Costantino and Associates, Valley, NY (United States); Miller, L.F. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

65

Engineering Seismic Base Layer for Defining Design Earthquake Motion  

SciTech Connect

Engineer's common sense that incident wave is common in a widespread area at the engineering seismic base layer is shown not to be correct. An exhibiting example is first shown, which indicates that earthquake motion at the ground surface evaluated by the analysis considering the ground from a seismic bedrock to a ground surface simultaneously (continuous analysis) is different from the one by the analysis in which the ground is separated at the engineering seismic base layer and analyzed separately (separate analysis). The reason is investigated by several approaches. Investigation based on eigen value problem indicates that the first predominant period in the continuous analysis cannot be found in the separate analysis, and predominant period at higher order does not match in the upper and lower ground in the separate analysis. The earthquake response analysis indicates that reflected wave at the engineering seismic base layer is not zero, which indicates that conventional engineering seismic base layer does not work as expected by the term 'base'. All these results indicate that wave that goes down to the deep depths after reflecting in the surface layer and again reflects at the seismic bedrock cannot be neglected in evaluating the response at the ground surface. In other words, interaction between the surface layer and/or layers between seismic bedrock and engineering seismic base layer cannot be neglected in evaluating the earthquake motion at the ground surface.

Yoshida, Nozomu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajo 1-13-1, Miyagi (Japan)

2008-07-08

66

Spent nuclear fuel project seismic design criteria, NRC equivalency evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

This Paper provides the basis for concluding that using the seismic design criteria, defined in DOE order 4580.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and its implementing standards provides safety equivalent to NRC criteria.

Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-30

67

Experimental investigation of damage behavior of RC frame members including non-seismically designed columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures are one of the mostly common used structural systems, and their seismic performance is largely determined by the performance of columns and beams. This paper describes horizontal cyclic loading tests of ten column and three beam specimens, some of which were designed according to the current seismic design code and others were designed according to the early non-seismic Chinese design code, aiming at reporting the behavior of the damaged or collapsed RC frame strctures observed during the Wenchuan earthquake. The effects of axial load ratio, shear span ratio, and transverse and longitudinal reinforcement ratio on hysteresis behavior, ductility and damage progress were incorporated in the experimental study. Test results indicate that the non-seismically designed columns show premature shear failure, and yield larger maximum residual crack widths and more concrete spalling than the seismically designed columns. In addition, longitudinal steel reinforcement rebars were severely buckled. The axial load ratio and shear span ratio proved to be the most important factors affecting the ductility, crack opening width and closing ability, while the longitudinal reinforcement ratio had only a minor effect on column ductility, but exhibited more influence on beam ductility. Finally, the transverse reinforcement ratio did not influence the maximum residual crack width and closing ability of the seismically designed columns.

Chen, Linzhi; Lu, Xilin; Jiang, Huanjun; Zheng, Jianbo

2009-06-01

68

SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

RYAN GW

2008-04-25

69

Performance-based seismic design of nonstructural building components: The next frontier of earthquake engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development and implementation of performance-based earthquake engineering, harmonization of performance levels between structural and nonstructural components becomes vital. Even if the structural components of a building achieve a continuous or immediate occupancy performance level after a seismic event, failure of architectural, mechanical or electrical components can lower the performance level of the entire building system. This reduction in performance caused by the vulnerability of nonstructural components has been observed during recent earthquakes worldwide. Moreover, nonstructural damage has limited the functionality of critical facilities, such as hospitals, following major seismic events. The investment in nonstructural components and building contents is far greater than that of structural components and framing. Therefore, it is not surprising that in many past earthquakes, losses from damage to nonstructural components have exceeded losses from structural damage. Furthermore, the failure of nonstructural components can become a safety hazard or can hamper the safe movement of occupants evacuating buildings, or of rescue workers entering buildings. In comparison to structural components and systems, there is relatively limited information on the seismic design of nonstructural components. Basic research work in this area has been sparse, and the available codes and guidelines are usually, for the most part, based on past experiences, engineering judgment and intuition, rather than on objective experimental and analytical results. Often, design engineers are forced to start almost from square one after each earthquake event: to observe what went wrong and to try to prevent repetitions. This is a consequence of the empirical nature of current seismic regulations and guidelines for nonstructural components. This review paper summarizes current knowledge on the seismic design and analysis of nonstructural building components, identifying major knowledge gaps that will need to be filled by future research. Furthermore, considering recent trends in earthquake engineering, the paper explores how performance-based seismic design might be conceived for nonstructural components, drawing on recent developments made in the field of seismic design and hinting at the specific considerations required for nonstructural components.

Filiatrault, Andre; Sullivan, Timothy

2014-08-01

70

Effective Parameters on Seismic Design of Rectangular Underground Structures  

SciTech Connect

Underground structures are a significant part of the transportation in the modern society and in the seismic zones should withstand against both seismic and static loadings. Embedded structures should conform to ground deformations during the earthquake but almost exact evaluation of structure to ground distortion is critical. Several two-dimensional finite difference models are used to find effective parameters on racking ratio (structure to ground distortion) including flexibility ratio, various cross sections, embedment depth, and Poisson's ratio of soil. Results show that influence of different cross sections, by themselves is negligible but embedment depth in addition to flexibility ratio and Poisson's ratio is known as a consequential parameter. A comparison with pseudo-static method (simplified frame analysis) is also performed. The results show that for a stiffer structure than soil, racking ratio decreases as the depth of burial decreases; on the other hand, shallow and flexible structures can suffer greater distortion than deeper ones up to 30 percents.

Amiri, G. Ghodrati [Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maddah, N.; Mohebi, B. [College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

71

Seismic design of the ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within an advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) plant, the principal safety-related system is the reactor and its auxiliary equipment, all housed within a tornado-hardened, seismic category I structure called the reactor facility. The PRISM reactor module selected for the ALMR program, with a 6.05-m (19-ft, 10-in.)-diam and a height of â¼18.9 m (62 ft) was considered to be the safety-related equipment

C. R. Snyder; F. F. Tajirian

1990-01-01

72

Evaluation of collapse resistance of RC frame structures for Chinese schools in seismic design categories B and C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (GB50011-2001), ten typical reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures, used as school classroom buildings, are designed with different seismic fortification intensities (SFIs) (SFI=6 to 8.5) and different seismic design categories (SDCs) (SDC=B and C). The collapse resistance of the frames with SDC=B and C in terms of collapse fragility curves are quantitatively evaluated and compared via incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). The results show that the collapse resistance of structures should be evaluated based on both the absolute seismic resistance and the corresponding design seismic intensity. For the frames with SFI from 6 to 7.5, because they have relatively low absolute seismic resistance, their collapse resistance is insufficient even when their corresponding SDCs are upgraded from B to C. Thus, further measures are needed to enhance these structures, and some suggestions are proposed.

Tang, Baoxin; Lu, Xinzheng; Ye, Lieping; Shi, Wei

2011-09-01

73

Investigation of Optimal Seismic Design Methodology for Piping Systems Supported by Elasto-Plastic Dampers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the optimal seismic design methodology that can consider the structural integrity of not only the piping systems but also elasto-plastic supporting devices is developed. This methodology employs a genetic algorithm and can search the optimal conditions such as the supporting location, capacity and stiffness of the supporting devices. Here, a lead extrusion damper is treated as a typical elasto-plastic damper. Four types of evaluation functions are considered. It is found that the proposed optimal seismic design methodology is very effective and can be applied to the actual seismic design for piping systems supported by elasto-plastic dampers. The effectiveness of the evaluation functions is also clarified.

Ito, Tomohiro; Michiue, Masashi; Fujita, Katsuhisa

74

USP Verified Dietary Supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... Services > USP Verified Dietary Supplements Tweet USP Verified Dietary Supplements USP Verified dietary supplements are products that have ... what it means . Where to Find USP Verified Dietary Supplements View USP Verified products and where they can ...

75

Reducing Uncertainty in the Seismic Design Basis for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The seismic design basis for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland was re-evaluated in 2005, resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. The original seismic design basis for the WTP was established in 1999 based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The 2005 analysis was performed to address questions raised by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) about the assumptions used in developing the original seismic criteria and adequacy of the site geotechnical surveys. The updated seismic response analysis used existing and newly acquired seismic velocity data, statistical analysis, expert elicitation, and ground motion simulation to develop interim design ground motion response spectra which enveloped the remaining uncertainties. The uncertainties in these response spectra were enveloped at approximately the 84. percentile to produce conservative design spectra, which contributed significantly to the increase in the seismic design basis. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analysis was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The velocity structure of the upper four basalt flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) and the inter-layered sedimentary interbeds (Ellensburg Formation) produces strong reductions in modeled earthquake ground motions propagating through them. Uncertainty in the strength of velocity contrasts between these basalts and interbeds primarily resulted from an absence of measured shear wave velocities (Vs) in the interbeds. For this study, Vs in the interbeds was estimated from older, limited compressional wave velocity (Vp) data using estimated ranges for the ratio of the two velocities (Vp/Vs) based on analogues in similar materials. A range of possible Vs for the interbeds and basalts was used and produced additional uncertainty in the resulting response spectra. Because of the sensitivity of the calculated response spectra to the velocity contrasts between the basalts and interbedded sediments, DOE initiated an effort to emplace additional boreholes at the WTP site and obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in these layers. One core-hole and three boreholes have been installed at the WTP site to a maximum depth of 1468 ft (447 m) below ground surface. The three boreholes are within 500 ft (152 m) of and surrounding the high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities of the WTP, which were the Performance Category 3 (PC-3) structures affected by the interim design spectra. The core-hole is co-located with the borehole closest to the two PC-3 structures. These new measurements are expected to reduce the uncertainty in the modeled site response that is caused by the lack of direct knowledge of the Vs contrasts within these layers. (authors)

Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Reidel, S.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, M.G. [EnergySolutions, Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

76

Development and validation of a metallic haunch seismic retrofit solution for existing under-designed RC frame buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 7 The feasibility and efficiency of a seismic retrofit solution for existing reinforced concrete frame systems, designed before the introduction of modern seismic-oriented design codes in the mid 1970s, is conceptually 9 presented and experimentally investigated. A diagonal metallic haunch system is introduced at the beam- column connections to protect the joint panel zone from extensive damage and brittle

Stefano Pampanin; Constantin Christopoulos; Te-Hsiu Chen

2006-01-01

77

Estimation of Cyclic Interstory Drift Capacity of Steel Framed Structures and Future Applications for Seismic Design  

PubMed Central

Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E.; Terán-Gilmore, Amador

2014-01-01

78

Estimation of cyclic interstory drift capacity of steel framed structures and future applications for seismic design.  

PubMed

Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E; Terán-Gilmore, Amador

2014-01-01

79

optimization of seismic network design: application to a geophysical international lunar network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the next decade, some lunar seismic experiments are planned under the international lunar network initiative, such as NASA ILN Anchor nodes mission or Lunette DISCOVERY proposal, JAXA SELENE-2 and LUNA-GLOB penetrator missions, during which 1 to 4 seismic stations will be deployed on the lunar surface. Yamada et al. (submitted) have described how to design the optimized network in order to obtain the best scientific gain from these future lunar landing missions. In this presentation, we will describe the expected gain from the new lunar seismic observations potentially obtained by the optimized network compared with past Apollo seismic experiments. From the Apollo seismic experiments, valuable information about the lunar interior structure was obtained using deep and shallow moonquakes, and meteoroid impacts (e.g., Nakamura et al., 1983, Lognonné et al., 2003). However, due to the limited sensitivity of Apollo lunar seismometers and the narrowness of the seismic network, the deep lunar structure, especially the core, was not properly retrieved. In addition, large uncertainties are associated with the inferred crustal thickness around the Apollo seismic stations. Improvements of these knowledge will help us to understand the origin of the Earth-Moon system and the initial differentiation of the Moon. Therefore, we have studied the optimization of a seismic network consisting of three or four new seismometers in order to place better constraints on the lunar mantle structure and /or crustal thickness. The network is designed to minimize the a posteriori errors and maximize the resolution of the velocity perturbations inside the mantle and /or the crust through a linear inverse method. For the inversion, the deep moonquakes from active sources already located by Apollo seismic data are used, because it is known that these events occur repeatedly at identical nests depending on tidal constraints. In addition, we use randomly distributed meteoroid impacts located either by the new seismic network or by detection of the impact flashes from Earth-based observation. The use of these impact events will greatly contribute to improve the knowledge of shallow structures, in particular the crust. Finally, a comparison between the a posteriori errors deduced from our optimized network with those of the Apollo network will indicate the potential of the optimized network and the expected scientific gain. This method will be a useful tool to consider for future geophysical network landing missions.

Yamada, R.; Garcia, R. F.; Lognonne, P.; Calvet, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Le Feuvre, M.

2010-12-01

80

Optimum inelastic design of seismic-resistant reinforced concrete frame structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preliminary design phase of a proposed inelastic design procedure comprises three steps: preliminary analysis, preliminary design, and analysis of the preliminary design. Seismic design story shears are found by a spectral modal analysis technique which includes an approximation to the P-delta effect. A nonlinear optimization technique (the cutting-plane method) is employed at each story to find the beam design moment capacities which minimize a function proportional to the volume of flexural reinforcement. Design constraints are imposed to ensure that a safe, serviceable, and practical design results. Actual member design is found employing computer design aids. In the final step, the preliminary design is analyzed to evaluate its acceptability. Acceptability is determined by comparing the results of a series of linear elastic and nonlinear analysis with established design criteria and assumptions made in formulating the design problem.

Zagajeski, S. W.; Bertero, V. V.

1980-01-01

81

A Proposal of Design Spectrum Based on Uniform Hazard Spectral Format Using 4th Generation Seismic Hazard Maps of Canada for CHBDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent developments have come into the forefront with reference to updating the seismic design provisions for codes: (i) publication of new seismic hazard maps for Canada by the Geological Survey of Canada, and (ii) emergence of the concept of new spectral format outdating the conventional standardized spectral format. The 4th generation seismic hazard maps are based on enriched seismic

Ali Ahmed

2010-01-01

82

Seismic assessment of an industrial frame structure designed according to Eurocodes. Part 2: Capacity and vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with validation and discussion of concepts for seismic design using the experimental data and numerical models for the cast-in-situ one storey RC frame. On their basis the displacement ductility and behaviour factor supply are estimated. The vulnerability of the structure is estimated by fragility analysis based on fitting the numerical models of the structural response in different

S. L. Dimova; P. Negro

2005-01-01

83

Risk-Targeted versus Current Seismic Design Maps for the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The probabilistic portions of the seismic design maps in the NEHRP Provisions (FEMA, 2003/2000/1997), and in the International Building Code (ICC, 2006/2003/2000) and ASCE Standard 7-05 (ASCE, 2005a), provide ground motion values from the USGS that have a 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Under the assumption that the capacity against collapse of structures designed for these "uniformhazard" ground motions is equal to, without uncertainty, the corresponding mapped value at the location of the structure, the probability of its collapse in 50 years is also uniform. This is not the case however, when it is recognized that there is, in fact, uncertainty in the structural capacity. In that case, siteto-site variability in the shape of ground motion hazard curves results in a lack of uniformity. This paper explains the basis for proposed adjustments to the uniform-hazard portions of the seismic design maps currently in the NEHRP Provisions that result in uniform estimated collapse probability. For seismic design of nuclear facilities, analogous but specialized adjustments have recently been defined in ASCE Standard 43-05 (ASCE, 2005b). In support of the 2009 update of the NEHRP Provisions currently being conducted by the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC), herein we provide examples of the adjusted ground motions for a selected target collapse probability (or target risk). Relative to the probabilistic MCE ground motions currently in the NEHRP Provisions, the risk-targeted ground motions for design are smaller (by as much as about 30%) in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, near Charleston, South Carolina, and in the coastal region of Oregon, with relatively little (<15%) change almost everywhere else in the conterminous U.S.

Luco, Nicolas; Ellingwood, Bruce R.; Hamburger, Ronald O.; Hooper, John D.; Kimball, Jeffrey K.; Kircher, Charles A.

2007-01-01

84

Seismic design of circular-section concrete-lined underground openings: Preclosure performance considerations for the Yucca Mountain Site  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, the potential site of a repository for high-level radioactive waste, is situated in a region of natural and man-made seismicity. Underground openings excavated at this site must be designed for worker safety in the seismic environment anticipated for the preclosure period. This includes accesses developed for site characterization regardless of the ultimate outcome of the repository siting process. Experience with both civil and mining structures has shown that underground openings are much more resistant to seismic effects than surface structures, and that even severe dynamic strains can usually be accommodated with proper design. This paper discusses the design and performance of lined openings in the seismic environment of the potential site. The types and ranges of possible ground motions (seismic loads) are briefly discussed. Relevant historical records of underground opening performance during seismic loading are reviewed. Simple analytical methods of predicting liner performance under combined in situ, thermal, and seismic loading are presented, and results of calculations are discussed in the context of realistic performance requirements for concrete-lined openings for the preclosure period. Design features that will enhance liner stability and mitigate the impact of the potential seismic load are reviewed. The paper is limited to preclosure performance concerns involving worker safety because present decommissioning plans specify maintaining the option for liner removal at seal locations, thus decoupling liner design from repository postclosure performance issues.

Richardson, A.M. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Blejwas, T.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-07-01

85

A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy for waste repository facilities  

SciTech Connect

A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy, compatible with DOE`s present natural phenomena hazards mitigation and ``graded approach`` philosophy, has been proposed for high level nuclear waste repository facilities. The rationale, evolution, and the desirable features of this method have been described. Why and how the method should and can be applied to the design of a repository facility are also discussed.

Hossain, Q.A.

1994-02-01

86

Piles in liquefiable soils: seismic analysis and design issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general picture of the current state of the art and the emerging technology for dealing effectively with the design and analysis of pile foundations in liquefiable soils is presented. Two distinct design cases are considered and illustrated by case histories. One is pile response to strong shaking accompanied by the development of high pore water pressures or liquefaction and

W. D. L Finn; N Fujita

2002-01-01

87

Effects of surface topography on ground shaking prediction: implications for seismic hazard analysis and recommendations for seismic design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the role of topographic effects on the prediction of earthquake ground motion. Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are mathematical models that estimate the shaking level induced by an earthquake as a function of several parameters, such as magnitude, source-to-site distance, style of faulting and ground type. However, little importance is given to the effects of topography, which, as known, may play a significant role on the level, duration and frequency content of ground motion. Ridges and crests are often lost inside the large number of sites considered in the definition of a GMPE. Hence, it is presumable that current GMPEs are unable to accurately predict the shaking level at the top of a relief. The present work, which follows the article of Massa et al. about topographic effects, aims at overcoming this limitation by amending an existing GMPE with an additional term to account for the effects of surface topography at a specific site. First, experimental ground motion values and ground motions predicted by the attenuation model of Bindi et al. for five case studies are compared and contrasted in order to quantify their discrepancy and to identify anomalous behaviours of the sites investigated. Secondly, for the site of Narni (Central Italy), amplification factors derived from experimental measurements and numerical analyses are compared and contrasted, pointing out their impact on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and design norms. In particular, with reference to the Italian building code, our results have highlighted the inadequacy of the national provisions concerning the definition of the seismic load at top of ridges and crests, evidencing a significant underestimation of ground motion around the site resonance frequency.

Barani, Simone; Massa, Marco; Lovati, Sara; Spallarossa, Daniele

2014-06-01

88

Design methodologies for the seismic retrofitting of bridges  

E-print Network

This paper formulates an earthquake design strategy for bridges. Earthquakes can cause extreme economic damage and loss of life. Structural engineers must be conscience of earthquake slip type, earthquake proximity, and ...

Otenti, Alexander A. (Alexander Alfred), 1981-

2004-01-01

89

Effect of URM infills on seismic vulnerability of Indian code designed RC frame buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unreinforced Masonry (URM) is the most common partitioning material in framed buildings in India and many other countries. Although it is well-known that under lateral loading the behavior and modes of failure of the frame buildings change significantly due to infill-frame interaction, the general design practice is to treat infills as nonstructural elements and their stiffness, strength and interaction with the frame is often ignored, primarily because of difficulties in simulation and lack of modeling guidelines in design codes. The Indian Standard, like many other national codes, does not provide explicit insight into the anticipated performance and associated vulnerability of infilled frames. This paper presents an analytical study on the seismic performance and fragility analysis of Indian code-designed RC frame buildings with and without URM infills. Infills are modeled as diagonal struts as per ASCE 41 guidelines and various modes of failure are considered. HAZUS methodology along with nonlinear static analysis is used to compare the seismic vulnerability of bare and infilled frames. The comparative study suggests that URM infills result in a significant increase in the seismic vulnerability of RC frames and their effect needs to be properly incorporated in design codes.

Haldar, Putul; Singh, Yogendra; Paul, D. K.

2012-03-01

90

Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatoriesRecent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and  

E-print Network

observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and SeisComPSeisComP Jean-Marie SAUREL (2,1), Frédéric RANDRIAMORA (3 observatories community : EarthWorm and SeisComP. The first is renowned for its ability to process real time

Beauducel, François

91

Review of selected recent research on US seismic design and retrofit strategies for steel structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper provides a brief review of selected recent work on the development of solutions for the seismic design and retrofit of steel structures by various members of the US research community. In particular, this paper focuses on research on retrofit of beam-to-column moment connections, frame modifications at beams' mid- span, self-centering systems, zipper frames, buckling-restrained braced frames, steel

Michel Bruneau; Michael Engelhardt; Andre Filiatrault; S C Goel; Ahmad Itani; Jerome Hajjar; Roberto Leon; James Ricles; Bozidar Stojadinovic; Chia-Ming Uang

2005-01-01

92

Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 1. Special topics in earthquake ground motion  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into twelve chapters: seismic hazard analysis procedures, statistical and probabilistic considerations, vertical ground motion characteristics, vertical ground response spectrum shapes, effects of inclined rock strata on site response, correlation of ground response spectra with intensity, intensity attenuation relationships, peak ground acceleration in the very mean field, statistical analysis of response spectral amplitudes, contributions of body and surface waves, evaluation of ground motion characteristics, and design earthquake motions. (DLC)

Reddy, D.P.

1983-04-01

93

Durability based design of FRP jackets for seismic retrofit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although FRP composites are increasingly being used for the rehabilitation of civil infrastructure, there is still a lack of well documented long-term durability data, and of design methodologies that explicitly consider effects of deterioration over time at a structural level. This paper provides results of an investigation aimed at assessing the effect of deterioration over time, at the materials level,

Rebecca Ann Walker; Vistasp M. Karbhari

2007-01-01

94

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA OF DOE-STD-1189-2008 APPENDIX A [FULL PAPER  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the approach taken by two Fluor Hanford projects for implementing of the seismic design criteria from DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A. The existing seismic design criteria and the new seismic design criteria is described, and an assessment of the primary differences provided. The gaps within the new system of seismic design criteria, which necessitate conduct of portions of work to the existing technical standards pending availability of applicable industry standards, is discussed. Two Hanford Site projects currently in the Control Decision (CD)-1 phase of design have developed an approach to implementation of the new criteria. Calculations have been performed to determine the seismic design category for one project, based on information available in early CD-1. The potential effects of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A seismic design criteria on the process of project alternatives analysis is discussed. Present of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008.

OMBERG SK

2008-05-14

95

A Seismic Design Method for Steel Concentric Braced Frames (CBFs)  

E-print Network

Story 10% in 50 years ground motion10% in 50 years ground motion 2% in 50 years ground motion2% in 50 = 200) 4. Pre-Selected Target Story Drift = 1.25%1.25% (under 10%/50 years hazard) 5. Modified Design--PBPD:PBPD: 10% in 50 years ground motion10% in 50 years ground motion 2% in 50 years ground motion2% in 50 years

Chao, Shih-Ho

96

EVALUATING DESIGN AND VERIFYING COMPLIANCE OF WETLANDS CREATED UNDER SECTION 404 OF THE CLEAN WATER ACT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Permit specifications, construction plans, and field measurements were used to examine the correlation between design and conditions "asbuilt" in a population of 11 palustrine emergent marshes created in the metropolitan area of Portland, Oregon between 1980-1986. he projects ran...

97

Intelligent monitoring of seismic damage identification using wireless smart sensors: design and validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural health monitoring (SHM) has been adopted as a technique to monitor the structure performance to detect damage in aging infrastructure. The ultimate goals of implementing an SHM system are to improve infrastructure maintenance, increase public safety, and minimize the economic impact of an extreme loading event by streamlining repair and retrofit measures. With the recent advances in wireless communication technology, wireless SHM systems have emerged as a promising alternative solution for rapid, accurate and low-cost structural monitoring. This article presents an enabling, developing damage algorithm to advance the detection and diagnosis of damage to structures for SHM using networks of wireless smart sensors. Networks of wireless smart sensors are being used as a vibration based structural monitoring network that allows extraction of mode shapes from output-only vibration data from an underground structure. The mode shape information can further be used in modal methods of damage detection. These sensors are being used to experimentally verify analytical models of post-earthquake evaluation based on system identification analysis. Damage measurement system could play a significant role in monitoring/recording with a higher level of completeness the actual seismic response of structures and in non-destructive seismic damage assessment techniques based on dynamic signature analysis.

Kim, Jinho; Jang, Young-Du; Jang, Won-rak

2011-04-01

98

On standard and optimal designs of industrial-scale 2-D seismic surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal aim of performing a survey or experiment is to maximize the desired information within a data set by minimizing the post-survey uncertainty on the ranges of the model parameter values. Using Bayesian, non-linear, statistical experimental design (SED) methods we show how industrial scale amplitude variations with offset (AVO) surveys can be constructed to maximize the information content contained in AVO crossplots, the principal source of petrophysical information from seismic surveys. The design method allows offset dependent errors, previously not allowed in non-linear geoscientific SED methods. The method is applied to a single common-midpoint gather. The results show that the optimal design is highly dependent on the ranges of the model parameter values when a low number of receivers is being used, but that a single optimal design exists for the complete range of parameters once the number of receivers is increased above a threshold value. However, when acquisition and processing costs are considered we find that a design with constant spatial receiver separation survey becomes close to optimal. This explains why regularly-spaced, 2-D seismic surveys have performed so well historically, not only from the point of view of noise attenuation and imaging in which homogeneous data coverage confers distinct advantages, but also to provide data to constrain subsurface petrophysical information.

Guest, T.; Curtis, A.

2011-08-01

99

SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)  

SciTech Connect

This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs.

(NOEMAIL), R

2005-12-14

100

Implementation of seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 1992, a draft of the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances was issued. The guidelines were prepared by the Tanks Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) and this task was sponsored by DOE, Environmental Management. The TSEP is comprised of a number of consultants known for their knowledge of seismic ground motion and expertise in the analysis of structures, systems and components subjected to seismic loads. The development of these guidelines was managed by staff from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Engineering Research and Applications Division, Department of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes the process used to incorporate the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the DOE High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances into the design criteria for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Project at the Hanford Site. This project will design and construct six new high-level waste tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. This paper also discusses the vehicles used to ensure compliance to these guidelines throughout Title 1 and Title 2 design phases of the project as well as the strategy used to ensure consistent and cost-effective application of the guidelines by the structural analysts. The paper includes lessons learned and provides recommendations for other tank design projects which might employ the TSEP guidelines.

Conrads, T.J.

1993-06-01

101

Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 4. Use of fragility in seismic design of nuclear plant equipment. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which have covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 4 presents study of the use of fragility concepts in the design of nuclear plant equipment and compares the results of state-of-the-art proof testing with fragility testing.

Kana, D. D.; Pomerening, D. J.

1984-08-01

102

AP1000{sup R} design robustness against extreme external events - Seismic, flooding, and aircraft crash  

SciTech Connect

Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) require existing and new nuclear power plants to conduct plant assessments to demonstrate the unit's ability to withstand external hazards. The events that occurred at the Fukushima-Dai-ichi nuclear power station demonstrated the importance of designing a nuclear power plant with the ability to protect the plant against extreme external hazards. The innovative design of the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant provides unparalleled protection against catastrophic external events which can lead to extensive infrastructure damage and place the plant in an extended abnormal situation. The AP1000 plant is an 1100-MWe pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. The plant's compact safety related footprint and protection provided by its robust nuclear island structures prevent significant damage to systems, structures, and components required to safely shutdown the plant and maintain core and spent fuel pool cooling and containment integrity following extreme external events. The AP1000 nuclear power plant has been extensively analyzed and reviewed to demonstrate that it's nuclear island design and plant layout provide protection against both design basis and extreme beyond design basis external hazards such as extreme seismic events, external flooding that exceeds the maximum probable flood limit, and malicious aircraft impact. The AP1000 nuclear power plant uses fail safe passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems (such as AC power, component cooling water, service water, compressed air or HVAC). The plant has been designed to protect systems, structures, and components critical to placing the reactor in a safe shutdown condition within the steel containment vessel which is further surrounded by a substantial 'steel concrete' composite shield building. The containment vessel is not affected by external flooding, and the shield building design provides hazard protection beyond that provided by a comparable reinforced concrete structure. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the robustness of the AP1000 design against extreme events. The paper will focus on the plants ability to withstand extreme external events such as beyond design basis flooding, seismic events, and malicious aircraft impact. The paper will highlight the robustness of the AP1000 nuclear island design including the protection provided by the unique AP1000 composite shield building. (authors)

Pfister, A.; Goossen, C.; Coogler, K.; Gorgemans, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

2012-07-01

103

Ground motion values for use in the seismic design of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The proposed trans-Alaska oil pipeline, which would traverse the state north to south from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast to Valdez on Prince William Sound, will be subject to serious earthquake hazards over much of its length. To be acceptable from an environmental standpoint, the pipeline system is to be designed to minimize the potential of oil leakage resulting from seismic shaking, faulting, and seismically induced ground deformation. The design of the pipeline system must accommodate the effects of earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.5 to 8.5 as specified in the 'Stipulations for Proposed Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System.' This report characterizes ground motions for the specified earthquakes in terms of peak levels of ground acceleration, velocity, and displacement and of duration of shaking. Published strong motion data from the Western United States are critically reviewed to determine the intensity and duration of shaking within several kilometers of the slipped fault. For magnitudes 5 and 6, for which sufficient near-fault records are available, the adopted ground motion values are based on data. For larger earthquakes the values are based on extrapolations from the data for smaller shocks, guided by simplified theoretical models of the faulting process.

Page, Robert A.; Boore, D.M.; Joyner, W.B.; Coulter, H.W.

1972-01-01

104

A Multi-Objective Advanced Design Methodology of Composite Beam-to-Column Joints Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads  

SciTech Connect

A multi-objective advanced design methodology dealing with seismic actions followed by fire on steel-concrete composite full strength joints with concrete filled tubes is proposed in this paper. The specimens were designed in detail in order to exhibit a suitable fire behaviour after a severe earthquake. The major aspects of the cyclic behaviour of composite joints are presented and commented upon. The data obtained from monotonic and cyclic experimental tests have been used to calibrate a model of the joint in order to perform seismic simulations on several moment resisting frames. A hysteretic law was used to take into account the seismic degradation of the joints. Finally, fire tests were conducted with the objective to evaluate fire resistance of the connection already damaged by an earthquake. The experimental activity together with FE simulation demonstrated the adequacy of the advanced design methodology.

