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1

Assessment of seismic design response factors of concrete wall buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To verify the seismic design response factors of high-rise buildings, five reference structures, varying in height from 20- to 60-stories, were selected and designed according to modern design codes to represent a wide range of concrete wall structures. Verified fiber-based analytical models for inelastic simulation were developed, considering the geometric nonlinearity and material inelasticity of the structural members. The ground motion uncertainty was accounted for by employing 20 earthquake records representing two seismic scenarios, consistent with the latest understanding of the tectonic setting and seismicity of the selected reference region (UAE). A large number of Inelastic Pushover Analyses (IPAs) and Incremental Dynamic Collapse Analyses (IDCAs) were deployed for the reference structures to estimate the seismic design response factors. It is concluded that the factors adopted by the design code are adequately conservative. The results of this systematic assessment of seismic design response factors apply to a wide variety of contemporary concrete wall buildings with various characteristics.

Mwafy, Aman

2011-03-01

2

Position paper: Seismic design criteria  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

Farnworth, S.K.

1995-05-22

3

Evaluation of strategies for seismic design  

E-print Network

Current trends in seismic design require a new approach, oriented in satisfying motion related design requirements and limiting both structural and non-structural damage. Seismic isolation and damping devices are currently ...

Tsertikidou, Despoina

2012-01-01

4

Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

2009-01-01

5

Romania'S Seismicity And Seismic Hazard: From Historical Records To Design Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents (i) catalogues of Vrancea earthquakes (ii) past strong earthquakes, (iii) earthquake records in Romania,\\u000a (iv) the evolution of seismic zonation and seismic design codes, (v) a seismic hazard map of Romania and design spectra in\\u000a the new seismic design code P100-1\\/2006 following the Eurocode 8 format.

D. Lungu; A. Aldea; C. Arion

6

Structural concepts and details for seismic design  

SciTech Connect

This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

Not Available

1991-09-01

7

Simplified seismic performance assessment and implications for seismic design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade or so has seen the development of refined performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) approaches that now provide a framework for estimation of a range of important decision variables, such as repair costs, repair time and number of casualties. This paper reviews current tools for PBEE, including the PACT software, and examines the possibility of extending the innovative displacement-based assessment approach as a simplified structural analysis option for performance assessment. Details of the displacement-based s+eismic assessment method are reviewed and a simple means of quickly assessing multiple hazard levels is proposed. Furthermore, proposals for a simple definition of collapse fragility and relations between equivalent single-degree-of-freedom characteristics and multi-degree-of-freedom story drift and floor acceleration demands are discussed, highlighting needs for future research. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, performance measures obtained from the simplified method are compared with those computed using the results of incremental dynamic analyses within the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering framework, applied to a benchmark building. The comparison illustrates that the simplified method could be a very effective conceptual seismic design tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the simplified approach are discussed and potential implications of advanced seismic performance assessments for conceptual seismic design are highlighted through examination of different case study scenarios including different structural configurations.

Sullivan, Timothy J.; Welch, David P.; Calvi, Gian Michele

2014-08-01

8

Seismic design standards for qualifying nuclear plant components  

Microsoft Academic Search

In structural design of nuclear power plant facilities. A series of ; Seismic Design Standards for Qualifying Nuclear Plant Components are under ; development by the Tennessee Valley Authority. A list of the Standards under ; development is as follows: Design Criteria for Seismically Qualifying Mechanical ; and Electrical Equipment Devices; Design Criteria for Seismically Qualifying ; Mechanical and Electrical

E. D. Mysinger; J. I. Abrams; J. D. Stevenson

1972-01-01

9

Motion based seismic design and loss estimation of diagrid structures  

E-print Network

Diagrids are becoming an increasingly popular structural system in high rise design and construction. Little research has been performed on the seismic performance of Diagrids and how it integrates with seismic loss ...

Liptack, Robert J. (Robert Jeffrey)

2013-01-01

10

Application of cumulative prospect theory: Implied seismic design preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal seismic design level can be prescribed based on the minimization of the expected lifecycle cost or the expected utility theory. Recently, behavioral economists and cognitive psychologists have developed the popular cumulative prospect theory (CPT) to describe observed decision making behavior. In this study, an attempt is made in applying the CPT to reveal the implied seismic design preference by

K. Goda; H. P. Hong

2008-01-01

11

Implied preference for seismic design level and earthquake insurance.  

PubMed

Seismic risk can be reduced by implementing newly developed seismic provisions in design codes. Furthermore, financial protection or enhanced utility and happiness for stakeholders could be gained through the purchase of earthquake insurance. If this is not so, there would be no market for such insurance. However, perceived benefit associated with insurance is not universally shared by stakeholders partly due to their diverse risk attitudes. This study investigates the implied seismic design preference with insurance options for decisionmakers of bounded rationality whose preferences could be adequately represented by the cumulative prospect theory (CPT). The investigation is focused on assessing the sensitivity of the implied seismic design preference with insurance options to model parameters of the CPT and to fair and unfair insurance arrangements. Numerical results suggest that human cognitive limitation and risk perception can affect the implied seismic design preference by the CPT significantly. The mandatory purchase of fair insurance will lead the implied seismic design preference to the optimum design level that is dictated by the minimum expected lifecycle cost rule. Unfair insurance decreases the expected gain as well as its associated variability, which is preferred by risk-averse decisionmakers. The obtained results of the implied preference for the combination of the seismic design level and insurance option suggest that property owners, financial institutions, and municipalities can take advantage of affordable insurance to establish successful seismic risk management strategies. PMID:18419667

Goda, K; Hong, H P

2008-04-01

12

Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy utilizes deterministic seismic design/evaluation criteria developed to achieve probabilistic performance goals. These seismic design and evaluation criteria are intended to apply equally to the design of new facilities and to the evaluation of existing facilities. In addition, the criteria are intended to cover design and evaluation of buildings, equipment, piping, and other structures. Four separate sets of seismic design/evaluation criteria have been presented each with a different performance goal. In all these criteria, earthquake loading is selected from seismic hazard curves on a probabilistic basis but seismic response evaluation methods and acceptable behavior limits are deterministic approaches with which design engineers are familiar. For analytical evaluations, conservatism has been introduced through the use of conservative inelastic demand-capacity ratios combined with ductile detailing requirements, through the use of minimum specified material strengths and conservative code capacity equations, and through the use of a seismic scale factor. For evaluation by testing or by experience data, conservatism has been introduced through the use of an increase scale factor which is applied to the prescribed design/evaluation input motion.

Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States); Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

13

Seismic Endoscopy: Design of New Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to perform 3D images around shallow-depth boreholes, in conditions in the field and within reasonable times of data acquisitions, several instrumental developments have been performed. The first development concerns the design of a directional probe working in the 20-100 kHz frequency range; the idea is to create a tool composed of multiple elementary piezoelectric entities able to cover the whole space to explore; made of special polyurethane rigid foam with excellent attenuation performances, the prototypes are covered by flexible polyurethane electric resin. By multiplying the number of elementary receptors around the vertical axes and piling up each elementary sensor, a complete design of multi-azimuth and multi-offset has been concepted. In addition to this, a test site has been built in order to obtain a controlled medium at typical scales of interest for seismic endoscopy and dedicated to experiment near the conditions in the field. Various reflectors are placed in well known positions and filled in an homogeneous cement medium; the whole edifice (2.2 m in diameter and 8 metres in depth) also contains 4 PVC tubes to simulate boreholes. The second part of this instrumental developments concern the synthesis of input signals; indeed, many modern devices used in ultrasonic experiment have non linear output response outside their nominal range: this is especially true in geophysical acoustical experiments when high acoustical power is necessary to insonify deep geological targets. Thanks to the high speed electronic and computerised devices now available, it is possible to plug in experimental set-ups into non linear inversions algorithms like simulated annealing. First experiments showed the robustness of the method in case of non linear analogic architecture. Large wavelet families have or example been constructed thanks to the method and multiscale Non Destructive Testing Method have been performed as an efficient method to detect and characterise discontinuities or velocities variations of a material.

Conil, F.; Nicollin, F.; Gibert, D.

2003-04-01

14

Feasibility study and verified design concept for new improved hot gas facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MSFC Hot Gas Facility (HGF) was fabricated in 1975 as a temporary facility to provide immediate turnaround testing to support the SRB and ET TPS development. This facility proved to be very useful and was used to make more than 1300 runs, far more than ever intended in the original design. Therefore, it was in need of constant repair and needed to be replaced with a new improved design to support the continuing SRB/ET TPS product improvement and/or removal efforts. MSFC contracted with Lockheed-Huntsville to work on this improved design through contract NAS8-36304 Feasibility Study and Verified Design Concept for the New Improved Hot Gas Facility. The results of Lockheed-Huntsville's efforts under this contract are summarized.

1986-01-01

15

Seismic-reflection technique used to verify shallow rebound fracture zones in the Pierre Shale of South Dakota ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shallow seismic-reflection data are presented to demonstrate their usefulness for locating and showing the continuity and lateral extent of rebound fracture zones in the Pierre Shale. Rebound fracture zones, identified in boreholes near Hayes, South Dakota, have variable depth, thickness, and character, thus making questionable the correlation of these zones between holes. Thus, the subsequent determination of dip and of continuity of the zones is somewhat tenuous, especially if the fracture characteristics change significantly between holes. Once rebound fracture zones have been identified and located by borehole geotechnical and geologic data, seismic profiles can reveal the extent and geometry of fractures in these zones, thus providing valuable preconstruction information without the cost of additional drilling.-Authors

Nichols, T.C., Jr.; King, K.W.; Collins, D.S.; Williams, R.A.

1988-01-01

16

New procedure for the safe, economical seismic design of components of nuclear plant facilities at low and moderate seismicity sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current methods of seismic design and analysis of nuclear facility components using modal analysis and dynamically uncoupled elastic-response-spectra techniques are expensive, time consuming, and greatly overestimate real seismic loads. In this article a new, simplified load-coefficient method is presented for use at low and moderate seismicity sites which should reduce seismic analytical costs by a factor of 5 or more

Stevenson

2009-01-01

17

SEISMIC RISK MAPS FOR EUROCODE-8 DESIGNED BUILDINGS Thomas Ulrich1  

E-print Network

1 SEISMIC RISK MAPS FOR EUROCODE-8 DESIGNED BUILDINGS Thomas Ulrich1 , John Douglas2 , Caterina Negulescu3 There is currently a move towards seismic design maps that are risk-targeted (e.g. Luco et al of such maps relies on three independent inputs: a) seismic hazard curves derived using probabilistic seismic

18

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section 1792.103...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and...

2012-01-01

19

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section 1792.103...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and...

2014-01-01

20

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section 1792.103...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and...

2013-01-01

21

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section 1792.103...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and...

2011-01-01

22

Systems aspects of seismic design for nuclear plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response interactions between structural, mechanical, and electrical ; systems in a nuclear power plant subjected to earthquake motions are complex. ; Close communication and coordination between the design disciplines involved are ; essential during all phases of the feasibility-design-construct process to ensure ; that proper and timely consideration is given to seismic effects. Procedures for ; determining the interactive

Sharpe

1973-01-01

23

Investigation of techniques for the development of seismic design basis using the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to form a group of experts to assist them in revising the seismic and geologic siting criteria for nuclear power plants, Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 100. This document describes a deterministic approach for determining a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) Ground Motion for a nuclear power plant site. One disadvantage of this approach is the difficulty of integrating differences of opinions and differing interpretations into seismic hazard characterization. In answer to this, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies incorporate differences of opinion and interpretations among earth science experts. For this reason, probabilistic hazard methods were selected for determining SSEs for the revised regulation, 10 CFR Part 100.23. However, because these methodologies provide a composite analysis of all possible earthquakes that may occur, they do not provide the familiar link between seismic design loading requirements and engineering design practice. Therefore, approaches used to characterize seismic events (magnitude and distance) which best represent the ground motion level determined with the probabilistic hazard analysis were investigated. This report summarizes investigations conducted at 69 nuclear reactor sites in the central and eastern U.S. for determining SSEs using probabilistic analyses. Alternative techniques are presented along with justification for key choices. 16 refs., 32 figs., 60 tabs.

Bernreuter, D.L.; Boissonnade, A.C.; Short, C.M.

1998-04-01

24

Prevention of seismic damages in telescope design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the best astronomical sites are unfortunately located in potentially seismic areas. An appropriate study to evaluate the dynamic forces acting on telescope optics is therefore crucial, to prevent them from damages in case of earthquakes. We present a procedure to estimate the response of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) telescope primary mirror to a Maximum Likely Earthquake (MLE) in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) site of Cerro Paranal, Northern Chile.

Perrotta, F.; Schipani, P.; Martelli, F.; Parodi, G.; Ottolini, M.

25

Coupling induced seismic hazard analysis with reservoir design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hazard and risk perspective in research on induced seismicity usually focuses on the question how to reduce the occurrence of induced earthquakes. However, it is also well accepted that shear-dilatancy accompanied by seismic energy radiation is a required process for reservoir creation in low permeability rock. Assessment of induced seismic hazard for a planned stimulation experiment must take into account the target reservoir properties. We present a generic modelling study, in which induced seismic hazard can be analysed in balance with the permeability enhancement and the size of the stimulated reservoir. The model has two coupled components: 1) a flow model that solves the pressure diffusion equations, and 2) a stochastic seismicity model, which uses the transient pressure disturbances to trigger seismic events at so-called seed points. At triggering, a magnitude is randomly drawn from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution with a local b-value that depends on the stress state at the seed point. In the source area of the events the permeability is increased depending on the amount of slip, but only by a maximum factor of 200. Due to the stochastic nature of the modelling approach, a representative number of 500 model realizations are computed. The results demonstrate that planning and controlling of reservoir engineering operation may be compromised by the considerable variability of maximum observed magnitude, reservoir size, b-value and seismogenic index arising from the intrinsic virtually random nature of induced seismicity. We also find that injection volume has the highest impact on both reservoir size and seismic hazard, while changing injection rate and strategy at constant final injection volume has a negligible effect. However, the impact of site-specific parameters on seismicity and reservoir properties is greater than the volume effect. In particular, conditions that lead to high b-values - for instance a low differential stress level - have a high positive impact on seismic hazard. However, as smaller magnitudes contribute less to permeability enhancement the efficiency of stimulation is degraded in case of high b-value conditions. Nevertheless, target permeability enhancement can be still be achieved under high b-value condition without reaching an unacceptable seismic hazard level, if either initial permeability is already high or if several fractures are stimulated. The proposed modelling approach is a first step towards including induced seismic hazard analysis into the design of reservoir stimulation.

Gischig, V.; Wiemer, S.; Alcolea, A. R.

2013-12-01

26

Automated seismic analysis and design of reinforced concrete frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic reliability of reinforced concrete frame buildings was studied. A method to evaluate the nonlinear response of such buildings under earthquake loading has been developed, which is sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes, and a new definition of damage is introduced, which serves as a measure of a member's residual energy dissipation capacity. An automated design method is proposed,

Chung

1988-01-01

27

Wind and seismic resistant design for fossil power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the effect of wind loads on the structural design of fossil power plants as compared with seismic loads. This comparison is limited to structural consideration only. Two major parts of a fossil plant, the boiler area and the turbine area, were considered in the reference scheme. 5 refs.

Ivanov

1980-01-01

28

Verifying single-station seismic approaches using Earth-based data: Preparation for data return from the InSight mission to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planned InSight mission will deliver a single seismic station containing 3-component broadband and short-period sensors to the surface of Mars in 2016. While much of the progress in understanding the Earth and Moon's interior has relied on the use of seismic networks for accurate location of sources, single station approaches can be applied to data returned from Mars in order to locate events and determine interior structure. In preparation for the data return from InSight, we use a terrestrial dataset recorded at the Global Seismic Network station BFO, located at the Black Forest Observatory in Germany, to verify an approach for event location and structure determination based on recordings of multiple orbit surface waves, which will be more favorable to record on Mars than Earth due to smaller planetary radius and potentially lower background noise. With this approach applied to events near the threshold of observability on Earth, we are able to determine epicentral distance within approximately 1° (corresponding to ?60 km on Mars), and origin time within ?30 s. With back azimuth determined from Rayleigh wave polarization, absolute locations are determined generally within an aperture of 10°, allowing for localization within large tectonic regions on Mars. With these locations, we are able to recover Earth mantle structure within ±5% (the InSight mission requirements for martian mantle structure) using 1D travel time inversions of P and S travel times for datasets of only 7 events. The location algorithm also allows for the measurement of great-circle averaged group velocity dispersion, which we measure between 40 and 200 s to scale the expected reliable frequency range of the InSight data from Earth to Mars data. Using the terrestrial data, we are able to resolve structure down to ?200 km, but synthetic tests demonstrate we should be able to resolve martian structure to ?400 km with the same frequency content given the smaller planetary size.