Pucinotti, Raffaele [Department of Mechanics and Materials, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, loc. Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, 89126 (Italy); Ferrario, Fabio; Bursi, Oreste S. [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 7, Trento, 38050 (Italy)

2008-07-08

105

Prediction of seismic damage in reinforced concrete frames. Seismic behavior and design of buildings, report no. 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and testing of a rigorous model to identify and predict local damage in reinforced concrete frames under seismic loads are reported. Analytical models for inelastic behavior of reinforced concrete members were used to analyze a set of static load tests under a variety of loading conditions. Other damage indicators such as dissipated energy and cumulative plastic rotation were measured for each test. Results of the sample were used to develop a stochastic model of damage for reinforced concrete members.

Banon, H.; Biggs, J. M.; Irvine, H. M.

1980-05-01

106

The optimum design of time delay in time-domain seismic beam-forming based on receiver array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, it is hard to bring high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data in seismic prospecting in the mining area especially when noise in the field is strong. To improve the quality of seismic data from complicated ore body, we developed Time-domain Seismic Beam-forming Based on Receiver Array (TSBBRA) method, which can extract directional wave beam in any direction. But only the direction parameter from the target body matches with the direction of reflected waves, the quality of reflected seismic data can be improved. So it's important to determine the direction of reflected waves from target bodies underground. In addition, previous studies have shown that the time delay parameter of TSBBRA can be used to control the direction of the main beam, so it is of great significance for studying the optimization design of the delay time parameter of TSBBRA. The optimum design of time delay is involved in seismic pre-processing, which uses delay and sum in time-domain to form directional reflected seismic beam with the strongest energy of the specified receiving array. Firstly, we establish the velocity model according to the original seismic records and profiles of the assigned exploration area. Secondly, we simulate the propagation of seismic wave and the response of receiver array with finite-difference method. Then, we calculate optimum beam direction from assigned reflection targets and give directional diagrams. And then we synthetize seismic records with a group of time delay using TSBBRA, give the curves that energy varies with time-delay, and obtain the optimum time-delay. The results are as follows: The optimum delay time is 1.125 ms, 0.625 ms, 0.500 ms for reflected wave that form first, second and third target. Besides, to analyze the performance of TSBBRA, we calculated SNR of reflected wave signal before and after TABBRA processing for the given model. The result shows that SNR increased by 1.2~9.4 dB with TSBBRA averagely. In conclusion, the optimum design of time delay of TSBBRA based on wave equation is an effective method to improve SNR of seismic data in the exploration of complicated ore body.

Ge, L.; Jiang, T.; Xu, X.; Jia, H.; Yang, Z.

2013-12-01

107

Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

108

On the Need for Reliable Seismic Input Assessment for Optimized Design and Retrofit of Seismically Isolated Civil and Industrial Structures, Equipment, and Cultural Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the experience of recent violent earthquakes, the limits of the methods that are currently used for the definition of seismic hazard are becoming more and more evident to several seismic engineers. Considerable improvement is felt necessary not only for the seismic classification of the territory (for which the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment—PSHA—is generally adopted at present), but also for the evaluation of local amplification. With regard to the first item, among others, a better knowledge of fault extension and near-fault effects is judged essential. The aforesaid improvements are particularly important for the design of seismically isolated structures, which relies on displacement. Thus, such a design requires an accurate definition of the maximum value of displacement corresponding to the isolation period, and a reliable evaluation of the earthquake energy content at the low frequencies that are typical of the isolated structures, for the site and ground of interest. These evaluations shall include possible near-fault effects even in the vertical direction; for the construction of high-risk plants and components and retrofit of some cultural heritage, they shall be performed for earthquakes characterized by very long return periods. The design displacement shall not be underestimated, but neither be excessively overestimated, at least when using rubber bearings in the seismic isolation (SI) system. In fact, by decreasing transverse deformation of such SI systems below a certain value, their horizontal stiffness increases. Thus, should a structure (e.g. a civil defence centre, a masterpiece, etc.) protected in the aforesaid way be designed to withstand an unnecessarily too large earthquake, the behaviour of its SI system will be inadequate (i.e. it will be too stiff) during much more frequent events, which may really strike the structure during its life. Furthermore, since SI can be used only when the room available to the structure laterally is sufficient to create a structural gap compatible with the design displacement, overestimating this displacement may lead to unnecessarily renouncing of the use of such a very efficient method, especially in the case of retrofits of existing buildings. Finally, for long structures (e.g. several bridges or viaducts and even some buildings) an accurate evaluation of the possibly different ground displacements along the structure is required (this also applies to conventionally built structures). In order to overcome the limits of PSHA, this method shall be complemented by the development and application of deterministic models. In particular, the lack of displacement records requires the use of modelling, once they are calibrated against more commonly available velocity or acceleration records. The aforesaid remarks are now particularly important in the P.R. China and Italy, to ensure safe reconstruction after the Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008 and the Abruzzo earthquake of April 6, 2009: in fact, wide use of SI and other anti-seismic systems has been planned in the areas struck by both events.

Martelli, Alessandro

2011-01-01

109

Spatial correlation analysis of seismic noise for STAR X-ray infrastructure design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian PON MaTeRiA project is focused on the creation of a research infrastructure open to users based on an innovative and evolutionary X-ray source. This source, named STAR (Southern Europe TBS for Applied Research), exploits the Thomson backscattering process of a laser radiation by fast-electron beams (Thomson Back Scattering - TBS). Its main performances are: X-ray photon flux 109-1010 ph/s, Angular divergence variable between 2 and 10 mrad, X-ray energy continuously variable between 8 keV and 150 keV, Bandwidth ?E/E variable between 1 and 10%, ps time resolved structure. In order to achieve this performances, bunches of electrons produced by a photo-injector are accelerated to relativistic velocities by a linear accelerator section. The electron beam, few hundreds of micrometer wide, is driven by magnetic fields to the interaction point along a 15 m transport line where it is focused in a 10 micrometer-wide area. In the same area, the laser beam is focused after being transported along a 12 m structure. Ground vibrations could greatly affect the collision probability and thus the emittance by deviating the paths of the beams during their travel in the STAR source. Therefore, the study program to measure ground vibrations in the STAR site can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. The environmental and facility noise may affect the X-ray operation especially if the predominant wavelengths in the microtremor wavefield are much smaller than the size of the linear accelerator. For wavelength much greater, all the accelerator parts move in phase, and therefore also large displacements cannot generate any significant effect. On the other hand, for wavelengths equal or less than half the accelerator size several parts could move in phase opposition and therefore small displacements could affect its proper functioning. Thereafter, it is important to characterize the microtremor wavefield in both frequencies and wavelengths domains. For this reason, we performed some measurements of seismic noise in order to characterize the environmental noise in the site in which the X-ray accelerator arise. For the characterization of the site, we carried out several passive seismic monitoring experiments at different times of the day and in different weather conditions. We recorded microtremor using an array of broadband 3C seismic sensors arranged along the linear accelerator. For each measurement point, we determined the displacement, velocity and acceleration spectrogram and power spectral density of both horizontal and vertical components. We determined also the microtremor horizontal to vertical spectral ratio as function of azimuth to individuate the main ground vibration direction and detect the existence of site or building resonance frequencies. We applied a rotation matrix to transform the North-South and East-West signal components in transversal and radial components, respect to the direction of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, for each couple of seismic stations we determined the coherence function to analyze the seismic noise spatial correlation. These analyses have allowed us to exhaustively characterize the seismic noise of the study area, from the point of view of the power and space-time variability, both in frequency and wavelength.

D'Alessandro, Antonino; Agostino, Raffaele; Festa, Lorenzo; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio; Palmer, Dennis T.; Serafini, Luca

2014-05-01

110

Verifying Diagnostic Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Livingstone PathFinder (LPF) is a simulation-based computer program for verifying autonomous diagnostic software. LPF is designed especially to be applied to NASA s Livingstone computer program, which implements a qualitative-model-based algorithm that diagnoses faults in a complex automated system (e.g., an exploratory robot, spacecraft, or aircraft). LPF forms a software test bed containing a Livingstone diagnosis engine, embedded in a simulated operating environment consisting of a simulator of the system to be diagnosed by Livingstone and a driver program that issues commands and faults according to a nondeterministic scenario provided by the user. LPF runs the test bed through all executions allowed by the scenario, checking for various selectable error conditions after each step. All components of the test bed are instrumented, so that execution can be single-stepped both backward and forward. The architecture of LPF is modular and includes generic interfaces to facilitate substitution of alternative versions of its different parts. Altogether, LPF provides a flexible, extensible framework for simulation-based analysis of diagnostic software; these characteristics also render it amenable to application to diagnostic programs other than Livingstone.

Lindsey, Tony; Pecheur, Charles

2004-01-01

111

Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

2008-07-01

112

Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results  

SciTech Connect

For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso [Dipartimento di Modellistica per l'Ingegneria, Universita della Calabria, 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

2008-07-08

113

From Verified Models to Verifiable Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Declarative specifications of digital systems often contain parts that can be automatically translated into executable code. Automated code generation may reduce or eliminate the kinds of errors typically introduced through manual code writing. For this approach to be effective, the generated code should be reasonably efficient and, more importantly, verifiable. This paper presents a prototype code generator for the Prototype Verification System (PVS) that translates a subset of PVS functional specifications into an intermediate language and subsequently to multiple target programming languages. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the tool's functionality. The generated code can be analyzed by software verification tools such as verification condition generators, static analyzers, and software model-checkers to increase the confidence that the generated code is correct.

Lensink, Leonard; Munoz, Cesar A.; Goodloe, Alwyn E.

2009-01-01

114

Fragility curves for risk-targeted seismic design maps1 Thomas Ulrich*, Caterina Negulescu and John Douglas2  

E-print Network

1 Fragility curves for risk-targeted seismic design maps1 Thomas Ulrich*, Caterina Negulescu probabilistic analysis with the derivative of fragility18 curves expressing the chance for a code acceleration, PGA). There are few published fragility20 curves for structures respecting the Eurocodes (ECs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Optimal Performance Based Seismic Design for 2D Fully Restrained Steel Moment Resisting Frames with Various Performance Objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract After Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD) was introduced, many studies (e.g. SAC Project) have been performed and the concept of PBSD has recently been included in the structural codes of many countries. However, because PBSD based on nonlinear analysis is not applicable to practical affairs due to the difficulty of procedures, optimization is needed in PBD procedures, and some

Bong Keun Kwon; Ji Hyun Seo; Yun Han Kwon; Hyo Seon Park

116

Significance of Various Design and Assessment Parameters on Seismic Collapse Safety Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary goal of the seismic design requirements of building codes is to protect life safety of building inhabitants during extreme earthquakes. First and foremost, this requires ensuring that the likelihood of structural collapse remains at an acceptably low level. In achieving this goal, the typical approach has been to develop prescriptive and empirical building code requirements for structural strength,

Curt B. HASELTON; Abbie B. LIEL; Gregory G. DEIERLEIN

117

CHARACTERIZING THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE FOR DEVELOPING SEISMIC DESIGN GROUND MOTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the designated site for the first long-term geologic repository to safely dispose spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste in the U.S. Yucca Mountain consists of stacked layers of welded and non-welded volcanic tuffs. Site characterization studies are being performed to assess its future performance as a permanent geologic repository. These studies include the characterization of the shear-wave velocity (Vs) structure of the repository block and the surface facilities area. The Vs data are an input in the calculations of ground motions for the preclosure seismic design and for postclosure performance assessment and therefore their accurate estimation is needed. Three techniques have been employed: 24 downhole surveys, 15 suspension seismic logging surveys and 95 spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) surveys have been performed to date at the site. The three data sets were compared with one another and with Vs profiles developed from vertical seismic profiling data collected by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and with Vs profiles developed independently by the University of Nevada, Reno using the refraction microtremor technique. Based on these data, base case Vs profiles have been developed and used in site response analyses. Since the question of adequate sampling arises in site characterization programs and a correlation between geology and Vs would help address this issue, a possible correlation was evaluated. To assess the influence of different factors on velocity, statistical analyses of the Vs data were performed using the method of multi-factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results of this analysis suggest that the effect of each of three factors, depth, lithologic unit, and spatial location, on velocity is statistically significant. Furthermore, velocity variation with depth is different at different spatial locations: Preliminary results show that the lithologic unit alone explains about 54% and 42% of the velocity variation in the suspension and downhole data sets, respectively. The three factors together explain about 73% and 81% of the velocity variation in the suspension and downhole data sets, respectively. Development of a relationship, using multiple regression analysis, which may be used as a predictive tool to estimate velocity at a new location, is currently being examined.

S. Upadhyaya, I. Wong, R. Kulkarni, K. Stokoe, M. Dober, W. Silva, and R. Quittmeyer

2006-02-24

118

Enhancement of Seismic Performance Using Shear Link Braces in a Building Designed Only for Gravity Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work attempts to study the behaviour of building designed for gravity loads only under the effect of lateral seismic load. Such a building is generally deficient against lateral forces and need to be retrofitted against lateral earthquake forces. A retrofitting scheme by providing aluminium shear link with chevron braces is suggested to improve its performance. Past earthquakes have shown a great deal of damages to the deficient RC frame buildings designed without any consideration to the lateral earthquake forces. Chevron braces with the aluminium shear link can be implemented as an effective retrofit measure. A comparison of the performance of building initially designed for gravity load only with the retrofitted building using chevron braces with the aluminium shear link is presented in this paper. The behaviour of building is worked out by performing nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear time history analyses. A parametric study has also been carried out to study the effect of shear link and braces on the retrofitted building. The performance of RC building designed for gravity loads only as evaluated from the nonlinear static pushover analysis lies in life safety and collapse prevention range for DBE and MCE level of earthquakes respectively. The same building when retrofitted by using chevron braces with aluminium shear link show improved performance. This device is very simple, economic, effective and can be placed in a building very easily. The dissipation of damaging energy/damage is localised in shear link which can be replaced after a major earthquake.

Maniyar, S. U.; Paul, D. K.

2012-02-01

119

Load Distribution Patterns for Displacement-based Seismic Design of RC Framed Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of tall frames is characterized by the influence of higher modes in addition to the fundamental mode and thus the design procedures for Displacement-based Design (DBD) adopt several measures to control higher mode effects. The performances of 4, 9 and 15-storeyed frames, designed by DBD were verified using non-linear time history analyses. Higher values of inter-storey drift and damage index were seen near the top of tall frames, which shows the inefficiency of the design method in accounting for higher mode effect. As the principle of damage-limiting aseismic design is to get uniform damage along the height of the frame, several load distribution patterns were examined and the storey shear distributions were compared to identify the best pattern to get uniform damage. The Chao load distribution was found to give higher storey shear at top and thus the frames were redesigned using this load distribution. The efficiency of Chao load distribution in reducing higher mode effects is demonstrated using non-linear time history analyses.

Varughese, Jiji Anna; Menon, Devdas; Meher Prasad, A.

2014-12-01

120

Active seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

1972-01-01

121

Design of an implantable seismic sensor placed on the ossicular chain.  

PubMed

This paper presents a design guideline for matching a fully implantable middle ear microphone with the physiology of human hearing. The guideline defines the first natural frequency of a seismic sensor placed at the tip of the manubrium mallei with respect to the frequency-dependence hearing of the human ear as well as the deflection of the ossicular chain. A transducer designed in compliance with the guideline presented reduces the range of the output signal while preserving all information obtained by the ossicular chain. On top of a output signal compression, static deflections, which can mask the tiny motions of the ossicles, are reduced. For guideline verification, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based on silicon on insulator technology was produced and tested. This prototype is capable of resolving 0.4 pm/Hz with a custom made read-out circuit. For a bandwidth of 0.1 kHz, this deflection is comparable with the lower threshold of speech (? 40 phon). PMID:23810385

Sachse, M; Hortschitz, W; Stifter, M; Steiner, H; Sauter, T

2013-10-01

122

Optimisation of seismic network design: Application to a geophysical international lunar network  

E-print Network

are the assumed seismic sources. Synthetic P and S wave arrivals computed in a radial seismic model of the Moon 19 January 2011 Keywords: Moon Seismology Seismological network Optimisation Inverse problems Ray questions concerning the internal structure and dynamics of the Moon, and their implications on the Earth­Moon

Sambridge, Malcolm

123

Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 4. Special topics in piping and equipment  

SciTech Connect

This volume is divided into five chapters: experimental verification of piping systems, analytical verification of piping restraint systems, seismic analysis techniques for piping systems with multisupport input, development of floor spectra from input response spectra, and seismic analysis procedures for in-core components. (DLC)

Reddy, D.P.

1983-04-01

124

Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further needs.

Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit

2012-07-01

125

Performance-based design of reinforced concrete buildings subjected to seismic forces  

E-print Network

considered event (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years) according to FEMA-273 (ATC 1997a) were used. The probabilistic nature of earthquakes was simulated by using 25 different records of measured time histories, from previous seismic events and scaled...

Kalghatgi, Nikhil S.

1998-01-01

126

High-resolution seismic exploration methods for boreholes and tunnels: experiments, results and test site design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While surface to ground seismic exploration methods are well known, the utilization of seismic waves for underground surveying is less developed. The major challenge in subsurface seismics is the spatial ambiguity of the recorded wave field due to limited aperture of seismic source and receiver survey geometry. We developed novel imaging techniques and the appropriate measurement systems like phased array borehole sources for directional enhancement of seismic wave energy. Different procedures such as 3-component Kirchhoff-Migration and Fresnel-Volume-Migration were tested and improved to enhance the spatial resolution. The goal of these new approaches is to advance instruments for the detection of small-scale tectonic features or lithological changes in boreholes and tunnels. The key component for the experiments was the setup of our underground lab 150 m below surface (education and research mine Reiche Zeche, TU Freiberg, SE Germany). Surrounded by three galleries, the site comprises a block of homogeneous high-grade gneisses of about 50 m width and 100 m length ensuring constant environmental conditions. Along the galleries thirty 3-component geophones are anchored 1-2 m deep with a distance of 4-9 m from each other. Within this test site, two horizontal 8 ½" boreholes (20 and 30 m long) as well as a vertical hole (70 m depth) allow for 3D nearfield seismic experiments for high-resolution exploration and monitoring of geological structures.

Giese, R.; Harms, U.; Jaksch, K.; Krüger, K.

2012-12-01

127

Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design Chapuis F.1, Bauer H.1, Grataloup S.1, Leynet A.1, Bourgine B.1, Castagnac C.1, Fillacier, S.2, Lecomte A.2, Le Gallo Y.2, Bonijoly D.1. 1 BRGM, 3 av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex, France, f.chapuis@brgm.fr, d.bonijoly@brgm.fr 2 Geogreen, 7, rue E. et A. Peugeot, 92563 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France, ylg@greogreen.fr The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the techno-economical potential of storing 200 000 tCO2 per year produced by a sugar beat distillery. To reach this goal, an accurate hydro-geological characterisation of a CO2 injection site is of primary importance because it will strongly influence the site selection, the storage design and the risk management. Geological investigation for CO2 storage is usually set in the center or deepest part of sedimentary basins. However, CO2 producers do not always match with the geological settings, and so other geological configurations have to be studied. This is the aim of this project, which is located near the South-West border of the Paris Basin, in the Orléans region. Special geometries such as onlaps and pinch out of formation against the basement are likely to be observed and so have to be taken into account. Two deep saline aquifers are potentially good candidates for CO2 storage. The Triassic continental deposits capped by the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic continental shales and the Dogger carbonate deposits capped by the Callovian and Oxfordian shales. First, a data review was undertaken, to provide the palaeogeographical settings and ideas about the facies, thicknesses and depth of the targeted formations. It was followed by a seismic interpretation. Three hundred kilometres of seismic lines were reprocessed and interpreted to characterize the geometry of the studied area. The main structure identified is the Étampes fault that affects all the formations. Apart from the vicinity of the fault where drag folds appear, the layers are sub-horizontal and gently dip and thicken eastwards. Then, interpreted seismic lines, together with well data from more than 50 boreholes were integrated into a 2D-model of the main surfaces using geostatistics (Isatis® and Petrel® softwares). The main difficulty of this step was to generate a realistic model accounting for both the specific geometries linked to the basin border (onlapping, pinching out...) and the faults. If the former only concerns the Triassic, the latter also affects the overlying formations. Regarding the Dogger top surface, it is less than 700m deep in the western area, which is too shallow for supercritical state injection. Consequently, the next part of the study focused on the Triassic reservoir and integrated changes in petrophysical properties as a function of lateral lithological variation. This ultimately led to upgrade the model from 2D to 3D in order to perform the simulation of CO2 migration. To achieve this objective, we first applied sequence stratigraphy concepts on Triassic deposits to compensate the lack of quantitative petrophysical data. It provided qualitative data about the reservoir heterogeneities which are crucial for a realistic 3D-modelling. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions show that the sediment supply direction is WSW-ENE, implying more proximal deposits to the West, and so better reservoir properties. The final step is to use this 3D-model to elaborate a flow model to estimate the injectivity rate and the extension of the overpressure within the open aquifer and the CO2 plume after 30 years of injection. Two injection rates as well as two well locations were hypothesized into four scenarios considering several locations and injections rates. In any case, the fault has been considered as a barrier to the CO2 migration and the system as a closed one. In the four cases, results are satisfying, the overpressure is less than 30% of the initial pressure and the reservoir capacity is enough regarding the goal of the project. The results of these simulations will then be integrated into the

Chapuis, Flavie; Bauer, Hugues; Grataloup, Sandrine; Leynet, Aurélien; Bourgine, Bernard; Castagnac, Claire; Fillacier, Simon; Lecomte, Antony; Le Gallo, Yann; Bonijoly, Didier

2010-05-01

128

Seismic Studies  

SciTech Connect

This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (2) For probabilistic analyses supporting the demonstration of compliance with preclosure performance objectives, provide a mean seismic hazard curve for the surface facilities area. Results should be consistent with the PSHA for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (3) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for postclosure analyses, provide site-specific seismic time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement) for the waste emplacement level. Time histories should be consistent with the PSHA and reflect available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (4) In support of ground-motion site-response modeling, perform field investigations and laboratory testing to provide a technical basis for model inputs. Characterize the repository block and areas in which important-to-safety surface facilities will be sited. Work should support characterization and reduction of uncertainties in inputs to ground-motion site-response modeling. (5) On the basis of rock mechanics, geologic, and seismic information, determine limits on extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain and document the technical basis for them. (6) Update the ground-motion site-response model, as appropriate, on the basis of new data. Expand and enhance the technical basis for model validation to further increase confidence in the site-response modeling. (7) Document seismic methodologies and approaches in reports to be submitted to the NRC. (8) Address condition reports.

R. Quittmeyer

2006-09-25

129

Verifying Statecharts with State Invariants Emil Sekerinski  

E-print Network

- tem is in one of the substates WarmingUp and Displaying, Require- ments Design Statechart Invariants the reactive behavior of systems. We propose to stat- ically verify the design expressed by a statechart in the analysis and design of complex systems for communication and for documentation. Statecharts

Sekerinski, Emil

130

Seismic design of steel structures with lead-extrusion dampers as knee braces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the effective methods in decreasing the seismic response of structure against dynamic loads due to earthquake is using energy dissipating systems. Lead-extrusion dampers (LED)are one of these systems that dissipate energy in to one lead sleeve because of steel rod movement. Hysteresis loops of these dampers are approximately rectangular and acts independent from velocity in frequencies that are in the seismic frequency rang. In this paper lead dampers are considered as knee brace in steel frames and are studied in an economical view. Considering that lead dampers don't clog structural panels, so this characteristic can solve brace problems from architectural view. The behavior of these dampers is compared with the other kind of dampers such as XADAS and TADAS. The results indicate that lead dampers act properly in absorbing the induced energy due to earthquake and good function in controlling seismic movements of multi-story structures

monir, Habib Saeed; Naser, Ali

2008-07-01

131

A Seismic Isolation Application Using Rubber Bearings; Hangar Project in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Seismic isolation is an effective design strategy to mitigate the seismic hazard wherein the structure and its contents are protected from the damaging effects of an earthquake. This paper presents the Hangar Project in Sabiha Goekcen Airport which is located in Istanbul, Turkey. Seismic isolation system where the isolation layer arranged at the top of the columns is selected. The seismic hazard analysis, superstructure design, isolator design and testing were based on the Uniform Building Code (1997) and met all requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code (2007). The substructure which has the steel vertical trusses on facades and RC H shaped columns in the middle axis of the building was designed with an R factor limited to 2.0 in accordance with Turkish Earthquake Code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the isolation system, nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are performed. The analysis revealed that isolated building has lower base shear (approximately 1/4) against the non-isolated structure.

Sesigur, Haluk; Cili, Feridun [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Division of Theory of Structures 34434, Taskisla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2008-07-08

132

Design of a bracing-friction damper system for seismic retrofitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the numerical model of a bracing-friction damper system and its deployment using the optimal slip load distribution for the seismic retrofitting of a damaged building. The Slotted Bolted Connection (SBC) type friction damper system was tested to investigate its energy dissipation characteristic. Test results coincided with the numerical ones using the conventional model of a bracing-friction

Sung-Kyung Lee; Ji-Hun Park; Byoung-Wook Moon; Kyung-Won Min; Sang-Hyun Lee; Jinkoo Kim

2008-01-01

133

Material modelling in the seismic response analysis for the design of RC framed structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two similar continuum plasticity material models are used to examine the influence of material modelling on the seismic response of reinforced concrete frame structures. In the first model reinforced concrete is modelled as a homogenised material using an isotropic Drucker–Prager yield criterion. In the second model, also based on the Drucker–Prager criterion, concrete and reinforcement are included separately. While the

Pankaj Pankaj; Ermiao Lin

2005-01-01

134

Overview of Thermal-Hydraulic Test Program for Evaluating or Verifying the Performance of New Design Features in APR1400 Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental program and some of test results for thermal-hydraulic evaluation or verification of new design features in APR1400 are introduced for major test items. APR1400 incorporates many advanced design features to enhance its performance and safety. New design features adopted in APR1400 include, among others, four trains of the safety injection system (SIS) with direct vessel injection (DVI) mode and

C. H. Song; T. S. Kwon; I. C. Chu; H. G. Jun; C. K. Park

2002-01-01

135

Performance-Based Design as a Strategy for Risk Reduction: Application to Seismic Risk Assessment of Composite Steel-Concrete Frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance-based design is an efficient strategy for assessing and reducing the risk that a construction violates some performance requirement. In this paper, a procedure for performance-based assessment of seismic risk is illustrated with reference to a composite steel-concrete frame structure. Such risk is conventionally evaluated in a simplified formulation, i.e. as the mean annual frequency of exceeding a threshold level of damage in any significant structural element. The procedure is applied to evaluate the site seismic hazard, the structural damage, the corresponding capacity, and finally the seismic risk of a plane frame, extrapolated from a 3-D structure that was subjected to experimental tests at the ELSA-JRC Laboratory in Ispra, Italy. Specific attention is given to the choice of the intensity and damage measures for use in performance-based seismic risk assessment of composite steel-concrete frames.

Augusti, Giuliano; Ciampoli, Marcello

136

Optimum seismic structural design based on random vibration and fuzzy graded damages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the fuzzy dynamical reliability and failure probability as well as the basic principles and the analytical method of loss assessment for nonlinear seismic steel structures. Also presented is the optimization formulation and a numerical example for double objectives, initial construction cost and expected failure loss, and dynamical reliability constraints. The earthquake ground motion is based on a stationary filtered non-white noise and the fuzzy damage grade is described by damage index.

Cheng, Franklin Y.; Ou, Jin-Ping

1990-01-01

137

Optimal performance-based design of FRP jackets for seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

External bonding of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is now a well-established technique for the strengthening\\/retrofit of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In particular, confinement of RC columns with FRP jackets has proven to be very effective in enhancing the strength and ductility of columns, and has become a key technique for the seismic retrofit of RC structures. Despite the large amount

X. K. Zou; J. G. Teng; L. De Lorenzis; S. H. Xia

2007-01-01

138

Analyses of seismic performance of a code designed reinforced concrete building  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the inelastic seismic performance of a 12-story reinforced concrete (RC) building. The building utilizes a structural system with moment-resisting frames in the longitudinal direction and a dual structural system consisting of coupled shearwalls and moment-resisting frames in the transverse direction. The frame elements, the shearwalls and the coupling beams are sized and detailed on the basis of

Javeed A. Munshi; Satyendra K. Ghosh

1998-01-01

139

Experimental design considerations for verifying the performance of screening technologies for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soils and sediments.  

PubMed

A performance verification demonstration of technologies capable of detecting dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment samples was conducted in April 2004 under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. A demonstration plan was developed with input from the participating technology developers who were part of an advisory panel convened to provide technical guidance for this test. The development of the experimental design began with the framework traditionally used for testing field analytical monitoring technologies under the SITE MMT Program, but various unique aspects of the participating technologies and the expected applications for these technologies necessitated modification of several elements of the traditional design. These critical experimental design considerations are described in this manuscript, along with issues encountered and the remedies that were developed. A summary of the performance data for each technology tested is also presented. PMID:18462774

Dindal, Amy; Billets, Stephen

2008-08-01

140

Overview of Thermal-Hydraulic Test Program for Evaluating or Verifying the Performance of New Design Features in APR1400 Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Experimental program and some of test results for thermal-hydraulic evaluation or verification of new design features in APR1400 are introduced for major test items. APR1400 incorporates many advanced design features to enhance its performance and safety. New design features adopted in APR1400 include, among others, four trains of the safety injection system (SIS) with direct vessel injection (DVI) mode and passively operating safety injection tank (SIT), the In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) and the safety depressurization and vent system (SDVS). For these new design features, experimental activities relevant for ensuring their performance and contribution to the safety enhancement have been carried out at KAERI. They include the LBLOCA ECCS performance evaluation test for the DVI mode of SIS, performance verification test of the fluidic device as a passive flow controller, performance evaluation test of steam sparger for SDVS and the CEDM (control element drive mechanism) performance evaluation test. In this paper, the test program is briefly introduced, which includes the test objectives, experimental method and some of typical results for each test item. (authors)

Song, C.H.; Kwon, T.S.; Chu, I.C.; Jun, H.G.; Park, C.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong P.O. Box 105, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

141

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances  

SciTech Connect

This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

1993-01-01

142

An evaluation of the design and analytical seismic response of a seven-story reinforced concrete frame-wall structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the analytical studies regarding the response of a reinforced concrete test building that have been conducted at the University of California, Berkeley, as part of a US-Japan cooperative research program on the behavior of structures subjected to earthquake induced loading. This work, which begins with a review of the prototype design according to the 1979 Uniform Building Code specifications for seismic resistant buildings, shows that while the test building, a 1/5 scale model of a 7-story reinforced concrete frame-wall structure, does not satisfy all code specifications, it can be considered to be a good design from the point of view of the strong column-weak beam philosophy. The elastic properties of the structure are investigated through the use of flexibility matrices and the inelastic response of the structure to monotonically increasing lateral loads is studied.

Charney, F. A.; Bertero, V. V.

1982-08-01

143

MASSACHUSETTS DEP EELGRASS VERIFIED POINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field verified points showing presence or absence of submerged rooted vascular plants along Massachusetts coastline. In addition to the photo interpreted eelgrass coverage (EELGRASS), this point coverage (EGRASVPT) was generated based on field-verified sites as well as all field...

144

A load combination method for seismic design of multiple supported piping systems  

SciTech Connect

A new load combination scheme for seismic response calculation of piping systems subjected to multiple support excitations is presented. This scheme has an advantage, such that the cross-correlation among support excitations are probably taken into account by use of a stationary random vibration approach. The authors also present the idea of generating a multi-excitation floor response spectrum. First, using a simple analytical SDOF piping system to two support excitations and a simple Z-shaped piping model for shaking test, the combination law is supplied to various correlation cases of two support excitations and the maximum responses of piping in a fundamental mode is calculated. Second, nonlinear characteristics such as gap and friction appearing between piping itself and support are specifically investigated. The response effect due to these nonlinearities is evaluated by the results through the shaking test with a piping-support structural model.

Suzuki, K.; Sone, A. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (JP))

1989-02-01

145

Microcomputer aided design for reinforced concrete frames subjected to seismic loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a design procedure for reinforced concrete frames based on nonlinear dynamic analysis. The design procedure consists of four basic steps: (1) preliminary design based on member forces obtained by linear elastic analysis with equivalent static loading as prescribed by design codes, for example, the UBC code; (2) nonlinear dynamic analysis; (3) checking of damage of structure; (4)

Lira

1986-01-01

146

Probabilistic Analysis of Historical Seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the devastating seismicity with a long recurrence interval, it is typically required to analyze long seismicity records. The global instrumental observation of seismic events started in early 1900s. The seismicity for only 100 years is instrumentally recorded, which is certainly too short to account for events with recurrence intervals of hundreds or thousands years. This is particularly true in intraplate regions where strain accumulation rates are low. Historical seismicity records may be useful to complement the instrument seismicity records. However, historical documents mainly focus on the description of seismic damages on certain towns with lacks of information on the epicenters and magnitudes. The epicenters of historical events are determined to be the town locations where severe damages were reported. Also, the magnitudes are inferred from the seismic damages with the assumed epicenters. Seismic distribution should be invariant when the tectonic environment remains the same. Thus, we can relocate historical seismicity based on the instrumental seismicity. The Korean Peninsula belongs to an intraplate region with relatively low seismicity. About 900 events with magnitudes greater than 2.0 occurred around the Korean Peninsula for last 32 years. On the other hand, Korea has a long historical seismicity record for ~1,900 years. We collected 2,185 seismic event records from the historical documents. We perform a probabilistic analysis of Korean historical seismicity. We determine the epicenters of historical earthquakes considering the instrumental seismicity with magnitudes greater than 3.0, which is believed to be well determined. For the probabilistic analysis, we first calculate a reference seismic-density map based on the instrumental seismicity. A probabilistic density function is designed with an exponential function. The coefficients in the exponential function are set to be variable. The probability of historical events for each potential location in the seismic-density map is calculated using the probabilistic density function. We determine the epicenters of historical events randomly among the potential locations with probabilities higher than given criteria. We then calculate the historical seismic-density maps for various probabilistic density functions. We determine the probabilistic density function yielding a historical seismic-density map that is similar to the reference seismic-density map. We then calculate the probabilistic magnitudes of historical events considering the reported seismic damages and distance-dependent attenuation. The determined epicentral locations and magnitudes of historical events are used for construction of seismic hazard maps of long recurrence intervals.

Houng, S.; Hong, T.

2011-12-01

147

Land 3D-seismic data: Preprocessing quality control utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, normal moveout, first breaks, and offset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent proliferation of the 3D reflection seismic method into the near-surface area of geophysical applications, especially in response to the emergence of the need to comprehensively characterize and monitor near-surface carbon dioxide sequestration in shallow saline aquifers around the world, justifies the emphasis on cost-effective and robust quality control and assurance (QC/QA) workflow of 3D seismic data preprocessing that is suitable for near-surface applications. The main purpose of our seismic data preprocessing QC is to enable the use of appropriate header information, data that are free of noise-dominated traces, and/or flawed vertical stacking in subsequent processing steps. In this article, I provide an account of utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, first breaks, and normal moveout for rapid and thorough graphical QC/QA diagnostics, which are easy to apply and efficient in the diagnosis of inconsistencies. A correlated vibroseis time-lapse 3D-seismic data set from a CO2-flood monitoring survey is used for demonstrating QC diagnostics. An important by-product of the QC workflow is establishing the number of layers for a refraction statics model in a data-driven graphical manner that capitalizes on the spatial coverage of the 3D seismic data. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

Raef, A.

2009-01-01

148

A direct displacement-based design of low-rise seismic resistant steel moment frames  

E-print Network

Structure Method to Determine Design Forces in Earthquake-Resistant Reinforced Concrete Frames. ”Design DDBD is built upon the foundation outlined by the ‘substitute structure’ approach proposed for reinforced concrete frames

Harris, John L.

2006-01-01

149

Model verifies design of mobile data modem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been proposed to use differential minimum shift keying (DMSK) modems in spacecraft-based mobile communications systems. For an employment of these modems, it is necessary that the transmitted carrier frequency be known prior to signal detection. In addition, the time needed by the receiver to lock onto the carrier frequency must be minimized. The present article is concerned with a DMSK modem developed for the Mobile Satellite Service. This device demonstrated fast acquisition time and good performance in the presence of fading. However, certain problems arose in initial attempts to study the acquisition behavior of the AFC loop through breadboard techniques. The development of a software model of the AFC loop is discussed, taking into account two cases which were plotted using the model. Attention is given to a demonstration of the viability of the modem by an approach involving modeling and analysis of the frequency synchronizer.

Davarian, F.; Sumida, J.

1986-01-01

150

Seismic hazard evaluation for design and/or verification of a high voltage system  

SciTech Connect

The Venezuelan capital, Caracas, with a population of about 5 million, is within the area of contact of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates. Since 1567, the valley where it lies and surroundings have been shaken by at leas six destructive events from different seismogenic sources. Electric energy is served to the city by a high voltage system consisting of 4 power stations, 20 substations (230 KV downwards) and 80 km of high voltage lines, covering an area of about 135 x 60 km{sup 2}. Given the variety of soil conditions, topographical irregularities and proximity to potentially active faults, it was decided to perform a seismic hazard study. This paper gives the results of that study synthesized by two hazard-parameter maps, which allow a conservative characterization of the acceleration on firm soils. Specific site coefficients allow for changes in soil conditions and topographical effects. Sites whose proximity to fault lines is less than about 2 km, require additional field studies in order to rule out the possibility of permanent ground displacements.

Grases, J.; Malaver, A. [Ingenieria de Consulta, Caracas (Venezuela); Lopez, S.; Rivero, P. [Electricidad de Caracas (Venezuela)

1995-12-31

151

Robust design of mass-uncertain rolling-pendulum TMDs for the seismic protection of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly used for mitigating wind- and traffic-induced vibrations in flexible structures, passive tuned mass dampers (TMDs) are rarely applied to the seismic control of buildings, their effectiveness to impulsive loads being conditional upon adoption of large mass ratios. Instead of recurring to cumbersome metal or concrete devices, this paper suggests meeting that condition by turning into TMDs non-structural masses sometimes available atop buildings. An innovative roof-garden TMD, for instance, sounds a promising tool capable of combining environmental and structural protection in one device. Unfortunately, the amount of these masses being generally variable, the resulting mass-uncertain TMD (MUTMD) appears prone to mistuning and control loss. In an attempt to minimize such adverse effects, robust analysis and synthesis against mass variations are applied in this study to MUTMDs of the rolling-pendulum type, a configuration characterized by mass-independent natural period. Through simulations under harmonic and recorded ground motions of increasing intensity, the performance of circular and cycloidal rolling-pendulum MUTMDs is evaluated on an SDOF structure in order to illustrate their respective advantages as well as the drawbacks inherent in their non-linear behavior. A possible implementation of a roof-garden TMD on a real building structure is described and its control efficacy numerically demonstrated, showing that in practical applications MUTMDs can become a good alternative to traditional TMDs.

Matta, Emiliano; De Stefano, Alessandro

2009-01-01

152

Theoretical and practical considerations for the design of the iMUSH active-source seismic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-disciplinary imaging of Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment seeks to understand the details of the magmatic system that feeds Mount St. Helens using active- and passive-source seismic, magnetotelluric, and petrologic data. The active-source seismic component of this experiment will take place in the summer of 2014 utilizing all of the 2600 PASSCAL 'Texan' Reftek instruments which will record twenty-four 1000-2000 lb shots distributed around the Mount St. Helens region. The instruments will be deployed as two consecutive refraction profiles centered on the volcano, and a series of areal arrays. The actual number of areal arrays, as well as their locations, will depend strongly on the length of the experiment (3-4 weeks), the number of instrument deployers (50-60), and the time it will take per deployment given the available road network. The current work shows how we are balancing these practical considerations against theoretical experiment designs in order to achieve the proposed scientific goals with the available resources. One of the main goals of the active-source seismic experiment is to image the magmatic system down to the Moho (35-40 km). Calculating sensitivity kernels for multiple shot/receiver offsets shows that direct P waves should be sensitive to Moho depths at offsets of 150 km, and therefore this will likely be the length of the refraction profiles. Another primary objective of the experiment is to estimate the locations and volumes of different magma accumulation zones beneath the volcano using the areal arrays. With this in mind, the optimal locations of these arrays, as well as their associated shots, are estimated using an eigenvalue analysis of the approximate Hessian for each possible experiment design. This analysis seeks to minimize the number of small eigenvalues of the approximate Hessian that would amplify the propagation of data noise into regions of interest in the model space, such as the likely locations of magma reservoirs. In addition, this analysis provides insight into the tradeoff between the number of areal array deployments and the information that will be gained from the experiment. An additional factor incorporated into this study is the expected data quality in different regions around Mount St. Helens. Expected data quality is determined using the signal-to-noise ratios of data from existing seismometers in the region, and from forward modeling the wavefields from different experiment designs using SPECFEM3D software. In particular, we are interested in evaluating how topography near the volcano and low velocity volcaniclastic layers affect data quality. This information is especially important within 5 km of the volcano where only hiking trails are available for instrument deployment, and in a large area north of the volcano where road maintenance has lagged since the 1980 eruption. Instrument deployment will be slow in these regions, and therefore it is essential to understand if deployment of instruments here is a reasonable use of resources. A final step of this study will be validating different experiment designs based upon the above criteria by inverting synthetic data from velocity models that contain a generalized representation of the magma system to confirm that the main features of the models can be recovered.

Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Harder, S. H.; Abers, G. A.; Creager, K. C.; Vidale, J. E.; Moran, S. C.; Malone, S. D.

2013-12-01

153

Seismic analysis of diagrid structural frames with shear-link fuse devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new concept for enhancing the seismic ductility and damping capacity of diagrid structural frames by using shear-link fuse devices and its seismic performance is assessed through nonlinear static and dynamic analysis. The architectural elegancy of the diagrid structure attributed to its triangular leaning member configuration and high structural redundancy make this system a desirable choice for tall building design. However, forming a stable energy dissipation mechanism in diagrid framing remains to be investigated to expand its use in regions with high seismicity. To address this issue, a diagrid framing design is proposed here which provides a competitive design option in highly seismic regions through its increased ductility and improved energy dissipation capacity provided by replaceable shear links interconnecting the diagonal members at their ends. The structural characteristics and seismic behavior (capacity, stiffness, energy dissipation, ductility) of the diagrid structural frame are demonstrated with a 21-story building diagrid frame subjected to nonlinear static and dynamic analysis. The findings from the nonlinear time history analysis verify that satisfactory seismic performance can be achieved by the proposed diagrid frame subjected to design basis earthquakes in California. In particular, one appealing feature of the proposed diagrid building is its reduced residual displacement after strong earthquakes.

Moghaddasi B, Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng

2013-09-01

154

Preclosure seismic design methodology for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Topical report YMP/TR-003-NP  

SciTech Connect

This topical report describes the methodology and criteria that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to use for preclosure seismic design of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the proposed geologic repository operations area that are important to safety. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60 (10 CFR 60), Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, states that for a license to be issued for operation of a high-level waste repository, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must find that the facility will not constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public. Section 60.131 (b)(1) requires that SSCs important to safety be designed so that natural phenomena and environmental conditions anticipated at the geologic repository operations area will not interfere with necessary safety functions. Among the natural phenomena specifically identified in the regulation as requiring safety consideration are the hazards of ground shaking and fault displacement due to earthquakes.

NONE

1996-10-01

155

Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures  

E-print Network

FEMA 154, FEMA 356, ASCE/SEI 31, and the 1997 UBC. FEMA 154 screening demonstrates the importance. 1997 UBC design provisions for new buildings are not necessarily conservative compared to FEMA 356 rehabilitation guidelines. Also, FEMA 356 and 1997 UBC design provisions are not necessarily conservative

Gupta, Rakesh

156

Verifiable and Redactable Medical Documents  

PubMed Central

This paper considers how to verify provenance and integrity of data in medical documents that are exchanged in a distributed system of health IT services. Provenance refers to the sources of health information within the document and integrity means that the information was not modified after generation by the source. Our approach allows intermediate parties to redact the document by removing information that they do not wish to reveal. For example, patients can store verifiable health information and provide subsets of it to third parties, while redacting sensitive information that they do not wish employers, insurers, or others to receive. Our method uses a cryptographic primitive known as a redactable signature. We study practical issues and performance impacts of building, redacting, and verifying Continuity of Care Documents (CCDs) that are protected with redactable signatures. Results show that manipulating redactable CCDs provides superior security and privacy with little computational overhead. PMID:23304391

Brown, Jordan; Blough, Douglas M.

2012-01-01

157

Verifying Aerospace Software Willem Visser  

E-print Network

Verifying Aerospace Software Willem Visser Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS of aerospace software. The members of the Robust Software Engineering group at NASA Ames, have had the unique opportunity to be involved in a number of efforts to analyze aerospace software over the last few years

Fisher, Michael

158

Performance-Based Design as a Strategy for Risk Reduction: Application to Seismic Risk Assessment of Composite Steel-Concrete Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance-based design is an efficient strategy for assessing and reducing the risk that a construction violates some performance\\u000a requirement. In this paper, a procedure for performance-based assessment of seismic risk is illustrated with reference to\\u000a a composite steel-concrete frame structure. Such risk is conventionally evaluated in a simplified formulation, i.e. as the\\u000a mean annual frequency of exceeding a threshold level

Giuliano Augusti; Marcello Ciampoli

2007-01-01

159

Fully stressed design of passive controllers in framed structures for seismic loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the optimal design problem of added damping in framed structures. Interstory performance indices for linear and nonlinear structures are chosen and restricted to allowable values under the excitation of an ensemble of realistic ground motion records. Optimality criteria are formulated based on fully stressed characteristics of the optimal solution, and a simple analysis\\/redesign procedure is proposed for

R. Levy; O. Lavan

2006-01-01

160

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulation (40CFR Part 258) went into effect. hese regulations are applicable to landfills reclining solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operations, and closure of MSW landfills. hese regulat...

161

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

162

Case Study on the Impact of Horizontal Boundary Elements Design on Seismic Behavior of Steel  

E-print Network

accumulation of plastic incremental deformations on the HBEs; (2) partial yielding of the infill plates; (3 the designing and modeling of SPSW web plates, general SPSW analysis methods, validation of satisfactory cyclic elastic under the maximum tension forces from the yielded infill plates, with the exception of plastic

Bruneau, Michel

163

Seismic performance analysis and design suggestion for frame buildings with cast-in-place staircases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many staircases in reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures suffered severe damage during the Wenchuan earthquake. Elastic analyses for 18 RC structure models with and without staircases are conducted and compared to study the influence of the staircase on the stiffness, displacements and internal forces of the structures. To capture the yielding development and damage mechanism of frame structures, elasto-plastic analysis is carried out for one of the 18 models. Based on the features observed in the analyses, a new type of staircase design i.e., isolating them from the master structure to eliminate the effect of K-type struts, is proposed and discussed. It is concluded that the proposed method of staircase isolation is effective and feasible for engineering design, and does not significantly increase the construction cost.

Feng, Yuan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yaoqing; Li, Congchun; Yang, Wen

2013-06-01

164

SEISMIC GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS FOR BRIDGES M. K. Yegian  

E-print Network

of existing bridges, if deemed necessary, design of seismic retrofit measures. The outcomes of each. Such an investigation may lead to seismic retrofitting of an existing bridge or enhancements in the design of a new1 SEISMIC GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS FOR BRIDGES M. K. Yegian 1 , F. ASCE ABSTRACT Seismic

Yegian, Mishac

165

Simplified vector-valued probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and probabilistic seismic demand analysis : application to the 13-story NEHRP reinforced concrete frame-wall building design example  

E-print Network

CONCRETE FRAME-WALL BUILDING DESIGN EXAMPLE . 201 Introduction 201 Description of the structure .. 203 Applied designconcrete frame-wall structure studied here is based on the building originally presented as a design

Barbosa, André R.

2011-01-01

166

Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1988-01-01

167

Seismic Survey  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologists conduct a seismic survey in New Orleans, Louisiana. The survey was one of several geophysical methods used during USGS applied research on the utility of the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) seismic method (no pictured here) for non-invasive assessment of earthen leve...

168

Design and Implementation of a Wireless Sensor Network of GPS-enabled Seismic Sensors for the Study of Glaciers and Ice Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to provide new and improved geophysical sensing capabilities for the study of ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, or to study mountain glaciers, we are developing a network of wirelessly interconnected seismic and GPS sensor nodes (called "geoPebbles"), with the primary objective of making such instruments more capable and cost effective. We describe our design methodology, which has enabled us to develop these state-of-the art sensors using commercial-off-the-shelf hardware combined with custom-designed hardware and software. Each geoPebble is a self-contained, wirelessly connected sensor for collecting seismic measurements and position information. Each node is built around a three-component seismic recorder, which includes an amplifier, filter, and 24-bit analog-to-digital card that can sample up to 10 kHz. Each unit also includes a microphone channel to record the ground-coupled airwave. The timing for each node is available through a carrier-phase measurement of the L1 GPS signal at an absolute accuracy of better than a microsecond. Each geoPebble includes 16 GB of solid-state storage, wireless communications capability to a central supervisory unit, and auxiliary measurements capability (up to eight 10-bit channels at low sample rates). We will report on current efforts to test this new instrument and how we are addressing the challenges imposed by the extreme weather conditions on the Antarctic continent. After fully validating its operational conditions, the geoPebble system will be available for NSF-sponsored glaciology research projects. Geophysical experiments in the polar region are logistically difficult. With the geoPebble system, the cost of doing today's experiments (low-resolution, 2D) will be significantly reduced, and the cost and feasibility of doing tomorrow's experiments (integrated seismic, positioning, 3D, etc.) will be reasonable. Sketch of an experiment with geoPebbles scattered on the surface of the ice sheet. The seismic source can move through the array. The SQC node communicates with all the elements in the array.

Bilen, S. G.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Urbina, J. V.

2012-12-01

169

SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly evaluated and identified. This document supersedes the seismic classifications, assignments, and computations in ''Seismic Analysis for Preclosure Safety'' (BSC 2004a).

E.N. Lindner

2004-12-03

170

Seismic evaluation methods for existing buildings  

SciTech Connect

Recent US Department of Energy natural phenomena hazards mitigation directives require the earthquake reassessment of existing hazardous facilities and general use structures. This applies also to structures located in accordance with the Uniform Building Code in Seismic Zone 0 where usually no consideration is given to seismic design, but where DOE specifies seismic hazard levels. An economical approach for performing such a seismic evaluation, which relies heavily on the use of preexistent structural analysis results is outlined below. Specifically, three different methods are used to estimate the seismic capacity of a building, which is a unit of a building complex located on a site considered low risk to earthquakes. For structures originally not seismically designed, which may not have or be able to prove sufficient capacity to meet new arbitrarily high seismic design requirement and which are located on low-seismicity sites, it may be very cost effective to perform detailed site-specific seismic hazard studies in order to establish the true seismic threat. This is particularly beneficial, to sites with many buildings and facilities to be seismically evaluated.

Hsieh, B.J.

1995-07-01

171

Verify MesoNAM Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AMU conducted an objective analysis of the MesoNAM forecasts compared to observed values from sensors at specified KSC/CCAFS wind towers by calculating the following statistics to verify the performance of the model: 1) Bias (mean difference), 2) Standard deviation of Bias, 3) Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and 4) Hypothesis test for Bias = O. The 45 WS LWOs use the MesoNAM to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at KSC and CCAFS had not been measured objectively. The analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point to the observed values from the sensors on wind towers. The data were stratified by tower sensor, month and onshore/offshore wind direction based on the orientation of the coastline to each tower's location. The model's performance statistics were then calculated for each wind tower based on sensor height and model initialization time. The period of record for the data used in this task was based on the operational start of the current MesoNAM in mid-August 2006 and so the task began with the first full month of data, September 2006, through May 2010. The analysis of model performance indicated: a) The accuracy decreased as the forecast valid time from the model initialization increased, b) There was a diurnal signal in T with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, c) There was a diurnal signal in Td with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night, and d) The model parameters at each vertical level most closely matched the observed parameters at heights closest to those vertical levels. The AMU developed a GUI that consists of a multi-level drop-down menu written in JavaScript embedded within the HTML code. This tool allows the LWO to easily and efficiently navigate among the charts and spreadsheet files containing the model performance statistics. The objective statistics give the LWOs knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses and the GUI allows quick access to the data which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

Bauman, William H., III

2010-01-01

172

How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas

2005-01-01

173

Seismic component fragility data base for IPEEE  

SciTech Connect

Seismic probabilistic risk assessment or a seismic margin study will require a reliable data base of seismic fragility of various equipment classes. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has selected a group of equipment and generically evaluated the seismic fragility of each equipment class by use of existing test data. This paper briefly discusses the evaluation methodology and the fragility results. The fragility analysis results when used in the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) Program for nuclear power plants are expected to provide insights into seismic vulnerabilities of equipment for earthquakes beyond the design basis. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.

1990-01-01

174

Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

I. Wong

2004-11-05

175

Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Islamabad, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan is prone to seismic activity, and its capital, Islamabad, is located close to the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) fault. On October 8th, 2005 the disastrous Muzaffarabad earthquake shook Islamabad and damaged many high-rise buildings. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis technique was used to estimate strong ground motion parameters for a closely spaced 1 km grid. Traditionally, PGA is calculated, which is then used in structural earthquake resistant design or seismic safety assessment. However, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) is not sufficient to design for seismic load or to account for the modern building code's emphasis on the use of spectral acceleration values. Therefore, a seismic hazard analysis was performed for Islamabad, and the design parameters that are required by codes to account for seismic loading were derived.

Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Hassan, Syed Zamir Ul; Rafi, Zahid; Khatoon, Zubeda; Ali, Qurban

2011-08-01

176

Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site for this Topic in Depth comes from the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences at Michigan Technological University and is called What Is Seismology? (1). The site describes the basics of seismology, the various types of waves associated with it, and even contains a link that shows you how to make your own P and S waves. Next is the Earthquakes Overview site (2), provided by The Tech Museum. Visitors can explore topics such as seismographs and waves through an informative and well done site that can be enjoyed by all age levels. The third site, from the USGS Earthquakes Hazard Program (3) Web site, contains animations of various seismic waves that gives a very clear look at what happens during an earthquake. The site also contains other relevant links worth investigating. The University of Alaska Fairbanks Seismic Waves (4) Web site provides a diagram of an earthquake wave traveling through the earth and shows how far it travels 15 seconds to 4 minutes after an earthquake event. The fifth site, called UK Macroseismology Home Page (5), explores the study of observable effects of earthquakes on people, buildings, and nature. Included are descriptions of macroseismic methods and the usefulness of macroseismic studies, among others. The Lesson Plans - High School (6) Web site offered by the Mid-America Earthquake Center contains links to several good lesson plans from various sources related to earthquakes and seismic waves. The seventh site is maintained by the Earth Ocean Atmosphere Scientific Systems company. The main page called Earthstation Library (7) offers information on several topics including a multimedia presentation on earthquakes and seismic waves. Under the Shockwave Demonstrations heading, visitors will find a link that provides a very interesting, visually stunning look at the subject. Lastly, from Earthscope comes the Earthscope Data (8) Web site, which provides a map that gives locations and links to seismic stations that give real-time seismic data from around the US.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

177

SEISMIC RISK MITIGATION THROUGH RETROFITTING NONDUCTILE CONCRETE FRAME SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of existing buildings across the world consists of non-ductile structural systems. Performance of structures during recent earthquakes has demonstrated seismic vulnerability of these systems. The majority were designed prior to the enactment of modern seismic codes, while some were designed more recently in areas where code enforcement can not be ensured. These structures constitute significant seismic risk,

MURAT SAATCIOGLU

178

Seismic rehabilitation of concrete frame beam-column joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reinforced concrete frame structures were designed and constructed before the development of seismic codes or according to earlier versions of seismic codes. Thus, these structures were designed only for gravity loads or for much lower lateral loads than the loads specified by the current seismic codes. Non-ductile reinforcement details in the form of insufficient shear reinforcement in the joint

Tarek Abbas El-Amoury

2004-01-01

179

Seismic Rehabilitation of Concrete Frame Beam-Column Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reinforced concrete frame structures were designed and constructed before the development of seismic codes or according to earlier versions of seismic codes. Thus, these structures were designed only for gravity loads or for much lower lateral loads than the loads specified by the current seismic codes. Non-ductile reinforcement details in the form of insufficient shear reinforcement in the joint

Tarek Abbas El-Amoury

2004-01-01

180

Black Thunder Coal Mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory experimental study of seismic energy generated by large scale mine blasting  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to better understand the impact that large mining shots will have on verifying compliance with the international, worldwide, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT, no nuclear explosion tests), a series of seismic and videographic experiments has been conducted during the past two years at the Black Thunder Coal Mine. Personnel from the mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory have cooperated closely to design and perform experiments to produce results with mutual benefit to both organizations. This paper summarizes the activities, highlighting the unique results of each. Topics which were covered in these experiments include: (1) synthesis of seismic, videographic, acoustic, and computer modeling data to improve understanding of shot performance and phenomenology; (2) development of computer generated visualizations of observed blasting techniques; (3) documentation of azimuthal variations in radiation of seismic energy from overburden casting shots; (4) identification of, as yet unexplained, out of sequence, simultaneous detonation in some shots using seismic and videographic techniques; (5) comparison of local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic measurements leading to determine of the relationship between local and regional seismic amplitude to explosive yield for overburden cast, coal bulking and single fired explosions; and (6) determination of the types of mining shots triggering the prototype International Monitoring System for the CTBT.

Martin, R.L.; Gross, D. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1996-12-31

181

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30

182

Modeling the Java Bytecode Verifier Mark C. Reynolds 1 ,2  

E-print Network

Modeling the Java Bytecode Verifier Mark C. Reynolds 1 ,2 Computer Science Department Boston University Boston, US Abstract The Java programming language has been widely described as secure by design. Nevertheless, a number of serious security vulnerabilities have been discovered in Java, particularly

183

Modeling the Java Bytecode Verifier Mark C. Reynolds1 ,2  

E-print Network

Modeling the Java Bytecode Verifier Mark C. Reynolds1 ,2 Computer Science Department Boston University Boston, US Abstract The Java programming language has been widely described as secure by design. Nevertheless, a number of serious security vulnerabilities have been discovered in Java, particularly

184

Verifying Therapy Safety Interlock System with SPIN Motlatsi Seotsanyana1  

E-print Network

Verifying Therapy Safety Interlock System with SPIN Motlatsi Seotsanyana1 , Jaco Geldenhuys2 1 in the design and verification of the Safety Interlock System (SIS) at iThemba LABS. SIS is part of proton therapy control system (TCS) and its main task is to monitor and evaluate the safety conditions

Geldenhuys, Jaco

185

Modeling and Verifying Intelligent Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems  

E-print Network

Modeling and Verifying Intelligent Automotive Cyber-Physical Systems Sumit Kumar Jha Gita Exhaustive state space exploration based verification of cyber-physical system designs re- mains a challenge automotive cyber-physical systems continue to grow in complex- ity. The testing of intelligent automotive

Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

186

Estimating Inelastic Seismic Demands by Elastic Analysis for Reinforced Concrete (RC) Framed Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to calculate and correlate the linear to the nonlinear seismic responses, and ultimately predict seismic demands with acceptable reliability for any given seismic performance level. Two RC framed buildings with three and nine stories were designed to meet the current California Building Code (CBC'01) design criteria. Two seismic performance levels were used in this

James Anderson

187

SEISMIC DESIGN AND RESPONSE OF BARE AND MASONRY-INFILLED REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS. PART I: BARE STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurocode 8 is applied for the complete design of 26 multi-storey reinforced concrete buildings to study its operationally and compare the implications of trading strength for ductility through designing the same structure for a different Ductility Class. The difference between the conventional full Capacity Design of columns in bending and the relaxed one allowed by Eurocode 8 is quantified, and

M. N. FARDIS; T. B. PANAGIOTAKOS

1997-01-01

188

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section B, Renovation calculations/supporting data  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part V, Section B - Structural/Seismic Information provides a description of the seismic and structural analyses performed on the NMSF and their results.

NONE

1995-07-14

189

Strong Motion Instrumentation of Seismically-Strengthened Port Structures in California by CSMIP  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) has instrumented five port structures. Instrumentation of two more port structures is underway and another one is in planning. Two of the port structures have been seismically strengthened. The primary goals of the strong motion instrumentation are to obtain strong earthquake shaking data for verifying seismic analysis procedures and strengthening schemes, and for post-earthquake evaluations of port structures. The wharves instrumented by CSMIP were recommended by the Strong Motion Instrumentation Advisory Committee, a committee of the California Seismic Safety Commission. Extensive instrumentation of a wharf is difficult and would be impossible without the cooperation of the owners and the involvement of the design engineers. The instrumentation plan for a wharf is developed through study of the retrofit plans of the wharf, and the strong-motion sensors are installed at locations where specific instrumentation objectives can be achieved and access is possible. Some sensor locations have to be planned during design; otherwise they are not possible to install after construction. This paper summarizes the two seismically-strengthened wharves and discusses the instrumentation schemes and objectives. ?? 2009 ASCE.

Huang, M.J.; Shakal, A.F.

2009-01-01

190

Reproducing the seismic response of a cluster of buildings with acoustic meta-materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, new kind of meta-materials have appeared in the field of acoustics and electromagnetism. They are realized using so-called sub-wavelength resonators because of their characteristic size (in the plane of interest), far smaller compared to the wavelength. These objects offer the opportunity to manipulate the wave-field at will. We have realized an experiment allowing the study of their effect on elastic waves which is of strong interest in seismology. The experiment already reveals that when excited by an acoustic or a seismic source these meta-materials may give rise to (1) band-gap effects, i.e. frequency bands in which seismic energy cannot propagate, or (2) sub-wavelength focusing, i.e. energy conversion on wavelength much smaller than the original propagated signal. A cluster of aluminum beams, constituting the metamaterial and rigidly mounted on an aluminum plate where we propagate flexural modes, represents an ideal model to study the seismic response of a cluster of tall buildings and the so called site-city interactions, two important aspects of ';'the seismic vulnerability' yet poorly known. Using the analogy with metamaterials, we present some preliminary results that show how such complex phenomena may be downscaled to the laboratory size upon the choice of few relevant design parameters and used to model real-scale configurations. The research methodology equally relies on numerical simulations and laboratory experiments both reproducing the same plate-beams model. With numerical simulations in particular we characterize the effective properties of the cluster and we conduct a sensitivity analysis on the relevant design parameters. The study highlights the appearance of (1) band-gaps and (2) sub-wavelength energy focusing. The first could be potentially exploited to realize seismic-free buildings configuration, seismic cloaking or protection of strategic buildings. The second represent a potentially dangerous phenomenon that needs to be studied deeper to verify whether it can take place on existing cluster configurations.