Panning, Mark P.; Beucler, Éric; Drilleau, Mélanie; Mocquet, Antoine; Lognonné, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce

2015-03-01

29

High-performance braces for seismic design  

E-print Network

The fundamental challenge for the structural engineer in designing earthquake-resistant structures is to design buildings with both adequate ductility and sufficient stiffness. Traditional lateral force resisting systems ...

Lim, Tim S

2013-01-01

30

Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode: Or, How Not to Design Authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Banks worldwide are starting to authenticate online card transactions using the '3-D Secure' protocol, which is branded as Verified by Visa and MasterCard SecureCode. This has been partly driven by the sharp increase in online fraud that followed the deployment of EMV smart cards for cardholder-present payments in Europe and elsewhere. 3-D Secure has so far escaped academic scrutiny; yet it might be a textbook example of how not to design an authentication protocol. It ignores good design principles and has significant vulnerabilities, some of which are already being exploited. Also, it provides a fascinating lesson in security economics. While other single sign-on schemes such as OpenID, InfoCard and Liberty came up with decent technology they got the economics wrong, and their schemes have not been adopted. 3-D Secure has lousy technology, but got the economics right (at least for banks and merchants); it now boasts hundreds of millions of accounts. We suggest a path towards more robust authentication that is technologically sound and where the economics would work for banks, merchants and customers - given a gentle regulatory nudge.

Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

31

Sensor placement for the analysis of seismic surface waves: sources of error, design criterion and array design algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic surface waves can be measured by deploying an array of seismometers on the surface of the earth. The goal of such measurement surveys is, usually, to estimate the velocity of propagation and the direction of arrival of the seismic waves. In this paper, we address the issue of sensor placement for the analysis of seismic surface waves from ambient vibration wavefields. First, we explain in detail how the array geometry affects the mean-squared estimation error of parameters of interest, such as the velocity and direction of propagation, both at low and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Secondly, we propose a cost function suitable for the design of the array geometry with particular focus on the estimation of the wavenumber of both Love and Rayleigh waves. Thirdly, we present and compare several computational approaches to minimize the proposed cost function. Numerical experiments verify the effectiveness of our cost function and resulting array geometry designs, leading to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries, both at low and high SNR levels.

Maranò, Stefano; Fäh, Donat; Lu, Yue M.

2014-06-01

32

Salt Repository Project input to seismic design: Revision 0. [Contains Glossary  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Repository Program (SRP) Input to Seismic Design (ISD) documents the assumptions, rationale, approaches, judgments, and analyses that support the development of seismic-specific data and information to be used for shaft design in accordance with the SRP Shaft Design Guide (SDG). The contents of this document are divided into four subject areas: (1) seismic assessment, (2) stratigraphy and material properties for seismic design, (3) development of seismic design parameters, and (4) host media stability. These four subject areas have been developed considering expected conditions at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The ISD should be used only in conjunction with seismic design of the exploratory and repository shafts. Seismic design considerations relating to surface facilities are not addressed in this document. 54 refs., 55 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

33

Seismic design technology for Breeder Reactor structures. Volume 3: special topics in reactor structures  

SciTech Connect

This volume is divided into six chapters: analysis techniques, equivalent damping values, probabilistic design factors, design verifications, equivalent response cycles for fatigue analysis, and seismic isolation. (JDB)

Reddy, D.P. (ed)

1983-04-01

34

Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basing the displacement-capacity design method and capacity spectrum method, a new rigid-plastic seismic design procedure is proposed to describe the behavior of shear wall structure under strong earthquakes. Firstly the concept of rigid-plastic hinge is used to choose a collapse mechanism of shear wall, then according to the dynamic performance criterion the yield load of structure is determined through rigid-plastic response spectrum. This procedure is used in 11-story reinforced structure shear wall design, the results of comparison with refined Non-Linear Time-History Analysis showing good agreement.

Fan, Chang Lin; Zhang, Shan Yuan

35

Seismic Endoscopy: Design of New Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to perform 3D images around shallow-depth boreholes, in conditions in the field and within reasonable times of data acquisitions, several instrumental developments have been performed. The first development concerns the design of a directional probe working in the 20-100 kHz frequency range; the idea is to create a tool composed of multiple elementary piezoelectric entities able to cover

F. Conil; F. Nicollin; D. Gibert

2003-01-01

36

A provably secure really source hiding designated verifier signature scheme based on random oracle model  

E-print Network

the public key of the signer to verify weather , = , (, ) holds, where is the signer's public key], in 2008, found an impersonation attack on [15]. Hence, they provided a modification on [15]. They claimed

37

A New Event Detector Designed for the Seismic Research Observatories  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new short-period event detector has been implemented on the Seismic Research Observatories. For each signal detected, a printed output gives estimates of the time of onset of the signal, direction of the first break, quality of onset, period and maximum amplitude of the signal, and an estimate of the variability of the background noise. On the SRO system, the new algorithm runs ~2.5x faster than the former (power level) detector. This increase in speed is due to the design of the algorithm: all operations can be performed by simple shifts, additions, and comparisons (floating point operations are not required). Even though a narrow-band recursive filter is not used, the algorithm appears to detect events competitively with those algorithms that employ such filters. Tests at Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory on data supplied by Blandford suggest performance commensurate with the on-line detector of the Seismic Data Analysis Center, Alexandria, Virginia.

Murdock, James N.; Hutt, Charles R.

1983-01-01

38

Reduce seismic design conservatism through large-scale earthquake experiments  

SciTech Connect

For structures founded on soil deposits, the interaction between the soil and the structure caused by incident seismic waves modifies the foundation input motion and the dynamic characteristics of the soil-structure system. This paper reports that as a result, soil-structure interaction (SSI) plays a critical role in the design of nuclear plant structures. Recognizing that experimental validation and quantification is required, two scaled cylindrical reinforced-concrete containment models (1/4-scale and 1/12-scale of typical full-scale reactor containments) were constructed in Lotung, an active seismic region in Taiwan. Forced vibration tests (FBT) were also conducted to characterize the dynamic behavior of the soil-structure system. Based on these data, a series of round-robin blind prediction and post-test correlation analyses using various currently-available SSI methods were performed.

Tang, H.T.; Stepp, J.C. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US))

1992-01-01

39

Review of public comments on proposed seismic design criteria  

SciTech Connect

During the first quarter of 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) prepared a proposed Revision 2 to the NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan (SRP) Sections 2.5.2 (Vibratory Ground Motion), 3.7.1 (Seismic Design Parameters), 3.7.2 (Seismic Systems Analysis) and 3.7.3 (Seismic Subsystem Analysis). The proposed Revision 2 to the SRP was a result of many years' work carried out by the NRC and the nuclear industry on the Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-40: ''Seismic Design Criteria.'' The background material related to NRC's efforts for resolving the A-40 issue is described in NUREG-1233. In June 1988, the proposed Revision 2 of the SRP was issued by NRC for public review and comments. Comments were received from Sargent and Lundy Engineers, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Stevenson and Associates, Duke Power Company, General Electric Company and Electric Power Research Institute. In September 1988, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and its consultants (C.J. Costantino, R.P. Kennedy, J. Stevenson, M. Shinozuka and A.S. Veletsos) were requested to carry out a review of the comments received from the above six organizations. The objective of this review was to assist the NRC staff with the evaluation and resolution of the public comments. This review was initiated during October 1988 and it was completed on January 1989. As a result of this review, a set of modifications to the above mentioned sections of the SRP were recommended by BNL and its consultants. This paper summarizes the recommended modifications. 4 refs.

Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Shaukat, S.K.; Chokshi, N.C.; Bagchi, G.

1989-01-01

40

Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches.

Not Available

1980-04-01

41

Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

Not Available

1985-04-01

42

Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

2006-10-01

43

Design and application of an electromagnetic vibrator seismic source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vibrational seismic sources frequently provide a higher-frequency seismic wavelet (and therefore better resolution) than other sources, and can provide a superior signal-to-noise ratio in many settings. However, they are often prohibitively expensive for lower-budget shallow surveys. In order to address this problem, I designed and built a simple but effective vibrator source for about one thousand dollars. The "EMvibe" is an inexpensive electromagnetic vibrator that can be built with easy-to-machine parts and off-the-shelf electronics. It can repeatably produce pulse and frequency-sweep signals in the range of 5 to 650 Hz, and provides sufficient energy for recording at offsets up to 20 m. Analysis of frequency spectra show that the EMvibe provides a broader frequency range than the sledgehammer at offsets up to ??? 10 m in data collected at a site with soft sediments in the upper several meters. The EMvibe offers a high-resolution alternative to the sledgehammer for shallow surveys. It is well-suited to teaching applications, and to surveys requiring a precisely-repeatable source signature.

Haines, S.S.

2006-01-01

44

MITIGATION OF SEISMIC FINANCIAL RISK OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS BY USING DAMAGE AVOIDANCE DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic financial risk analyses of rocking precast prestressed reinforced concrete hollow-core walls designed using the Damage Avoidance Design (DAD) philosophy and of code-compliant ductile monolithic walls are performed based on the results of experimental investigation on the seismic behaviour of wall specimens representing the two different systems. Incremental dynamic analyses (IDA) are performed on nonlinear computational models of the two

R. K. Khare; R. P. Dhakal; J. B. Mander; N. B. A. Hamid; M. M. Maniyar

45

Automated seismic analysis and design of reinforced concrete frames  

SciTech Connect

The seismic reliability of reinforced concrete frame buildings was studied. A method to evaluate the nonlinear response of such buildings under earthquake loading has been developed, which is sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes, and a new definition of damage is introduced, which serves as a measure of a member's residual energy dissipation capacity. An automated design method is proposed, which aims for a uniform energy dissipation throughout the building frame, as measured by the individual member damage indices. Numerous damage models are critically evaluated, which have been proposed in the past. Some of these properly take into account the dissipated hysteretic energy. The new damage index proposed is modeled on the low-cycle fatigue phenomenon exhibited by reinforced concrete members subjected to strong inelastic cyclic loads. The automatic design method is based on a thorough study of the effects of important design variables, such as longitudinal reinforcement and degree of confinement. Design rules derived from this study allow an iterative improvement of a preliminary design until the distribution of damage indices has reached a user-specified degree of uniformity.

Chung, Y.S.

1988-01-01

46

Verified Craters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spinning globe showing yellow dots to represent the location of approximately 150 verified craters scattered throughout the world. They are largely grouped on the North American, European, and Australian continents.

Joycelyn Thomson

2002-09-06

47

Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

2011-07-17

48

Assessment of the impact of degraded shear wall stiffnesses on seismic plant risk and seismic design loads  

SciTech Connect

Test results sponsored by the USNRC have shown that reinforced shear wall (Seismic Category I) structures exhibit stiffnesses and natural frequencies which are smaller than those calculated in the design process. The USNRC has sponsored Sandia National Labs to perform an evaluation of the effects of the reduced frequencies on several existing seismic PRAs in order to determine the seismic risk implications inherent in these test results. This report presents the results for the re-evaluation of the seismic risk for three nuclear power plants: the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, and Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit 1 (ANO-1). Increases in core damage frequencies for seismic initiated events at Peach Bottom were 25 to 30 percent (depending on whether LLNL or EPRI hazard curves were used). At the ANO-1 site, the corresponding increases in plant risk were 10 percent (for each set of hazard curves). Finally, at Zion, there was essentially no change in the computed core damage frequency when the reduction in shear wall stiffness was included. In addition, an evaluation of deterministic ``design-like`` structural dynamic calculations with and without the shear stiffness reductions was made. Deterministic loads calculated for these two cases typically increased on the order of 10 to 20 percent for the affected structures.

Klamerus, E.W.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J.J.; Asfura, A.P.; Doyle, D.J. [EQE Engineering, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-02-01

49

Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ehinger, M.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1991-01-01

50

EVALUATING DESIGN AND VERIFYING COMPLIANCE OF CREATED WETLANDS IN THE VICINITY OF TAMPA, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Completed mitigation projects are being studied by the Wetlands Research Program nationwide to identify critical design features, develop methods for evaluating projects, determine the functions they perform, and describe how they change with time. his report is the second in a s...

51

Solution-Verified Reliability Analysis and Design of Compliant Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems  

E-print Network

and medicine, automobiles, RF electronics, and optical displays.1 Design optimization of these devices, in which estimators are used to drive adaptive h-refinement of mesh discretizations. The for- mer requires of a bistable MEMS device. Computational results show that on-line and parameter-adaptive solution verification

52

Towards Improved Considerations of Risk in Seismic Design (Plinius Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftermath of recent earthquakes is a reminder that seismic risk is a very relevant issue for our communities. Implicit within the seismic design standards currently in place around the world is that minimum acceptable levels of seismic risk will be ensured through design in accordance with the codes. All the same, none of the design standards specify what the minimum acceptable level of seismic risk actually is. Instead, a series of deterministic limit states are set which engineers then demonstrate are satisfied for their structure, typically through the use of elastic dynamic analyses adjusted to account for non-linear response using a set of empirical correction factors. From the early nineties the seismic engineering community has begun to recognise numerous fundamental shortcomings with such seismic design procedures in modern codes. Deficiencies include the use of elastic dynamic analysis for the prediction of inelastic force distributions, the assignment of uniform behaviour factors for structural typologies irrespective of the structural proportions and expected deformation demands, and the assumption that hysteretic properties of a structure do not affect the seismic displacement demands, amongst other things. In light of this a number of possibilities have emerged for improved control of risk through seismic design, with several innovative displacement-based seismic design methods now well developed. For a specific seismic design intensity, such methods provide a more rational means of controlling the response of a structure to satisfy performance limit states. While the development of such methodologies does mark a significant step forward for the control of seismic risk, they do not, on their own, identify the seismic risk of a newly designed structure. In the U.S. a rather elaborate performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework is under development, with the aim of providing seismic loss estimates for new buildings. The PBEE framework consists of the following four main analysis stages: (i) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to give the mean occurrence rate of earthquake events having an intensity greater than a threshold value, (ii) structural analysis to estimate the global structural response, given a certain value of seismic intensity, (iii) damage analysis, in which fragility functions are used to express the probability that a building component exceeds a damage state, as a function of the global structural response, (iv) loss analysis, in which the overall performance is assessed based on the damage state of all components. This final step gives estimates of the mean annual frequency with which various repair cost levels (or other decision variables) are exceeded. The realisation of this framework does suggest that risk-based seismic design is now possible. However, comparing current code approaches with the proposed PBEE framework, it becomes apparent that mainstream consulting engineers would have to go through a massive learning curve in order to apply the new procedures in practice. With this in mind, it is proposed that simplified loss-based seismic design procedures are a logical means of helping the engineering profession transition from what are largely deterministic seismic design procedures in current codes, to more rational risk-based seismic design methodologies. Examples are provided to illustrate the likely benefits of adopting loss-based seismic design approaches in practice.

Sullivan, T. J.