Colombi, A.; Rupin, M.; Roux, P.

2013-12-01

191

Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration elucidates the concept of propagation of compressional waves (primary or P waves) and shear waves (secondary or S waves), which constitute the seismic waves used in locating and modeling earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, and for imaging the interior structure of the Earth. The demonstration uses a slinky, pushed along its axis to create a compressional (longitudinal) wave, and moved up and down on one end to create a shear (transverse) wave.

Jeffrey Barker

192

Seismic Signals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not so long ago, people living near volcanoes had little that might help them to anticipate an eruption. A deep rumble, a puff of smoke, and ash might foreshadow a major volcanic event. Or a volcano might erupt with no warning at all. This interactive feature illustrates some of the types of seismic activity that may preceed an eruption, which modern seismologists are studying in hopes of improving their ability to predict eruptions.

193

Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the different types of seismic waves in an environment they can control. Using an interactive, online wave generator, they will study P waves, S waves, Love waves, and Rayleigh waves, and examine a combination of P and S waves that crudely simulates the wave motion experienced during an earthquake. A tutorial is provided to show how the wave generator is used.

194

How to Bypass Verified Boot Security in Chromium OS  

E-print Network

Verified boot is an interesting feature of Chromium OS that should detect any modification in the firmware, kernel or the root file system (rootfs) by a dedicated adversary. However, by exploiting a design flaw in verified boot, we show that an adversary can replace the original rootfs by a malicious rootfs containing exploits such as a spyware and still pass the verified boot process. The exploit is based on the fact that although a kernel partition is paired with a rootfs, verification of kernel partition and rootfs are independent of each other. We experimentally demonstrate an attack using both the base and developer version of Chromium OS in which the adversary installs a spyware in the target system to send cached user data to the attacker machine in plain text which are otherwise inaccessible in encrypted form. We also discuss possible directions to mitigate the vulnerability.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Qiao, Chunming; Sridhar, Ramalingam

2012-01-01

195

System-on-Chip: Reuse and Integration Pre-designed and pre-verified hardware and software blocks can be combined on chips for many different applicationsVthey promise large productivity gains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past ten years, as integrated circuits became increasingly more complex and expensive, the indus- try began to embrace new design and reuse methodologies that are collectively referred to as system-on-chip (SoC) design. In this paper, we focus on the reuse and integration issues encountered in this paradigm shift. The reusable components, called intellectual property (IP) blocks or cores,

Resve Saleh; Shahriar Mirabbasi; Mark Greenstreet; Guy Lemieux; Partha Pratim Pande; Cristian Grecu; Andre Ivanov

196

Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

Justin Coleman; Piyush Sabharwall

2014-09-01

197

Passive seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, deployment, and operation of the Apollo 16 passive seismic experiment (PSE) are discussed. Since activation, all elements of the PSE have operated as planned, with the exception of the sensor thermal control system. Significant progress in the measurement of meteoroid flux in near-earth space has been made, along with dilineation of active moonquake source regions. The data obtained indicate that moonquakes are concentrated at great depth (800 to 1000 km) and that the apparent disparity between meteoroid flux estimtes based on lunar crater counts and those from earth-based observations can be resolved by seismic measurements in favor of the lower flux indicated by the crater count method. The results obtained from the PSE are summarized and their significance is discussed in detail.

Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.

1972-01-01

198

Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.  

SciTech Connect

The HH Seismic hammer is a large, %22weight-drop%22 source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

Jones, Kyle Richard

2014-10-01

199

Voter verifiability in homomorphic election schemes  

E-print Network

Voters are now demanding the ability to verify that their votes are cast and counted as intended. Most existing cryptographic election protocols do not treat the voter as a computationally-limited entity separate from the ...

Forsythe, Joy Marie

2005-01-01

200

PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION UNDER SEISMIC CONDITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of passive resistance and its distribution behind the rigid retaining walls under both static and dynamic conditions are important for designing retaining walls, anchors, foundations etc. In this paper, a method of horizontal slices has been suggested for obtaining seismic passive earth pressure distribution by considering seismic forces in a pseudo-static manner. Only planar rupture surfaces have been considered

Deepankar Choudhury; K. S. Subba Rao; Sanghamitro Ghosh

201

iMUSH: The design of the Mount St. Helens high-resolution active source seismic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount St. Helens is one of the most societally relevant and geologically interesting volcanoes in the United States. Although much has been learned about the shallow structure of this volcano since its eruption in 1980, important questions still remain regarding its magmatic system and connectivity to the rest of the Cascadia arc. For example, the structure of the magma plumbing system below the shallowest magma chamber under the volcano is still only poorly known. This information will be useful for hazard assessment for the southwest Washington area, and also for gaining insight into fundamental scientific questions such as the assimilation and differentiation processes that lead to the formation of continental crust. As part of the multi-disciplinary imaging of Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment, funded by NSF GeoPRISMS and EarthScope, an active source seismic experiment will be conducted in late summer 2014. The experiment will utilize all of the 2600 IRIS/PASSCAL/USArray Texan instruments. The instruments will be deployed as two 1000-instrument consecutive refraction profiles (one N/S and one WNW/ESE). Each of these profiles will be accompanied by two 1600-instrument areal arrays at varying distances from Mount St. Helens. Finally, one 2600-instrument areal array will be centered on Mount St. Helens. These instruments will record a total of twenty-four 500-1000 kg shots. Each refraction profile will have an average station spacing of 150 m, and a total length of 150 km. The stations in the areal arrays will be separated by ~1 km. A critical step in the success of this project is to develop an experimental setup that can resolve the most interesting aspects of the magmatic system. In particular, we want to determine the distribution of shot locations that will provide good coverage throughout the entire model space, while still allowing us to focus on regions likely to contain the magmatic plumbing system. In this study, we approach this problem by calculating Fréchet kernels with dynamic ray tracing. An initial observation from these kernels is that waves traveling across the largest offsets of the experiment (~150km) have sensitivity below depths of 30km. This means that we may be able to image the magmatic system down to the Moho, estimated at ~40 km. Additional work is focusing on searching for the shot locations that provide high resolution around very shallow features beneath Mount St. Helens, such as the first magmatic reservoir at about 3 km depth, and the associated Mount St. Helens seismic zone. One way in which we are guiding this search is to find the shot locations that maximize sensitivity values within the regions of interest after summing Fréchet kernels from each shot/station pair

Kiser, Eric; Levander, Alan; Harder, Steve; Abers, Geoff; Creager, Ken; Vidale, John; Moran, Seth; Malone, Steve

2013-04-01

202

SEISMIC RETROFIT OF STEEL STRUCTURES Michel Bruneau(1)  

E-print Network

1 VIII SNIS SEISMIC RETROFIT OF STEEL STRUCTURES Michel Bruneau(1) RESUMEN El artículo presenta una of recent work on the development of solutions for the seismic design and retrofit of steel structures at Buffalo for the seismic retrofit of bridges and buildings. INTRODUCTION Although much efforts has been

Bruneau, Michel

203

A REVIEW OF CONVENTIONAL SEISMIC RETROFITTING TECHNIQUES FOR URM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many seismically active regions of the world there are large numbers of masonry buildings. Most of these buildings have not been designed for seismic loads. Recent earthquakes have shown that many such buildings are seismically vulnerable and should be considered for retrofitting. Different conventional retrofitting techniques are available to increase the strength and\\/or ductility of unreinforced masonry walls. This

M. ElGawady; P. Lestuzzi; M. Badou

204

Seismic risk perception in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

2014-05-01

205

Seismic stability of slopes in sensitive cohesive soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation has been conducted to gain a better understanding of the seismic stability of slopes in sensitive cohesive soils, the undrained shear strength mobilized in earthquake-related slope failures, undrained peak and residual shear strengths of cohesive soils, and the seismic evaluation and/or design of slopes in sensitive cohesive soils. Field case histories were used to show that the undrained peak and residual shear strengths are applicable to the seismic stability of slopes in sensitive cohesive soils. To investigate the undrained peak and residual shear strengths, a Bromhead ring shear apparatus was modified to conduct constant volume/undrained tests. The undrained peak shear strength measured using the constant volume ring shear apparatus compared favorably with the undrained peak shear strength measured in the direct simple shear apparatus on the same material. The constant volume ring shear apparatus was used to measure the undrained peak and residual shear strengths of the soft Bootlegger Cove clay involved in the Fourth Avenue landslide. Back analysis of the Fourth Avenue landslide was conducted to determine the mobilized undrained shear strength that corresponds to the displacements observed during the earthquake. Comparison of measured undrained shear strengths in the constant volume ring shear apparatus and back-calculated values lead to the development of recommendations for the field ground displacement necessary to develop a post-peak and undrained residual condition. The use of the field vane shear test for measuring the undrained peak and residual shear strength was also reviewed. A correction factor for use of the vane shear strengths in seismic stability evaluations was proposed. The validity of the proposed correction factor was verified using the Fourth Avenue, L-Street, Sainte-Thecle, and Saint-Adelphe earthquake induced landslides.

Contreras-Quintero, Ivan Andelfo

1997-08-01

206

Seismic no-data zone, offshore Mississippi delta: depositional controls on geotechnical properties, velocity structure, and seismic attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Seismic acquisition problems plague exploration and production offshore the Mississippi delta. Geologic and geotechnical analyses of 300-ft borings and 20-ft piston cores, combined with subbottom acoustic measurements, help identify and predict the locations, types, and magnitudes of anomalous seismic zones. This knowledge is used to design acquisition and processing techniques to circumvent the seismic problems.

May, J.A.; Meeder, C.A.; Tinkle, A.R.; Wener, K.R.

1986-09-01

207

Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babe?-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers will be installed in several schools in the most important seismic areas (Vrancea, Dobrogea), vulnerable cities (Bucharest, Ploiesti, Iasi) or high populated places (Cluj, Sibiu, Timisoara, Zal?u). All the elements of the seismic station are especially designed for educational purposes and can be operated independently by the students and teachers themselves. The first stage of ROEDUSEIS project was centered on the work of achievement of educational materials for all levels of pre-university education (kindergarten, primary, secondary and high school). A study of necessity preceded the achievement of educational materials. This was done through a set of questionnaires for teachers and students sent to participating schools. Their responses formed a feedback instrument for properly materials editing. The topics covered within educational materials include: seismicity (general principles, characteristics of Romanian seismicity, historical local events), structure of the Earth, measuring of earthquakes, seismic hazard and risk.

Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

2013-04-01

208

Utilizing USArray Stations to Verify Tornado Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the several hundred individual locations in which stations from the USArray Transportable Array (TA) network have been positioned, quite a few have had close pass-bys (< 10 km) from tornadoes. When a tornado is on the ground there are two clearly observable signals in nearby seismic stations: A discernable tilt of the crust and an increase in seismic noise due to the vibrational energy released into the ground. We will examine three separate scenarios in which individual stations from the TA network experienced pass-bys from tornadoes that were on the ground. Satellite, Doppler radar, track information and even some surrounding seismic stations will be presented for verification. We will then attempt to determine energy signatures from each tornado example in order to isolate a common vibrational or acoustical energy signature of tornadoes when in contact with the ground. By successfully isolating these energy signatures it may be possible to pinpoint on-ground tornado positions in real-time, estimate intensities, and even help to provide early-warning and now-casting support.

Tytell, J. E.; Tatom, F.; Vernon, F.

2012-12-01

209

The intelligent seismic retrofitting of structure based on the magnetorheological dampers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the state-of-the-art about seismic damage principles and aseismic strengthening technology, analysis and design method of seismic retrofitting for earthquake damaged reinforced concrete frame using magnetorheological (MR) damper is proposed. Three levels of fortification objects are put forward and quantified or intelligent retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame using MR damper. The experiment system of a three-floor reinforced concrete frame-shear wall eccentric structure has been built based on Matlab/Simulink software environment and hardware/software resources of dSPACE. The shaking table experiment of seismic retrofitting of earthquake damaged reinforced concrete frame-shear wall structure using MR damper is implemented using rapid control prototyping (RCP) technology. The validity of passive control strategies and semi-active control strategy is verified under El Centro earthquake excitations with different peak value. The experimental results indicate that MR dampers can significantly enhance aseismic performance level of the seismic damaged reinforced concrete frame, and meet all the earthquake fortification levels. The aseismic ability of MR damper intelligent aseismic structure system of auto-reinforcement is much better than both the damaged structure and the aseismic structure reinforced by the passive damper.

Li, Xiu-ling; Li, Hong-nan

2009-03-01

210

An investigation of the principles and practices of seismic isolation in bridge structures  

E-print Network

Within the past decade, seismic isolation systems have gained rapid popularity in the earthquake resistant design of bridge structures. This popularity has come in response to the inadequacy of earlier seismic design and ...

Lapointe, Evan M. (Evan McNeil), 1981-

2004-01-01

211

An evaluation of the design and analytical seismic response of a seven-story reinforced concrete frame-wall structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the analytical studies regarding the response of a reinforced concrete test building that have been conducted at the University of California, Berkeley, as part of a US-Japan cooperative research program on the behavior of structures subjected to earthquake induced loading. This work, which begins with a review of the prototype design according to the 1979 Uniform Building

F. A. Charney; V. V. Bertero

1982-01-01

212

Geophysical Prospecting doi: 10.1111/1365-2478.12026 A genetic algorithm for filter design to enhance features in seismic  

E-print Network

Geophysical Prospecting doi: 10.1111/1365-2478.12026 A genetic algorithm for filter design data for manual and automatic inter- pretation. We use a genetic algorithm to optimize a kernel that and the sub-salt stratigraphy. The performance of the genetic algorithm was validated by the use of test

Martin, Roland

213

Computation of Point of Application of Seismic Passive Resistance by Pseudo-dynamic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computation of seismic passive resistance and its point of application is an important aspect of seismic design of retaining wall. Several researchers in the past had obtained seismic passive earth pressures by using the conventional pseudo-static method. In this pseudo-static method, peak ground acceleration is assumed as constant and seismic passive pressure thus obtained shows the linear variation along the

Sanjay S. Nimbalkar; Deepankar Choudhury

2008-01-01

214

Bidirectional Seismic Behavior of Controlled Rocking Four-Legged Bridge Steel Truss Piers  

E-print Network

following major seismic events, approaches for the seismic retrofit of existing bridges or design of newBidirectional Seismic Behavior of Controlled Rocking Four-Legged Bridge Steel Truss Piers Michael rocking bridge steel truss piers to three components of seismic excitation are presented in this paper

Bruneau, Michel

215

Wide-angle seismic constraints on the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands  

E-print Network

Wide-angle seismic constraints on the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands J.P. Canalesa of Tenerife, Canary Islands. The experiment was designed as a seismic fan pro®le to detect azimuthal variations in the seismic structure of the volcanic edi®ce and its ¯anks. Seismic energy was generated using

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

216

A Very High Resolution, Deep-Towed Multichannel Seismic Survey in the Yaquina Basin off Peru ? Technical Design of the new Deep-Tow Streamer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the project INGGAS a new deep towed acoustic profiling instrument consisting of a side scan sonar fish and a 26 channel seismic streamer has been developed for operation in full ocean depth. The digital channels are build by single hydrophones and three engineering nodes (EN) which are connected either by 1 m or 6.5 m long cable segments. Together with high frequent surface sources (e.g. GI gun) this hybrid system allows to complete surveys with target resolutions of higher frequency content than from complete surface based configurations. Consequently special effort has been addressed to positioning information of the submerged towed instrument. Ultra Short Base Line (USBL) navigation of the tow fish allows precise coordinate evaluation even with more than 7 km of tow cable. Specially designed engineering nodes comprise a single hydrophone with compass, depth, pitch and roll sensors. Optional extension of the streamer up to 96 hydrophone nodes and 75 engineering nodes is possible. A telemetry device allows up- and downlink transmission of all system parameters and all recorded data from the tow fish in real time. Signals from the streamer and the various side scan sensors are multiplexed along the deep-sea cable. Within the telemetry system coaxial and fiber optic connectors are available and can be chosen according to the ships needs. In case of small bandwidth only selected portions of data are transmitted onboard to provide full online quality control while a copy of the complete data set is stored within the submerged systems. Onboard the record strings of side scan and streamer are demultiplexed and distributed to the quality control (QC) systems by Ethernet. A standard marine multichannel control system is used to display shot gather, spectra and noise monitoring of the streamer channels as well as data storage in SEG format. Precise navigation post processing includes all available positioning information from the vessel (DGPS), the USBL, the streamer (EN) and optional first break information. Therefore exact positioning of each hydrophone can be provided throughout the entire survey which is an essential input for later migration processing of the seismic data.

Bialas, J.; Breitzke, M.

2002-12-01

217

LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O. [and others

1997-01-01

218

Seismic retrofitting of deficient Canadian buildings  

E-print Network

Many developed countries such as Canada and the United States are facing a significant infrastructure crisis. Most of their facilities have been built with little consideration of seismic design and durability issues. As ...

Gemme, Marie-Claude

2009-01-01

219

Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01

220

NASA/TM2009215726 Formally Verified Practical  

E-print Network

NASA/TM­2009­215726 Formally Verified Practical Algorithms For Recovery From Loss of Separation of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia June 2009 #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific

Butler, Ricky W.

221

FORCHECK -- A Fortran Verifier and Programming Aid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FORCHECK is a Fortran verifier and programming aid which has been purchased from Polyhedron software and installed on the Starlink Database computer (STADAT) for the use of all Starlink users. It was developed by Erik W. Kruyt at Leiden University. It is only available on STADAT and is not installed on any other Starlink nodes.

Lawden, M. D.

222

Universitat Augsburg Verifying Smart Card Applications: An  

E-print Network

model for security protocols of smart card applications using Abstract State Machines [BS03, Gur95] (ASMs) and a suitable method for verifying security properties of such protocols. The main part of this article describes the structure of the protocol-ASM and all its relevant parts. Integrated in the ASM

Reif, Wolfgang

223

Verifying Concurrent Memory Reclamation Algorithms with Grace  

E-print Network

Verifying Concurrent Memory Reclamation Algorithms with Grace Alexey Gotsman, Noam Rinetzky proposed for it--such as haz- ard pointers, read-copy-update and epoch-based reclamation--have proved very challenging for formal reasoning. In this paper, we show that different memory reclamation techniques actually

Rinetzky, Noam

224

Verifying Hybrid Systems Involving Transcendental Functions  

E-print Network

Verifying Hybrid Systems Involving Transcendental Functions Paul Jackson1 , Andrew Sogokon1 , JamesTarski proof en- gine for problems involving special functions such as sin, cos, exp, etc. Transcendental between KeYmaera and external tools have involved polynomi- als over the reals, but not transcendental

Jackson, Paul

225

This Employer Participates in E-Verify  

E-print Network

This Employer Participates in E-Verify This employer will provide the Social Security are authorized to work, this employer is required to provide you written instructions and an opportunity to contact SSA and/or DHS before taking adverse action against you, including terminating your employment

Meyers, Steven D.

226

Verified Calculations K. Rustan M. Leino0  

E-print Network

Verified Calculations K. Rustan M. Leino0 and Nadia Polikarpova1 0 Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA KRML 231, 8 March 2013. Abstract. Calculational proofs--proofs by stepwise formula manipulation leverages the power of SMT solvers to machine-check calculational proofs at the level of detail

Leino, K. Rustan M.

227

Executing Verified Compiler Specification Koji Okuma1  

E-print Network

in Engineering University of Tsukuba 2 Institute of Information Sciences and Electronics University of Tsukuba {okuma,minamide}@score.is.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract. Much work has been done in verifying a compiler programming language into the Java virtual machine with several program transformations. 1 Introduction

Minamide, Yasuhiko

228

Firms Verify Online IDs Via Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies selling services to protect children and teenagers from sexual predators on the Internet have enlisted the help of schools and teachers to verify students' personal information. Those companies are also sharing some of the information with Web sites, which can pass it along to businesses for use in targeting advertising to young…

Davis, Michelle R.

2008-01-01

229

Seismic Performance Requirements for WETF  

SciTech Connect

This report develops recommendations for requirements on the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) performance during seismic events. These recommendations are based on fragility estimates of WETF structures, systems, and components that were developed by LANL experts during facility walkdowns. They follow DOE guidance as set forth in standards DOE-STD-1021-93, ''Natural Phenomena Hazards Performance Categorization Guidelines for Structures, Systems, and Components'' and DOE-STD-1020-94, ''Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities''. Major recommendations are that WETF institute a stringent combustible loading control program and that additional seismic bracing and anchoring be provided for gloveboxes and heavy equipment.

Hans Jordan

2001-01-01

230

The ENAM Explosive Seismic Source Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the pilot study conducted as part of the eastern North American margin (ENAM) community seismic experiment (CSE) to test an innovative design of land explosive seismic source for crustal-scale seismic surveys. The ENAM CSE is a community based onshore-offshore controlled- and passive-source seismic experiment spanning a 400 km-wide section of the mid-Atlantic East Coast margin around Cape Hatteras. The experiment was designed to address prominent research questions such as the role of the pre-existing lithospheric grain on the structure and evolution of the ENAM margin, the distribution of magmatism, and the along-strike segmentation of the margin. In addition to a broadband OBS deployment, the CSE will acquire multichannel marine seismic data and two major onshore-offshore controlled-source seismic profiles recording both marine sources (airguns) and land explosions. The data acquired as part of the ENAM CSE will be available to the community immediately upon completion of QC procedures required for archiving purposes. The ENAM CSE provides an opportunity to test a radically new and more economical design for land explosive seismic sources used for crustal-scale seismic surveys. Over the years we have incrementally improved the performance and reduced the cost of shooting crustal seismic shots. These improvements have come from better explosives and more efficient configuration of those explosives. These improvements are largely intuitive, using higher velocity explosives and shorter, but larger diameter explosive configurations. However, recently theoretical advances now allow us to model not only these incremental improvements, but to move to more radical shot designs, which further enhance performance and reduce costs. Because some of these designs are so radical, they need experimental verification. To better engineer the shots for the ENAM experiment we are conducting an explosives test in the region of the ENAM CSE. The results of this test will guide engineering for the main ENAM experiment as well as other experiments in the future.

Harder, S. H.; Magnani, M. B.

2013-12-01

231

MULTI-HAZARD (BLAST, SEISMIC, TSUNAMIS, COLLISION) RESISTANT BRIDGE PIERS David Keller  

E-print Network

piers retrofitted with steel jackets, both designed to be ductile from a seismic design perspective. LS piers retrofitted with steel jackets that are designed according to current seismic knowledgeMULTI-HAZARD (BLAST, SEISMIC, TSUNAMIS, COLLISION) RESISTANT BRIDGE PIERS David Keller Structural

Bruneau, Michel

232

Seismic performance of underground facilities  

SciTech Connect

A workshop was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981 to review and assess the state-of-the-art for determining and predicting earthquake damage to underground facilities. The papers presented related to data collection and analysis, modeling, and repository design. Discussion groups addressed seismology, rock mechanics and hydrology, modeling, design, and licensing, siting, and tectonics. Most scientists in attendance believed that enough was known to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. However, there was recognition of several items of research that would enhance understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity. In general, the subsurface effects of earthquakes are substantially less than their surface effects. This conclusion is supported by both observation and by modeling studies. The absence of wave reflections, the absence of high flexural stresses, and the absence of poor soil conditions contribute to the improved seismic performance of subsurface facilities. Seismic considerations for geologic disposal of nuclear waste vary with the phase of operation. During construction and waste loading, the primary concern is for the safety of onsite personnel. However, during long-term waste storage, the principal interest is in the migration of contaminants due to seismic cracking and enhancement of permeability. Backfilling the storage facility will mitigate this effect.

Marine, I W

1982-01-01

233

Seismic safety of high concrete dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

Chen, Houqun

2014-08-01

234

User-friendly Support for Common Mathematical Concepts in a Lightweight Verifier (Discussion Paper)  

E-print Network

User-friendly Support for Common Mathematical Concepts in a Lightweight Verifier (Discussion Paper the AARTIFACT lightweight verifi- cation system, designed for processing formal arguments involving basic work and from our own efforts. In addition to a parser for a familiar concrete syntax and a mechanism

235

Userfriendly Support for Common Mathematical Concepts in a Lightweight Verifier (Discussion Paper) #  

E-print Network

User­friendly Support for Common Mathematical Concepts in a Lightweight Verifier (Discussion Paper describe the AARTIFACT lightweight verifi­ cation system, designed for processing formal arguments from existing work and from our own efforts. In addition to a parser for a familiar concrete syntax

236

Verifying policy-based web services security  

Microsoft Academic Search

WS-SecurityPolicy is a declarative language for configuring web services se- curity mechanisms. We describe a formal semantics for WS-SecurityPolicy and propose a more abstract language for specifying secure links between web ser- vices and their clients. We present the architecture and implementation of tools that (1) compile policy files from link specifications, and (2) verify by invoking a theorem prover

Karthikeyan Bhargavan; Cédric Fournet; Andrew D. Gordon

2008-01-01

237

Towards composition of verified hardware devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computers are being used where no affordable level of testing is adequate. Safety and life critical systems must find a replacement for exhaustive testing to guarantee their correctness. Through a mathematical proof, hardware verification research has focused on device verification and has largely ignored system composition verification. To address these deficiencies, we examine how the current hardware verification methodology can be extended to verify complete systems.

Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

1991-01-01

238

Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

1979-01-01

239

Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate  

SciTech Connect

We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

Amos Nur

2009-01-08

240

Parallel Seismic Ray Tracing  

E-print Network

Seismic ray tracing is a common method for understanding and modeling seismic wave propagation. The wavefront construction (WFC) method handles wavefronts instead of individual rays, thereby providing a mechanism to control ray density...

Jain, Tarun K

2013-12-09

241

USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and distances.

Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

2000-01-01

242

Seismic behavior of structural silicone glazing  

SciTech Connect

In seismic events, glass curtain walls undergo racking deformation, while the flat glass lites do not rack due to their high shear stiffness. If the glass curtain wall is not isolated from the building frame by specifically designed connections that accommodate relative motion, seismic racking motion of the building frame will demand significant resiliency of the sealant that secures the glass to the curtain wall framing. In typical four-sided structural silicone glazing systems used in buildings with unbraced moment frames, the magnitude of seismic racking is likely to stress the sealants significantly beyond the sealant design strength. In this paper, the extent of the expected seismic racking motion, the behavior of the structural silicone glazing when subjected to the expected racking motion, and the field performance of a building with four-sided structural silicone glazing during the Northridge earthquake are discussed. The details of a curtain wall design concept consisting of shop-glazed subframes connected to the building frame and the connections that accommodate seismic motion of the subframe relative to the building frame is developed. Specific recommendations are made for the design of the four-sided structural silicone glazing systems for seismic loads.

Zarghamee, M.S.; Schwartz, T.A. [Simpson Gumpertz and Heger Inc., Arlington, MA (United States); Gladstone, M. [Dow Corning Corp., Fremont, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

243

Verifying speculative multithreading in an application  

DOEpatents

Verifying speculative multithreading in an application executing in a computing system, including: executing one or more test instructions serially thereby producing a serial result, including insuring that all data dependencies among the test instructions are satisfied; executing the test instructions speculatively in a plurality of threads thereby producing a speculative result; and determining whether a speculative multithreading error exists including: comparing the serial result to the speculative result and, if the serial result does not match the speculative result, determining that a speculative multithreading error exists.

Felton, Mitchell D

2014-11-18

244

Verifying speculative multithreading in an application  

DOEpatents

Verifying speculative multithreading in an application executing in a computing system, including: executing one or more test instructions serially thereby producing a serial result, including insuring that all data dependencies among the test instructions are satisfied; executing the test instructions speculatively in a plurality of threads thereby producing a speculative result; and determining whether a speculative multithreading error exists including: comparing the serial result to the speculative result and, if the serial result does not match the speculative result, determining that a speculative multithreading error exists.

Felton, Mitchell D

2014-12-09

245

Seismic requalification advancements for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

In the past, seismic qualification was achieved through testing and direct quantitative analysis methods. Based on the experience gained in the past, industry is directing its efforts at establishing criteria, procedures, and methods that redirects the engineering effort to a more realistic way of demonstrating when nuclear power plant equipment, components, and structures are seismically qualified to the established seismic design requirements. Specifically, new advancements are being made in the following areas: qualification of equipment based on experience data, equipment qualification, and improved reliability of piping systems via snubber reductions and increased flexibility.

Lapay, W.; Bohm, G.

1986-04-01

246

Seismic performance of reinforced concrete frames with nominal ductility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental study is undertaken in this thesis to evaluate the seismic performance of Nominally Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (NDMRFs) designed to conform to the current Canadian provisions. Buildings of different heights and typical configurations are considered. The frames of such buildings are designed as nominally ductile frames for the combined gravity and seismic loading in accordance with

Khaled Ahmed Hamdy

1992-01-01

247

Seismic performance of reinforced concrete frames with nominal ductility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental study is undertaken in this thesis to evaluate the seismic performance of Nominally Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (NDMRFs) designed to conform to the current Canadian provisions.^ Buildings of different heights and typical configurations are considered. The frames of such buildings are designed as nominally ductile frames for the combined gravity and seismic loading in accordance with

Khaled Ahmed Hamdy

1992-01-01

248

Basis for seismic provisions of DOE-STD-1020  

SciTech Connect

DOE-STD-1020 provides for a graded approach for the seismic design and evaluation of DOE structures, systems, and components (SSC). Each SSC is assigned to a Performance Category (PC) with a performance description and an approximate annual probability of seismic-induced unacceptable performance, P{sub F}. The seismic annual probability performance goals for PC 1 through 4 for which specific seismic design and evaluation criteria are presented. DOE-STD-1020 also provides a seismic design and evaluation procedure applicable to achieve any seismic performance goal annual probability of unacceptable performance specified by the user. The desired seismic performance goal is achieved by defining the seismic hazard in terms of a site-specified design/evaluation response spectrum (called herein, the Design/Evaluation Basis Earthquake, DBE). Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates are used to establish the DBE. The resulting seismic hazard curves define the amplitude of the ground motion as a function of the annual probability of exceedance P{sub H} of the specified seismic hazard. Once the DBE is defined, the SSC is designed or evaluated for this DBE using adequately conservative deterministic acceptance criteria. To be adequately conservative, the acceptance criteria must introduce an additional reduction in the risk of unacceptable performance below the annual risk of exceeding the DBE. The ratio of the seismic hazard exceedance probability P{sub H} to the performance goal probability P{sub F} is defined herein as the risk reduction ratio. The required degree of conservatism in the deterministic acceptance criteria is a function of the specified risk reduction ratio.

Kennedy, R.C. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States); Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

249

Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges  

SciTech Connect

There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

Pilat, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25

250

Protection Systems that verify and supervise themselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights some important design aspects that a Protection and Control system should have when applied to protecting a Smart Grid or Smart Transmission & Distribution Substation. These aspects are aimed at de-risking the designs and, at the same time, reducing overall project cost. The electricity industries of many countries currently only put equipment into service following thorough design

Pelqim Spahiu; Ian R. Evans

2011-01-01

251

Rehabilitation of pipelines in seismic regions  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of oil and gas pipelines to seismic damage has been demonstrated in earthquakes everywhere around the world. Earthquake design specifications today are more restrictive than before. That is why pipelines built more than ten years ago are of major concern to managers and engineers. Basic approaches to the aseismic design of new pipelines and retrofitting of buried pipes and above-ground transmission pipelines and piping systems located in high risk seismic regions represent the main topic of the paper. A realistic assessment of earthquake damage potentials is needed to develop construction and retrofitting procedures. Supporting this type of constructing and rehabilitation activity for pipelines requires a better definition of key input parameters like area seismicity, the identification and characterization of ground moving hazards. The nonlinear approach for predicting spatial bending, torsion, and upheaval buckling of curved pipeline is applied for stress and stability analysis of buried pipelines under operational and seismic loading. The example of calculations useful for retrofit design of pipelines is given. An experience of damping devices application to mitigate seismic movement of above-ground pipelines has demonstrated an excellent ability to prevent damage during earthquake and operational dynamic loading. These devices are useful for above-ground pipeline retrofitting. To reduce uncertainty regarding the ability of a pipe to continue to hold pressure after seismic damages and retrofitting measures, it is important to develop the test programs, which should include investigations of buried and above-ground pipeline samples.

Gershtein, M. [AVIBRA Temed Ltd., Arava (Israel)

1996-12-31

252

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2003  

SciTech Connect

This describes the earthquakes that occurred on and near the Hanford Site during the second quarter of FY03. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 271 triggers during the second quarter of fiscal year 2003. Of these triggers, 141 were earthquakes. Twenty earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 9 earthquakes occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 2 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 6 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 2 earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 12 were classified as random events.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2003-04-16

253

Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2002  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the earthquake activity on Hanford for FY 2002. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 1,177 triggers during fiscal year 2002. Of these triggers, 553 were earthquakes. Two earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 13 occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 12 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 17 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 13 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was associated with major structures, and 28 were random events. There were no earthquake triggers of the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during fiscal year 2002.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2002-11-15

254

Finite state verifiers I: the power of interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of interactive proof systems (IPSs) where the verifier is a 2-way probabilistic finite state automaton (2pfa) is initiated. In this model, it is shown:(1) IPSs in which the verifier uses private randomization are strictly more powerful than IPSs in which the random choices of the verifier are made public to the prover.(2) IPSs in which the verifier uses

Cynthia Dwork; Larry J. Stockmeyer

1992-01-01

255

Seismic rehabilitation of wood diaphragms in unreinforced masonary buildings  

E-print Network

objectives: (1) assessing the adequacy of current seismic rehabilitation guidelines for evaluating existing wood diaphragms in pre-1950's URM buildings and for designing necessary retrofits; and (2) evaluating the effect of diaphragm retrofits, as designed...

Grubbs, Amber Jo

2012-06-07

256

Seismic retrofitting of the Ste-Justine Hospital in Montreal  

E-print Network

Seismic engineering provides design and construction techniques so that buildings and other structures can survive the tremendous forces of earthquakes. While codes and design practices have resulted in greatly improved ...

Chartrand, Valerie

2009-01-01

257

Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging  

SciTech Connect

This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could make SSR surveying considerably more efficient and less expensive, particularly when geophone intervals of 25 cm or less are required. The most recent research analyzed the difference in seismic response of the geophones with variable geophone spike length and geophones attached to various steel media. Experiments investigated the azimuthal dependence of the quality of data relative to the orientation of the rigidly attached geophones. Other experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the data are being amplified in much the same way that an organ pipe amplifies sound have so far proved inconclusive. Taken together, the positive results show that SSR imaging within a few meters of the earth's surface is possible if the geology is suitable, that SSR imaging can complement GPR imaging, and that SSR imaging could be made significantly more cost effective, at least in areas where the topography and the geology are favorable. Increased knowledge of the Earth's shallow subsurface through non-intrusive techniques is of potential benefit to management of DOE facilities. Among the most significant problems facing hydrologists today is the delineation of preferential permeability paths in sufficient detail to make a quantitative analysis possible. Aquifer systems dominated by fracture flow have a reputation of being particularly difficult to characterize and model. At chemically contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and others at Department of Defense (DOD) installations worldwide, establishing the spatial extent of the contamination, along with the fate of the contaminants and their transport-flow directions, is essential to the development of effective cleanup strategies. Detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface is important not only in environmental, groundwater, and geotechnical engineering applications, but also in neotectonics, mining geology, and the analysis of petroleum reservoir analogs. Near-surface seismology is in the vanguard of non-intrusive approaches to increase knowledge of the shallow subsurface; our

Steeples, Don W.

2004-12-09

258

Oklahoma seismic network. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States)]|[Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Energy Center

1993-07-01

259

A verifiable, bidder-resolved Auction Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Security and privacy have become crucial factors in auction design. Various schemes to ensure the safe conduction of sealed-bid auctions have been proposed recently. We intro- duce a new standard of privacy for auctions (\\

Felix Brandt

2002-01-01

260

A control system verifier using automated reasoning software  

SciTech Connect

An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logical axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions of the combined system.

Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

1985-08-01

261

An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

U.S. Geological Survey

1999-01-01

262

Mapping Europe's Seismic Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the rift that cuts through the heart of Iceland to the complex tectonic convergence that causes frequent and often deadly earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Turkey to the volcanic tremors that rattle the Mediterranean, seismic activity is a prevalent and often life-threatening reality across Europe. Any attempt to mitigate the seismic risk faced by society requires an accurate estimate of the seismic hazard.

Giardini, Domenico; Wössner, Jochen; Danciu, Laurentiu

2014-07-01

263

Seismic data denoising based on the fractional Fourier transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic data may suffer from too severe noise contamination to carry out further processing and interpretation procedure. In the paper, a new scheme was proposed based on the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) in time frequency domain to mitigate noise. The scheme consists of two steps. In the first step, the seismic signal is filtered with the ordinary Butterworth filter in the frequency domain. The residual noises after frequency filtering are with the same frequencies with the filtered seismic signals. In order to mitigate the residual noises further, the FrFT filter is applied in the second step. The results from the simulated seismic signals and the measurements data verify the validity of the proposed scheme in both frequency and time-frequency domains.

Zhai, Ming-Yue

2014-10-01

264

THE SEISMIC RETROFIT OF THE OAKLAND CITY HALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historic Oakland City Hall experienced extensive damage in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and was subsequently the focus of an intensive process of testing, historic evaluation, dynamic structural analysis, and retrofit design using seismic isolation. A comprehensive post-earthquake study done by a team of architects and engineers, and reviewed by FEMA and SHPO, concluded that seismic isolation was the

Mason Walters

265

Seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete frame with added viscoelastic dampers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes an experimental and analytical study on the seismic retrofit of a 13-scale reinforced concrete frame using viscoelastic dampers. After the frame had been damaged in the laboratory under simulated strong earthquake ground motions, two sets of viscoelastic dampers were designed and implemented to the structure, and the frame was subjected to further simulated seismic excitations. Test results

M. L. Lai

1995-01-01

266

Using Cadence SMV to verify temporal properties  

E-print Network

;8 Microwave Oven Example · Suppose we are designing a controller for a microwave oven. · The heating element door #12;9 Microwave Oven Example MODULE main VAR start, reset, closed : boolean; error, heat : boolean as boolean true. #12;10 Microwave Oven Example MODULE main VAR start, reset, closed : boolean; error, heat

Clarke, Edmund M.

267

26 CFR 301.6334-4 - Verified statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...district director with the statement on the next occasion on which the employer responds to the notice of levy. (d) Effect of verified statement —(1) A verified statement submitted by an employee is effective upon receipt by the...

2010-04-01

268

Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

Yan, Y.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Shi, Z.

2014-07-01

269

Automatic Generation of the C# Code for Security Protocols Verified with Casper\\/FDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal methods technique offer a means of verifying the correctness of the design process used to create the security protocol. Notwithstanding the successful verification of the design of security protocols, the implementation code for them may contain security flaws, due to the mistakes made by the programmers or bugs in the programming language itself. We propose an ACG-C# tool, which

Chul-wuk Jeon; Il-gon Kim; Jin-young Choi

2005-01-01

270

SEISMIC GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF BRIDGES IN NEW YORK CITY M. K. Yegian  

E-print Network

to seismic retrofitting of an existing bridge or enhancement of the design of a new bridge, oftenOSP 4 1 SEISMIC GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF BRIDGES IN NEW YORK CITY M. K. Yegian Department of Civil Engineering Northeastern University Boston, MA. 02115 ABSTRACT Seismic vulnerability assessment

Yegian, Mishac

271

Cross-correlation—an objective tool to indicate induced seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differentiation between natural and induced seismicity is crucial for the ability to safely and soundly carry out various underground experiments and operations. This paper defines an objective tool for one of the criteria used to discriminate between natural and induced seismicity. The qualitative correlation between earthquake rates and the injected volume has been an established tool for investigating the possibility of induced, or triggered, seismicity. We derive mathematically, and verify using numerical examples, that the definition of normalized cross-correlation (NCC) between positive random functions exhibits high values with a limit equal to one, if these functions (such as earthquake rates and injection volumes) have a large mean and low standard deviation. In such a case, the high NCC values do not necessarily imply temporal relationship between the phenomena. Instead of positive-value time histories, the functions with their running mean subtracted should be used for cross-correlation. The NCC of such functions (called here NCCEP) may be close to zero, or may oscillate between positive and negative values in cases where seismicity is not related to injection. We apply this method for case studies of seismicity in Colorado, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and south-central Oklahoma, and show that NCCEP reliably determines induced seismicity. Finally, we introduce a geomechanical model explaining the positive cross-correlation observed in the induced seismicity data sets.

Oprsal, Ivo; Eisner, Leo

2014-03-01

272

Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Cultura del Progetto, Seconda Universita di Napoli Abbazia di S. Lorenzo ad Septimum, 81031, Aversa (Italy)

2008-07-08

273

Seismic monitoring of the Yucca Mountain facility  

SciTech Connect

Questions have arisen regarding the applicability of seismic sensors to detect mining (re-entry) with a tunnel boring machine (TBM). Unlike cut and blast techniques of mining which produce impulsive seismic signals, the TBM produces seismic signals which are of long duration. (There are well established techniques available for detecting and locating the sources of the impulsive signals.) The Yucca Mountain repository offered an opportunity to perform field evaluations of the capabilities of seismic sensors because during much of 1996, mining there was progressing with the use of a TBM. During the mining of the repository`s southern branch, an effort was designed to evaluate whether the TBM could be detected, identified and located using seismic sensors. Three data acquisition stations were established in the Yucca Mountain area to monitor the TBM activity. A ratio of short term average to long term average algorithm was developed for use in signal detection based on the characteristics shown in the time series. For location of the source of detected signals, FK analysis was used on the array data to estimate back azimuths. The back azimuth from the 3 component system was estimated from the horizontal components. Unique features in the timing of the seismic signal were used to identify the source as the TBM.

Garbin, H.D.; Herrington, P.B.; Kromer, R.P.

1997-08-01

274

Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together with ONEV and BME, installed 4 seismic stations with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the Haitian Government. The 4 stations include strong motion and broad-band sensors, complementing the 8 sensors initially installed. The stations communicate via SATMEX5 with the Canadian HUB, which sends the data back to Haiti with minimum delay. In the immediate future, data transfer will be improved with the installation of a main antenna for data reception and the Seismic Warning Center of Port-au-Prince. A bidirectional satellite communication is considered of fundamental importance for robust real-time data transmission that is not affected in the case of a catastrophic event.

Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

2013-05-01

275

Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes attributable to human activities--``induced seismic events''--have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

Hitzman, Murray

2013-03-01

276

Downhole seismic logging for high-resolution reflection surveying in unconsolidated overburden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Downhole seismic velocity logging techniques have been developed and applied in support of high-resolution reflection seismic surveys. Data obtained from downhole seismic logging can provide accurate velocity-depth functions and directly correlate seismic reflections to depth. The methodologies described in this paper are designed for slimhole applications in plastic-cased boreholes (minimum ID of 50 mm) and with source and detector arrays

J. A. Hunter; S. E. Pullan; R. A. Burns; R. L. Good; J. B. Harris; A. Pugin; A. Skvortsov; N. N. Goriainov

1998-01-01

277

10 CFR 36.39 - Design requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...seismic areas, the licensee shall design the reinforced concrete radiation shields to retain their integrity in the event of an earthquake by designing to the seismic requirements of an appropriate source such as American Concrete Institute Standard ACI...

2014-01-01

278

Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis.

Chen, W. P.; Onesto, A. T.; DeVita, V.

1987-02-01

279

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2005  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 337 triggers during the third quarter of fiscal year 2005. Of these triggers, 20 were earthquakes within the Hanford Seismic Network. The largest earthquake within the Hanford Seismic Network was a magnitude 1.3 event May 25 near Vantage, Washington. During the third quarter, stratigraphically 17 (85%) events occurred in the Columbia River basalt (approximately 0-5 km), no events in the pre-basalt sediments (approximately 5-10 km), and three (15%) in the crystalline basement (approximately 10-25 km). During the first quarter, geographically five (20%) earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 10 (50%) earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 5 (25%) were classified as random events.

Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Sweeney, Mark D.

2005-09-01

280

Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2003  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the seismic activity in and around the Hanford Site during Fiscal year 2003. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 1,336 triggers during fiscal year 2003. Of these triggers, 590 were earthquakes. One hundred and one earthquakes of the 590 earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 35 (34.6%) occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 29 (28.7%) were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 37 (36.7%) were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 48 (47%) earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 4 (4%) earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 49 (49%) were classified as random events. During the third and fourth quarters, an earthquake swarm consisting of 27 earthquakes occurred on the south limb of Rattlesnake Mountain. The earthquakes are centered over the northwest extension of the Horse Heaven Hills anticline and probably occur near the interface of the Columbia River Basalt Group and pre-basalt sediments.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2003-12-01

281

Seismic performance of RC shear wall structure with novel shape memory alloy dampers in coupling beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wall system is widely adopted in high rise buildings because of its high lateral stiffness in resisting earthquakes. According to the concept of ductility seismic design, coupling beams in shear wall structure are required to yield prior to the damage of wall limb. However, damage in coupling beams results in repair cost post earthquake and even in some cases it is difficult to repair the coupling beams if the damage is severe. In order to solve this problem, a novel passive SMA damper was proposed in this study. The coupling beams connecting wall limbs are split in the middle, and the dampers are installed between the ends of the two cantilevers. Then the relative flexural deformation of the wall limbs is transferred to the ends of coupling beams and then to the SMA dampers. After earthquakes the deformation of the dampers can recover automatically because of the pseudoelasticity of austenite SMA material. In order to verify the validity of the proposed dampers, seismic responses of a 12-story coupled shear wall with such passive SMA dampers in coupling beams was investigated. The additional stiffness and yielding deformation of the dampers and their ratios to the lateral stiffness and yielding displacements of the wall limbs are key design parameters and were addressed. Analytical results indicate that the displacement responses of the shear wall structure with such dampers are reduced remarkably. The deformation of the structure is concentrated in the dampers and the damage of coupling beams is reduced.

Mao, Chenxi; Dong, Jinzhi; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping

2012-04-01

282

Seismic station, USGS Northern California Seismic Network  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Traditional seismic stations such as this one require a source of power (solar here), a poured concrete foundation and several square feet of space. They are not always practical to install in urban areas, and that's where NetQuakes comes in....

283

Seismicity, seismotectonics and seismic hazard of Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first generation of probabilistic seismic hazard maps of the Italian country are presented. They are based on seismogenic zoning deriving from a kinematic model of the structural tectonic units and on an earthquake catalogue with the foreshock and aftershock events filtered out. The following ground motion parameters have been investigated and mapped using attenuation equations based on strong-motion recordings

Roberto Romeo; Antonio Pugliese

2000-01-01

284

The retrofitting of existing buildings for seismic criteria  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the process for retrofitting a building for seismic criteria. It explains the need for a new, performance-based design code to provide a range of acceptable building behavior. It then outlines the ...

Besing, Christa, 1978-

2004-01-01

285

Seismic Hazard Characterization at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS): Status report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Seismic Hazard Characterization project for the Savannah River Site (SRS-SHC) is to develop estimates of the seismic hazard for several locations within the SRS. Given the differences in the geology and geotechnical characteristics at each location, the estimates of the seismic hazard are to allow for the specific local conditions at each site. Characterization of seismic hazard is a critical factor for the design of new facilities as well as for the review and potential retrofit of existing facilities at SRS. The scope of the SRS seismic hazard characterization reported in this document is limited to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The goal of the project is to provide seismic hazard estimates based on a state-of-the-art method which is consistent with developments and findings of several ongoing studies which are deemed to bring improvements in the state of the seismic hazard analyses.

Savy, J.B.

1994-06-24

286

Seismicity of Central Tibet from Project INDEPTH III Seismic Recordings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of Project INDEPTH III, fifty-seven broad-band and short-period seismic stations were deployed in central Tibet from July of 1998 through August of 1999. The array was a 400-km-long, north-south transect, with a six-station cross line at the center. The array spans the Jurassic Banggong-Nujiang Suture Zone (BNSZ), a Mesozoic feature that separates the Lhasa Block from the Qiangtang Terrane. Average station spacing was 10 km. Although originally designed as a broad-band transect to image the lithosphere with teleseisms, the array also recorded numerous local and regional seismic events. More than 5200 local, regional, and teleseismic events were detected on at least 3 stations during the one-year deployment. In this study, we focus on local earthquakes that were recorded on at least ten stations. Traditional earthquake analysis software (SAC2000, HypoInverse) was used to pick phases and locate earthquakes, while seismic reflection software (ProMAX) was employed to create event gathers and examine propagation characteristics. 896 earthquakes have been classified as local based on network moveout patterns and S-P time, 250 of which have been located to date. A substantial fraction of the events are concentrated in 2 specific locations, the Shuang Hu graben of the southern Qiangtang, and a graben in the central Lhasa Block. These data aside, the Qiangtang Terrane appears to be significantly more seismically active than the Lhasa Block. Furthermore, the local earthquake locations define several source regions not previously evident from global catalogs. Focal mechanisms computed for events with small azimuthal gaps indicate primarily extensional and left-lateral strike-slip motions on faults oriented approximately north-south and east-west, respectively. A particularly striking feature is a southwest-northeast trending zone of seismicity that seems to parallel the surface expression of the BNSZ. The left-lateral strike-slip focal mechanisms computed for these events may indicate that the suture has been reactivated and is accommodating eastward continental escape. Ninety-nine percent of the local earthquakes have focal depths shallower than 25 km, and the locations of the few deeper events are poorly constrained. The shallow source depths are consistent with high temperatures and ductile behavior in the middle to lower crust of central Tibet. >http://www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/indepth/indepth.html

Langin, W. R.; Brown, L. D.; Sandvol, E. A.

2001-12-01

287

Application of automated reasoning software: procedure generation system verifier  

SciTech Connect

An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logic axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions gathered by the combined system.

Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

1984-09-01

288

Advanced fiber optic seismic sensors (geophone) research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematical research on the fiber optic seismic sensors based on optical Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology is presented in this thesis. Optical fiber sensors using fiber Bragg gratings have a number of advantages such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, lightweight, low power consumption. The FBG sensor is intrinsically sensitive to dynamic strain signals and the strain sensitivity can approach sub micro-strain. Furthermore, FBG sensors are inherently suited for multiplexing, which makes possible networked/arrayed deployment on a large scale. The basic principle of the FBG geophone is that it transforms the acceleration of ground motion into the strain signal of the FBG sensor through mechanical design, and after the optical demodulation generates the analog voltage output proportional to the strain changes. The customized eight-channel FBG seismic sensor prototype is described here which consists of FBG sensor/demodulation grating pairs attached on the spring-mass mechanical system. The sensor performance is evaluated systematically in the laboratory using the conventional accelerometer and geophone as the benchmark, Two major applications of FBG seismic sensor are demonstrated. One is in the battlefield remote monitoring system to detect the presence of personnel, wheeled vehicles, and tracked vehicles. The other application is in the seismic reflection survey of oilfield exploration to collect the seismic waves from the earth. The field tests were carried out in the air force base and the oilfield respectively. It is shown that the FBG geophone has higher frequency response bandwidth and sensitivity than conventional moving-coil electromagnetic geophone and the military Rembass-II S/A sensor. Our objective is to develop a distributed FBG seismic sensor network to recognize and locate the presence of seismic sources with high inherent detection capability and a low false alarm rate in an integrated system.

Zhang, Yan

289

WiggleView : Visualizing Large Seismic Datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wiggleview is a tool for visualizing seismic data collected from a worldwide network of seismometers. The visualization consists of overlaying familiar 2D seismic traces recorded for the N-S, E-W and vertical components of the earth's displacement over the topographic map of the affected area. In addition, a 3D particle trace consisting of the integration of these 3 components provides a depiction of how an object placed at a particular seismic recording station would shake at the instant of the event. Data for the seismic events is obtained from repositories maintained by IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) at the Data Management Center, Seattle Washington. Suppose a seismologist wants to examine data gathered when an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale hit Turkey on October 31,1998. Wiggleview displays data at 20 stations for this event. The tool's strength lies in being able to depict as many as 60 channels of waveforms and 20 traces of particle motion on a single display. This allows one to watch the seismic wave field expand about a source and see how it differs from place to place. It can also assist in understanding surface wave multipathing and anisotropy -- this is important for revealing structure and for seismic hazard estimation. Wiggleview was designed for two display platforms: the standard PC-based desktop or laptop with a modern-day game graphics card; and a stereoscopic projection system called the Geowall. The stereoscopic nature of the images enhances depth perception and thus allows better understanding of attenuation due to distance and earth structure, source directivity and seismic hazard estimation. Illustrations are available at the Wiggleview website http://www.evl.uic.edu/atul/wiggleview

Nayak, A. M.; Leigh, J.; Johnson, A.; Russo, R.; Morin, P.; Laughbon, C.; Ahern, T.

2002-12-01

290

Seismic Crystals And Earthquake Shield Application  

E-print Network

We theoretically demonstrate that earthquake shield made of seismic crystal can damp down surface waves, which are the most destructive type for constructions. In the paper, seismic crystal is introduced in aspect of band gaps (Stop band) and some design concepts for earthquake and tsunami shielding were discussed in theoretical manner. We observed in our FDTD based 2D elastic wave simulations that proposed earthquake shield could provide about 0.5 reductions in magnitude of surface wave on the Richter scale. This reduction rate in magnitude can considerably reduce destructions in the case of earthquake.

B. Baykant Alagoz; Serkan Alagoz

2009-02-09

291

FRP SEISMIC RETROFIT OF RC SQUARE HOLLOW SECTION BRIDGE PIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work presented in this paper deals with the seismic assessment of hol-low bridge piers strengthened with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP). The scope of the strengthening is to overcome some common deficiencies derived from the use of non-seismic design rules, which can often lead to inadequate response when operating in cyclic loading. The strengthening design was studied by means of

ALBERTO PAVESE; DAVIDE BOLOGNINI; SIMONE PELOSO

2004-01-01

292

Optimizing Seismic Monitoring Networks for EGS and Conventional Geothermal Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several years, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential for the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquakes at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data, and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Additionally, we account for the attenuation of the seismic signal with travel time and ambient seismic noise with depth to be able to correctly deal with borehole station networks. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. This talk will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type, and discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Bethmann, Falko; Stefan, Wiemer

2013-04-01

293

Seismic sequences in the Sombrero Seismic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northeastern Caribbean, in the vicinity of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has a long and well-documented history of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis, including major events in 1670, 1787, 1867, 1916, 1918, and 1943. Recently, seismicity has been concentrated to the north and west of the British Virgin Islands, in the region referred to as the Sombrero Seismic Zone by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). In the combined seismicity catalog maintained by the PRSN, several hundred small to moderate magnitude events can be found in this region prior to 2006. However, beginning in 2006 and continuing to the present, the rate of seismicity in the Sombrero suddenly increased, and a new locus of activity developed to the east of the previous location. Accurate estimates of seismic hazard, and the tsunamigenic potential of seismic events, depend on an accurate and comprehensive understanding of how strain is being accommodated in this corner region. Are faults locked and accumulating strain for release in a major event? Or is strain being released via slip over a diffuse system of faults? A careful analysis of seismicity patterns in the Sombrero region has the potential to both identify faults and modes of failure, provided the aggregation scheme is tuned to properly identify related events. To this end, we experimented with a scheme to identify seismic sequences based on physical and temporal proximity, under the assumptions that (a) events occur on related fault systems as stress is refocused by immediately previous events and (b) such 'stress waves' die out with time, so that two events that occur on the same system within a relatively short time window can be said to have a similar 'trigger' in ways that two nearby events that occurred years apart cannot. Patterns that emerge from the identification, temporal sequence, and refined locations of such sequences of events carry information about stress accommodation that is obscured by large clouds of unrelated events in plots of the general catalog. One characteristic of these sequences is that their magnitudes tend to be consistently small (1.0 - 3.5 mb, with only five events greater than 3.5 mb) and they typically do not include an event that could confidently be identified as a "main" shock. Nevertheless, the numbers of events, temporal and geographic distribution of shocks in each sequence suggests that these are aftershock sequences, yet none includes an event that could confidently be identified as a "main" shock. This observation suggests several questions. Do these sequences truly represent aftershocks? If so, where are the main events? Are they perhaps related to "silent" or "slow" earthquakes in the subduction zone? If so, could such slow earthquakes be related to the dropping away of the subducting slab beneath the deep Puerto Rico Trench? Or do the sequences indicate tearing of the NA lithosphere of the North America plate as it subducts beneath the Caribbean plate?

Pulliam, J.; Huerfano, V. A.; ten Brink, U.; von Hillebrandt, C.

2007-05-01

294

Passive seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment of a network of seismic stations on the lunar surface as a result of equipment installed by Apollo 12, 14, and 15 flights is described. Four major discoveries obtained by analyzing seismic data from the network are discussed. The use of the system to detect vibrations of the lunar surface and the use of the data to determine the internal structure, physical state, and tectonic activity of the moon are examined.

Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.

1972-01-01

295

Characterization of the Virgo Seismic Environment  

E-print Network

The Virgo gravitational wave detector is an interferometer (ITF) with 3km arms located in Pisa, Italy. From July to October 2010, Virgo performed its third science run (VSR3) in coincidence with the LIGO detectors. Despite several techniques adopted to isolate the interferometer from the environment, seismic noise remains an important issue for Virgo. Vibrations produced by the detector infrastructure (such as air conditioning units, water chillers/heaters, pumps) are found to affect Virgo's sensitivity, with the main coupling mechanisms being through beam jitter and scattered light processes. The Advanced Virgo (AdV) design seeks to reduce ITF couplings to environmental noise by having most vibration-sensitive components suspended and in-vacuum, as well as muffle and relocate loud machines. During the months of June and July 2010, a Guralp-3TD seismometer was stationed at various locations around the Virgo site hosting major infrastructure machines. Seismic data were examined using spectral and coherence analysis with seismic probes close to the detector. The primary aim of this study was to identify noisy machines which seismically affect the ITF environment and thus require mitigation attention. Analyzed machines are located at various distances from the experimental halls, ranging from 10m to 100m. An attempt is made to measure the attenuation of emitted noise at the ITF and correlate it to the distance from the source and to seismic attenuation models in soil.

The Virgo Collaboration; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; P. Astone; G. Ballardin; F. Barone; M. Barsuglia; A. Basti; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; M. G. Beker; A. Belletoile; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; M. Blom; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; V. Boschi; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; M. Branchesi; T. Briant; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; B. Canuel; F. Carbognani; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; E. Chassande-Mottin; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; S. DAntonio; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. Day; R. De Rosa; G. Debreczeni; W. Del Pozzo; M. del Prete; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; A. Dietz; M. Drago; G. Endroczi; V. Fafone; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; L. A. Forte; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; F. Garufi; M. E. Gaspar; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; R. Gouaty; M. Granata; C. Greverie; G. M. Guidi; J. -F. Hayau; A. Heidmann; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; P. Jaranowski; I. Kowalska; A. Krolak; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; T. G. F. Li; N. Liguori; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; G. Losurdo; E. Majorana; I. Maksimovic; N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; C. Michel; L. Milano; Y. Minenkov; M. Mohan; N. Morgado; A. Morgia; S. Mosca; B. Mours; L. Naticchioni; F. Nocera; G. Pagliaroli; L. Palladino; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; M. Parisi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; G. Persichetti; F. Piergiovanni; M. Pietka; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Prato; G. A. Prodi; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; D. S. Rabeling; I. Racz; P. Rapagnani; V. Re; T. Regimbau; F. Ricci; F. Robinet; A. Rocchi; L. Rolland; R. Romano; D. Rosinska; P. Ruggi; B. Sassolas; D. Sentenac; L. Sperandio; R. Sturani; B. Swinkels; M. Tacca; L. Taffarello; A. Toncelli; M. Tonelli; O. Torre; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; J. F. J. van den Brand; C. Van Den Broeck; S. van der Putten; M. Vasuth; M. Vavoulidis; G. Vedovato; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Vicere; J. -Y. Vinet; S. Vitale; H. Vocca; R. L. Ward; M. Was; M. Yvert; A. Zadrozny; J. -P. Zendri

2011-08-08

296

Numerical simulation on seismic retrofitting performance of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with fibre reinforced polymer sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the seismic performance of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted with fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets through numerical simulations of the load–deformation response using two-dimensional finite element analysis (2D-FEA). The relatively rational mesh configuration is verified through comparison of analysis results obtained from the different mesh configurations. The seismic performance of three reinforced concrete (RC) columns strengthened with FRP

Zhishen Wu; Dachang Zhang; Vistasp M. Karbhari

2010-01-01

297

Verifying the Dependence of Fractal Coefficients on Different Spatial Distributions  

SciTech Connect

A fractal distribution requires that the number of objects larger than a specific size r has a power-law dependence on the size N(r) = C/r{sup D}propor tor{sup -D} where D is the fractal dimension. Usually the correlation integral is calculated to estimate the correlation fractal dimension of epicentres. A 'box-counting' procedure could also be applied giving the 'capacity' fractal dimension. The fractal dimension can be an integer and then it is equivalent to a Euclidean dimension (it is zero of a point, one of a segment, of a square is two and of a cube is three). In general the fractal dimension is not an integer but a fractional dimension and there comes the origin of the term 'fractal'. The use of a power-law to statistically describe a set of events or phenomena reveals the lack of a characteristic length scale, that is fractal objects are scale invariant. Scaling invariance and chaotic behavior constitute the base of a lot of natural hazards phenomena. Many studies of earthquakes reveal that their occurrence exhibits scale-invariant properties, so the fractal dimension can characterize them. It has first been confirmed that both aftershock rate decay in time and earthquake size distribution follow a power law. Recently many other earthquake distributions have been found to be scale-invariant. The spatial distribution of both regional seismicity and aftershocks show some fractal features. Earthquake spatial distributions are considered fractal, but indirectly. There are two possible models, which result in fractal earthquake distributions. The first model considers that a fractal distribution of faults leads to a fractal distribution of earthquakes, because each earthquake is characteristic of the fault on which it occurs. The second assumes that each fault has a fractal distribution of earthquakes. Observations strongly favour the first hypothesis.The fractal coefficients analysis provides some important advantages in examining earthquake spatial distribution, which are: - Simple way to quantify scale-invariant distributions of complex objects or phenomena by a small number of parameters. - It is becoming evident that the applicability of fractal distributions to geological problems could have a more fundamental basis. Chaotic behaviour could underlay the geotectonic processes and the applicable statistics could often be fractal.The application of fractal distribution analysis has, however, some specific aspects. It is usually difficult to present an adequate interpretation of the obtained values of fractal coefficients for earthquake epicenter or hypocenter distributions. That is why in this paper we aimed at other goals - to verify how a fractal coefficient depends on different spatial distributions. We simulated earthquake spatial data by generating randomly points first in a 3D space - cube, then in a parallelepiped, diminishing one of its sides. We then continued this procedure in 2D and 1D space. For each simulated data set we calculated the points' fractal coefficient (correlation fractal dimension of epicentres) and then checked for correlation between the coefficients values and the type of spatial distribution.In that way one can obtain a set of standard fractal coefficients' values for varying spatial distributions. These then can be used when real earthquake data is analyzed by comparing the real data coefficients values to the standard fractal coefficients. Such an approach can help in interpreting the fractal analysis results through different types of spatial distributions.