2012-04-01

53

Technical Basis for Certification of Seismic Design Criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

In August 2007, Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman approved the final seismic and ground motion criteria for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Construction of the WTP began in 2002 based on seismic design criteria established in 1999 and a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The design criteria were reevaluated in 2005 to address questions from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. DOE announced in 2006 the suspension of construction on the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities within the WTP to validate the design with more stringent seismic criteria. In 2007, the U.S. Congress mandated that the Secretary of Energy certify the final seismic and ground motion criteria prior to expenditure of funds on construction of these two facilities. With the Secretary's approval of the final seismic criteria in the summer of 2007, DOE authorized restart of construction of the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities. The technical basis for the certification of seismic design criteria resulted from a two-year Seismic Boreholes Project that planned, collected, and analyzed geological data from four new boreholes drilled to depths of approximately 1400 feet below ground surface on the WTP site. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analyses was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The absence of directly-measured seismic shear wave velocities in the sedimentary interbeds resulted in the use of a wider and more conservative range of velocities in the 2005 analyses. The Seismic Boreholes Project was designed to directly measure the velocities and velocity contrasts in the basalts and sediments below the WTP, reanalyze the ground motion response, and assess the level of conservatism in the 2005 seismic design criteria. The characterization and analysis effort included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties (including uncertainties) of the basalt/interbed sequences, 2) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core-hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole, and 3) prediction of ground motion response to an earthquake using newly acquired and historic data. The data and analyses reflect a significant reduction in the uncertainty in shear wave velocities below the WTP and result in a significantly lower spectral acceleration (i.e., ground motion). The updated ground motion response analyses and corresponding design response spectra reflect a 25% lower peak horizontal acceleration than reflected in the 2005 design criteria. These results provide confidence that the WTP seismic design criteria are conservative. (authors)

Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Youngs, R.R. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Costantino, C.J. [C.J. Costantino and Associates, Valley, NY (United States); Miller, L.F. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

54

A verified design of a fault-tolerant clock synchronization circuit: Preliminary investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schneider demonstrates that many fault tolerant clock synchronization algorithms can be represented as refinements of a single proven correct paradigm. Shankar provides mechanical proof that Schneider's schema achieves Byzantine fault tolerant clock synchronization provided that 11 constraints are satisfied. Some of the constraints are assumptions about physical properties of the system and cannot be established formally. Proofs are given that the fault tolerant midpoint convergence function satisfies three of the constraints. A hardware design is presented, implementing the fault tolerant midpoint function, which is shown to satisfy the remaining constraints. The synchronization circuit will recover completely from transient faults provided the maximum fault assumption is not violated. The initialization protocol for the circuit also provides a recovery mechanism from total system failure caused by correlated transient faults.

Miner, Paul S.

1992-01-01

55

Effective Parameters on Seismic Design of Rectangular Underground Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground structures are a significant part of the transportation in the modern society and in the seismic zones should withstand against both seismic and static loadings. Embedded structures should conform to ground deformations during the earthquake but almost exact evaluation of structure to ground distortion is critical. Several two-dimensional finite difference models are used to find effective parameters on racking

G. Ghodrati Amiri; N. Maddah; B. Mohebi

2008-01-01

56

Engineering Seismic Base Layer for Defining Design Earthquake Motion  

SciTech Connect

Engineer's common sense that incident wave is common in a widespread area at the engineering seismic base layer is shown not to be correct. An exhibiting example is first shown, which indicates that earthquake motion at the ground surface evaluated by the analysis considering the ground from a seismic bedrock to a ground surface simultaneously (continuous analysis) is different from the one by the analysis in which the ground is separated at the engineering seismic base layer and analyzed separately (separate analysis). The reason is investigated by several approaches. Investigation based on eigen value problem indicates that the first predominant period in the continuous analysis cannot be found in the separate analysis, and predominant period at higher order does not match in the upper and lower ground in the separate analysis. The earthquake response analysis indicates that reflected wave at the engineering seismic base layer is not zero, which indicates that conventional engineering seismic base layer does not work as expected by the term 'base'. All these results indicate that wave that goes down to the deep depths after reflecting in the surface layer and again reflects at the seismic bedrock cannot be neglected in evaluating the response at the ground surface. In other words, interaction between the surface layer and/or layers between seismic bedrock and engineering seismic base layer cannot be neglected in evaluating the earthquake motion at the ground surface.

Yoshida, Nozomu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajo 1-13-1, Miyagi (Japan)

2008-07-08

57

Seismic design and analysis considerations for high level nuclear waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

A high level nuclear waste repository, like the one at Nevada`s Yucca Mountain that is being investigated for site suitability, will have some unique seismic design and analysis considerations. These are discussed, and a design philosophy that can rationally account for the unique performance objectives of such facilities is presented. A case is made for the use of DOE`s performance goal-based seismic design and evaluation methodology that is based on a hybrid ``deterministic`` and ``probabilistic`` concept. How and to what extent this methodology should be modified to adopt it for a potential site like Yucca Mountain is also outlined. Finally, the issue of designing for seismic fault rupture is discussed briefly, and the desirability of using the proposed seismic design philosophy in fault rupture evaluation is described.

Hossain, Q.A.

1993-09-30

58

Fragility curves for risk-targeted seismic design maps1 Thomas Ulrich*, Caterina Negulescu and John Douglas2  

E-print Network

1 Fragility curves for risk-targeted seismic design maps1 Thomas Ulrich*, Caterina Negulescu presse" DOI : 10.1007/s10518-013-9572-y #12;2 Abstract15 Seismic design using maps based on ,,risk over an entire territory. These maps are based on17 convolving seismic hazard curves from a standard

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Design and implementation of telemetry seismic data acquisition system based on embedded P2P Ethernet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design of telemetry seismic data acquisition system is presented which uses embedded, point to point (P2P) Ethernet networks. In our presentation, we explain the idea and motivation behind the use of P2P Ethernet topology and show the problems when such topology is used in seismic acquisition system. The presented paper focuses on the network protocols developed by us which include the generation of route table and dynamic IP address management. This new design has been implemented based on ARM and FPGA, which we have tested in laboratory and seismic exploration.

Zhang, L.; Lin, J.; Chen, Z.

2011-12-01

60

Design of innovative dynamic systems for seismic response mitigation  

E-print Network

Rocking wall systems consist of shear walls, laterally connected to a building, that are moment-released in their strong plane. Their purpose is to mitigate seismic structural response by constraining a building primarily ...

Seymour, Douglas (Douglas Benjamin)

2012-01-01

61

Seismic Response Analysis and Design of Structure with Base Isolation  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports the study on seismic response and energy distribution of a multi-story civil structure. The nonlinear analysis used the 2003 Bam earthquake acceleration record as the excitation input to the structural model. The displacement response was analyzed in time domain and in frequency domain. The displacement and its derivatives result energy components. The energy distribution in each story provides useful information for the structural upgrade with help of added devices. The objective is the structural displacement response minimization. The application of the structural seismic response research is presented in base-isolation example.

Rosko, Peter [Vienna University of Technology, Center of Mechanics and Structural Dynamics (Austria)

2010-05-21

62

Performance-based seismic design of nonstructural building components: The next frontier of earthquake engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development and implementation of performance-based earthquake engineering, harmonization of performance levels between structural and nonstructural components becomes vital. Even if the structural components of a building achieve a continuous or immediate occupancy performance level after a seismic event, failure of architectural, mechanical or electrical components can lower the performance level of the entire building system. This reduction in performance caused by the vulnerability of nonstructural components has been observed during recent earthquakes worldwide. Moreover, nonstructural damage has limited the functionality of critical facilities, such as hospitals, following major seismic events. The investment in nonstructural components and building contents is far greater than that of structural components and framing. Therefore, it is not surprising that in many past earthquakes, losses from damage to nonstructural components have exceeded losses from structural damage. Furthermore, the failure of nonstructural components can become a safety hazard or can hamper the safe movement of occupants evacuating buildings, or of rescue workers entering buildings. In comparison to structural components and systems, there is relatively limited information on the seismic design of nonstructural components. Basic research work in this area has been sparse, and the available codes and guidelines are usually, for the most part, based on past experiences, engineering judgment and intuition, rather than on objective experimental and analytical results. Often, design engineers are forced to start almost from square one after each earthquake event: to observe what went wrong and to try to prevent repetitions. This is a consequence of the empirical nature of current seismic regulations and guidelines for nonstructural components. This review paper summarizes current knowledge on the seismic design and analysis of nonstructural building components, identifying major knowledge gaps that will need to be filled by future research. Furthermore, considering recent trends in earthquake engineering, the paper explores how performance-based seismic design might be conceived for nonstructural components, drawing on recent developments made in the field of seismic design and hinting at the specific considerations required for nonstructural components.

Filiatrault, Andre; Sullivan, Timothy

2014-08-01

63

Towards a seismic design method for plane steel frames using equivalent modal damping ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for seismic design of plane steel moment resisting frames based on the use of equivalent modal damping ratios is developed. The method determines the design base shear of the structure through spectrum analysis using rationally obtained equivalent modal damping ratios instead of the crude strength reduction (behavior) factor. An equivalent linear structure, which retains the mass and initial

George A. Papagiannopoulos; Dimitri E. Beskos

2010-01-01

64

Performance-Based Seismic Design of Steel Frames Utilizing Colliding Bodies Algorithm  

PubMed Central

A pushover analysis method based on semirigid connection concept is developed and the colliding bodies optimization algorithm is employed to find optimum seismic design of frame structures. Two numerical examples from the literature are studied. The results of the new algorithm are compared to the conventional design methods to show the power or weakness of the algorithm. PMID:25202717

Veladi, H.

2014-01-01

65

SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES IN ACCORDANCE WITH CSA-S16-09  

E-print Network

SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES IN ACCORDANCE WITH CSA-S16-09 R. Tremblay1 , M. Bruneau2 , R Structures" of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) governs the design of the majority of steel have been incorporated in the 2009 edition of CSA S16, including modifications of the expected material

Bruneau, Michel

66

Effective Parameters on Seismic Design of Rectangular Underground Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground structures are a significant part of the transportation in the modern society and in the seismic zones should withstand against both seismic and static loadings. Embedded structures should conform to ground deformations during the earthquake but almost exact evaluation of structure to ground distortion is critical. Several two-dimensional finite difference models are used to find effective parameters on racking ratio (structure to ground distortion) including flexibility ratio, various cross sections, embedment depth, and Poisson's ratio of soil. Results show that influence of different cross sections, by themselves is negligible but embedment depth in addition to flexibility ratio and Poisson's ratio is known as a consequential parameter. A comparison with pseudo-static method (simplified frame analysis) is also performed. The results show that for a stiffer structure than soil, racking ratio decreases as the depth of burial decreases; on the other hand, shallow and flexible structures can suffer greater distortion than deeper ones up to 30 percents.

Amiri, G. Ghodrati; Maddah, N.; Mohebi, B.

2008-07-01

67

Effective Parameters on Seismic Design of Rectangular Underground Structures  

SciTech Connect

Underground structures are a significant part of the transportation in the modern society and in the seismic zones should withstand against both seismic and static loadings. Embedded structures should conform to ground deformations during the earthquake but almost exact evaluation of structure to ground distortion is critical. Several two-dimensional finite difference models are used to find effective parameters on racking ratio (structure to ground distortion) including flexibility ratio, various cross sections, embedment depth, and Poisson's ratio of soil. Results show that influence of different cross sections, by themselves is negligible but embedment depth in addition to flexibility ratio and Poisson's ratio is known as a consequential parameter. A comparison with pseudo-static method (simplified frame analysis) is also performed. The results show that for a stiffer structure than soil, racking ratio decreases as the depth of burial decreases; on the other hand, shallow and flexible structures can suffer greater distortion than deeper ones up to 30 percents.

Amiri, G. Ghodrati [Center of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maddah, N.; Mohebi, B. [College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

68

Design Seismic Response Evaluation of Wall Systems Including Foundation Flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with application of capacity spectrum method which is extended to provide estimate for seismic demands for\\u000a specific type of structure and variable boundary conditions. Flat slab—R\\/C wall systems are considered. Flexible shallow wall\\u000a foundations are used because of soil deformations. Only elastic soil properties are considered. Foundation motion is implemented\\u000a assuming new additional degrees of freedom instead

Zdravko Bonev; Golubka Necevska-Cvetanovska; Elena Vaseva; Roberta Apostolska; Dilyan Blagov

69

Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatoriesRecent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and  

E-print Network

observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm andPart 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and SeisComPSeisComP Jean-Marie SAUREL (2,1), Frédéric RANDRIAMORA (3 observatories community : EarthWorm and SeisComP. The first is renowned for its ability to process real time

Beauducel, François

70

Reducing Uncertainty in the Seismic Design Basis for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The seismic design basis for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland was re-evaluated in 2005, resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. The original seismic design basis for the WTP was established in 1999 based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The 2005 analysis was performed to address questions raised by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) about the assumptions used in developing the original seismic criteria and adequacy of the site geotechnical surveys. The updated seismic response analysis used existing and newly acquired seismic velocity data, statistical analysis, expert elicitation, and ground motion simulation to develop interim design ground motion response spectra which enveloped the remaining uncertainties. The uncertainties in these response spectra were enveloped at approximately the 84. percentile to produce conservative design spectra, which contributed significantly to the increase in the seismic design basis. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analysis was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The velocity structure of the upper four basalt flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) and the inter-layered sedimentary interbeds (Ellensburg Formation) produces strong reductions in modeled earthquake ground motions propagating through them. Uncertainty in the strength of velocity contrasts between these basalts and interbeds primarily resulted from an absence of measured shear wave velocities (Vs) in the interbeds. For this study, Vs in the interbeds was estimated from older, limited compressional wave velocity (Vp) data using estimated ranges for the ratio of the two velocities (Vp/Vs) based on analogues in similar materials. A range of possible Vs for the interbeds and basalts was used and produced additional uncertainty in the resulting response spectra. Because of the sensitivity of the calculated response spectra to the velocity contrasts between the basalts and interbedded sediments, DOE initiated an effort to emplace additional boreholes at the WTP site and obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in these layers. One core-hole and three boreholes have been installed at the WTP site to a maximum depth of 1468 ft (447 m) below ground surface. The three boreholes are within 500 ft (152 m) of and surrounding the high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities of the WTP, which were the Performance Category 3 (PC-3) structures affected by the interim design spectra. The core-hole is co-located with the borehole closest to the two PC-3 structures. These new measurements are expected to reduce the uncertainty in the modeled site response that is caused by the lack of direct knowledge of the Vs contrasts within these layers. (authors)

Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Reidel, S.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, M.G. [EnergySolutions, Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

71

Estimation of cyclic interstory drift capacity of steel framed structures and future applications for seismic design.  

PubMed

Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E; Terán-Gilmore, Amador

2014-01-01

72

Estimation of Cyclic Interstory Drift Capacity of Steel Framed Structures and Future Applications for Seismic Design  

PubMed Central

Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions. PMID:25089288

Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E.; Terán-Gilmore, Amador

2014-01-01

73

A STUDY ON LOAD FACTORS OF SEISMIC LOADS ON LIMIT STATE DESIGN METHOD FOR PORT AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES IN JAPAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the assumption that allowable stress design method is going to be switched over to limit state design method for port and offshore structures in Japan, two of the authors have already studied the load factors of seismic loads based on reliability theory. However, since base rock accelerations were reconsidered because of the accumulation of earthquake records and the seismic

H. Yoneyama; S. Shiraishi; T. Uwabe

74

Development and validation of a metallic haunch seismic retrofit solution for existing under-designed RC frame buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 7 The feasibility and efficiency of a seismic retrofit solution for existing reinforced concrete frame systems, designed before the introduction of modern seismic-oriented design codes in the mid 1970s, is conceptually 9 presented and experimentally investigated. A diagonal metallic haunch system is introduced at the beam- column connections to protect the joint panel zone from extensive damage and brittle

Stefano Pampanin; Constantin Christopoulos; Te-Hsiu Chen

2006-01-01

75

optimization of seismic network design: application to a geophysical international lunar network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the next decade, some lunar seismic experiments are planned under the international lunar network initiative, such as NASA ILN Anchor nodes mission or Lunette DISCOVERY proposal, JAXA SELENE-2 and LUNA-GLOB penetrator missions, during which 1 to 4 seismic stations will be deployed on the lunar surface. Yamada et al. (submitted) have described how to design the optimized network in order to obtain the best scientific gain from these future lunar landing missions. In this presentation, we will describe the expected gain from the new lunar seismic observations potentially obtained by the optimized network compared with past Apollo seismic experiments. From the Apollo seismic experiments, valuable information about the lunar interior structure was obtained using deep and shallow moonquakes, and meteoroid impacts (e.g., Nakamura et al., 1983, Lognonné et al., 2003). However, due to the limited sensitivity of Apollo lunar seismometers and the narrowness of the seismic network, the deep lunar structure, especially the core, was not properly retrieved. In addition, large uncertainties are associated with the inferred crustal thickness around the Apollo seismic stations. Improvements of these knowledge will help us to understand the origin of the Earth-Moon system and the initial differentiation of the Moon. Therefore, we have studied the optimization of a seismic network consisting of three or four new seismometers in order to place better constraints on the lunar mantle structure and /or crustal thickness. The network is designed to minimize the a posteriori errors and maximize the resolution of the velocity perturbations inside the mantle and /or the crust through a linear inverse method. For the inversion, the deep moonquakes from active sources already located by Apollo seismic data are used, because it is known that these events occur repeatedly at identical nests depending on tidal constraints. In addition, we use randomly distributed meteoroid impacts located either by the new seismic network or by detection of the impact flashes from Earth-based observation. The use of these impact events will greatly contribute to improve the knowledge of shallow structures, in particular the crust. Finally, a comparison between the a posteriori errors deduced from our optimized network with those of the Apollo network will indicate the potential of the optimized network and the expected scientific gain. This method will be a useful tool to consider for future geophysical network landing missions.