Gospodinov, Dragomir [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Geophysical Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.3, Sofia (Bulgaria); Marekova, Elisaveta; Marinov, Alexander [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

2010-01-21

298

Enhancing Seismic Monitoring Capability for Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Seismicity in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of natural gas produced from unconventional sources, such as the shale gas, has increased dramatically since the last decade. One of the key factors in the success of shale gas production is the application of hydraulic fracturing (also known as "fracking") to facilitate the efficient recovery of natural gas from shale matrices. As the fracking operation becomes routine in all major shale gas fields, its potential to induce local earthquakes at some locations has become a public concern. To address this concern, Natural Resources Canada has initiated a research effort to investigate the potential links between fracking operations and induced seismicity in some major shale gas basins of Canada. This federal-provincial collaborative research aims to assess if shale gas fracking can alter regional pattern of background seismicity and if so, what the relationship between how fracking is conducted and the maximum magnitude of induced seismicity would be. Other objectives include the investigation of the time scale of the interaction between fracking events and induced seismicity and the evaluation of induced seismicity potential for shale gas basins under different tectonic/geological conditions. The first phase of this research is to enhance the detection and monitoring capability for seismicity possibly related to shale gas recovery in Canada. Densification of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) is currently underway in northeast British Columbia where fracking operations are taking place. Additional seismic stations are planned for major shale gas basins in other regions where fracking might be likely in the future. All newly established CNSN stations are equipped with broadband seismographs with real-time continuous data transmission. The design goal of the enhanced seismic network is to significantly lower the detection threshold such that the anticipated low-magnitude earthquakes that might be related to fracking operations can be identified and located shortly after their occurrence.

Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.; Farahbod, A.; Lamontagne, M.

2012-12-01

299

Cryptanalysis of a Verifiably Committed Signature Scheme based on GPS and RSA  

E-print Network

, Charlie, is always required. A trivial fair exchange protocol would involve Charlie in any step the intervention of Charlie, by designing protocols where Charlie only intervenes in case of problem in the protocol are Alice the signer, Bob the verifier, and Charlie the semi-trusted arbitrator. The signer Alice

Nesterov, Yurii

300

Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs  

E-print Network

Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs Oliver D. Sieber vertical-external-cavity sur- face-emitting lasers (OP-VECSELs), passively mode- locked show that a key VECSEL design parameter is a high gain saturation fluence. By optimizing this parameter

Keller, Ursula

301

A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region  

SciTech Connect

The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on data obtained by the first set of safety checks. The strengthening philosophy adopt in the projects will be described in the paper.

Zuccaro, G. [Study Centre PLINIVS-University of Naples 'Federico II', via Toledo, 402 - I 80134 - Naples (Italy); Palmieri, M.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M. [Campania Region-Civil Protection Office-Centro Direzionale, is. C3 - 80 143 - Naples (Italy); Maggio, F. [Campania Region-Public Works Office-via Cesare Battisti, 30 - I 8100, Caserta (Italy)

2008-07-08

302

A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on data obtained by the first set of safety checks. The strengthening philosophy adopt in the projects will be described in the paper.

Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Maggiò, F.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.

2008-07-01

303

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic report for Fiscal year 2003  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 356 triggers during the third quarter of fiscal year 2003. Of these triggers, 141 were earthquakes. Thirty-four earthquakes of the 141 earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 15 occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 13 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 6 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 22 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was associated with a major geologic structure, and 11 were classified as random events. During the third quarter, an earthquake swarm consisting of 15 earthquakes occurred on the south limb of Rattlesnake Mountain. The earthquakes are centered over the northwest extension of the Horse Heaven Hills anticline and probably occur at the base of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2003-09-11

304

Verifying Red-Black Trees Paolo Baldan1  

E-print Network

Verifying Red-Black Trees Paolo Baldan1 , Andrea Corradini2 , Javier Esparza3 , Tobias Heindel3,heindets,koenigba,koziouvi}@fmi.uni-stuttgart.de Abstract. We show how to verify the correctness of insertion of ele- ments into red-black trees--a form of balanced search trees--using anal- ysis techniques developed for graph rewriting. We first model red

Baldan, Paolo

305

Access Control in Publicly Verifiable Outsourced Computation James Alderman  

E-print Network

Publicly Verifiable Outsourced Computation (PVC) allows devices with restricted re- sources to delegate. Thus there is a need to apply access control mechanisms in PVC environments. In this work, we define a new framework for Publicly Verifiable Outsourced Computation with Access Control (PVC-AC) that applies

306

Verifying Quantitative Reliability for Programs That Execute on Unreliable Hardware  

E-print Network

Verifying Quantitative Reliability for Programs That Execute on Unreliable Hardware Michael Carbin the quantitative reliability of an application ­ namely, the probability that it produces the correct result when value that a function produces. We present a static quantitative reliability analysis that verifies

Rinard, Martin

307

Flutter Stability Verified for the Trailing Edge Blowing Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TURBO-AE aeroelastic code has been used to verify the flutter stability of the trailing edge blowing (TEB) fan, which is a unique technology demonstrator being designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center for testing in Glenn s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Air can be blown out of slots near the trailing edges of the TEB fan blades to fill in the wakes downstream of the rotating blades, which reduces the rotor-stator interaction (tone) noise caused by the interaction of wakes with the downstream stators. The TEB fan will demonstrate a 1.6-EPNdB reduction in tone noise through wake filling. Furthermore, the reduced blade-row interaction will decrease the possibility of forced-response vibrations and enable closer spacing of blade rows, thus reducing engine length and weight. The detailed aeroelastic analysis capability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes TURBO-AE code was used to check the TEB fan rotor blades for flutter stability. Flutter calculations were first performed with no TEB flow; then select calculations were repeated with TEB flow turned on.

Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh

2005-01-01

308

Seismicity in Northern Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR in October 2012. The instrumental analysis like the determination of hypocenters, magnitudes and fault plane solutions whenever possible, is supplemented by macroseismic investigations based on reports by the public.

Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

2013-04-01

309

Parallel computation of seismic analysis of high arch dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel computation programs are developed for three-dimensional meso-mechanics analysis of fully-graded dam concrete and seismic response analysis of high arch dams (ADs), based on the Parallel Finite Element Program Generator (PFEPG). The computational algorithms of the numerical simulation of the meso-structure of concrete specimens were studied. Taking into account damage evolution, static preload, strain rate effect, and the heterogeneity of the meso-structure of dam concrete, the fracture processes of damage evolution and configuration of the cracks can be directly simulated. In the seismic response analysis of ADs, all the following factors are involved, such as the nonlinear contact due to the opening and slipping of the contraction joints, energy dispersion of the far-field foundation, dynamic interactions of the dam-foundation-reservoir system, and the combining effects of seismic action with all static loads. The correctness, reliability and efficiency of the two parallel computational programs are verified with practical illustrations.

Chen, Houqun; Ma, Huaifa; Tu, Jin; Cheng, Guangqing; Tang, Juzhen

2008-03-01

310

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. This includes three recently acquired Transportable Array stations located at Cold Creek, Didier Farms, and Phinney Hill. For the Hanford Seismic Network, ten local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2009. All earthquakes were considered as “minor” with magnitudes (Mc) less than 1.0. Two earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), most likely in the Columbia River basalts; five earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the sub-basalt sediments); and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, four earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2009-03-15

311

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 16 local earthquakes during the first quarter of FY 2011. Six earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), seven earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the pre-basalt sediments, and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, thirteen earthquakes were located in known swarm areas and three earthquakes were classified as random events. The highest magnitude event (1.8 Mc) was recorded on October 19, 2010 at depth 17.5 km with epicenter located near the Yakima River between the Rattlesnake Mountain and Horse Heaven Hills swarm areas.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2011-03-31

312

Seismic hazard assessment in Grecce: Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greece is the most earthquake prone country in the eastern Mediterranean territory and one of the most active areas globally. Seismic Hazard Assessment (SHA) is a useful procedure to estimate the expected earthquake magnitude and strong ground-motion parameters which are necessary for earthquake resistant design. Several studies on the SHA of Greece are available, constituting the basis of the National Seismic Code. However, the recently available more complete, accurate and homogenous seismological data (the new earthquake catalogue of Makropoulos et al., 2012), the revised seismic zones determined within the framework of the SHARE project (2012), new empirical attenuation formulas extracted for several regions in Greece, as well as new algorithms of SHA, are innovations that motivated the present study. Herewith, the expected earthquake magnitude for Greece is evaluated by applying the zone-free, upper bounded Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values method. The peak ground acceleration (PGA), velocity (PGV) and displacement (PGD) are calculated at the seismic bedrock using two methods: (a) the Gumbel's first asymptotic distribution of extreme values, since it is valid for initial open-end distributions and (b) the Cornell-McGuire approach, using the CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et. al., 2007) software. The latter takes into account seismic source zones for which seismicity parameters are assigned following a Poisson recurrence model. Thus, each source is characterized by a series of seismic parameters, such as the magnitude recurrence and the recurrence rate for threshold magnitude, while different predictive equations can be assigned to different seismic source zones. Recent available attenuation parameters were considered. Moreover, new attenuation parameters for the very seismically active Corinth Gulf deduced during this study, from recordings of the RASMON accelerometric array, were used. The hazard parameters such as the most probable annual maximum earthquake magnitude (mode) and the maximum expected earthquake magnitude with 70% and 90% probability of not been exceeded in 50 and 100 years are determined and compiled into a GIS mapping scheme. The data quality allowed the estimation of strong ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV and PGD) within cells of small dimensions of 0.25° X 0.25°. The results are discussed and compared with the ones obtained by other studies.

Makropoulos, Kostas; Chousianitis, Kostas; Kaviris, George; Kassaras, Ioannis

2013-04-01

313

Analytical Response and Design of Buildings with Metallic Structural Fuses. I  

E-print Network

and Michel Bruneau2 Abstract: Seismic design relies on inelastic deformations through hysteretic behavior. Such a general procedure is proposed here for designing new or retrofitted structures. The proposed structural; Seismic design; Seismic effects; Damping; Inelasticity; Ductility. Introduction Typically, in seismic

Bruneau, Michel

314

Community Seismic Network (CSN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSN is a network of low-cost accelerometers deployed in the Pasadena, CA region. It is a prototype network with the goal of demonstrating the importance of dense measurements in determining the rapid lateral variations in ground motion due to earthquakes. The main product of the CSN is a map of peak ground produced within seconds of significant local earthquakes that can be used as a proxy for damage. Examples of this are shown using data from a temporary network in Long Beach, CA. Dense measurements in buildings are also being used to determine the state of health of structures. In addition to fixed sensors, portable sensors such as smart phones are also used in the network. The CSN has necessitated several changes in the standard design of a seismic network. The first is that the data collection and processing is done in the "cloud" (Google cloud in this case) for robustness and the ability to handle large impulsive loads (earthquakes). Second, the database is highly de-normalized (i.e. station locations are part of waveform and event-detection meta data) because of the mobile nature of the sensors. Third, since the sensors are hosted and/or owned by individuals, the privacy of the data is very important. The location of fixed sensors is displayed on maps as sensor counts in block-wide cells, and mobile sensors are shown in a similar way, with the additional requirement to inhibit tracking that at least two must be present in a particular cell before any are shown. The raw waveform data are only released to users outside of the network after a felt earthquake.

Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.

2011-12-01

315

Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8  

SciTech Connect

The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

Ivanka, Paskaleva [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mihaela, Kouteva [CLSMEE-BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Franco, Vaccari [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Panza, Giuliano F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

2008-07-08

316

Seismic deformation analysis of Tuttle Creek Dam Timothy D. Stark, Michael H. Beaty, Peter M. Byrne, Gonzalo Castro,  

E-print Network

Seismic deformation analysis of Tuttle Creek Dam Timothy D. Stark, Michael H. Beaty, Peter M. Byrne, and David L. Mathews Abstract: To facilitate the design of seismic remediation for Tuttle Creek Dam in east central Kansas, a seismic finite differ- ence analysis of the dam was performed using the software FLAC

317

Separation of seismic blended data by sparse inversion over dictionary learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development of blended acquisition calls for the new procedure to process blended seismic measurements. Presently, deblending and reconstructing unblended data followed by conventional processing is the most practical processing workflow. We study seismic deblending by advanced sparse inversion with a learned dictionary in this paper. To make our method more effective, hybrid acquisition and time-dithering sequential shooting are introduced so that clean single-shot records can be used to train the dictionary to favor the sparser representation of data to be recovered. Deblending and dictionary learning with l1-norm based sparsity are combined to construct the corresponding problem with respect to unknown recovery, dictionary, and coefficient sets. A two-step optimization approach is introduced. In the step of dictionary learning, the clean single-shot data are selected as trained data to learn the dictionary. For deblending, we fix the dictionary and employ an alternating scheme to update the recovery and coefficients separately. Synthetic and real field data were used to verify the performance of our method. The outcome can be a significant reference in designing high-efficient and low-cost blended acquisition.

Zhou, Yanhui; Chen, Wenchao; Gao, Jinghuai

2014-07-01

318

Seismic Performance Evaluation of Concentrically Braced Frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrically braced frames (CBFs) are broadly used as lateral-load resisting systems in buildings throughout the US. In high seismic regions, special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) where ductility under seismic loading is necessary. Their large elastic stiffness and strength efficiently sustains the seismic demands during smaller, more frequent earthquakes. During large, infrequent earthquakes, SCBFs exhibit highly nonlinear behavior due to brace buckling and yielding and the inelastic behavior induced by secondary deformation of the framing system. These response modes reduce the system demands relative to an elastic system without supplemental damping. In design the re reduced demands are estimated using a response modification coefficient, commonly termed the R factor. The R factor values are important to the seismic performance of a building. Procedures put forth in FEMAP695 developed to R factors through a formalized procedure with the objective of consistent level of collapse potential for all building types. The primary objective of the research was to evaluate the seismic performance of SCBFs. To achieve this goal, an improved model including a proposed gusset plate connection model for SCBFs that permits accurate simulation of inelastic deformations of the brace, gusset plate connections, beams and columns and brace fracture was developed and validated using a large number of experiments. Response history analyses were conducted using the validated model. A series of different story-height SCBF buildings were designed and evaluated. The FEMAP695 method and an alternate procedure were applied to SCBFs and NCBFs. NCBFs are designed without ductile detailing. The evaluation using P695 method shows contrary results to the alternate evaluation procedure and the current knowledge in which short-story SCBF structures are more venerable than taller counterparts and NCBFs are more vulnerable than SCBFs.

Hsiao, Po-Chien

319

Magnitude correlations in global seismicity  

SciTech Connect

By employing natural time analysis, we analyze the worldwide seismicity and study the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We find that global seismicity exhibits nontrivial magnitude correlations for earthquake magnitudes greater than M{sub w}6.5.

Sarlis, N. V. [Solid State Section and Solid Earth Physics Institute, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos GR-157 84, Athens (Greece)

2011-08-15

320

Evolution of optically nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the deployment of the credit card, the number of credit card fraud cases has grown rapidly with a huge amount of loss in millions of US dollars. Instead of asking more information from the credit card's holder or taking risk through payment approval, a nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifier is highly desirable before transaction begins. In this paper, we review optical techniques that have been proposed and invented in order to make the genuine credit card more distinguishable than the counterfeit credit card. Several optical approaches for the implementation of credit card verifiers are also included. In particular, we highlight our invention on a hyperspectral-imaging based portable credit card verifier structure that offers a very low false error rate of 0.79%. Other key features include low cost, simplicity in design and implementation, no moving part, no need of an additional decoding key, and adaptive learning.

Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

2010-04-01

321

On Time-Dependent Seismic Risk Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to the lack of knowledge and poor understanding by the majority of scientific community, as well as by decision makers and people, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. As concerning seismic activity, although a number of studies and experiments aimed at earthquake prediction in the last 20 years have demonstrated some progress and there is recognition of certain predictability of earthquakes, including the extreme disastrous ones, the generally accepted models of seismic hazard are based on “old-good” assumptions that evidently contradict the growing stream of the best documented instrumental observations. (i) Earthquake size follows the Gutenberg-Richter relation (at scales from mega events down to seismic static); (ii) seismic recurrence is not stationary in time (at different scales including the long-term ones), and (iii) earthquake locations have heterogeneous, possibly, fractal distribution in space (at scales from hundreds km to a few km or less). This short list of already confirmed observations implies that Seismic Hazard is naturally time-dependent at different scales and its hierarchical assessment should rely on monitoring characteristics of distributed seismic activity (and, possibly, other associated geophysical phenomena) to-date aimed at prognosis of events, which are the largest expected in the nearest future (within a certain delay time). On the other hand, pattern recognition of areas prone to earthquakes of different size and unified scaling law for earthquakes suggest a possibility to improve Exposure of different objects at Risk by relocating them in a safer place. Finally, Vulnerability of an object could be improved by a knowledgeable choice of appropriate hazard reduction measures, either in advance their design or in case of earthquake prediction alert, after simulating an ensemble of earthquake scenarios with realistically distributed sizes and locations.

Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Romashkova, L. L.

2009-12-01

322

Seismic Initiating Event Analysis For a PBMR Plant  

SciTech Connect

Seismic Initiating Event (IE) analysis is one of the most important tasks that control the level of effort and quality of the whole Seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (SPRA). The typical problems are related to the following aspects: how the internal PRA model and its complexity can be used and how to control the number of PRA components for which fragility evaluation should be performed and finally to obtain a manageable number of significant cut-sets for seismic risk quantification. The answers to these questions are highly dependent on the possibility to improve the interface between the internal events analysis and the external events analysis at the design stage. (authors)

Van Graan, Henriette; Serbanescu, Dan; Combrink, Yolanda [PBMR, Gordon Hood Ave., 1267 Buena Vista Bldg., Centurion 0046, Gauteng province (South Africa); Coman, Ovidiu [Stevenson and Associates, Sf. Spiridon no 12, Bucharest-02098 (Romania)

2004-07-01

323

Seismic while drilling: Operational experiences in Viet Nam  

SciTech Connect

The BP/Statoil alliance in Viet Nam has used seismic while drilling on four wells during the last two years. Three wells employed the Western Atlas Tomex system, and the last well, Schlumberger`s SWD system. Perceived value of seismic while drilling (SWD) lies in being able to supply real-time data linking drill bit position to a seismic picture of the well. However, once confidence in equipment and methodology is attained, SWD can influence well design and planning associated with drilling wells. More important, SWD can remove uncertainty when actually drilling wells, allowing risk assessment to be carried out more accurately and confidently.

Jackson, M.; Einchcomb, C.

1997-03-01

324

VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. We use Microsoft Excel 2003 and have not tested VISION with Microsoft Excel 2007. The VISION team uses both Powersim Studio 2005 and 2009 and it should work with either.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

2009-08-01

325

The 2012 Ferrara seismic sequence: Regional crustal structure, earthquake sources, and seismic hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inadequate seismic design codes can be dangerous, particularly when they underestimate the true hazard. In this study we use data from a sequence of moderate-sized earthquakes in northeast Italy to validate and test a regional wave propagation model which, in turn, is used to understand some weaknesses of the current design spectra. Our velocity model, while regionalized and somewhat ad hoc, is consistent with geophysical observations and the local geology. In the 0.02-0.1 Hz band, this model is validated by using it to calculate moment tensor solutions of 20 earthquakes (5.6 ? MW ? 3.2) in the 2012 Ferrara, Italy, seismic sequence. The seismic spectra observed for the relatively small main shock significantly exceeded the design spectra to be used in the area for critical structures. Observations and synthetics reveal that the ground motions are dominated by long-duration surface waves, which, apparently, the design codes do not adequately anticipate. In light of our results, the present seismic hazard assessment in the entire Pianura Padana, including the city of Milan, needs to be re-evaluated.

Malagnini, Luca; Herrmann, Robert B.; Munafò, Irene; Buttinelli, Mauro; Anselmi, Mario; Akinci, Aybige; Boschi, E.

2012-10-01

326

3-D Seismic Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

Moore, Gregory F.

2009-05-01

327

Seismic ruggedness of relays  

SciTech Connect

This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

Merz, K.L. (Anco Engineers, Inc., Culver City, CA (United States))

1991-08-01

328

Controllable seismic source  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrel, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

2014-08-19

329

Induced seismicity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

Segall, P.

1997-09-18

330

Seismic behaviors of columns in ordinary and intermediate moment resisting concrete frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the seismic behaviors of columns in Ordinary Moment Resisting Concrete Frames (OMRCF) and Intermediate Moment Resisting Concrete Frames (IMRCF). For this purpose, two three-story OMRCF and IMRCF were designed according to the minimum design and reinforcement detailing requirements specified in ACI 318-02. This study assumed that the building was located in seismic

Sang Whan Han; N. Y. Jee

2005-01-01

331

Optimizing and verifying an ensemble-based rainfall model  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I modified, optimized, and verified the stochastic Recursive Cluster-point Rainfall model of Chatdarong (2006). A novel error metric allows comparison of the stochastic ensemble of rainfall image forecasts ...

Friedman, Sara Hargrove

2007-01-01

332

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 506 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twenty-seven seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46--47{degree} N latitude and 119--120{degree} W longitude; 12 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 2 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 5 were quarry blasts. Three earthquakes appear to be related to geologic structures, eleven earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and seven earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the second quarter of FY 2000.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

2000-07-17

333

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-03-21

334

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, seven local earthquakes were recorded during the second quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the second quarter (February 3, 2008 - magnitude 2.3 Mc) was located northeast of Richland in Franklin County at a depth of 22.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, two earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), three earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and two earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, five earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and two earthquakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-06-26

335

Network Optimization for Induced Seismicity Monitoring in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the global challenge to satisfy an increasing demand for energy, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas in the past several years. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. In this talk we will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type. We will discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Wiemer, S.

2012-12-01

336

Geophysical Monitoring at the CO2SINK Site: Combining Seismic and Geoelectric Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CO2SINK project at the German town of Ketzin (near Berlin), is aimed at a pilot storage of CO2, and at developing and testing efficient integrated monitoring procedures (physical, chemical, and biological observations) for assessing the processes triggered within the reservoir by a long term injection operation. In particular, geophysical methods as seismic and geoelectric measurements have delivered the structural framework, and they enable to observe the reaction of the reservoir and the caprock to CO2 propagation at locations which are not accessible for direct observations. We report on the seismic monitoring program of the CO2SINK project which comprises baseline and repeat observations at different scales in time and space, combined with comprehensive geoelectrical monitoring performed in the Ketzin wells and on the surface. The main objectives of the 3D seismic survey (carried out in spring 2005) were to provide the structural model around the location of the Ketzin wells, to verify earlier geologic interpretations of structure based on vintage 2D seismic and borehole data, as well as providing a baseline for future seismic surveys. The uppermost 1000 m are well imaged and show an anticlinal structure with an east-west striking central graben on its top. The 3D baseline survey was extended by VSP (vertical seismic profiling), MSP (moving source profiling) on 7 profiles, and crosshole tomographic measurements. 2D "star" measurements were carried out on the 7 MSP profiles in order to tie-in the down-hole surveys with the 3D baseline survey. These measurements provide enhanced resolution in time (faster and more cost effective than a full 3D survey) and space (higher source and receiver frequencies). Three crosshole measurements were performed, one baseline survey in May 2008, and two repeats in July and August 2008, respectively. A third crosshole repeat is planned for a later stage in the project when a steady state situation has been reached in the reservoir between the two observation boreholes Ktzi 200 and Ktzi 202. The interpretation of the time lapse crosshole seismic measurements is still work in progress. A time lapse effect can be recognized on cross correlations of baseline and repeat data indicating that considering the full wave form of the recordings does have the potential to locate subtle changes in the seismic properties of the reservoir due to CO2 injection. In addition, we show the results of the site-specific geoelectrical monitoring concept VERA (Vertical Electrical Resistivity Array), which covers electrical resistivity measurements in all three Ketzin wells. The array consists of 45 permanent electrodes (15 in each well), placed on the electrically insulated casings of the wells in the 600 m to 750 m depth range with a spacing of 10 m. This layout has been designed according to numerical forward modeling assuming electrical properties of pre- and post-injection scenarios. In addition to the geoelectric downhole measurement setup, surface to surface, and surface to downhole measurements are added in order to enlarge the area of observation between the three Ketzin wells to a hemispherical area (with a radius of about 1.5 km) around the wells. First results of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) fit the expected reservoir behaviour. Higher resistivity values (presently up to factor 3 compared to other horizons) represent the intervals of the sandstone reservoir as preferred pathways of the CO2 propagation.

Giese, R.; Lüth, S.; Cosma, C.; Juhlin, C.; Kiessling, D.; Schütt, H.; Schöbel, B.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Schilling, F.; Co2SINK Group

2009-04-01

337

Bracing systems for seismic retrofitting of steel frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assesses the seismic performance of steel moment resisting frames (MRFs) retrofitted with different bracing systems. Three structural configurations were utilized: special concentrically braces (SCBFs), buckling-restrained braces (BRBFs) and mega-braces (MBFs). A 9-storey steel perimeter MRF was designed with lateral stiffness insufficient to satisfy code drift limitations in zones with high seismic hazard. The frame was then retrofitted

L. Di Sarno; A. S. Elnashai

2009-01-01

338

Seismicity patterns before the M=5.8 2002, Palermo (Italy) earthquake: seismic quiescence and accelerating seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic quiescence and accelerating seismic energy release are considered as possible spatio-temporal patterns of the preparation process of the 6 September 2002 Palermo, Italy, earthquake ( M 5.8). The detailed properties of the quiescence are analyzed applying the RTL algorithm. The RTL algorithm is based on the analysis of the RTL prognostic parameter, which is designed in such a way that it has a negative value if, in comparison with long-term background, there is a deficiency of events in the time-space vicinity of the tested point. The RTL parameter increases if activation of seismicity takes place. The RTL algorithm identified that a seismic quiescence started from the beginning of November 2001 and reached its minimum at the end of May 2002. The Palermo 2002 earthquake occurred 2 months after the RTL parameter restored its long-term background level. The application of a log-periodic time-to-failure model gives a "predicted" (in retrospect) magnitude M=6.2 main shock on 5 May 2002.

Di Giovambattista, R.; Tyupkin, Yu. S.

2004-06-01

339

A case study: Time-lapse seismic monitoring of a thin heavy oil reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a case study on time-lapse seismic monitoring. The target area is located at East Senlac in the vicinity of Alberta and Saskatchewan border, a heavy oil reservoir in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to observe rock property related seismic anomalies, two perpendicular seismic lines have been set up. One seismic line along the N-S direction is subject to Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) while the other seismic line along the W-E direction is not affected. This case study covers the subjects of feasibility study, processing strategy, repeatability evaluation, seismic attribute analysis, and impedance inversion. Systematic feasibility study is conducted by prediction of rock properties based on Gassmann's equation, technical risk assessment, forward modelling and seismic survey design. The first stage simulation of oil substitution by steam indicates that it is feasible to perform time-lapse seismic monitoring project, but great challenge might be encountered. Continuous gas injection barely induces seismic variations. In the aspect of seismic data processing, better seismic quality is obtained by employing the prestack simultaneous processing (PSP) strategy. The three metrics, Pearson correlation, normalized root-mean-squares and predictability are employed to quantify the post-stack seismic repeatability. Higher repeatability along the W-E direction than along the N-S direction shows different local geology environment. The non-uniform CMP stack fold distribution is found the main factor to affect seismic repeatability. The seismic attribute, power spectra calculated from the N-S seismic surveys demonstrate that higher frequency energy tend to increase with time due to the possible decrease in pore pressure and pore temperature. On the other hand, the inverted impedance using the recently proposed hybrid data transformation shows mixed impedance variations. The continuous gas injection and the simultaneous drop in temperature and pressure are possibly the main reason to result in this mixed impedance variations.

Zhang, Yajun

340

Sub-seismic Deformation Prediction of Potential Pathways and Seismic Validation - The Joint Project PROTECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint project PROTECT (PRediction Of deformation To Ensure Carbon Traps) aims to determine the existence and characteristics of sub-seismic structures that can potentially link deep reservoirs with the surface in the framework of CO2 underground storage. The research provides a new approach of assessing the long-term integrity of storage reservoirs. The objective is predicting and quantifying the distribution and the amount of sub-/seismic strain caused by fault movement in the proximity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The study is developing tools and workflows which will be tested at the CO2CRC Otway Project Site in the Otway Basin in south-western Victoria, Australia. For this purpose, we are building a geometrical kinematic 3-D model based on 2-D and 3-D seismic data that are provided by the Australian project partner, the CO2CRC Consortium. By retro-deforming the modeled subsurface faults in the inspected subsurface volume we can determine the accumulated sub-seismic deformation and thus the strain variation around the faults. Depending on lithology, the calculated strain magnitude and its orientation can be used as an indicator for fracture density. Furthermore, from the complete 3D strain tensor we can predict the orientation of fractures at sub-seismic scale. In areas where we have preliminary predicted critical deformation, we will acquire in November this year new near- surface, high resolution P- and S-wave 2-D seismic data in order to verify and calibrate our model results. Here, novel and parameter-based model building will especially benefit from extracting velocities and elastic parameters from VSP and other seismic data. Our goal is to obtain a better overview of possible fluid migration pathways and communication between reservoir and overburden. Thereby, we will provide a tool for prediction and adapted time-dependent monitoring strategies for subsurface storage in general including scientific visualization capabilities. Acknowledgement This work was sponsored in part by the Australian Commonwealth Government through the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC). PROTECT (PRediction Of deformation To Ensure Carbon Traps) is funded through the Geotechnologien Programme (grant 03G0797) of the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). The PROTECT research group consists of Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover, Technical University Darmstadt, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung in Leipzig, Trappe Erdöl Erdgas Consultant in Isernhagen (all Germany), and Curtin University in Perth, Australia.

Krawczyk, C. M.; Kolditz, O.

2013-12-01

341

Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors  

SciTech Connect

A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its Generic Safety Evaluation Report'' approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology.

Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J. (EQE Engineering, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1989-01-01

342

Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors  

SciTech Connect

A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry`s electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its ``Generic Safety Evaluation Report`` approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology.

Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J. [EQE Engineering, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1989-12-31

343

Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity  

SciTech Connect

An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements.

Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

1999-07-20

344

Korea Seismic Networks and Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modernization of seismic network in Korea was motivated by Youngweol (1996, Ml 4.5) and Gyeongju (1997, Ml 4.2) earthquakes. KMA (Korea Meteorological Agency) has built 45 digital seismic stations which compose the National Seismic Network. KEPRI (Korea Electric Power Research Institute) and KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) also have built 15 and 4 digital seismic stations, respectively. KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) also has made 37 stations until 2008 including Hyodongri complex seismic observatory where GPS, geomagnetic observation system and borehole seismic system. Since 2002 Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) has been playing main role in real-time seismic data exchange between different seismic networks operated by four earthquake monitoring institutes: KMA, KEPRI, KINS and KIGAM. Seismic data from different seismic networks are gathered into the data pool of KISS where clients can receive data in real-time. Before expanding and modernizing of Korean seismic stations, the consortium of the four institutes made the standard criteria of seismic observation such as instrument, data format, and communication protocol for the purpose of integrating seismic networks. More than 150 digital stations (velocity or accelerometer) installed from 1998 to 2008 in Korea could be easily linked to KISS in real time due to the standard criteria. When a big earthquake happens, the observed peak acceleration value can be used as the instrumental intensity on the local site and the distribution of peak accelerations shows roughly the severity of the damaged area. Real Time Intensity Color Mapping (RTICOM) is developed to generate a every second contour map of the nationwide intensity based on the peak acceleration values retrieved through KISS from local stations. RTICOM can be used to rapid evaluation of the intensity and decision making against earthquake damages.

Park, J. H.; Chi, H. C.; Lim, I. S.; Kim, G. Y.

2009-04-01

345

Geothermal induced seismicity program plan  

SciTech Connect

A plan for a National Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program has been prepared in consultation with a panel of experts from industry, academia, and government. The program calls for baseline seismic monitoring in regions of known future geothermal development, continued seismic monitoring and characterization of earthquakes in zones of geothermal fluid production and injection, modeling of the earthquake-inducing mechanism, and in situ measurement of stresses in the geothermal development. The Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program (GISP) will have as its objectives the evaluation of the seismic hazard, if any, associated with geothermal resource exploitation and the devising of a technology which, when properly utilized, will control or mitigate such hazards.

Not Available

1981-03-01

346

Hanford quarterly seismic report -- 97A seismicity on and near the Hanford Site, Pasco Basin, Washington, October 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Seismic Monitoring is part of PNNL`s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team (SMART) operates, maintains, and analyzes data from the hanford Seismic Network (HSN), extending the site historical seismic database and fulfilling US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office requirements and orders. The SMART also maintains the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN). The University of Washington uses the data from the EWRN and other seismic networks in the Northwest to provide the SMART with necessary regional input for the seismic hazards analysis at the Hanford Site. The SMART is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw seismic data from the HSN located on and around the Hanford Site. These unprocessed data are permanently archived. SMART also is tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity, monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site, and build a local earthquake database (processed data) that is permanently archived. Local earthquakes are defined as earthquakes that occur within 46 degrees to 47 degrees west longitude and 119 degrees to 120 degrees north latitude. The data are used by the Hanford contractor for waste management activities, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of an earthquake on the Hanford Site.

Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

1997-02-01

347

Development of an Innovative Downhole Seismic Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) previously designed, built, and tested an innovative downhole seismic source. The design criteria included a size limitation (the source needed to fit into a 2-inch diameter well casing), the source would use .22 caliber power loads as the energy source, it would have the ability to fire at least 12 times before reloading, it would be able to function under water (depth is limited by internal pressure from the .22 caliber power loads, which must be greater than pressure exerted by water column), and it would use no more than 24-volt dc current. MSE developed the design criteria from a need for a downhole seismic source suitable for high-resolution seismic tomography applications. Tomographic methods may provide detailed information at waste sites for both characterization and monitoring. Since borehole diameters are kept to a minimum (i.e., 2-inches or less) to reduce waste volumes from drill cuttings, or the borehole may be installed using a direct push technology such as a GeoprobeT or cone penetrometer, a small diameter source is desirable. Additionally, the use of .22 caliber power loads reduces the amount of supporting equipment required to operate the source as compared to other downhole seismic sources (e.g., air guns and piezoelectric sources). MSE tested and evaluated the completed seismic source to assess the effectiveness of the .22 caliber power loads as energy sources and to assess the operational ease of using the source. Results of the testing indicated that the power loads provided energy suitable for high-resolution cross-well seismic tomography applications. Operation of the source required significantly less supporting equipment than other downhole sources tested. However, the testing suggested the system could be improved if the number of mechanical components were reduced. Subsequent research suggested that the power loads could be fired using an electric current. As a result, MSE believes that the entire operation of the seismic source could be accomplished using electronic components. This would eliminate mechanical components currently used inside the seismic source. Planned borehole seismic source modifications include converting the source from primarily mechanical operation to electrical operation and completing the firing control system. The firing control system will allow the user to turn the source on and off, initiate the firing process, and track the number of power loads fired. Testing of the modified seismic source will be limited to bench testing the electronic firing mechanism and the firing control system since we are not modifying the energy source used (.22 caliber power loads) performance of the source in this respect will not change. Acknowledgements Work is being conducted through the Savannah River Operations office at the Western Environmental Technology Office under DOE Contract Number DE-AC09-96EW96405.

Reichhardt, D.

2005-05-01

348

Seismicity of Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sri Lanka has been considered an aseismic region. After 2.5 years of continuous microearthquake recording in the Kotmale area, earthquakes with a magnitude <= 2.25 have been recorded clearly indicating a measurable seismic risk. The data come from an array established in February 1982, surrounding the proposed Kotmale Reservoir in a geologically adverse area, where nine major lineaments have been

M. J. Fernando; A. N. S. Kulasinghe

1986-01-01

349

Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

1993-08-01

350

The Viking seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-axis short-period seismometer is now operating on Mars in the Utopia Planitia region. The noise background correlates well with wind gusts. Although no quakes have been detected in the first 60 days of observation, it is premature to draw any conclusions about the seismicity of Mars. The instrument is expected to return data for at least 2 years.

Anderson, D. L.; Miller, W. F.; Duennebier, F. K.; Lazarewicz, A. R.; Sutton, G.; Latham, G. V.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, M. F.; Kovach, R. L.; Knight, T. C. D.

1976-01-01

351

AUTOMATING SHALLOW SEISMIC IMAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

Our current EMSP project continues an effort begun in 1997 to develop ultrashallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method applicable to DOE facilities. The objective of the present research is to refine and demonstrate the use of an automated method of conducting shallow seis...

352

Seismic Resonant Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of

V. A. Korneev

2007-01-01

353

Continous Seismic Profiling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS collaborated with cooperator U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to conduct continuous seismic-reflection profiling in the Havasu National Wildlife Refuge. The survey was conducted as part of an applied research and technology transfer effort by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch of Geophysics ...

354

April, 2010 Seismic Refraction  

E-print Network

3/31/2010 1 GG450 April, 2010 Seismic Refraction (cont.) Today's material comes from p. 42 arrival time is asymptotic to the direct arrival. Reflections bend upwards on x-t plots. Refractions (head waves): Refractions are arrivals from faster deeper layers that arrive first at larger distances

Ito, Garrett

355

The seismicity of Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kenya Rift Valley, part of the East African Rift System, which extends from Lake Turkana in the north to Lake Magadi in the south, is seismically active. It is surprisingly free of teleseismic events compared to the Western Rift, but experiences considerable microseismic activity releasing the elastic strain energy. This is consistent with the crust having a low tensile strength, probably due to raised geotherms beneath the rift valley arising from lithospheric aattenuation. The microseismicity suggests presently active rifting occurs as far north as 2.5°N. This is consistent with recent seismic reflection results in this region which show deep half-grabens beneath Lake Turkana. There is also a broad zone of seismicity subparalleling the rift and displaced about 150 km to the east. This may be associated with a second culmination of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In order to obtain a better understanding of the rifting process in Kenya it is suggested that a microseismic study be carried out in the Turkana region, whose near surface 3-dimensional morphology has already been examined via the seismic reflection method.

Maguire, P. K. H.; Shah, E. R.; Pointing, A. J.; Cooke, P. A. V.; Khan, M. A.; Swain, C. J.

356

Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves.

Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1994-01-01

357

Seismic Adequacy Review of PC012 SCEs that are Potential Seismic Hazards with PC3 SCEs at Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility  

SciTech Connect

This document provides seismic adequacy review of PCO12 Systems, Components L Equipment anchorage that are potential seismic interaction hazards with PC3 SCEs during a Design Basis Earthquake. The PCO12 items are identified in the Safety Equipment List as 3/1 SCEs.

OCOMA, E.C.

1999-08-12

358

Seismic Category I Structures Program  

SciTech Connect

With the use of different size scale models, the Seismic Category I Structures Program has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at working loads. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked strength-of-materials approach. The scale model structures, which are also models of each other, have demonstrated scalability between models. The current effort is to demonstrate that the use of microconcrete and other modeling effects do not introduce significant distortions that could drastically change conclusions regarding prototype behavior for these very stiff, shear-dominated structures. Working closely with the technical review group (TRG) for this program, structures have been designed and tests have been planned that will help to resolve issues surrounding the use of microconcrete scale models.

Bennett, J.G.; Dunwoody, W.E.; Farrar, C.R.

1985-01-01

359

Bolivian Seismic Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest challenges into the Seismic Network of Bolivia, composed of seven stations, is to connect all the differents characteristic of them. The Observatory San Calixto, network operator, is one of the few private seismic observatories in the world and for this reason is working only with agreement support or extern cooperation. This problem needs a promptly solution to obtain data system more convenient, in a real time, more effective and compatible with a future extension network. Now, we have differences in the equipment and transmission too. Two of our network stations, are part of the IMS (International System of Data), the information are transmitted by telemetry way from Primary Station PS6 (LPAZ) to OSC, and then by Vsat to IMS and by optic fiber to AFTAC. The auxiliary seismic station AS08 (SIV) sends information to DASE France by satellite way, and then DASE transmits to the IMS, and to the OSC by Internet. Similar situation is used for another station: MOC. The data of the other four stations are transmitted by telemetry to the OSC center, but here the difference with the other stations is that they are working with analogy system. This network does not cover all the Bolivian territory for a completed monitoring of the seismic activity of the country. For this reason it is very important for Bolivia to extend the network with installation of other stations and a project for the characteristic compatibility (formats specially) of this news stations with the actual stations and temporally stations. Temporally stations are mainly used to support the network and to obtain the evaluation of micro activity in some areas that have a possible seismic threat and because of the actual network distribution where the activity is unknown for us.

Minaya, E.; Rougon, P.; Valero, D.; Fernandez, G.; Lazaro, E.; Cano, W.

2007-05-01

360

Seismic monitoring of Poland — description and results of temporary seismic project with mobile seismic network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a temporary seismic project aimed at developing the national database of natural seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment, officially called "Monitoring of Seismic Hazard of Territory of Poland" (MSHTP). Due to low seismicity of Poland, the project was focused on events of magnitude range 1-3 in selected regions in order to maximize the chance of recording any natural event. The project used mobile seismic stations and was divided into two stages. Five-year measurements brought over one hundred natural seismic events of magnitudes M L range 0.5-3.8. Most of them were located in the Podhale region in the Carpathians. Together with previously recorded events this made it possible to conduct a preliminary study on ground motion prediction equation for this region. Only one natural event, of magnitude M L = 3.8, was recorded outside the Carpathians in a surprising location in central-west Poland.

Trojanowski, Jacek; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan

2014-12-01

361

APPLICATION EFFECT OF SHEAR PANEL DAMPERS TO SEISMIC RETROFIT OF A NETWORK ARCH BRIDGE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes seismic response control design using shear panel dampers for a network arch bridge. Three-dimensional non-linear dynamic time history analyses were carried out considering site-specific earthquake ground motions, to examine the correlation between shear panel damper arrangements and seismic response reductions. Different effects on seismic response reduction were significantly confirmed by the shear panel damper arrangements, and also compared between two arch bridges with different natural periods.

Sugioka, Koichi; Shima, Kenji; Matsushita, Hiroaki

362

Seismic Rotations Observed with Inertial Seismic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interest of the seismological community has arisen for possible rotation effects of the Earth on signals recorded by inertial seismometers. Wiechert and Schluter (1903) and more recently Pancha et al. (2000), Igel et al. (2005, 2006) show that, in the teleseismic range, rotations may be neglected and account for less than 0.1% of the translation waves generated by earthquakes. On the contrary, we may see effects of rotation on seismic traces recorded in the near field of an earthquake. As instruments will deliver unsaturated signals in this near field, rotation detection will be more and more frequent. We may observe rotation effects as well in the noise signal at long period. - In the near field, the three components integrated signal of the accelerograms (i.e; velocity signal) diverge and this drift is the effect of an nearly invisible little jump in acceleration signal. The second integrated step diverges and the co-seismic displacement could not be estimated. - By studying the long period noise, we have found that the two horizontal components of some of GEOSCOPE stations with STS-1 seismometer from Streckeisen, present the same noise both in amplitude and in phase with a coherency greater than 95%. This similarity could occur at some stations and not at others and during some time periods. Therefore, the noise has a quite stable horizontal polarisation at N045 during these periods. We may argue that these two separate effects comes from ground rotations and the way they are recorded by seismic instruments. For example, GEOSCOPE stations equipped by STS-2 which have a quite different mechanical structure do not exhibit the polarisation effect. Mechanical pendulums as vertical LaCoste sensor and horizontal 'garden-gate' sensor present effects of rotations on the different translation motions of the mass. Therefore, for the long period noise, a quite probable explanation is that a rotation around the vertical axis acts similarly on the two horizontal sensors while a translation effect quite similar on both components will require a quite coherent well polarized noise always oriented to N045. Geoscope stations of PPT (Papeete, Tahiti) and NOUC (Nouméa, New Caledonia) present this feature quite systematically. In the near field, tilt effect acts alone at the second order on the vertical component. The two horizontal components are recording linearly the tilt waves (with a great amplification especially at long period) and the rotation around the vertical axis. Therefore, the horizontal trace is the mixture of both the two rotating effects and the translating signal we can do discriminate. We may conclude that a sensor which will record the six degrees of freedom of the ground motion should be a quite important issue in the future if we want to understand correctly near-field ground motions. We may foresee that these new measurements will be information for better understanding the Earth structure and seismic source mechanisms.

Jean, V.

2006-12-01

363

Stochastic Reservoir Characterization Conditioned On Seismic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Well observations and seismic data are integrated in a consistentBayesian framework for reservoir characterization. The uncertainty is representedby sampling from the posterior probability density function. Themodel uses well observations of porosity, permeability and seismic reflectioncoefficients and zero-offset or stacked seismic data. The seismic tracesare modeled as reflection coefficients convolved with a seismic wavelet plusnoise. A simple example demonstrates the

Alfhild Lien Eide; Henning Omre; Bjrn Ursin Norwegian

1996-01-01

364

Evaluation of Horizontal Seismic Hazard of Shahrekord, Iran  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents probabilistic horizontal seismic hazard assessment of Shahrekord, Iran. It displays the probabilistic estimate of Peak Ground Horizontal Acceleration (PGHA) for the return period of 75, 225, 475 and 2475 years. The output of the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is based on peak ground acceleration (PGA), which is the most common criterion in designing of buildings. A catalogue of seismic events that includes both historical and instrumental events was developed and covers the period from 840 to 2007. The seismic sources that affect the hazard in Shahrekord were identified within the radius of 150 km and the recurrence relationships of these sources were generated. Finally four maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Shahrekord in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines for different hazard levels by using SEISRISK III software.

Amiri, G. Ghodrati [Iran University of Science and Technology--Islamic Azad University of Shahrekord, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehkordi, M. Raeisi [Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amrei, S. A. Razavian [College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, M. Koohi [Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

365

The SCALE Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data - VALID  

SciTech Connect

The Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) at ORNL contains high quality, independently reviewed models and results that improve confidence in analysis. VALID is developed and maintained according to a procedure of the SCALE quality assurance (QA) plan. This paper reviews the origins of the procedure and its intended purpose, the philosophy of the procedure, some highlights of its implementation, and the future of the procedure and associated VALID library. The original focus of the procedure was the generation of high-quality models that could be archived at ORNL and applied to many studies. The review process associated with model generation minimized the chances of errors in these archived models. Subsequently, the scope of the library and procedure was expanded to provide high quality, reviewed sensitivity data files for deployment through the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE). Sensitivity data files for approximately 400 such models are currently available. The VALID procedure and library continue fulfilling these multiple roles. The VALID procedure is based on the quality assurance principles of ISO 9001 and nuclear safety analysis. Some of these key concepts include: independent generation and review of information, generation and review by qualified individuals, use of appropriate references for design data and documentation, and retrievability of the models, results, and documentation associated with entries in the library. Some highlights of the detailed procedure are discussed to provide background on its implementation and to indicate limitations of data extracted from VALID for use by the broader community. Specifically, external users of data generated within VALID must take responsibility for ensuring that the files are used within the QA framework of their organization and that use is appropriate. The future plans for the VALID library include expansion to include additional experiments from the IHECSBE, to include experiments from areas beyond criticality safety, such as reactor physics and shielding, and to include application models. In the future, external SCALE users may also obtain qualification under the VALID procedure and be involved in expanding the library. The VALID library provides a pathway for the criticality safety community to leverage modeling and analysis expertise at ORNL.

Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL] [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

366

Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s-2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults.

Deif, A.; Hamed, H.; Ibrahim, H. A.; Abou Elenean, K.; El-Amin, E.

2011-12-01

367

Seismicity, seismology and erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the interface of geomorphology and seismology, patterns of erosion can be used to constrain seismic processes, and seismological instruments to determine geomorphic activity. For example, earthquakes trigger mass wasting in proportion to peak ground velocity or acceleration, modulated by local geologic and topographic conditions. This geomorphic response determines the mass balance and net topographic effect of earthquakes. It can also be used to obtain information about the distribution of seismic slip where instrumental observations are not available. Equally, seismometers can register the signals of geomorphic processes, revealing their location, type and magnitude. The high temporal resolution of such records can help determine the exact meteorological conditions that gave rise to erosion events, and the interactions between individual surface processes during such events. We will illustrate this synergy of disciplines with examples from active mountain belts around the world, including Taiwan, Japan, Papua New Guinea and the Alps.

Hovius, Niels; Meunier, Patrick; Burtin, Arnaud; Marc, Odin

2013-04-01

368

A verifiable SSA program representation for aggressive compiler optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a verifiable low-level program representation to em- bed, propagate, and preserve safety information in high perfor- mance compilers for safe languages such as Java and C#. Our rep- resentation precisely encodes safety information via static single- assignment (SSA) (11, 3) proof variables that are first-class con- structs in the program. We argue that our representation allows a compiler

Vijay Menon; Neal Glew; Brian R. Murphy; Andrew Mccreight; Tatiana Shpeisman; Ali-reza Adl-tabatabai; Leaf Petersen

2006-01-01

369

Long-term verifiability of healthcare records authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the long-term validation of the authenticity of electronic healthcare records (EHR). Although the attributes of data authenticity, i.e. integrity and origin verifiability, can be preserved by digital signatures, the necessary period for the retention of EHR is far beyond the lifespan of a simple digital signature. This lifespan is restricted by the validity period of the

Dimitrios Lekkas; Dimitris Gritzalis

2007-01-01

370

VERIFIABLE ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM: AN OPEN SOURCE SOLUTION  

E-print Network

, and the number of deployed systems is rising. Although the electronic voting process has gained popularity present a Verifiable Electronic Voting system that we have developed and released as FLOSS. [9] Today and development. The project was looking to find hard economic data on the effects of FLOSS contributions

Perry, Mark

371

Verifying Program Optimizations in Agda Case Study: List Deforestation  

E-print Network

Verifying Program Optimizations in Agda Case Study: List Deforestation Andreas Abel 16 July 2009 of deforestation. As a result we show that the summation of the rst n natural numbers, implemented by producing structures is called deforestation, since data structures are tree-shaped in the general case. In our case

Abel, Andreas

372

Verifying Program Optimizations in Agda Case Study: List Deforestation  

E-print Network

Verifying Program Optimizations in Agda Case Study: List Deforestation Andreas Abel 3 July 2012 of deforestation. As a result we show that the summation of the first n natural numbers, implemented by producing structures is called deforestation, since data structures are tree-shaped in the general case. In our case

Abel, Andreas

373

Hdf-Eos Data and Metadata Updating and Verifying Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation introduces two HDF-EOS data usability tools. One is HDF-EOS metadata updater and another is HDF-EOS data verifier. During EOS data processing and archiving, two metadata files are produced. One is an independent metadata file, i.e., .met file that is usually delivered with the HDF-EOS datasets, and the other is a metadata file embedded in HDF-EOS data. The .met file contains inventory and collection metadata while metadata in HDF-EOS file contains archival and inventory metadata. In order to get complete metadata information, users need to access both metadata files. This tool is to combine two metadata files and update the metadata file embedded in the HDF-EOS using the combined metadata file. HDF-EOS data verifier tool is to verify and rename HDF-EOS field names to standard HDF-EOS naming conventions so that other tools using standard HDF-EOS library can access the data fields. This tool has two functions: discovering field names that do not conform to the standard HDF-EOS naming conventions and renaming them to standard names. These tools have command line and GUI versions. The metadata reading and writing components are using HDF-EOS and ODL libraries in C language. The GUI components are using Java language. These components are integrated using GUI Java Native Interface (JNI). HDF-EOS metadata updater and data verifier tools can be used by data providers in data production or end users.

Yin, Z.; Yang, J.; Ullman, R.

2002-12-01

374

An Executable Formal Model for Specifying and Verifying Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

An Executable Formal Model for Specifying and Verifying Clinical Trials Vivek Nigam1 , Carolyn evaluated. Experiments that involve human subjects are called Clinical Trials (CTs). Since human subjects. This paper takes the first steps towards that direction. We model a clinical trial by using a partial order

Nigam, Vivek

375

Verifying Network Equivalence in Exodus Proposal of the Research Comps  

E-print Network

Verifying Network Equivalence in Exodus Da Yu Proposal of the Research Comps Abstract Software configurations. Exodus is a project that migrates a traditional network to an SDN such that the generated network should perform the same policies as those defined in the original network. However, the results of Exodus

Fonseca, Rodrigo

376

Modeling, Safely Advertising and Verifying Time-aware Business Processes  

E-print Network

Modeling, Safely Advertising and Verifying Time-aware Business Processes : Towards a holistic. Nowadays, the business process model and notation BPMN standard is gaining widspread use in the business, we propose a BPMN extension for capturing temporal requirements during the business process modelling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 401.45 Verifying...clearly unwarranted invasion of privacy if disclosed to someone other...means, e.g., over the Internet, we require you to...

2010-04-01

378

Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

2005-11-01

379

Verifiable Delegated Set Intersection Operations on Outsourced Encrypted Data  

E-print Network

data, verifiable outsourced computing ! 1 INTRODUCTION Cloud computing allows users to outsource problem: How can we force the cloud to execute the delegated computational functions honestly? This calls and Shouhuai Xu Abstract--We initiate the study of the following problem: Suppose Alice and Bob would like

380

The 1st Verified Software Competition: Experience Report  

E-print Network

The 1st Verified Software Competition: Experience Report Vladimir Klebanov, Peter M¨uller, Natarajan Shankar, Gary T. Leavens, Valentin W¨ustholz, Eyad Alkassar, Rob Arthan, Derek Bronish, Rod Wei� www.vscomp.org Abstract. We, the organizers and participants, report our experiences from the 1st

Weide, Bruce W.

381

The 1st Verified Software Competition: Extended Experience Report  

E-print Network

The 1st Verified Software Competition: Extended Experience Report Vladimir Klebanov, Peter M¨uller, Natarajan Shankar, Gary T. Leavens, Valentin W¨ustholz, Eyad Alkassar, Rob Arthan, Derek Bronish, Rod Wei� www.vscomp.org Abstract. We, the organizers and participants, report our experiences from the 1st

Leino, K. Rustan M.

382

A verifiable, bidder-resolved Auction Protocol Felix Brandt  

E-print Network

A verifiable, bidder-resolved Auction Protocol Felix Brandt Institut f¨ur Informatik Technische auctioneers). Full pri- vacy can be obtained by applying a secret sharing scheme in which the bidders jointly is the fully private (M + 1)st-price auction protocol in which only the winning bidders and the seller learn

Cengarle, María Victoria

383

A Trustworthy Internet Auction Model with Verifiable Fairness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an Internet auction model achieving verifiable fairness, a requirement aimed at enhancing the trust of bidders in auctioneers. Analysis results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies various requirements regarding fairness and privacy. Moreover, in the proposed model, the losing bids remain sealed. (Author/AEF)

Liao, Gen-Yih; Hwang, Jing-Jang

2001-01-01

384

Verifying Heap-Manipulating Programs with Unknown Procedure Calls  

E-print Network

prog contains calls to some un- known procedure unknown, we infer a specification mspecu for unknownVerifying Heap-Manipulating Programs with Unknown Procedure Calls Shengchao Qin1 , Chenguang Luo2 to unknown pro- cedures is a practical problem, because in many scenarios not all codes of programs

Qin, Shengchao

385

Albuquerque Basin seismic network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

1977-01-01

386

Lunar seismic data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific data transmitted continuously from all ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations on the Moon and recorded on instrumentation tapes at receiving stations distributed around the Earth were processed. The processing produced sets of computer-compatible digital tapes, from which various other data sets convenient for analysis were generated. The seismograms were read, various types of seismic events were classified; the detected events were cataloged.

Nakamura, Y.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.

1982-01-01

387

Seismic Eruption Teaching Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents educational modules for teaching about earthquakes, volcano eruptions and related plate tectonic concepts using an interactive computer program for mapping called Seismic/Eruption (also called SeisVolE). The program includes up-to-date earthquake and volcanic eruption catalogs and allows the user to display earthquake and volcanic eruption activity in "speeded up real time" on global, regional or local maps that also show the topography of the area in a shaded relief map image. SeisVolE is an interactive program that includes a number of tools that allow the user to analyze earthquake and volcanic eruption data and produce effective displays to illustrate seismicity and volcano patterns. The program can be used to sort data and provide results for statistical analysis, to generate detailed earthquake and volcano activity maps of specific areas or for specific purposes, to investigate earthquake sequences such as foreshocks and aftershocks, and to produce cross section or 3-D perspective views of earthquake locations. The Seismic/Eruption program can be a powerful and effective tool for teaching about plate tectonics and geologic hazards using earthquake and volcano locations, and for learning (or practicing) fundamental science skills such as statistical analysis, graphing, and map skills. The teaching modules describe and illustrate how to use the Seismic/Eruption program effectively in demonstrations, classroom presentations and interactive presentations, and independent study/research. Because the program has many useful options and can be used to examine earthquake activity and volcanic eruption data, the modules provide instructions and examples of quantitative analysis, graphing of results, creating useful maps and cross section diagrams, and performing in-depth exploration and research. The examples are intended to illustrate the features and capabilities of the program and stimulate interest in using the program for discovery learning in Earth science, especially earthquakes, volcanoes and plate tectonics.

Braile, Lawrence

388

IRIS Seismic Monitor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IRIS Seismic Monitor allows users to monitor global earthquakes in near real time. Researchers can locate the geology, vault conditions, site description, station instrumentation, and additional information on stations throughout the world. Visitors can learn about the latest earthquake news, including special reports of earthquakes that significantly affected human populations or had scientific significance. Students and teachers can find images and descriptions of plate tectonics as well as links to outside educational resources.

389

Seismic databases of The Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caucasus is one of the active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The region needs continues seismic monitoring systems for better understanding of tectonic processes going in the region. Seismic Monitoring Center of Georgia (Ilia State University) is operating the digital seismic network of the country and is also collecting and exchanging data with neighboring countries. The main focus of our study was to create seismic database which is well organized, easily reachable and is convenient for scientists to use. The seismological database includes the information about more than 100 000 earthquakes from the whole Caucasus. We have to mention that it includes data from analog and digital seismic networks. The first analog seismic station in Georgia was installed in 1899 in the Caucasus in Tbilisi city. The number of analog seismic stations was increasing during next decades and in 1980s about 100 analog stations were operated all over the region. From 1992 due to political and economical situation the number of stations has been decreased and in 2002 just two analog equipments was operated. New digital seismic network was developed in Georgia since 2003. The number of digital seismic stations was increasing and in current days there are more than 25 digital stations operating in the country. The database includes the detailed information about all equipments installed on seismic stations. Database is available online. That will make convenient interface for seismic data exchange data between Caucasus neighboring countries. It also makes easier both the seismic data processing and transferring them to the database and decreases the operator's mistakes during the routine work. The database was created using the followings: php, MySql, Javascript, Ajax, GMT, Gmap, Hypoinverse.

Gunia, I.; Sokhadze, G.; Mikava, D.; Tvaradze, N.; Godoladze, T.

2012-12-01

390

An Experimental Seismic Data and Parameter Exchange System for Tsunami Warning Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years GFZ Potsdam is operating a global earthquake monitoring system. Since the beginning of 2008, this system is also used as an experimental seismic background data center for two different regional Tsunami Warning Systems (TWS), the IOTWS (Indian Ocean) and the interim NEAMTWS (NE Atlantic and Mediterranean). The SeisComP3 (SC3) software, developed within the GITEWS (German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System) project, capable to acquire, archive and process real-time data feeds, was extended for export and import of individual processing results within the two clusters of connected SC3 systems. Therefore not only real-time waveform data are routed to the attached warning centers through GFZ but also processing results. While the current experimental NEAMTWS cluster consists of SC3 systems in six designated national warning centers in Europe, the IOTWS cluster presently includes seven centers, with another three likely to join in 2009/10. For NEAMTWS purposes, the GFZ virtual real-time seismic network (GEOFON Extended Virtual Network -GEVN) in Europe was substantially extended by adding many stations from Western European countries optimizing the station distribution. In parallel to the data collection over the Internet, a GFZ VSAT hub for secured data collection of the EuroMED GEOFON and NEAMTWS backbone network stations became operational and first data links were established through this backbone. For the Southeast Asia region, a VSAT hub has been established in Jakarta already in 2006, with some other partner networks connecting to this backbone via the Internet. Since its establishment, the experimental system has had the opportunity to prove its performance in a number of relevant earthquakes. Reliable solutions derived from a minimum of 25 stations were very promising in terms of speed. For important events, automatic alerts were released and disseminated by emails and SMS. Manually verified solutions are added as soon as they become available. The results are also promising in terms of accuracy since epicenter coordinates, depth and magnitude estimates were sufficiently accurate from the very beginning, and usually do not differ substantially from the final solutions. In summary, automatic seismic event processing has shown to work well as a first step for starting a Tsunami Warning process. However, for the secured assessment of the tsunami potential of a given event, 24/7-manned regional TWCs are mandatory for reliable manual verification of the automatic seismic results. At this time, GFZ itself provides manual verification only when staff is available, not on a 24/7 basis, while the actual national tsunami warning centers have all a reliable 24/7 service.

Hoffmann, T. L.; Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Heinloo, A.; Hoffmann, M.