Yamada, R.; Garcia, R. F.; Lognonne, P.; Calvet, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Le Feuvre, M.

2010-12-01

76

Optimal design of steel frames subject to gravity and seismic codes' prescribed lateral forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allowable stress design of two-dimensional braced and unbraced steel frames based on AISC specifications subject to gravity and seismic lateral forces is formulated as a structural optimization problem. The nonlinear constrained minimization algorithm employed is the feasible directions method. The objective function is the weight of the structure, and behaviour constraints include combined bending and axial stress, shear stress, buckling,

A. M. Memari; M. Madhkhan

1999-01-01

77

Seismic Assessment of High-Raised Designed Structures Based on 2800 Iranian Seismic Code (same as UBC1997)  

SciTech Connect

Seismic design codes have been applied by researchers to employ an appropriate performance of structures during earthquakes, in this regard, variety of load patterns, history and location of plastic hinges, ultimate capacity of structure, demand capacity of structure and response to many other questions about actual and assumptive performance of structures during earthquake have been considered by experts in this fields. In order to decline the retrofit cost of structure, evaluation of non-linear behavior of structure during the earthquake has been studied more. Since last 1980's the first generation of structural retrofit codes was established while designing codes were using linear behavior of structure. Consequently, comparison of design and retrofit code results, which are evaluated the actual behavior of the structure, has been considered. This research evaluates structures designed by 2800 code with performance levels, described in FEMA356, and also it compares results of modal analysis with outcomes of static non-linear analysis by application of load patterns mentioned in FEMA356. This structure designed and controlled by all regulations in 2800 code then it is evaluated by FEMA356 regulations. Finally, results are presented performance point of structure and distribution of plastic hinges over the whole structure when it collapses.

Negar, Moharrami Gargari [Ministry of Roads and Transportation, Ports and Shipping Organization, P.S.O Building, South Didar St, Shahid Haghani Highway, Vanak Sq, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rassol, Mirgaderi [University of Tehran, Englab Square, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

78

Seismic analysis and design of rigid bridge abutments considering rotation and sliding incorporating non-linear soil behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional (2D) finite element analytical model is developed to analyze the seismic response of rigid highway bridge abutments, retaining and founded on dry sand. A well verified finite element code named FLEX is used for this purpose. The proposed model has the following characteristics: (1) The soil (dry sand in this study) is modeled by a 2D finite element

A. S. Al-Homoud; R. V. Whitman

1999-01-01

79

Risk-Targeted versus Current Seismic Design Maps for the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The probabilistic portions of the seismic design maps in the NEHRP Provisions (FEMA, 2003/2000/1997), and in the International Building Code (ICC, 2006/2003/2000) and ASCE Standard 7-05 (ASCE, 2005a), provide ground motion values from the USGS that have a 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Under the assumption that the capacity against collapse of structures designed for these "uniformhazard" ground motions is equal to, without uncertainty, the corresponding mapped value at the location of the structure, the probability of its collapse in 50 years is also uniform. This is not the case however, when it is recognized that there is, in fact, uncertainty in the structural capacity. In that case, siteto-site variability in the shape of ground motion hazard curves results in a lack of uniformity. This paper explains the basis for proposed adjustments to the uniform-hazard portions of the seismic design maps currently in the NEHRP Provisions that result in uniform estimated collapse probability. For seismic design of nuclear facilities, analogous but specialized adjustments have recently been defined in ASCE Standard 43-05 (ASCE, 2005b). In support of the 2009 update of the NEHRP Provisions currently being conducted by the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC), herein we provide examples of the adjusted ground motions for a selected target collapse probability (or target risk). Relative to the probabilistic MCE ground motions currently in the NEHRP Provisions, the risk-targeted ground motions for design are smaller (by as much as about 30%) in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, near Charleston, South Carolina, and in the coastal region of Oregon, with relatively little (<15%) change almost everywhere else in the conterminous U.S.

Luco, Nicolas; Ellingwood, Bruce R.; Hamburger, Ronald O.; Hooper, John D.; Kimball, Jeffrey K.; Kircher, Charles A.

2007-01-01

80

Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part I: Theoretical formulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The insertion of steel braces equipped with dissipative devices proves to be very effective in order to enhance the performance of a framed building under horizontal seismic loads. Multi-level design criteria were proposed according to the Performance-Based Design, in order to get, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance objective of the building (e.g., an assigned damage level of either the framed structure or non-structural elements). In this paper a design procedure aiming to proportion braces with hysteretic dampers in order to attain, for a specific level of the seismic intensity, a designated performance level of the building is proposed. Exactly, a proportional stiffness criterion, which assumes the elastic lateral storey-stiffness due to the braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame, is combined with the Direct Displacement-Based Design, in which the design starts from target deformations. A computer code has been prepared for the nonlinear static and dynamic analyses, using a step-by-step procedure. Frame members and hysteretic dampers are idealized by bilinear models.

Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

2008-07-01

81

Seismic design of circular-section concrete-lined underground openings: Preclosure performance considerations for the Yucca Mountain Site  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, the potential site of a repository for high-level radioactive waste, is situated in a region of natural and man-made seismicity. Underground openings excavated at this site must be designed for worker safety in the seismic environment anticipated for the preclosure period. This includes accesses developed for site characterization regardless of the ultimate outcome of the repository siting process. Experience with both civil and mining structures has shown that underground openings are much more resistant to seismic effects than surface structures, and that even severe dynamic strains can usually be accommodated with proper design. This paper discusses the design and performance of lined openings in the seismic environment of the potential site. The types and ranges of possible ground motions (seismic loads) are briefly discussed. Relevant historical records of underground opening performance during seismic loading are reviewed. Simple analytical methods of predicting liner performance under combined in situ, thermal, and seismic loading are presented, and results of calculations are discussed in the context of realistic performance requirements for concrete-lined openings for the preclosure period. Design features that will enhance liner stability and mitigate the impact of the potential seismic load are reviewed. The paper is limited to preclosure performance concerns involving worker safety because present decommissioning plans specify maintaining the option for liner removal at seal locations, thus decoupling liner design from repository postclosure performance issues.

Richardson, A.M. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Blejwas, T.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-07-01

82

Seismic Design of Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Bridge Piers  

E-print Network

subjected to axial forces and flexure is reviewed by comparing the strengths predicted by the CAN/CSA-S16 implemented in the 2001 edition of the CSA-S16-01 ``limit state design of steel structures'' CSA 2001 in the CAN/CSA- S16.1-M94 ``Limit States Design of Steel Structures'' CSA 1994 . With respect to bridges

Bruneau, Michel

83

Design methodologies for the seismic retrofitting of bridges  

E-print Network

This paper formulates an earthquake design strategy for bridges. Earthquakes can cause extreme economic damage and loss of life. Structural engineers must be conscience of earthquake slip type, earthquake proximity, and ...

Otenti, Alexander A. (Alexander Alfred), 1981-

2004-01-01

84

Proposed Provisions on Seismic Design of Steel Shear Walls, proposed to BSSC TS6 by A. Astaneh, May 29, 2002 of 91 Tentatively  

E-print Network

Proposed Provisions for "AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings": 16. STEEL SHEAR WALLSProposed Provisions on Seismic Design of Steel Shear Walls, proposed to BSSC TS6 by A. Astaneh, May 29, 2002 of 91 Tentatively Proposed Seismic Design Provisions and Commentary for Steel Shear Walls

Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

85

Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 1. Special topics in earthquake ground motion  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into twelve chapters: seismic hazard analysis procedures, statistical and probabilistic considerations, vertical ground motion characteristics, vertical ground response spectrum shapes, effects of inclined rock strata on site response, correlation of ground response spectra with intensity, intensity attenuation relationships, peak ground acceleration in the very mean field, statistical analysis of response spectral amplitudes, contributions of body and surface waves, evaluation of ground motion characteristics, and design earthquake motions. (DLC)

Reddy, D.P.

1983-04-01

86

Review of selected recent research on US seismic design and retrofit strategies for steel structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper provides a brief review of selected recent work on the development of solutions for the seismic design and retrofit of steel structures by various members of the US research community. In particular, this paper focuses on research on retrofit of beam-to-column moment connections, frame modifications at beams' mid- span, self-centering systems, zipper frames, buckling-restrained braced frames, steel

Michel Bruneau; Michael Engelhardt; Andre Filiatrault; S C Goel; Ahmad Itani; Jerome Hajjar; Roberto Leon; James Ricles; Bozidar Stojadinovic; Chia-Ming Uang

2005-01-01

87

A displacement-based seismic design procedure for concrete bridges having deck integral with the piers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-step displacement-based seismic design procedure is presented and exemplified for concrete bridges having piers integral\\u000a with a continuous prestressed deck, which is restrained transversely at the abutments but free to slide there longitudinally.\\u000a It includes a simple estimation of inelastic deformation demands (chord or plastic hinge rotations in piers, curvatures for\\u000a the deck) via elastic 5%-damped modal response spectrum

Vasilios G. Bardakis; Michael N. Fardis

2011-01-01

88

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA OF DOE-STD-1189-2008 APPENDIX A [FULL PAPER  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the approach taken by two Fluor Hanford projects for implementing of the seismic design criteria from DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A. The existing seismic design criteria and the new seismic design criteria is described, and an assessment of the primary differences provided. The gaps within the new system of seismic design criteria, which necessitate conduct of portions of work to the existing technical standards pending availability of applicable industry standards, is discussed. Two Hanford Site projects currently in the Control Decision (CD)-1 phase of design have developed an approach to implementation of the new criteria. Calculations have been performed to determine the seismic design category for one project, based on information available in early CD-1. The potential effects of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A seismic design criteria on the process of project alternatives analysis is discussed. Present of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008.

OMBERG SK

2008-05-14

89

Seismic analysis and resistance design of an offshore derrick  

SciTech Connect

The earthquake response of a derrick structure designed for a dynamically sensitive jacket platform (Santa Ynez Unit) has been investigated using response spectrum technique. The local modes of vibration excited by the set-back pipes and the traveling blocks were found to govern significantly the design of the derrick. Several models were considered to investigate the interaction effect between the set-back pipes and the derrick structure for a defined deck acceleration spectrum. Some of these models also have included the effect of flexibility of the set-back pipes. The study reports the factors at racking-board and water table levels. The g-factors were found to reduce as the size of the setback pipe increased. The local modes created by the set-back and the traveling equipment masses have contributed additional dynamic loads on the global structure and thus resulted with greater base shear compared to the model in which these local modes were ignored. The study was extended to reduce the g-forces at racking board level by considering an intermediate horizontal support for the setback pipes. The findings of this investigation are presented in this paper. However, the problem of damping due to friction between set-back pipes and their lose fittings at racking-board level is barely addressed.

Desai, V.; Srinivasan, N. [Dreco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

90

Seismic design repair and retrofit strategies for steel roof deck diaphragms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural engineers will often rely on the roof diaphragm to transfer lateral seismic loads to the bracing system of single-storey structures. The implementation of capacity-based design in the NBCC 2005 has caused an increase in the diaphragm design load due to the need to use the probable capacity of the bracing system, thus resulting in thicker decks, closer connector patterns and higher construction costs. Previous studies have shown that accounting for the in-plane flexibility of the diaphragm when calculating the overall building period can result in lower seismic forces and a more cost-efficient design. However, recent studies estimating the fundamental period of single storey structures using ambient vibration testing showed that the in-situ approximation was much shorter than that obtained using analytical means. The difference lies partially in the diaphragm stiffness characteristics which have been shown to decrease under increasing excitation amplitude. Using the diaphragm as the energy-dissipating element in the seismic force resisting system has also been investigated as this would take advantage of the diaphragm's ductility and limited overstrength; thus, lower capacity based seismic forces would result. An experimental program on 21.0m by 7.31m diaphragm test specimens was carried out so as to investigate the dynamic properties of diaphragms including the stiffness, ductility and capacity. The specimens consisted of 20 and 22 gauge panels with nailed frame fasteners and screwed sidelap connections as well a welded and button-punch specimen. Repair strategies for diaphragms that have previously undergone inelastic deformations were devised in an attempt to restitute the original stiffness and strength and were then experimentally evaluated. Strength and stiffness experimental estimations are compared with those predicted with the Steel Deck Institute (SDI) method. A building design comparative study was also completed. This study looks at the difference in design and cost yielded by previous and current design practice with EBF braced frames. Two alternate design methodologies, where the period is not restricted by code limitations and where the diaphragm force is limited to the equivalent shear force calculated with RdR o = 1.95, are also used for comparison. This study highlights the importance of incorporating the diaphragm stiffness in design and the potential cost savings.

Franquet, John-Edward

91

Decision making with epistemic uncertainty under safety constraints: An application to seismic design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The problem of accounting for epistemic uncertainty in risk management decisions is conceptually straightforward, but is riddled with practical difficulties. Simple approximations are often used whereby future variations in epistemic uncertainty are ignored or worst-case scenarios are postulated. These strategies tend to produce sub-optimal decisions. We develop a general framework based on Bayesian decision theory and exemplify it for the case of seismic design of buildings. When temporal fluctuations of the epistemic uncertainties and regulatory safety constraints are included, the optimal level of seismic protection exceeds the normative level at the time of construction. Optimal Bayesian decisions do not depend on the aleatory or epistemic nature of the uncertainties, but only on the total (epistemic plus aleatory) uncertainty and how that total uncertainty varies randomly during the lifetime of the project. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Veneziano, D.; Agarwal, A.; Karaca, E.

2009-01-01

92

EVALUATING DESIGN AND VERIFYING COMPLIANCE OF WETLANDS CREATED UNDER SECTION 404 OF THE CLEAN WATER ACT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Permit specifications, construction plans, and field measurements were used to examine the correlation between design and conditions "asbuilt" in a population of 11 palustrine emergent marshes created in the metropolitan area of Portland, Oregon between 1980-1986. he projects ran...

93

Seismic design evaluation guidelines for buried piping for the DOE HLW Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground piping for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-Level-Waste (HLW) Facilities. The underground piping includes both single and double containment steel pipes and concrete pipes with steel lining, with particular emphasis on the double containment piping. The design and evaluation guidelines presented in this paper follow the generally accepted beam-on-elastic-foundation analysis principle and the inertial response calculation method, respectively, for piping directly in contact with the soil or contained in a jacket. A standard analysis procedure is described along with the discussion of factors deemed to be significant for the design of the underground piping. The following key considerations are addressed: the design feature and safety requirements for the inner (core) pipe and the outer pipe; the effect of soil strain and wave passage; assimilation of the necessary seismic and soil data; inertial response calculation for the inner pipe; determination of support anchor movement loads; combination of design loads; and code comparison. Specifications and justifications of the key parameters used, stress components to be calculated and the allowable stress and strain limits for code evaluation are presented.

Lin, Chi-Wen [Consultant, Martinez, CA (United States); Antaki, G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bandyopadhyay, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bush, S.H. [Review & Synthesis Association, Richland, WA (United States); Costantino, C. [City Univ. of New York, New York, NY (United States); Kennedy, R. [RPK Structural Mechanics, Yorba Linda, CA (United States). Consultant

1995-05-01

94

Designing Shots for the 2010 Seismic Refraction and Reflection Survey in the Salton Trough, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF and the USGS have funded a large seismic refraction and reflection survey of the Salton Trough in southern California. The goals of the project are to study earthquake hazards on the San Andreas and Imperial Faults as well as rifting processes in the northernmost Gulf of California extensional province. Seismic velocity models and reflection images of the basins, whole crust, and upper mantle will constrain the structure and petrology of the rift valley, adjacent ranges and bounding faults. Fault and sedimentary basin geometry and 3-D seismic velocity will aid in the construction of seismic hazard models in an area considered at high risk. The obliquely rifted continent appears to be producing new lithosphere in the central trough by magmatic underplating and sedimentation. Interactions between extension, magmatism, sedimentation, and faulting will be constrained by the seismic images. Fieldwork is tentatively scheduled to take place in January 2010. To prepare for the upcoming fieldwork, shot design was investigated based on data from a 1979 USGS seismic survey, when 41 shots of varying sizes were detonated at 9 locations throughout the Imperial Valley. Picking errors in the first arrival travel times were correlated with source-receiver offset, shot size, and shot- hole geology. As expected, shots in the irrigated valley farmland in lake sediments produced much better shot coupling than those located in unsorted desert stream wash. This is likely due to better packing of the lake sediments and/or drilling through a shallower water table. The goals of the 2010 survey include two 250- km whole-crust refraction profiles. This would require shot sizes of 1000-1500 kg to record the entire length of these lines. Several shorter upper-crust refraction lines would require ~500-kg shots to record to distances greater than 50 km. Dense refraction and low-fold reflection shots spaced at 2-4 km in the valley floor need 100-200 kg to image both whole-crust low-fold reflectivity and refraction to distances greater than 20 km.

Feng, H. S.; Hole, J. A.; Fuis, G. S.; Stock, J. M.

2008-12-01

95

SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)  

SciTech Connect

This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs.

(NOEMAIL), R

2005-12-14

96

Implementation of seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 1992, a draft of the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances was issued. The guidelines were prepared by the Tanks Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) and this task was sponsored by DOE, Environmental Management. The TSEP is comprised of a number of consultants known for their knowledge of seismic ground motion and expertise in the analysis of structures, systems and components subjected to seismic loads. The development of these guidelines was managed by staff from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Engineering Research and Applications Division, Department of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes the process used to incorporate the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the DOE High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances into the design criteria for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Project at the Hanford Site. This project will design and construct six new high-level waste tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. This paper also discusses the vehicles used to ensure compliance to these guidelines throughout Title 1 and Title 2 design phases of the project as well as the strategy used to ensure consistent and cost-effective application of the guidelines by the structural analysts. The paper includes lessons learned and provides recommendations for other tank design projects which might employ the TSEP guidelines.

Conrads, T.J.

1993-06-01

97

The evolution of the seismic qualification utility group methodology for assessing seismic adequacy of nuclear plant equipment  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that in 19890, the NRC established Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46, Seismic Qualification of Equipment in Operating Nuclear Power Plants, to evaluate the seismic adequacy of equipment in plants which were designed prior to the development of current seismic qualification criteria. The evaluation, concurred with by the independent expert judgment of the Senior Seismic Review and Advisory Panel (SSRAP), showed that adequately anchored equipment in these classes are inherently rugged under seismic ground motions less than bounding spectra having peak ground accelerations of up to aoubt 0.3g. It also demonstrated the feasibility of applying earthquake experience data to verify the seismic ruggedness of certain classes of equipment used in both conventional and nuclear power plants.

Kassawara, R.P. (Electric Power Research Inst. (US)); Schmidt, W.R. (MPR Associates, Inc. (US)); Smith, N.P. (Commonwealth Edison Co. (US))

1992-01-01

98

Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report; Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts` structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Subramanian, C.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); King, J.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Perkins, D.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Mudd, R.W. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (USA); Richardson, A.M. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA); Calovini, J.C. [Holmes and Narver, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Van Eeckhout, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Emerson, D.O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

1990-08-01

99

Prediction of seismic damage in reinforced concrete frames. Seismic behavior and design of buildings, report no. 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and testing of a rigorous model to identify and predict local damage in reinforced concrete frames under seismic loads are reported. Analytical models for inelastic behavior of reinforced concrete members were used to analyze a set of static load tests under a variety of loading conditions. Other damage indicators such as dissipated energy and cumulative plastic rotation were measured

H. Banon; J. M. Biggs; H. M. Irvine

1980-01-01

100

AP1000{sup R} design robustness against extreme external events - Seismic, flooding, and aircraft crash  

SciTech Connect

Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) require existing and new nuclear power plants to conduct plant assessments to demonstrate the unit's ability to withstand external hazards. The events that occurred at the Fukushima-Dai-ichi nuclear power station demonstrated the importance of designing a nuclear power plant with the ability to protect the plant against extreme external hazards. The innovative design of the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant provides unparalleled protection against catastrophic external events which can lead to extensive infrastructure damage and place the plant in an extended abnormal situation. The AP1000 plant is an 1100-MWe pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance and safety. The plant's compact safety related footprint and protection provided by its robust nuclear island structures prevent significant damage to systems, structures, and components required to safely shutdown the plant and maintain core and spent fuel pool cooling and containment integrity following extreme external events. The AP1000 nuclear power plant has been extensively analyzed and reviewed to demonstrate that it's nuclear island design and plant layout provide protection against both design basis and extreme beyond design basis external hazards such as extreme seismic events, external flooding that exceeds the maximum probable flood limit, and malicious aircraft impact. The AP1000 nuclear power plant uses fail safe passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems (such as AC power, component cooling water, service water, compressed air or HVAC). The plant has been designed to protect systems, structures, and components critical to placing the reactor in a safe shutdown condition within the steel containment vessel which is further surrounded by a substantial 'steel concrete' composite shield building. The containment vessel is not affected by external flooding, and the shield building design provides hazard protection beyond that provided by a comparable reinforced concrete structure. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the robustness of the AP1000 design against extreme events. The paper will focus on the plants ability to withstand extreme external events such as beyond design basis flooding, seismic events, and malicious aircraft impact. The paper will highlight the robustness of the AP1000 nuclear island design including the protection provided by the unique AP1000 composite shield building. (authors)

Pfister, A.; Goossen, C.; Coogler, K.; Gorgemans, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

2012-07-01

101

Ground motion values for use in the seismic design of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The proposed trans-Alaska oil pipeline, which would traverse the state north to south from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast to Valdez on Prince William Sound, will be subject to serious earthquake hazards over much of its length. To be acceptable from an environmental standpoint, the pipeline system is to be designed to minimize the potential of oil leakage resulting from seismic shaking, faulting, and seismically induced ground deformation. The design of the pipeline system must accommodate the effects of earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.5 to 8.5 as specified in the 'Stipulations for Proposed Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System.' This report characterizes ground motions for the specified earthquakes in terms of peak levels of ground acceleration, velocity, and displacement and of duration of shaking. Published strong motion data from the Western United States are critically reviewed to determine the intensity and duration of shaking within several kilometers of the slipped fault. For magnitudes 5 and 6, for which sufficient near-fault records are available, the adopted ground motion values are based on data. For larger earthquakes the values are based on extrapolations from the data for smaller shocks, guided by simplified theoretical models of the faulting process.

Page, Robert A.; Boore, D.M.; Joyner, W.B.; Coulter, H.W.

1972-01-01

102

Optimal seismic design of reinforced concrete structures under time-history earthquake loads using an intelligent hybrid algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reliable seismic-resistant design of structures is achieved in accordance with the seismic design codes by designing structures under seven or more pairs of earthquake records. Based on the recommendations of seismic design codes, the average time-history responses (ATHR) of structure is required. This paper focuses on the optimal seismic design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures against ten earthquake records using a hybrid of particle swarm optimization algorithm and an intelligent regression model (IRM). In order to reduce the computational time of optimization procedure due to the computational efforts of time-history analyses, IRM is proposed to accurately predict ATHR of structures. The proposed IRM consists of the combination of the subtractive algorithm (SA), K-means clustering approach and wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine (WWLS-SVM). To predict ATHR of structures, first, the input-output samples of structures are classified by SA and K-means clustering approach. Then, WWLS-SVM is trained with few samples and high accuracy for each cluster. 9- and 18-storey RC frames are designed optimally to illustrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IRM. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and computational advantages of IRM for optimal design of structures subjected to time-history earthquake loads.

Gharehbaghi, Sadjad; Khatibinia, Mohsen

2015-03-01

103

Analysis and design of a digital controller for a seismically stable platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seismically Stable Platform (SSP) at the Central Inertial Guidance Facility, Holloman AFB, is a dual reactionary mass isolation platform designed to remove 10 to the minus eighth g RMS/Hz accelerations and 0.02 arcseconds angular position or tilt disturbances in all axes from a test environment intended for evaluating Third Generation Gyro inertial instruments. Disturbances are removed by two stages of pneumatic isolators comprising a passive isolation system and augmented by an active control system to cover the operational bandwidth from 10 to the minus eighth Hz to 100 Hz. A dynamic model of the SSP confirmed the passive vibration transmissibilities and identified severe limitations on gain and phase margin to the active controller design. The proposed digital controllers identified the SSP to be weakly controllable. The discrete state representation of the SSP and control law exhibited numerical difficulties detrimental to system stability. Single stage pneumatic isolation or fluid islators monitored by disturbance parameter estimation schemes are recommended.

Francis, S. W.

1981-12-01

104

Spatial correlation analysis of seismic noise for STAR X-ray infrastructure design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian PON MaTeRiA project is focused on the creation of a research infrastructure open to users based on an innovative and evolutionary X-ray source. This source, named STAR (Southern Europe TBS for Applied Research), exploits the Thomson backscattering process of a laser radiation by fast-electron beams (Thomson Back Scattering - TBS). Its main performances are: X-ray photon flux 109-1010 ph/s, Angular divergence variable between 2 and 10 mrad, X-ray energy continuously variable between 8 keV and 150 keV, Bandwidth ?E/E variable between 1 and 10%, ps time resolved structure. In order to achieve this performances, bunches of electrons produced by a photo-injector are accelerated to relativistic velocities by a linear accelerator section. The electron beam, few hundreds of micrometer wide, is driven by magnetic fields to the interaction point along a 15 m transport line where it is focused in a 10 micrometer-wide area. In the same area, the laser beam is focused after being transported along a 12 m structure. Ground vibrations could greatly affect the collision probability and thus the emittance by deviating the paths of the beams during their travel in the STAR source. Therefore, the study program to measure ground vibrations in the STAR site can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. The environmental and facility noise may affect the X-ray operation especially if the predominant wavelengths in the microtremor wavefield are much smaller than the size of the linear accelerator. For wavelength much greater, all the accelerator parts move in phase, and therefore also large displacements cannot generate any significant effect. On the other hand, for wavelengths equal or less than half the accelerator size several parts could move in phase opposition and therefore small displacements could affect its proper functioning. Thereafter, it is important to characterize the microtremor wavefield in both frequencies and wavelengths domains. For this reason, we performed some measurements of seismic noise in order to characterize the environmental noise in the site in which the X-ray accelerator arise. For the characterization of the site, we carried out several passive seismic monitoring experiments at different times of the day and in different weather conditions. We recorded microtremor using an array of broadband 3C seismic sensors arranged along the linear accelerator. For each measurement point, we determined the displacement, velocity and acceleration spectrogram and power spectral density of both horizontal and vertical components. We determined also the microtremor horizontal to vertical spectral ratio as function of azimuth to individuate the main ground vibration direction and detect the existence of site or building resonance frequencies. We applied a rotation matrix to transform the North-South and East-West signal components in transversal and radial components, respect to the direction of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, for each couple of seismic stations we determined the coherence function to analyze the seismic noise spatial correlation. These analyses have allowed us to exhaustively characterize the seismic noise of the study area, from the point of view of the power and space-time variability, both in frequency and wavelength.

D'Alessandro, Antonino; Agostino, Raffaele; Festa, Lorenzo; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio; Palmer, Dennis T.; Serafini, Luca

2014-05-01

105

Fuzzy genetic optimization on performance-based seismic design of reinforced concrete bridge piers with single-column type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fuzzy genetic optimization for performance-based seismic design (PBSD) of reinforced concrete (RC) bridge\\u000a piers with single-column type. The design is modeled as a constrained optimization problem with the objective of minimizing\\u000a construction cost subject to the constraints of qualified structural capacity and suitable reinforcement arrangements for\\u000a the designed RC pier. A violation of the constraints is

Yu-Chi Sung; Chin-Kuo Su

2010-01-01

106

Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results  

SciTech Connect

For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso [Dipartimento di Modellistica per l'Ingegneria, Universita della Calabria, 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

2008-07-08

107

Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

108

Significance of Various Design and Assessment Parameters on Seismic Collapse Safety Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary goal of the seismic design requirements of building codes is to protect life safety of building inhabitants during extreme earthquakes. First and foremost, this requires ensuring that the likelihood of structural collapse remains at an acceptably low level. In achieving this goal, the typical approach has been to develop prescriptive and empirical building code requirements for structural strength,

Curt B. HASELTON; Abbie B. LIEL; Gregory G. DEIERLEIN

109

Seismic Design and Analysis of Self-Centering Steel Plate Shear Walls By Patricia M. Clayton1  

E-print Network

1 Seismic Design and Analysis of Self-Centering Steel Plate Shear Walls By Patricia M. Clayton1: An innovative Self-Centering Steel Plate Shear Wall (SC-SPSW) system is proposed. It relies on post approach. Keywords: Self-centering; Rocking connection; Steel plate; Shear wall; Earthquake engineering 1

Bruneau, Michel

110

Enhancement of Seismic Performance Using Shear Link Braces in a Building Designed Only for Gravity Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work attempts to study the behaviour of building designed for gravity loads only under the effect of lateral seismic load. Such a building is generally deficient against lateral forces and need to be retrofitted against lateral earthquake forces. A retrofitting scheme by providing aluminium shear link with chevron braces is suggested to improve its performance. Past earthquakes have shown a great deal of damages to the deficient RC frame buildings designed without any consideration to the lateral earthquake forces. Chevron braces with the aluminium shear link can be implemented as an effective retrofit measure. A comparison of the performance of building initially designed for gravity load only with the retrofitted building using chevron braces with the aluminium shear link is presented in this paper. The behaviour of building is worked out by performing nonlinear static pushover analysis and nonlinear time history analyses. A parametric study has also been carried out to study the effect of shear link and braces on the retrofitted building. The performance of RC building designed for gravity loads only as evaluated from the nonlinear static pushover analysis lies in life safety and collapse prevention range for DBE and MCE level of earthquakes respectively. The same building when retrofitted by using chevron braces with aluminium shear link show improved performance. This device is very simple, economic, effective and can be placed in a building very easily. The dissipation of damaging energy/damage is localised in shear link which can be replaced after a major earthquake.

Maniyar, S. U.; Paul, D. K.

2012-02-01

111

An Assessment Of The Parameters Controlling Seismic Input For The Design And Construction Of A High-Rise Building: A Case Study For The City Of Sofia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earthquake record and the code for designing and constructing buildings in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that\\u000a the country is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources\\u000a and that the available strong-motion database is quite limited and therefore not at all representative of the real hazard.\\u000a The problem of

I. Paskaleva; Sv. Simeonov; N. Koleva; M. Kouteva; K. Hadjiiski

112

From Verified Models to Verifiable Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Declarative specifications of digital systems often contain parts that can be automatically translated into executable code. Automated code generation may reduce or eliminate the kinds of errors typically introduced through manual code writing. For this approach to be effective, the generated code should be reasonably efficient and, more importantly, verifiable. This paper presents a prototype code generator for the Prototype Verification System (PVS) that translates a subset of PVS functional specifications into an intermediate language and subsequently to multiple target programming languages. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the tool's functionality. The generated code can be analyzed by software verification tools such as verification condition generators, static analyzers, and software model-checkers to increase the confidence that the generated code is correct.