2009-12-01

391

Seismological investigation of earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Final report, September 1986--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Earthquake activity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone had been monitored by regional seismic networks since 1975. During this time period, over 3,700 earthquakes have been located within the region bounded by latitudes 35{degrees}--39{degrees}N and longitudes 87{degrees}--92{degrees}W. Most of these earthquakes occur within a 1.5{degrees} x 2{degrees} zone centered on the Missouri Bootheel. Source parameters of larger earthquakes in the zone and in eastern North America are determined using surface-wave spectral amplitudes and broadband waveforms for the purpose of determining the focal mechanism, source depth and seismic moment. Waveform modeling of broadband data is shown to be a powerful tool in defining these source parameters when used complementary with regional seismic network data, and in addition, in verifying the correctness of previously published focal mechanism solutions.

Herrmann, R.B.; Nguyen, B. [Saint Louis Univ., MO (US). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1993-08-01

392

Seismic behavior of lightweight concrete columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen full-scale, column-beam assemblies, which represented a portion of a frame subjected to simulated seismic loading, were tested. Controlled test parameters included concrete type, column size, amount of main column steel, size and spacing of column confining hoops, and magnitude of column axial load. The columns were subjected to constant axial load and slow moment reversals at increasing inelastic deformations. Test data showed that properly designed lightweight concrete columns maintained ductility and strength when subjected to large inelastic deformations from load reversals. Confinement requirements for normal weight concrete columns were shown to be applicable to lightweight concrete columns up to thirty percent of the design strength.

Rabbat, B. G.; Daniel, J. I.; Weinmann, T. L.; Hanson, N. W.

1982-09-01

393

Poor boy 3D seismic effort yields South Central Kentucky discovery  

SciTech Connect

Clinton County, Ky., is on the eastern flank of the Cincinnati arch and the western edge of the Appalachian basin and the Pine Mountain overthrust. Clinton County has long been known for high volume fractured carbonate wells. The discovery of these fractured reservoir, unfortunately, has historically been serendipitous. The author currently uses 2D seismic and satellite imagery to design 3D high resolution seismic shoots. This method has proven to be the most efficient and is the core of his program. The paper describes exploration methods, seismic acquisition, well data base, and seismic interpretation.

Hanratty, M. [Hanratty (Michael), Grapevine, TX (United States)

1996-11-04

394

A future for drifting seismic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-dimensional, radial Earth models are sufficiently well constrained to accurately locate earthquakes and calculate the paths followed by seismic rays. The differences between observations and theoretical predictions of seismograms in such Earth models can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional wave speed distribution in the regions sampled by the seismic waves, by the technique of seismic tomography. Caused by thermal, compositional, and textural variations, wave speed anomalies remain the premier data source to fully understand the structure and evolution of our planet, from the scale of mantle convection and the mechanisms of heat transfer from core to surface to the international between the deep Earth and surface processes such as plate motion and crustal deformation. Unequal geographical data coverage continues to fundamentally limit the quality of tomographic reconstructions of seismic wave speeds in the interior of the Earth. Only at great cost can geophysicists overcome the difficulties of placing seismographs on the two thirds of the Earth's surface that is covered by oceans. The lack of spatial data coverage strongly hampers the determination of the structure of the Earth in the uncovered regions: all 3-D Earth models are marked by blank spots in areas, distributed throughout the Earth, where little or no information can be obtained. As a possible solution to gaining equal geographic data coverage, we have developed MERMAID, a prototype mobile receiver that could provide an easy, cost-effective way to collect seismic data in the ocean. It is a modification of the robotic floating instruments designed and used by oceanographers. Like them, MERMAID spends its life at depth but is capable of surfacing using a pump and bladder. We have equipped it with a hydrophone to record water pressure variations induced by compressional (P) waves. Untethered and passively drifting, such a floating seismometer will surface upon detection of a "useful" seismic event (for seismic tomography, that is), determine a GPS location, and transmit the waveforms to a satellite. In this presentation we discuss the progress made in this field by our group. More specifically, we discuss the results of preliminary tests conducted off-shore La Jolla in 2003 and 2004, as well as just-in results from a third successful, in situ, test completed in August 2007. We will draw attention to design issues and bottlenecks and the need for and features of sophisticated onboard data analysis software which we have developed and tested. We will chart a road map of the way to our ultimate goal: a worldwide array of MERMAID floating hydrophones, on the scale of the current international land-based seismic arrays. This, we believe, has the potential to progressively eliminate the discrepancies in spatial coverage that currently result in seismic Earth models that are very poorly resolved in places.

Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.; Babcock, J.

2007-12-01

395

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL`s ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002.

NONE

1995-07-14

396

Moving formal methods into practice. Verifying the FTPP Scoreboard: Results, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the Phase 1 results of an effort aimed at formally verifying a key hardware component, called Scoreboard, of a Fault-Tolerant Parallel Processor (FTPP) being built at Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL). The Scoreboard is part of the FTPP virtual bus that guarantees reliable communication between processors in the presence of Byzantine faults in the system. The Scoreboard implements a piece of control logic that approves and validates a message before it can be transmitted. The goal of Phase 1 was to lay the foundation of the Scoreboard verification. A formal specification of the functional requirements and a high-level hardware design for the Scoreboard were developed. The hardware design was based on a preliminary Scoreboard design developed at CSDL. A main correctness theorem, from which the functional requirements can be established as corollaries, was proved for the Scoreboard design. The goal of Phase 2 is to verify the final detailed design of Scoreboard. This task is being conducted as part of a NASA-sponsored effort to explore integration of formal methods in the development cycle of current fault-tolerant architectures being built in the aerospace industry.

Srivas, Mandayam; Bickford, Mark

1992-01-01

397

Applying Seismic Methods to National Security Problems: Matched Field Processing With Geological Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic imaging and tracking methods have intelligence and monitoring applications. Current systems, however, do not adequately calibrate or model the unknown geological heterogeneity. Current systems are also not designed for rapid data acquisition and analysis in the field. This project seeks to build the core technological capabilities coupled with innovative deployment, processing, and analysis methodologies to allow seismic methods to

S Myers; S Larsen; J Wagoner; B Henderer; D McCallen; J Trebes; P Harben; D Harris

2003-01-01

398

COMPREHENSIVE SERIES OF TESTS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS  

E-print Network

moment resisting frame reinforced concrete structures may be more vulnerable than we expect. Immediate in high seismic zone have provisions for design of reinforced concrete beam-column joints to preclude1 COMPREHENSIVE SERIES OF TESTS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS

Shiohara, Hitoshi

399

HOW HAVE CHANGES IN BUILDING CODE PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME STRUCTURES IMPROVED SEISMIC SAFETY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an analytical comparison of seismic performance of a typical California office building designed according to the 1967 Uniform Building Code and the 2003 International Building Code. The seismic performance predictions are based on a performance assessment method developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center, which employs incremental nonlinear dynamic time1history analyses. Comparisons are made for

A. B. Liel; C. B. Haselton; G. G. Deierlein

400

Field test investigation of fiber optic seismic geophone in oilfield exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fiber optic sensors have grown to a promising technology in the application of oil and gas prospecting. Our group has embarked on the experimental design of fiber optic seismic geophone based on fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) technology recently. This paper provides the detailed investigation and analysis of the sensor field test result in the seismic reflection survey of the oilfield exploration

Yan Zhang; Jing Ning; Shangming Yang; Hong-Liang Cui

2007-01-01

401

Life safety and seismic hazards: Selecting buildings for review and questions still to answer  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is situated on the eastern flank of the Jemez Mountains in which lies the Valles Caldera, a volcanic center that erupted 1.1 to 1.5 million years ago. Los Alamos is also situated within the western margin of the Rio Grande Rift system, where there is a possibility for seismic activity. Within the Los Alamos area are numerous faults, some within a kilometer or two of LANL structures, some even closer. Many of the permanent structures within Los Alamos were designed and constructed in accordance with applicable building codes in the 1950s. These codes have now been determined to be deficient with respect to both forcing functions of seismic events and structure design. LANL, in response to a letter from the University of California dated October 29, 1990, began the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program to determine the characteristics of a probable seismic event at Los Alamos and to determine the ability of the existing structures to withstand the forces generated by such an event. In the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program, paleoseismic methods are used to determine seismic characterization and a systematic method is needed to investigate existing structures, systems, and components for the ability to resist seismic forces. This paper presents the methodology for determining seismic characterizations and structure prioritization and analysis at LANL for the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program.

Keller, M.D.

1993-11-01

402

Development of a HT seismic downhole tool.  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) require the stimulation of the drilled well, likely through hydraulic fracturing. Whether fracturing of the rock occurs by shear destabilization of natural fractures or by extensional failure of weaker zones, control of the fracture process will be required to create the flow paths necessary for effective heat mining. As such, microseismic monitoring provides one method for real-time mapping of the fractures created during the hydraulic fracturing process. This monitoring is necessary to help assess stimulation effectiveness and provide the information necessary to properly create the reservoir. In addition, reservoir monitoring of the microseismic activity can provide information on reservoir performance and evolution over time. To our knowledge, no seismic tool exists that will operate above 125 C for the long monitoring durations that may be necessary. Replacing failed tools is costly and introduces potential errors such as depth variance, etc. Sandia has designed a high temperature seismic tool for long-term deployment in geothermal applications. It is capable of detecting microseismic events and operating continuously at temperatures up to 240 C. This project includes the design and fabrication of two High Temperature (HT) seismic tools that will have the capability to operate in both temporary and long-term monitoring modes. To ensure the developed tool meets industry requirements for high sampling rates (>2ksps) and high resolution (24-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter) two electronic designs will be implemented. One electronic design will utilize newly developed 200 C electronic components. The other design will use qualified Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices and will have a continuous operating temperature of 240 C.

Maldonado, Frank P.; Greving, Jeffrey J.; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Chavira, David J.; Uhl, James Eugene; Polsky, Yarom

2009-06-01

403

Local seismic events in area of Poland based on data from PASSEQ 2006-2008 experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PASSEQ 2006-2008 (Passive Seismic Experiment in TESZ; Wilde-Piórko et al, 2008) was the biggest so far passive seismic experiment in the area of Central Europe (Poland, Germany, Czech Republic and Lithuania). 196 seismic stations (including 49 broadband seismometers) worked simultaneously for over two years. During experiment multiple types of data recorders and seismometers were used making analysis more complex and time consuming. Dataset was unified and repaired to start the detection of local seismic events. Two different approaches for detection were applied for stations located in Poland. One used standard STA/LTA triggers (Carl Johnson's STA/LTA algorithm) and grid search to classify and locate events. Result was manually verified. Other approach used Real Time Recurrent Network (RTRN) detection (Wiszniowski et al, 2014). Both methods gave similar results showing four previously unknown seismic events located in area of Gulf Of Gda?sk in southern Baltic Sea. The investigation of local seismicity is a good opportunity for verification of new seismic models of lithosphere in the area. In this paper we discuss both detection methods with their pros and cons (accuracy, efficiency, manual work required, scalability). We also show details of all detected and previously unknown events in discussed area. This work was partially supported by NCN grant UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/06653.

Polkowski, Marcin; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan; Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Passeq Working Group

2014-05-01

404

Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of drilling for deep reservoirs previous exploration is indispensable. In recent years the focus shifted more on geological structures like small layers or hydrothermal fault systems. Beside 2D- or 3D-seismics from the surface and seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) or Seismic While Drilling (SWD) within a borehole these methods cannot always resolute this structures. The resolution is worsen the deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are. So, potential horizons like small layers in oil exploration or fault zones usable for geothermal energy production could be failed or not identified while drilling. The application of a device to explore the geology with a high resolution ahead of the drill bit in direction of drilling would be of high importance. Such a device would allow adjusting the drilling path according to the real geology and would minimize the risk of discovery and hence the costs for drilling. Within the project SPWD a device for seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit will be developed. This device should allow the seismic exploration to predict areas about 50 to 100 meters ahead of the drill bit with a resolution of one meter. At the GFZ a first prototype consisting of different units for seismic sources, receivers and data loggers has been designed and manufactured. As seismic sources four standard magnetostrictive actuators and as receivers four 3-component-geophones are used. Every unit, actuator or geophone, can be rotated in steps of 15° around the longitudinal axis of the prototype to test different measurement configurations. The SPWD prototype emits signal frequencies of about 500 up to 5000 Hz which are significant higher than in VSP and SWD. An increased radiation of seismic wave energy in the direction of the borehole axis allows the view in areas to be drilled. Therefore, every actuator must be controlled independently of each other regarding to amplitude and phase of the source signal to maximize the energy of the seismic source in order to reach a sufficient exploration range. The next step for focusing is to use the method of phased array. Dependent of the seismic wave velocities of the surrounding rock, the distance of the actuators to each other and the used frequencies the signal phases for each actuator can be determined. Since one year several measurements with the prototype have been realized under defined conditions at a test site in a mine. The test site consists of a rock block surrounded from three galleries with a dimension of about 100 by 200 meters. For testing the prototype two horizontal boreholes were drilled. They are directed to one of the gallery to get a strong reflector. The quality of the data of the borehole seismics in amplitude and frequency spectra show overall a good signal-to-noise ratio and correlate strongly with the fracture density along the borehole and are associated with a lower signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally, the geophones of the prototype show reflections from ahead and rearward in the seismic data. In particular, the reflections from the gallery ahead are used for the calibration of focusing. The direct seismic wave field indicates distinct compression and shear waves. The analysis of several seismic measurements with a focus on the direct seismic waves shows that the phased array technology explicit can influence the directional characteristics of the radiated seimic waves. The amplitudes of the seismic waves can be enhanced up to three times more in the desired direction and simultaneously be attenuated in the reverse direction. A major step for the directional investigation in boreholes has accomplished. But the focusing of the seismic waves has to be improved to maximize the energy in the desired direction in more measurements by calibrating the initiating seismic signals of the sources. A next step this year is the development of a wireline prototype for application in vertical boreholes with depths not more than 2000 meters are planned. The prototype must be modified and adapted to the conditions in

Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

2010-05-01

405

Seismic monitoring of geomorphic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In seismology, the signal is usually analysed for earthquake data, but these represent less than 1% of continuous recording. The remaining data are considered as seismic noise and were for a long time ignored. Over the past decades, the analysis of seismic noise has constantly increased in popularity, and this has led to develop new approaches and applications in geophysics. The study of continuous seismic records is now open to other disciplines, like geomorphology. The motion of mass at the Earth's surface generates seismic waves that are recorded by nearby seismometers and can be used to monitor its transfer through the landscape. Surface processes vary in nature, mechanism, magnitude and space and time, and this variability can be observed in the seismic signals. This contribution aims to give an overview of the development and current opportunities for the seismic monitoring of geomorphic processes. We first describe the common principles of seismic signal monitoring and introduce time-frequency analysis for the purpose of identification and differentiation of surface processes. Second, we present techniques to detect, locate and quantify geomorphic events. Third, we review the diverse layout of seismic arrays and highlight their advantages and limitations for specific processes, like slope or channel activity. Finally, we illustrate all these characteristics with the analysis of seismic data acquired in a small debris-flow catchment where geomorphic events show interactions and feedbacks. Further developments must aim to fully understand the richness of the continuous seismic signals, to better quantify the geomorphic activity and improve the performance of warning systems. Seismic monitoring may ultimately allow the continuous survey of erosion and transfer of sediments in the landscape on the scales of external forcing.

Burtin, A.; Hovius, N.; Turowski, J. M.

2014-12-01

406

Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

2005-11-01

407

Formally Verified Practical Algorithms for Recovery from Loss of Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we develop and formally verify practical algorithms for recovery from loss of separation. The formal verification is performed in the context of a criteria-based framework. This framework provides rigorous definitions of horizontal and vertical maneuver correctness that guarantee divergence and achieve horizontal and vertical separation. The algorithms are shown to be independently correct, that is, separation is achieved when only one aircraft maneuvers, and implicitly coordinated, that is, separation is also achieved when both aircraft maneuver. In this paper we improve the horizontal criteria over our previous work. An important benefit of the criteria approach is that different aircraft can execute different algorithms and implicit coordination will still be achieved, as long as they all meet the explicit criteria of the framework. Towards this end we have sought to make the criteria as general as possible. The framework presented in this paper has been formalized and mechanically verified in the Prototype Verification System (PVS).

Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Caesar A.

2009-01-01

408

Real-Time Projection to Verify Plan Success During Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Data System provides a framework for modeling complex systems in terms of system behaviors and goals that express intent. Complex activity plans can be represented as goal networks that express the coordination of goals on different state variables of the system. Real-time projection extends the ability of this system to verify plan achievability (all goals can be satisfied over the entire plan) into the execution domain so that the system is able to continuously re-verify a plan as it is executed, and as the states of the system change in response to goals and the environment. Previous versions were able to detect and respond to goal violations when they actually occur during execution. This new capability enables the prediction of future goal failures; specifically, goals that were previously found to be achievable but are no longer achievable due to unanticipated faults or environmental conditions. Early detection of such situations enables operators or an autonomous fault response capability to deal with the problem at a point that maximizes the available options. For example, this system has been applied to the problem of managing battery energy on a lunar rover as it is used to explore the Moon. Astronauts drive the rover to waypoints and conduct science observations according to a plan that is scheduled and verified to be achievable with the energy resources available. As the astronauts execute this plan, the system uses this new capability to continuously re-verify the plan as energy is consumed to ensure that the battery will never be depleted below safe levels across the entire plan.

Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Knight, Russell L.; Morris, John R.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Ingham, Michel D.

2012-01-01

409

A verifiable SSA program representation for aggressive compiler optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a verifiable low-level program representation to embed, propagate, and preserve safety information in high perfor-mance compilers for safe languages such as Java and C#. Our representation precisely encodes safety information via static single-assignment (SSA) [11, 3] proof variables that are first-class constructs in the program.We argue that our representation allows a compiler to both (1) express aggressively optimized

Vijay S. Menon; Neal Glew; Brian R. Murphy; Andrew McCreight; Tatiana Shpeisman; Ali-Reza Adl-Tabatabai; Leaf Petersen

2006-01-01

410

A Deterministic and Nondestructively-Verifiable Photon Number Source  

E-print Network

We present a deterministic approach based on continuous measurement and real-time quantum feedback control to prepare arbitrary photon number states of a cavity mode. The procedure passively monitors the number state actually achieved in each feedback stabilized measurement trajectory, thus providing a nondestructively verifiable photon source. The feasibility of a possible cavity QED implementation in the many-atom good-cavity coupling regime is analyzed.

JM Geremia

2006-03-23

411

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2001  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the HSN, there were 477 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2001 on the data acquisition system. Of these triggers, 176 were earthquakes. Forty-five earthquakes were located in the HSN area; 1 earthquake occurred in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 43 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 1 was earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 44 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was on a major structure, and no earthquakes were classified as random occurrences. The Horse Heaven Hills earthquake swarm area recorded all but one event during the first quarter of FY 2001. The peak of the activity occurred over December 12th, 13th, and 14th when 35 events occurred. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the first quarter of FY 2001.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Valenta, Michelle M.

2001-02-27

412

Modeling Beam-Column Joints in Fragility Assessment of Gravity Load Designed Reinforced Concrete Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures customarily have been designed in regions of low-to-moderate seismicity with little or no consideration of their seismic resistance. The move toward performance-based seismic engineering requires accurate reliability-based structural analysis models of gravity load designed (GLD) RC frames for predicting their behavior under seismic effects and for developing seismic fragilities that can be used as a

Ozan Cem Celik; Bruce R. Ellingwood

2008-01-01

413

Nuclear archaeology: Verifying declarations of fissile-material production  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the production of fissile material is an essential element of nonproliferation policy. Similarly, accounting for the past production of fissile material should be an important component of nuclear disarmament. This paper describes two promising techniques that make use of physical evidence at reactors and enrichment facilities to verify the past production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. In the first technique, the concentrations of long-lived radionuclides in permanent components of the reactor core are used to estimate the neutron fluence in various regions of the reactor, and thereby verify declarations of plutonium production in the reactor. In the second technique, the ratio of the concentration of U-235 to that of U-234 in the tails is used to determine whether a given container of tails was used in the production of low- enriched uranium, which is suitable for reactor fuel, or highly enriched uranium, which can be used in nuclear weapons. Both techniques belong to the new field of [open quotes]nuclear archaeology,[close quotes] in which the authors attempt to document past nuclear weapons activities and thereby lay a firm foundation for verifiable nuclear disarmament. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Fetter, S. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1993-01-01

414

Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava

2006-07-31

415

STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL BUILDINGS: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND RESEARCH  

E-print Network

. Bruneau is conducting research on the seismic evaluation and retrofit of existing steel bridges, steel as wall infills. His current research is on the seismic retrofit of steel bridge braced piers. Diego Lopez the Canadian CSA-S16 Steel design Standard, and the Seismic Committee of the Canadian Highway Bridge Design

Bruneau, Michel

416

The seismicity of Mt. Vesuvius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last years, in order to improve the quality of the determination of earthquake locations as well as the reliability of the fault-plane solutions, three-component digital stations were temporarily added to the permanent seismic network of the Osservatorio Vesuviano operating in the Vesuvius area. In this work, the seismic behaviour of the Mt. Vesuvius volcano has been investigated by

G. Vilardo; G. De Natale; G. Milano; U. Coppa

1996-01-01

417

PERSONNEL TRACKING USING SEISMIC SENSORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the detection and localization of personnel using seismic sensors is described. This particular application of seismic signal processing is different from typical applications involving earthquakes or sonic well-logging, and thus requires the development of new techniques. The proposed approach consists of a matched filter-based detection algorithm, time of arrival association of detected footsteps from different sensors, and

Michael S. Richman; Douglas S. Deadrick; Robert J. Nation; Scott L. Whitney

2001-01-01

418

Seismic Tunnel Imaging and Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the problem of detecting and imaging under- ground tunnels, an experimental system that utilizes seismic waves has been constructed. Seismic reflections from the tun- nel are transformed into a 3D image using a synthetic aper- ture time-delay backprojection algorithm. Results from ex- perimental data show that the tunnel is directly visible in the backprojected image. Nevertheless, tunnels with

Ali Cafer Gurbuz; James H. Mcclellan; Waymond R. Scott; Greg D. Larson

2006-01-01

419

Tunnel Detection Using Seismic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface seismic methods have shown great promise for use in detecting clandestine tunnels in areas where unauthorized movement beneath secure boundaries have been or are a matter of concern for authorities. Unauthorized infiltration beneath national borders and into or out of secure facilities is possible at many sites by tunneling. Developments in acquisition, processing, and analysis techniques using multi-channel seismic

R. Miller; C. B. Park; J. Xia; J. Ivanov; D. W. Steeples; N. Ryden; R. F. Ballard; J. L. Llopis; T. S. Anderson; M. L. Moran; S. A. Ketcham

2006-01-01

420

Uncertainty in Seismic Hazard Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty is a part of our life, and society has to deal with it, even though it is sometimes difficult to estimate. This is particularly true in seismic hazard assessment for large events, such as the mega-tsunami in Southeast Asia and the great New Madrid earthquakes in the central United States. There are two types of uncertainty in seismic hazard

Z. Wang

2006-01-01

421

Illuminating Asset Value through New Seismic Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to reduce risk and uncertainty across the full life cycle of an asset is directly correlated to creating an accurate subsurface image that enhances our understanding of the geology. This presentation focuses on this objective in areas of complex overburden in deepwater. Marine 3D seismic surveys have been acquired in essentially the same way for the past decade. This configuration of towed streamer acquisition, where the boat acquires data in one azimuth has been very effective in imaging areas in fairly benign geologic settings. As the industry has moved into more complicated geologic settings these surveys no longer meet the imaging objectives for risk reduction in exploration through production. In shallow water, we have seen increasing use of ocean bottom cables to meet this challenge. For deepwater, new breakthroughs in technology were required. This will be highlighted through examples of imaging below large salt bodies in the deep water Gulf of Mexico. GoM - Mad Dog: The Mad Dog field is located approximately 140 miles south of the Louisiana coastline in the southern Green Canyon area in water depths between 4100 feet to 6000 feet. The complex salt canopy overlying a large portion of the field results in generally poor seismic data quality. Advanced processing techniques improved the image, but gaps still remained even after several years of effort. We concluded that wide azimuth acquisition was required to illuminate the field in a new way. Results from the Wide Azimuth Towed Streamer (WATS) survey deployed at Mad Dog demonstrated the anticipated improvement in the subsalt image. GoM - Atlantis Field: An alternative approach to wide azimuth acquisition, ocean bottom seismic (OBS) node technology, was developed and tested. In 2001 deepwater practical experience was limited to a few nodes owned by academic institutions and there were no commercial solutions either available or in development. BP embarked on a program of sea trials designed to both evaluate technologies and subsequently encourage vendor activity to develop and deploy a commercial system. The 3D seismic method exploded into general usage in the 1990's. Our industry delivered 3D cheaper and faster, improving quality through improved acquisition specifications and new processing technology. The need to mitigate business risks in highly material subsalt plays led BP to explore the technical limits of the seismic method, testing novel acquisition techniques to improve illumination and signal to noise ratio. These were successful and are applicable to analogue seismic quality problems globally providing breakthroughs in illuminating previously hidden geology and hydrocarbon reservoirs. A focused business challenge, smart risk taking, investment in people and computing capability, partnerships, and rapid implementation are key themes that will be touched on through out the talk.

Brandsberg-Dahl, S.

2007-05-01

422

Seismic retrofit of a reinforced concrete flat-slab structure: Part I — seismic performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of seismic performance was conducted for a reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure representative of 1980s construction in the Central United States. The case study building is a five-story RC flat-slab office building designed for the code requirements used in this region. The structural response was predicted using nonlinear static analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis with synthetic ground motion

Mary Beth D. Hueste; Jong-Wha Bai

2007-01-01

423

Patterns of significant seismic quiescence in the Pacific Mexican coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mexico is one of the countries with higher seismicity. During the 20th century, 8% of all the earthquakes in the world of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 have taken place in Mexico. On average, an earthquake of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 occurred in Mexico every two and a half years. Great earthquakes in Mexico have their epicenters in the Pacific Coast in which some seismic gaps have been identified; for example, there is a mature gap in the Guerrero State Coast, which potentially can produce an earthquake of magnitude 8.2. With the purpose of making some prognosis, some researchers study the statistical behavior of certain physical parameters that could be related with the process of accumulation of stress in the Earth crust. Other researchers study seismic catalogs trying to find seismicity patterns that are manifested before the occurrence of great earthquakes. Many authors have proposed that the study of seismicity rates is an appropriate technique for evaluating how close a seismic gap may be to rupture. We designed an algorithm for identification of patterns of significant seismic quiescence by using the definition of seismic quiescence proposed by Schreider (1990). This algorithm shows the area of quiescence where an earthquake of great magnitude will probably occur. We apply our algorithm to the earthquake catalogue of the Mexican Pacific coast located between 14 and 21 degrees of North latitude and 94 and 106 degrees West longitude; with depths less or equal to 60 km and magnitude greater or equal to 4.2, which occurred from September, 1965 until December, 2014. We have found significant patterns of seismic quietude before the earthquakes of Oaxaca (November 1978, Mw = 7.8), Petatlán (March 1979, Mw = 7.6), Michoacán (September 1985, Mw = 8.0, and Mw = 7.6) and Colima (October 1995, Mw = 8.0). Fortunately, in this century have not occurred earthquakes of great magnitude in Mexico, however, we have identified well-defined seismic quiescence in the Guerrero seismic-gap, which are apparently correlated with the occurrence of silent earthquakes in 2002, 2006 and 2011 recently discovered by GPS technology. In fact, a possible silent earthquake with Mw =7.6 occurred at this gap in 2002 which lasted for approximately 4 months and was detected by continuous GPS receivers located over an area of ~550x250 square kilometers.

Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Rudolf-Navarro, Adolfo; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

2014-05-01

424

Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): Recent advances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island (South Shetland Island, Antarctica) is an active volcano with recent eruptions (e.g. 1967, 1969 and 1970). It is also among the Antarctic sites most visited by tourists. Besides, there are currently two scientific bases operating during the austral summers, usually from late November to early March. For these reasons it is necessary to deploy a volcano monitoring system as complete as possible, designed specifically to endure the extreme conditions of the volcanic environment and the Antarctic climate. The Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR) performs seismic monitoring on Deception Island since 1994 during austral summer surveys. The seismicity basically includes volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among other signals. The level of seismicity is moderate, except for a seismo-volcanic crisis in 1999. The seismic monitoring system has evolved during these years, following the trends of the technological developments and software improvements. Recent advances have been mainly focused on: (1) the improvement of the seismic network introducing broadband stations and 24-bit data acquisition systems; (2) the development of a short-period seismic array, with a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system; (3) the implementation of wireless data transmission from the network stations and also from the seismic array to a recording center, allowing for real-time monitoring; (4) the efficiency of the power supply systems and the monitoring of the battery levels and power consumption; (5) the optimization of data analysis procedures, including database management, automated event recognition tools for the identification and classification of seismo-volcanic signals, and apparent slowness vector estimates using seismic array data; (6) the deployment of permanent seismic stations and the transmission of data during the winter using a satellite connection. A single permanent station is operating at Deception Island since 2008. In the current survey we collaborate with the Spanish Army to add another permanent station that will be able to send to the IAG-UGR seismic information about the activity of the volcano during the winter, using a communications satellite (SPAINSAT). These advances simplify the field work and the data acquisition procedures, and allow us to obtain high-quality seismic data in real-time. These improvements have a very important significance for a better and faster interpretation of the seismo-volcanic activity and assessment of the volcanic hazards at Deception Island volcano.

Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Martín, R.; Cortés, G.; Alguacil, G.; Moreno, J.; Martín, B.; Martos, A.; Serrano, I.; Stich, D.; Ibáñez, J. M.

2012-04-01

425

Third Quater Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, 16 local earthquakes were recorded during the third quarter of fiscal year 2007. The largest event (magnitude 2.0) occurred on April 16, 2007 and was located 4 km southwest of the 400 Area in the Columbia River basalts at a depth of approximately 3 km. Stratigraphically, 7 earthquakes occurred in the Columbia River basalts (approximately 0-5 km depth), 1 earthquake in the pre-basalt sediments (approximately 5-10 km depth), and 8 earthquakes in the crystalline basement (approximately 10-25 km depth). Geographically, 8 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, and 8 earthquakes were classified as random events. The Hanford SMA network was triggered on the 300 Area and the 400 Area SMA by the 2.0 Mc seismic event that occurred on April 16, 2007. The maximum vertical acceleration was 0.07 % g and the maximum horizontal acceleration was 0.05% g at the 300 Area SMA, 13.5 km from the event. At the 400 Area SMA, only 5.2 km from the event, the maximum vertical acceleration was 0.25 % g and the maximum horizontal acceleration was 0.23% g. These are the first recordings of a small local earthquake on the SMA network. The reportable action level of 2% g for Hanford facilities is approximately 8 times larger than the peak accelerations observed at the 400 Area and no action was required.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2007-09-19

426

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, fourteen local earthquakes were recorded during the third quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter (May 18, 2008 - magnitude 3.7 Mc) was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, five earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter occurred on May 18 (magnitude 3.7 Mc) and was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. This earthquake was the highest magnitude event recorded in the 46-47 N. latitude / 119-120 W. longitude sector since 1975. The May 18 event, not reported as being felt on the Hanford site or causing any damage, was communicated to the PNNL Operations Center per HSAP communications procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and the 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The reportable action level of 2% g for Hanford facilities is approximately 12 times larger than the peak acceleration (0.17%) observed at the 300 Area SMA station and no action was required.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-09-01

427
<