Lensink, Leonard; Munoz, Cesar A.; Goodloe, Alwyn E.

2009-01-01

113

Verified Software Toolchain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The software toolchain includes static analyzers to check assertions about programs; optimizing compilers to translate programs to machine language; operating systems and libraries to supply context for programs. Our Verified Software Toolchain verifies with machine-checked proofs that the assertions claimed at the top of the toolchain really hold in the machine-language program, running in the operating-system context, on a weakly-consistent-shared-memory machine.

Appel, Andrew W.

114

Basis of Design and Seismic Action for Long Suspension Bridges: the case of the Messina Strait Bridge  

SciTech Connect

The basis of design for complex structures like suspension bridges is reviewed. Specific attention is devoted to seismic action and to the performance required and to the connected structural analysis. Uncertainty is specially addressed by probabilistic and soft-computing techniques. The paper makes punctual reference to the work end the experience developed during the last years for the re-design of the Messina Strait Bridge.

Bontempi, Franco [University of Rome 'La Sapienza', School of Engineering Via Eudossiana 18- 00184 Roma (Italy)

2008-07-08

115

Probabilistic Calibration and Experimental Validation of the Seismic Design Criteria for One-Story Concrete Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the seismic performance of one-story reinforced concrete structures for industrial buildings. To this aim, the seismic response of two structural prototypes, a cast-in-situ monolithic frame and a precast hinged frame, is compared for four different levels of translatory stiffness and seismic capacity. For these structures an incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed within a Monte Carlo probabilistic

Fabio Biondini; Giandomenico Toniolo

2009-01-01

116

A New Seismic Broadband Sensor Designed for Easy and Rapid Deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properly deploying digital seismic broadband sensors in the field can be time consuming and logistically challenging. On active volcanoes the time it takes to install such instruments has to be particularly short in order to minimize the risk for the deployment personnel. In addition, once a seismometer is installed it is not always feasible to pay regular visits to the deployment site in order to correct for possible movements of the seismometer due to settling, sliding or other external events. In order to address those issues we have designed a new type of versatile and very robust three component feedback sensor which can be easily installed and is capable of self correcting changes of its tilt and measuring orientation changes during deployment. The instrument can be installed by direct burial in soil, in a borehole, in glacial ice and can even be used under water as an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS). It components are fitted above each other in a cylindrical stainless steel casing with a diameter of 51 mm. Each seismic sensor has a flat response to velocity between 30s to 100 Hz and a tilt tolerance of up to 20 degrees. A tilt sensor and a two axis magnetometer inside the casing capture changes in tilt and horizontal orientation during the course of the deployment. Their output can be fed into internal motors which in turn adjust the actual orientation of each sensor in the casing. First production models of this instrument have been deployed as OBS in an active submarine volcanic area along the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the NE Pacific. We are currently finishing units to be deployed for volcano monitoring in Icelandic glaciers. This instrument will be offered as an analogue version or with a 24-bit-digitizer fitted into the same casing. A pointy tip can be added to the casing ease direct burial.

Guralp, Cansun; Pearcey, Chris; Nicholson, Bruce; Pearce, Nathan

2014-05-01

117

Load Distribution Patterns for Displacement-based Seismic Design of RC Framed Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of tall frames is characterized by the influence of higher modes in addition to the fundamental mode and thus the design procedures for Displacement-based Design (DBD) adopt several measures to control higher mode effects. The performances of 4, 9 and 15-storeyed frames, designed by DBD were verified using non-linear time history analyses. Higher values of inter-storey drift and damage index were seen near the top of tall frames, which shows the inefficiency of the design method in accounting for higher mode effect. As the principle of damage-limiting aseismic design is to get uniform damage along the height of the frame, several load distribution patterns were examined and the storey shear distributions were compared to identify the best pattern to get uniform damage. The Chao load distribution was found to give higher storey shear at top and thus the frames were redesigned using this load distribution. The efficiency of Chao load distribution in reducing higher mode effects is demonstrated using non-linear time history analyses.

Varughese, Jiji Anna; Menon, Devdas; Meher Prasad, A.

2014-12-01

118

Appendix to the Paper: "Seismic Behavior and Design of Steel Shear Walls", by A. Astaneh-Asl, Presented and distributed at SEAONC Seminar-2001, November 2001, San Francisco.  

E-print Network

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings": 16. STEEL SHEAR WALLS (SSW) 16.1. Scope Steel shearAppendix to the Paper: "Seismic Behavior and Design of Steel Shear Walls", by A. Astaneh Provisions to Establish Earthquake Loads for Steel Plate Shear Wall Systems The following proposed provisions

Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

119

Site study plan for EDBH (Engineering Design Boreholes) seismic surveys, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This site study plan describes seismic reflection surveys to run north-south and east-west across the Deaf Smith County site, and intersecting near the Engineering Design Boreholes (EDBH). Both conventional and shallow high-resolution surveys will be run. The field program has been designed to acquire subsurface geologic and stratigraphic data to address information/data needs resulting from Federal and State regulations and Repository program requirements. The data acquired by the conventional surveys will be common-depth- point, seismic reflection data optimized for reflection events that indicate geologic structure near the repository horizon. The data will also resolve the basement structure and shallow reflection events up to about the top of the evaporite sequence. Field acquisition includes a testing phase to check/select parameters and a production phase. The field data will be subjected immediately to conventional data processing and interpretation to determine if there are any anamolous structural for stratigraphic conditions that could affect the choice of the EDBH sites. After the EDBH's have been drilled and logged, including vertical seismic profiling, the data will be reprocessed and reinterpreted for detailed structural and stratigraphic information to guide shaft development. The shallow high-resulition seismic reflection lines will be run along the same alignments, but the lines will be shorter and limited to immediate vicinity of the EDBH sites. These lines are planned to detect faults or thick channel sands that may be present at the EDBH sites. 23 refs. , 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Hume, H.

1987-12-01

120

DETERMINATION OF SEISMIC DESIGN ENVELOPES OF BOTTOM SUPPORTED TANKS BY DISTINCT F.E.M. ANALYSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work details some methodologies applied for analysis of the seismic behaviour of bottom supported storage tanks, under predominantly horizontal seismic actions. Developments on the established finite element method (FEM), permitted to analyse tanks and their liquid contents by two possible approaches: Ritz method coupled with FEM applied to an analytical solution of the tank-liquid system; FEM of the full

R. Carneiro BARROS; Associado Agregado; FEUP Porto

121

Toward Verified Execution Environments  

E-print Network

and Privacy. Institute for Computing Science 2100 Main Building The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas 78712 (512) 471-1901 #12;TOWARD VERIFIED EXECUTION ENVIRONMENTS 1 1. Introduction The Department a considerable assurance gap between the specified system and the compiled code executing on a piece of hardware

Boyer, Robert Stephen

122

PATTERNS, CONTINUED: VERIFYING FORMULAS DIRECT VERIFICATION  

E-print Network

5 PATTERNS, CONTINUED: VERIFYING FORMULAS DIRECT VERIFICATION Some explicit formulas can be verified, or proved, by arguing directly using known formulas or by referring to geometric patterns of dots. The following activities are designed to construct proofs of some of the formulas we have

White, Donald L.

123

Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further needs.

Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit

2012-07-01

124

Performance-based design of reinforced concrete buildings subjected to seismic forces  

E-print Network

considered event (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years) according to FEMA-273 (ATC 1997a) were used. The probabilistic nature of earthquakes was simulated by using 25 different records of measured time histories, from previous seismic events and scaled...

Kalghatgi, Nikhil S.

1998-01-01

125

Verifiable Computation with Massively Parallel Interactive Proofs  

E-print Network

As the cloud computing paradigm has gained prominence, the need for verifiable computation has grown increasingly urgent. The concept of verifiable computation enables a weak client to outsource difficult computations to a powerful, but untrusted, server. Protocols for verifiable computation aim to provide the client with a guarantee that the server performed the requested computations correctly, without requiring the client to perform the computations herself. By design, these protocols impose a minimal computational burden on the client. However, existing protocols require the server to perform a large amount of extra bookkeeping in order to enable a client to easily verify the results. Verifiable computation has thus remained a theoretical curiosity, and protocols for it have not been implemented in real cloud computing systems. Our goal is to leverage GPUs to reduce the server-side slowdown for verifiable computation. To this end, we identify abundant data parallelism in a state-of-the-art general-purpose...

Thaler, Justin; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pfister, Hanspeter

2012-01-01

126

High-resolution seismic exploration methods for boreholes and tunnels: experiments, results and test site design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While surface to ground seismic exploration methods are well known, the utilization of seismic waves for underground surveying is less developed. The major challenge in subsurface seismics is the spatial ambiguity of the recorded wave field due to limited aperture of seismic source and receiver survey geometry. We developed novel imaging techniques and the appropriate measurement systems like phased array borehole sources for directional enhancement of seismic wave energy. Different procedures such as 3-component Kirchhoff-Migration and Fresnel-Volume-Migration were tested and improved to enhance the spatial resolution. The goal of these new approaches is to advance instruments for the detection of small-scale tectonic features or lithological changes in boreholes and tunnels. The key component for the experiments was the setup of our underground lab 150 m below surface (education and research mine Reiche Zeche, TU Freiberg, SE Germany). Surrounded by three galleries, the site comprises a block of homogeneous high-grade gneisses of about 50 m width and 100 m length ensuring constant environmental conditions. Along the galleries thirty 3-component geophones are anchored 1-2 m deep with a distance of 4-9 m from each other. Within this test site, two horizontal 8 ½" boreholes (20 and 30 m long) as well as a vertical hole (70 m depth) allow for 3D nearfield seismic experiments for high-resolution exploration and monitoring of geological structures.

Giese, R.; Harms, U.; Jaksch, K.; Krüger, K.

2012-12-01

127

Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design Chapuis F.1, Bauer H.1, Grataloup S.1, Leynet A.1, Bourgine B.1, Castagnac C.1, Fillacier, S.2, Lecomte A.2, Le Gallo Y.2, Bonijoly D.1. 1 BRGM, 3 av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex, France, f.chapuis@brgm.fr, d.bonijoly@brgm.fr 2 Geogreen, 7, rue E. et A. Peugeot, 92563 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France, ylg@greogreen.fr The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the techno-economical potential of storing 200 000 tCO2 per year produced by a sugar beat distillery. To reach this goal, an accurate hydro-geological characterisation of a CO2 injection site is of primary importance because it will strongly influence the site selection, the storage design and the risk management. Geological investigation for CO2 storage is usually set in the center or deepest part of sedimentary basins. However, CO2 producers do not always match with the geological settings, and so other geological configurations have to be studied. This is the aim of this project, which is located near the South-West border of the Paris Basin, in the Orléans region. Special geometries such as onlaps and pinch out of formation against the basement are likely to be observed and so have to be taken into account. Two deep saline aquifers are potentially good candidates for CO2 storage. The Triassic continental deposits capped by the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic continental shales and the Dogger carbonate deposits capped by the Callovian and Oxfordian shales. First, a data review was undertaken, to provide the palaeogeographical settings and ideas about the facies, thicknesses and depth of the targeted formations. It was followed by a seismic interpretation. Three hundred kilometres of seismic lines were reprocessed and interpreted to characterize the geometry of the studied area. The main structure identified is the Étampes fault that affects all the formations. Apart from the vicinity of the fault where drag folds appear, the layers are sub-horizontal and gently dip and thicken eastwards. Then, interpreted seismic lines, together with well data from more than 50 boreholes were integrated into a 2D-model of the main surfaces using geostatistics (Isatis® and Petrel® softwares). The main difficulty of this step was to generate a realistic model accounting for both the specific geometries linked to the basin border (onlapping, pinching out...) and the faults. If the former only concerns the Triassic, the latter also affects the overlying formations. Regarding the Dogger top surface, it is less than 700m deep in the western area, which is too shallow for supercritical state injection. Consequently, the next part of the study focused on the Triassic reservoir and integrated changes in petrophysical properties as a function of lateral lithological variation. This ultimately led to upgrade the model from 2D to 3D in order to perform the simulation of CO2 migration. To achieve this objective, we first applied sequence stratigraphy concepts on Triassic deposits to compensate the lack of quantitative petrophysical data. It provided qualitative data about the reservoir heterogeneities which are crucial for a realistic 3D-modelling. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions show that the sediment supply direction is WSW-ENE, implying more proximal deposits to the West, and so better reservoir properties. The final step is to use this 3D-model to elaborate a flow model to estimate the injectivity rate and the extension of the overpressure within the open aquifer and the CO2 plume after 30 years of injection. Two injection rates as well as two well locations were hypothesized into four scenarios considering several locations and injections rates. In any case, the fault has been considered as a barrier to the CO2 migration and the system as a closed one. In the four cases, results are satisfying, the overpressure is less than 30% of the initial pressure and the reservoir capacity is enough regarding the goal of the project. The results of these simulations will then be integrated into the

Chapuis, Flavie; Bauer, Hugues; Grataloup, Sandrine; Leynet, Aurélien; Bourgine, Bernard; Castagnac, Claire; Fillacier, Simon; Lecomte, Antony; Le Gallo, Yann; Bonijoly, Didier

2010-05-01

128

Seismic Studies  

SciTech Connect

This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (2) For probabilistic analyses supporting the demonstration of compliance with preclosure performance objectives, provide a mean seismic hazard curve for the surface facilities area. Results should be consistent with the PSHA for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (3) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for postclosure analyses, provide site-specific seismic time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement) for the waste emplacement level. Time histories should be consistent with the PSHA and reflect available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (4) In support of ground-motion site-response modeling, perform field investigations and laboratory testing to provide a technical basis for model inputs. Characterize the repository block and areas in which important-to-safety surface facilities will be sited. Work should support characterization and reduction of uncertainties in inputs to ground-motion site-response modeling. (5) On the basis of rock mechanics, geologic, and seismic information, determine limits on extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain and document the technical basis for them. (6) Update the ground-motion site-response model, as appropriate, on the basis of new data. Expand and enhance the technical basis for model validation to further increase confidence in the site-response modeling. (7) Document seismic methodologies and approaches in reports to be submitted to the NRC. (8) Address condition reports.

R. Quittmeyer

2006-09-25

129

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances  

SciTech Connect

This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

1995-10-01

130

Unconditionally verifiable blind computation  

E-print Network

Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol, or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. The authors, together with Broadbent, previously proposed a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with new functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct a new verifiable BQC protocol based on a new class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. The new resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest neighbour form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

Joseph F. Fitzsimons; Elham Kashefi

2013-08-15

131

Seismic design of steel structures with lead-extrusion dampers as knee braces  

SciTech Connect

One of the effective methods in decreasing the seismic response of structure against dynamic loads due to earthquake is using energy dissipating systems. Lead-extrusion dampers (LED) are one of these systems that dissipate energy in to one lead sleeve because of steel rod movement. Hysteresis loops of these dampers are approximately rectangular and acts independent from velocity in frequencies that are in the seismic frequency rang. In this paper lead dampers are considered as knee brace in steel frames and are studied in an economical view. Considering that lead dampers don't clog structural panels, so this characteristic can solve brace problems from architectural view. The behavior of these dampers is compared with the other kind of dampers such as XADAS and TADAS. The results indicate that lead dampers act properly in absorbing the induced energy due to earthquake and good function in controlling seismic movements of multi-story structures.

Monir, Habib Saeed [Islamic Azad Unviersity, Maragheh Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naser, Ali [Department of Civil Engineering, Urmia University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

132

Verisym: Verifying Circuits by Symbolic Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verisym is used to check the functional behavior of circuit designs. It was initially targeted at verifying custom memory designs, which present major difficulties for current production tools, but it is a general-purpose system that has also been applied to arithmetic and control circuits. Verisym has been used to validate custom memory array designs containing up to four million transistors

William Adams; Warren A. Hunt Jr.; Damir Jamsek

2003-01-01

133

A Seismic Isolation Application Using Rubber Bearings; Hangar Project in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic isolation is an effective design strategy to mitigate the seismic hazard wherein the structure and its contents are protected from the damaging effects of an earthquake. This paper presents the Hangar Project in Sabiha Gökcen Airport which is located in Istanbul, Turkey. Seismic isolation system where the isolation layer arranged at the top of the columns is selected. The seismic hazard analysis, superstructure design, isolator design and testing were based on the Uniform Building Code (1997) and met all requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code (2007). The substructure which has the steel vertical trusses on façades and RC H shaped columns in the middle axis of the building was designed with an R factor limited to 2.0 in accordance with Turkish Earthquake Code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the isolation system, nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are performed. The analysis revealed that isolated building has lower base shear (approximately 1/4) against the non-isolated structure.

Sesigur, Haluk; Cili, Feridun

2008-07-01

134

A Seismic Isolation Application Using Rubber Bearings; Hangar Project in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Seismic isolation is an effective design strategy to mitigate the seismic hazard wherein the structure and its contents are protected from the damaging effects of an earthquake. This paper presents the Hangar Project in Sabiha Goekcen Airport which is located in Istanbul, Turkey. Seismic isolation system where the isolation layer arranged at the top of the columns is selected. The seismic hazard analysis, superstructure design, isolator design and testing were based on the Uniform Building Code (1997) and met all requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code (2007). The substructure which has the steel vertical trusses on facades and RC H shaped columns in the middle axis of the building was designed with an R factor limited to 2.0 in accordance with Turkish Earthquake Code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the isolation system, nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are performed. The analysis revealed that isolated building has lower base shear (approximately 1/4) against the non-isolated structure.

Sesigur, Haluk; Cili, Feridun [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Division of Theory of Structures 34434, Taskisla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2008-07-08

135

Software interface verifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Telos study of 40 recent subsystem deliveries into the DSN at JPL found software interface testing to be the single most expensive and error-prone activity, and the study team suggested creating an automated software interface test tool. The resulting Software Interface Verifier (SIV), which was funded by NASA/JPL and created by Telos, employed 92 percent software reuse to quickly create an initial version which incorporated early user feedback. SIV is now successfully used by developers for interface prototyping and unit testing, by test engineers for formal testing, and by end users for non-intrusive data flow tests in the operational environment. Metrics, including cost, are included. Lessons learned include the need for early user training. SIV is ported to many platforms and can be successfully used or tailored by other NASA groups.

Soderstrom, Tomas J.; Krall, Laura A.; Hope, Sharon A.; Zupke, Brian S.

1994-01-01

136

Southern California Seismic Network: New Design and Implementation of Redundant and Reliable Real-time Data Acquisition Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) handles more than 2500 high-data rate channels from more than 380 seismic stations distributed across southern California. These data are imported real-time from dataloggers, earthworm hubs, and partner networks. The SCSN also exports data to eight different partner networks. Both the imported and exported data are critical for emergency response and scientific research. Previous data acquisition systems were complex and difficult to operate, because they grew in an ad hoc fashion to meet the increasing needs for distributing real-time waveform data. To maximize reliability and redundancy, we apply best practices methods from computer science for implementing the software and hardware configurations for import, export, and acquisition of real-time seismic data. Our approach makes use of failover software designs, methods for dividing labor diligently amongst the network nodes, and state of the art networking redundancy technologies. To facilitate maintenance and daily operations we seek to provide some separation between major functions such as data import, export, acquisition, archiving, real-time processing, and alarming. As an example, we make waveform import and export functions independent by operating them on separate servers. Similarly, two independent servers provide waveform export, allowing data recipients to implement their own redundancy. The data import is handled differently by using one primary server and a live backup server. These data import servers, run fail-over software that allows automatic role switching in case of failure from primary to shadow. Similar to the classic earthworm design, all the acquired waveform data are broadcast onto a private network, which allows multiple machines to acquire and process the data. As we separate data import and export away from acquisition, we are also working on new approaches to separate real-time processing and rapid reliable archiving of real-time data. Further, improved network security is an integral part of the new design. Redundant firewalls will provide secure data imports, exports, and acquisition as well as DMZ zones for web servers and other publicly available servers. We will present the detailed design of this new configuration that is currently being implemented by the SCSN at Caltech. The design principals are general enough to be of use to most regional seismic networks.

Saleh, T.; Rico, H.; Solanki, K.; Hauksson, E.; Friberg, P.

2005-12-01

137

Image resolution analysis: a new, robust approach to seismic survey design  

E-print Network

?guration, parameters such as the structure and seismic velocity also in?uence image resolution. Understanding their e?ect on image quality, allows us to better interpret the resolution results for the surveys under examination. A salt model was used to simulate...

Tzimeas, Constantinos

2005-08-29

138

Application of Seismic Design Requirements to Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Structures and Systems and Components  

SciTech Connect

The methodology followed in assignment of Performance Class (PC) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) seismic loads for Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Structures, Systems and Components is defined. The loading definition associated with each PC and structure, system and component is then defined.

CREA, B.A.

1999-11-15

139

Computational fluid dynamics verified the advantages of streamlined impeller design in improving flow patterns and anti-haemolysis properties of centrifugal pump.  

PubMed

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology was applied to predict the flow patterns in the authors' streamlined blood pump and an American bio-pump with straight vanes and shroud, respectively. Meanwhile, haemolysis comparative tests of the two pumps were performed to verify the theoretical analysis. The results revealed that the flow patterns in the streamlined impeller are coincident with its logarithmic vanes and parabolic shroud, and there is neither separate flow nor impact in the authors' pump. In the bio-pump, the main flow has the form of logarithmic spiral in vertical section and parabola in cross section, thus there are both stagnation and swirl between the main flow and the straight vanes and shroud. Haemolysis comparative tests demonstrated that the authors' pump has an index of haemolysis of 0.030, less than that of the bio-pump (0.065). PMID:17060163

Qian, K X; Wang, F Q; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y; Feng, Z G

2006-01-01

140

Rapid estimation of earthquake loss based on instrumental seismic intensity: design and realization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of our ability to acquire large volumes of real-time earthquake observation data, coupled with increased computer performance, near real-time seismic instrument intensity can be obtained by using ground motion data observed by instruments and by using the appropriate spatial interpolation methods. By combining vulnerability study results from earthquake disaster research with earthquake disaster assessment models, we can estimate the losses caused by devastating earthquakes, in an attempt to provide more reliable information for earthquake emergency response and decision support. This paper analyzes the latest progress on the methods of rapid earthquake loss estimation at home and abroad. A new method involving seismic instrument intensity rapid reporting to estimate earthquake loss is proposed and the relevant software is developed. Finally, a case study using the M L4.9 earthquake that occurred in Shun-chang county, Fujian Province on March 13, 2007 is given as an example of the proposed method.

Huang, Hongsheng; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Gengqing; Wang, Lin; Lin, Yanzhao; Wang, Huishan

2013-11-01

141

New finite element models and seismic analyses of the telescopes at W.M. Keck Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 15 October 2006 a large earthquake damaged both telescopes at Keck observatory resulting in weeks of observing downtime. A significant portion of the downtime was attributed to recovery efforts repairing damage to telescope bearing journals, radial pad support structures and encoder subsystems. Inadequate damping and strength in the seismic restraint design and the lack of break-away features on the azimuth radial pads are key design deficiencies. In May, 2011 a feasibility study was conducted to review several options to enhance the protection of the telescopes with the goal to minimize the time to bring the telescopes back into operation after a large seismic event. At that time it was determined that new finite element models of the telescope structures were required to better understand the telescope responses to design earthquakes required by local governing building codes and the USGS seismic data collected at the site on 15 October 2006. These models were verified by comparing the calculated natural frequencies from the models to the measured frequencies obtained from the servo identification study and comparing the time history responses of the telescopes to the October 2006 seismic data to the actual observed damages. The results of two finite element methods, response spectrum analysis and time history analysis, used to determine seismic demand forces and seismic response of each telescope to the design earthquakes were compared. These models can be used to evaluate alternate seismic restraint design options for both Keck telescopes.

Kan, Frank W.; Sarawit, Andrew T.; Callahan, Shawn P.; Pollard, Mike L.

2014-07-01

142

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances  

SciTech Connect

This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

1993-01-01

143

Overview of Thermal-Hydraulic Test Program for Evaluating or Verifying the Performance of New Design Features in APR1400 Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Experimental program and some of test results for thermal-hydraulic evaluation or verification of new design features in APR1400 are introduced for major test items. APR1400 incorporates many advanced design features to enhance its performance and safety. New design features adopted in APR1400 include, among others, four trains of the safety injection system (SIS) with direct vessel injection (DVI) mode and passively operating safety injection tank (SIT), the In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) and the safety depressurization and vent system (SDVS). For these new design features, experimental activities relevant for ensuring their performance and contribution to the safety enhancement have been carried out at KAERI. They include the LBLOCA ECCS performance evaluation test for the DVI mode of SIS, performance verification test of the fluidic device as a passive flow controller, performance evaluation test of steam sparger for SDVS and the CEDM (control element drive mechanism) performance evaluation test. In this paper, the test program is briefly introduced, which includes the test objectives, experimental method and some of typical results for each test item. (authors)

Song, C.H.; Kwon, T.S.; Chu, I.C.; Jun, H.G.; Park, C.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong P.O. Box 105, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

144

Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources.

Tallman, A.M.

1995-12-31

145

Seismic Retrofit of Steel Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief review of recent work on the development of solutions for the seismic design and retrofit of steel structures by various members of the U.S. research community, including solutions being developed at the University at Buffalo for the seismic retrofit of bridges and buildings. Research applicable to the seismic retrofit of buildings includes work on details

Michel Bruneau

146

Seismic-acoustic communication for UGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) and takes into consideration both present and future aspects of the practical deployment of this equipment under conditions of Electronic Warfare (EW), including the integration of UGS into a joint system using the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). The first part of the paper deals with the possibilities, characteristics and useable properties of seismic-acoustic communication in the group of nodes, supplementing the information coverage of existing UGS, including the selection of a suitable working frequency band for seismic communication. The second part of the paper then describes an alternative method of communication between nodes and UGS using LF radio communication, and analyses the design and real properties of a proposed communication channel in LF band, the design of a loop antenna and its mechanical construction. The interim conclusions of each section generalize the results of seismic-acoustic and radio LF communications as verified in practice, and describe both the advantages and disadvantages of communication channels defined in this way. The third part of the paper deals with the possibility of integrating the nodes-UGS to a central system consisting of a UAS device. It covers the design and an energy evaluation of a system operating on the principle of data selection from UGS. In addition, the paper includes illustrative photographs of the practical design and graphic results of real measurements.

Cechak, Jaroslav

2010-04-01

147

NASA/TM2009000000 From Verified Models to Verifiable  

E-print Network

NASA/TM­2009­000000 From Verified Models to Verifiable Code Leonard Lensink L.Lensink@cs.ru.nl Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands C´esar Mu~noz cesar.a.munoz@nasa.gov NASA Langley Research, Hampton, Virginia, USA June 2009 #12;NASA STI Program . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been

Muñoz, César A.

148

Design and development of safety evaluation system of buildings on a seismic field based on the network platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a set of on-site earthquake safety evaluation systems for buildings, which were developed based on a network platform. The system embedded into the quantitative research results which were completed in accordance with the provisions from Post-earthquake Field Works, Part 2: Safety Assessment of Buildings, GB18208.2 -2001, and was further developed into an easy-to-use software platform. The system is aimed at allowing engineering professionals, civil engineeing technicists or earthquake-affected victims on site to assess damaged buildings through a network after earthquakes. The authors studied the function structure, process design of the safety evaluation module, and hierarchical analysis algorithm module of the system in depth, and developed the general architecture design, development technology and database design of the system. Technologies such as hierarchical architecture design and Java EE were used in the system development, and MySQL5 was adopted in the database development. The result is a complete evaluation process of information collection, safety evaluation, and output of damage and safety degrees, as well as query and statistical analysis of identified buildings. The system can play a positive role in sharing expert post-earthquake experience and promoting safety evaluation of buildings on a seismic field.

Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiangzhao; Zhang, Xinghua

2015-03-01

149

Microcomputer aided design for reinforced concrete frames subjected to seismic loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a design procedure for reinforced concrete frames based on nonlinear dynamic analysis. The design procedure consists of four basic steps: (1) preliminary design based on member forces obtained by linear elastic analysis with equivalent static loading as prescribed by design codes, for example, the UBC code; (2) nonlinear dynamic analysis; (3) checking of damage of structure; (4)

Lira

1986-01-01

150

MASSACHUSETTS DEP EELGRASS VERIFIED POINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field verified points showing presence or absence of submerged rooted vascular plants along Massachusetts coastline. In addition to the photo interpreted eelgrass coverage (EELGRASS), this point coverage (EGRASVPT) was generated based on field-verified sites as well as all field...

151

Seismic hazard evaluation for design and/or verification of a high voltage system  

SciTech Connect

The Venezuelan capital, Caracas, with a population of about 5 million, is within the area of contact of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates. Since 1567, the valley where it lies and surroundings have been shaken by at leas six destructive events from different seismogenic sources. Electric energy is served to the city by a high voltage system consisting of 4 power stations, 20 substations (230 KV downwards) and 80 km of high voltage lines, covering an area of about 135 x 60 km{sup 2}. Given the variety of soil conditions, topographical irregularities and proximity to potentially active faults, it was decided to perform a seismic hazard study. This paper gives the results of that study synthesized by two hazard-parameter maps, which allow a conservative characterization of the acceleration on firm soils. Specific site coefficients allow for changes in soil conditions and topographical effects. Sites whose proximity to fault lines is less than about 2 km, require additional field studies in order to rule out the possibility of permanent ground displacements.

Grases, J.; Malaver, A. [Ingenieria de Consulta, Caracas (Venezuela); Lopez, S.; Rivero, P. [Electricidad de Caracas (Venezuela)

1995-12-31

152

Theoretical and practical considerations for the design of the iMUSH active-source seismic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-disciplinary imaging of Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment seeks to understand the details of the magmatic system that feeds Mount St. Helens using active- and passive-source seismic, magnetotelluric, and petrologic data. The active-source seismic component of this experiment will take place in the summer of 2014 utilizing all of the 2600 PASSCAL 'Texan' Reftek instruments which will record twenty-four 1000-2000 lb shots distributed around the Mount St. Helens region. The instruments will be deployed as two consecutive refraction profiles centered on the volcano, and a series of areal arrays. The actual number of areal arrays, as well as their locations, will depend strongly on the length of the experiment (3-4 weeks), the number of instrument deployers (50-60), and the time it will take per deployment given the available road network. The current work shows how we are balancing these practical considerations against theoretical experiment designs in order to achieve the proposed scientific goals with the available resources. One of the main goals of the active-source seismic experiment is to image the magmatic system down to the Moho (35-40 km). Calculating sensitivity kernels for multiple shot/receiver offsets shows that direct P waves should be sensitive to Moho depths at offsets of 150 km, and therefore this will likely be the length of the refraction profiles. Another primary objective of the experiment is to estimate the locations and volumes of different magma accumulation zones beneath the volcano using the areal arrays. With this in mind, the optimal locations of these arrays, as well as their associated shots, are estimated using an eigenvalue analysis of the approximate Hessian for each possible experiment design. This analysis seeks to minimize the number of small eigenvalues of the approximate Hessian that would amplify the propagation of data noise into regions of interest in the model space, such as the likely locations of magma reservoirs. In addition, this analysis provides insight into the tradeoff between the number of areal array deployments and the information that will be gained from the experiment. An additional factor incorporated into this study is the expected data quality in different regions around Mount St. Helens. Expected data quality is determined using the signal-to-noise ratios of data from existing seismometers in the region, and from forward modeling the wavefields from different experiment designs using SPECFEM3D software. In particular, we are interested in evaluating how topography near the volcano and low velocity volcaniclastic layers affect data quality. This information is especially important within 5 km of the volcano where only hiking trails are available for instrument deployment, and in a large area north of the volcano where road maintenance has lagged since the 1980 eruption. Instrument deployment will be slow in these regions, and therefore it is essential to understand if deployment of instruments here is a reasonable use of resources. A final step of this study will be validating different experiment designs based upon the above criteria by inverting synthetic data from velocity models that contain a generalized representation of the magma system to confirm that the main features of the models can be recovered.

Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Harder, S. H.; Abers, G. A.; Creager, K. C.; Vidale, J. E.; Moran, S. C.; Malone, S. D.

2013-12-01

153

Seismic analysis of diagrid structural frames with shear-link fuse devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new concept for enhancing the seismic ductility and damping capacity of diagrid structural frames by using shear-link fuse devices and its seismic performance is assessed through nonlinear static and dynamic analysis. The architectural elegancy of the diagrid structure attributed to its triangular leaning member configuration and high structural redundancy make this system a desirable choice for tall building design. However, forming a stable energy dissipation mechanism in diagrid framing remains to be investigated to expand its use in regions with high seismicity. To address this issue, a diagrid framing design is proposed here which provides a competitive design option in highly seismic regions through its increased ductility and improved energy dissipation capacity provided by replaceable shear links interconnecting the diagonal members at their ends. The structural characteristics and seismic behavior (capacity, stiffness, energy dissipation, ductility) of the diagrid structural frame are demonstrated with a 21-story building diagrid frame subjected to nonlinear static and dynamic analysis. The findings from the nonlinear time history analysis verify that satisfactory seismic performance can be achieved by the proposed diagrid frame subjected to design basis earthquakes in California. In particular, one appealing feature of the proposed diagrid building is its reduced residual displacement after strong earthquakes.

Moghaddasi B, Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng

2013-09-01

154

Publicly verifiable partial key escrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A partial key escrow cryptosystem based on publicly verifiableencryption is proposed. Partial key escrow adds a great deal ofdifficulty to mass privacy intrusion interested by malicious authorities(e.g., a human rights abusive government). Public verifiability improvesefficiency and guarantees correctness in the establishment of partiallyescrowed key.1 IntroductionThis paper proposes a publicly verifiable partial key escrow cryptosystem.In partial key escrow, a portion

Wenbo Mao; Bristol BS

1997-01-01

155

Optimal seismic performance-based design of reinforced concrete buildings using nonlinear pushover analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance-based design using nonlinear pushover analysis, which generally involves tedious and intensive computational effort, is a highly iterative process needed to meet designer-specified and code requirements. This paper presents an effective computer-based technique that incorporates pushover analysis together with numerical optimization procedures to automate the pushover drift performance design of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. Steel reinforcement, as compared with concrete

X.-K. Zou; C.-M. Chan

2005-01-01

156

Preclosure seismic design methodology for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Topical report YMP/TR-003-NP  

SciTech Connect

This topical report describes the methodology and criteria that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to use for preclosure seismic design of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the proposed geologic repository operations area that are important to safety. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60 (10 CFR 60), Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, states that for a license to be issued for operation of a high-level waste repository, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must find that the facility will not constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public. Section 60.131 (b)(1) requires that SSCs important to safety be designed so that natural phenomena and environmental conditions anticipated at the geologic repository operations area will not interfere with necessary safety functions. Among the natural phenomena specifically identified in the regulation as requiring safety consideration are the hazards of ground shaking and fault displacement due to earthquakes.

NONE

1996-10-01

157

The 1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain seismic profiling experiment: Crustal structure of the Yellowstone region and experiment design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 a major seismic profiling experiment was conducted in the Yellowstone-eastern Snake River Plain region of Idaho and Wyoming. Fifteen shots were recorded that provided coverage to distances of 300 km. In this paper, travel time and synthetic seismogram modeling was used to evaluate an average P wave velocity and apparent Q structure of the crust from two seismic

R. B. Smith; M. M. Schilly; L. W. Braile; J. Ansorge; J. L. Lehman; M. R. Baker; C. Prodehl; J. H. Healy; S. Mueller; R. W. Greensfelder

1982-01-01

158

Seismic analysis and strengthening design of a masonry monument by a rigid body spring model: The “Maniace Castle” of Syracuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic analysis of a large monument subjected to strong earthquakes is the object of the present paper. As a case study, the response of the “Maniace Castle” of Syracuse has been investigated by a multi-level approach which adopts traditional finite element modelling as well as a specific mechanistic computational model for the final non-linear seismic analyses. At first, the

Siro Casolo; Carlo Alberto Sanjust

2009-01-01

159

Alternative Shear Panel Configurations for Light Wood Construction. Development, Seismic Performance, and Design Guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear panels are used in light wood construction to resist lateral loads resulting from earthquakes or strong winds. These panels are typically made of wooden sheathing nailed to building frame members, but this standard panel design interferes with the installation of sheet insulation. A non-insulated shear panel conducts heat between the building interior and exterior wasting considerable amounts of energy. Several alternative shear panel designs were developed to avoid this insulation-mounting problem and sample panels were tested according to standard cyclic test protocols. One of the alternative designs consisted of diagonal steel straps nailed directly to the structural framing. Several others consisted of sheathing nailed to 2 x 4 framing then set into a larger 2 x 6 structural frame in such a way that no sheathing protruded beyond the edge of the 2 x 6 members. Also samples of industry-standard shear panels were constructed and tested in order to establish a performance baseline. Analytical models were developed to size test panels and predict panel behavior. A procedure was developed for establishing design capacities based on both test data and established baseline panel design capacity. The behavior of each panel configuration is documented and recommended design capacities are presented.

Wilcoski, James; Fischer, Chad; Allison, Tim; Malach, Kelly Jo

2002-04-01

160

Verifiable and Redactable Medical Documents  

PubMed Central

This paper considers how to verify provenance and integrity of data in medical documents that are exchanged in a distributed system of health IT services. Provenance refers to the sources of health information within the document and integrity means that the information was not modified after generation by the source. Our approach allows intermediate parties to redact the document by removing information that they do not wish to reveal. For example, patients can store verifiable health information and provide subsets of it to third parties, while redacting sensitive information that they do not wish employers, insurers, or others to receive. Our method uses a cryptographic primitive known as a redactable signature. We study practical issues and performance impacts of building, redacting, and verifying Continuity of Care Documents (CCDs) that are protected with redactable signatures. Results show that manipulating redactable CCDs provides superior security and privacy with little computational overhead. PMID:23304391

Brown, Jordan; Blough, Douglas M.

2012-01-01

161

Seismic design or retrofit of buildings with metallic structural fuses by the damage-reduction spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the structural fuse has become an important issue in the field of earthquake engineering. Due to the trilinearity of the pushover curve of buildings with metallic structural fuses, the mechanism of the structural fuse is investigated through the ductility equation of a single-degree-of-freedom system, and the corresponding damage-reduction spectrum is proposed to design and retrofit buildings. Furthermore, the controlling parameters, the stiffness ratio between the main frame and structural fuse and the ductility factor of the main frame, are parametrically studied, and it is shown that the structural fuse concept can be achieved by specific combinations of the controlling parameters based on the proposed damage-reduction spectrum. Finally, a design example and a retrofit example, variations of real engineering projects after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures using buckling restrained braces as the structural fuses.

Li, Gang; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Shuchuan; Zeng, Yan; Li, Qiang

2015-03-01

162

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

163

RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulation (40CFR Part 258) went into effect. hese regulations are applicable to landfills reclining solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operations, and closure of MSW landfills. hese regulat...

164

Seismic design decision analysis. Nuclear power plants and the operating basis earthquake - Phase I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power plants are affected by two earthquake levels in their design and operation: the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) and the operating basis earthquake (OBE). This study is concerned solely with the OBE and the probability that a plant, two plants simultaneously, or generally that n plants simultaneously will have to shutdown for inspection during the next Y years. The

Schumacker

1975-01-01

165

Artificial Seismic Shadow Zone by Acoustic Metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a new method of earthquake-proof engineering to create an artificial seismic shadow zone using acoustic metamaterials. By designing huge empty boxes with a few side-holes corresponding to the resonance frequencies of seismic waves and burying them around the buildings that we want to protect, the velocity of the seismic wave becomes imaginary. The meta-barrier composed of many meta-boxes attenuates the seismic waves, which reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially by dissipating the seismic energy. This is a mechanical method of converting the seismic energy into sound and heat. We estimated the sound level generated from a seismic wave. This method of area protection differs from the point protection of conventional seismic design, including the traditional cloaking method. The artificial seismic shadow zone is tested by computer simulation and compared with a normal barrier.

Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

2013-08-01

166

Verifying the Hanging Chain Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wave equation with variable tension is a classic partial differential equation that can be used to describe the horizontal displacements of a vertical hanging chain with one end fixed and the other end free to move. Using a web camera and TRACKER software to record displacement data from a vibrating hanging chain, we verify a modified version…

Karls, Michael A.

2013-01-01

167

Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

Chung, H. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)); Mostaghel, N. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1988-01-01

168

Seismic Survey  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologists conduct a seismic survey in New Orleans, Louisiana. The survey was one of several geophysical methods used during USGS applied research on the utility of the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) seismic method (no pictured here) for non-invasive assessment of earthen leve...

169

Seismic Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory activity demonstrates how seismic waves are generated and helps students understand how they can reveal the composition of Earth's inner layers. Students will construct models by filling shoe boxes with various materials, drop rocks on them to generate 'seismic waves', record the waves, and make observations about their differences.

Robert DeMarco

170

Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 2. Special topics in soil/structure interaction analyses  

SciTech Connect

This volume is divided into six chapters: definition of seismic input ground motion, review of state-of-the-art procedures, analysis guidelines, rock/structure interaction analysis example, comparison of two- and three-dimensional analyses, and comparison of analyses using FLUSH and TRI/SAC Codes. (DLC)

Reddy, D.P.

1983-04-01

171

SEISMIC DESIGN AND RESPONSE OF BARE AND MASONRY-INFILLED REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS. PART II: INFILLED STRUCTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of masonry infills on the global seismic response of reinforced concrete structures is studied through numerical analyses. Response spectra of elastic SDOF frames with nonlinear infills show that, despite their apparent stiffening effect on the system, infills reduce spectral displacements and forces mainly through their high damping in the first large post-cracking excursion. Parametric analyses on a large

M. N. FARDIS; T. B. PANAGIOTAKOS

1997-01-01

172

Probabilistic seismic perfonnance assessment of steel moment resisting frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, the use of probabilistic tools for assessing the reliability of structural systems under seismic excitations has attracted considerable research. This has been prompted by the damages detected in many buildings following severe earthquake events, and the fact that the uncertainties related to the structural capacity, demand and seismic loading, may be more efficiently accounted for and quantified within a probabilistic context. With seismic probabilistic methodologies still under development, this thesis aims to explore reliability issues associated with steel Moment Resisting Frames (MRFs), and, within this context, to present appropriate tools for fragility assessment. To this end, a detailed analytical fragility methodology, is initially developed and tested through a case study, namely a U.S. code-designed, 3-storey MRF. The fragilities are presented in terms of three FEMA-based, probabilistically defined, performance levels. The developed methodology, despite being computationally intensive, involves only a limited number of assumptions, related mainly to the structural modelling, and is verified through comparisons with previously published results. Special attention is given to the influence of joint failures on the seismic reliability..

Kazantzi, Athanasia K.

173

Seismic site characterization for nuclear structures and power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic site characterization is carried out for the co n- struction of nuclear structures and power plants in earthquake-prone areas to establish the occurrence of severe seismic hazards such as tectonic rupture, surface faulting, large scale liquefaction, sliding and seismic settlement which may alter the overall stability of the site. Seismic characterization is required to finalize the design earthquake parameters

A. Boominathan

174

Impact of lateral force-resisting system and design/construction practices on seismic performance and cost of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local design and construction practices in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), together with Dubai's unique rate of development, warrant special attention to the selection of Lateral Force-Resisting Systems (LFRS). This research proposes four different feasible solutions for the selection of the LFRS for tall buildings and quantifies the impact of these selections on seismic performance and cost. The systems considered are: Steel Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF), Concrete SMRF, Steel Dual System (SMRF with Special Steel Plates Shear Wall, SPSW), and Concrete Dual System (SMRF with Special Concrete Shear Wall, SCSW). The LFRS selection is driven by seismic setup as well as the adopted design and construction practices in Dubai. It is found that the concrete design alternatives are consistently less expensive than their steel counterparts. The steel dual system is expected to have the least damage based on its relatively lesser interstory drifts. However, this preferred performance comes at a higher initial construction cost. Conversely, the steel SMRF system is expected to have the most damage and associated repair cost due to its excessive flexibility. The two concrete alternatives are expected to have relatively moderate damage and repair costs in addition to their lesser initial construction cost.

AlHamaydeh, Mohammad; Galal, Khaled; Yehia, Sherif

2013-09-01

175

Broadband seismic energy source  

SciTech Connect

A vibratory seismic energy source capable of generating significant energy over a broad frequency band is described. The vibrating baseplate and associated structure are designed to have minimum weight while still retaining sufficient structural integrity to permit the use of high actuator forces. This, coupled with a large reaction mass results in the generation of significant energy levels in the earth at high frequencies.

Bedenbender, J.W.; Weber, R.M.

1981-03-03

176

SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly evaluated and identified. This document supersedes the seismic classifications, assignments, and computations in ''Seismic Analysis for Preclosure Safety'' (BSC 2004a).

E.N. Lindner

2004-12-03

177

Seismic Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animated Powerpoint presentation for seismic refraction geophysics used on a simple two-layer system (soil over rock). Compression wave measurements used to determine depth to horizontal bedrock surface.

178

Seismic Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab allows the students to review the relevant formulas for the analysis of seismic refraction data and provides three different data sets to analyze three different geologic settings (three-layer model, dipping inferface, fault).

Robert D. Cicerone

179

A new seismic discriminant for earthquakes and explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the spread of nuclear weapons technology, more regions of the world need to be monitored in order to verify nuclear nonproliferation and limited test-ban treaties. Seismic monitoring is the primary means to remotely sense contained underground explosions “Bolt, 1976; Dahlman and Israelson, 1977”. Both underground explosions and earthquakes generate seismic energy, which propagates through the Earth as elastic waves. The crux of the verification problem is to differentiate between the seismic signatures of explosions and earthquakes. Such identification is most difficult in countries with seismically active areas, where bombs might be detonated to blend in with the region's natural seismicity.

Woods, Bradley B.; Helmberger, Donald V.

180

Long term underwater monitoring of seismic areas: Design of an Ocean Bottom Seismometer with Hydrophone and its performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean Bottom Seismometer with Hydrophone (OBS\\/H) is an autonomous data-acquisition system which free falls to the sea floor to record seismic and pressure signals generated by earthquakes and tsunamis. The development and the improvement of OBS\\/H's is a necessary process for seismological research institutions, because in the world about 90 percent of all natural earthquakes has epicenters in offshore

G. Mangano; A. D'Alessandro; G. D'Anna

2011-01-01

181

Seismic discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Semiannual Technical Summary describes the Lincoln Laboratory Vela Uniform program for the period 1 April to 30 September 1981. During this period, the first working prototype of a Seismic Data Center has been completed. In this report, Sec. I describes this prototype system, Sec. II describes a series of activities in seismic processing related to the Center, and Sec. III describes a series of investigations in General Seismological Research.

Chinnery, M. A.

1982-04-01

182

Seismic discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Semiannual Technical Summary describes the Lincoln Laboratory Vela Uniform program. Section 1 describes progress in the development of a prototype Seismic Data Center. This development is on schedule, and a first version of the prototype will be operational during the next six months. Section 2 describes a series of activities in the development and implementation of the seismic processing techniques that will be utilized in the prototype system. Section 3 describes a series of investigations in General Seismological Research.

Chinnery, M. A.

1981-03-01

183

Seismic component fragility data base for IPEEE  

SciTech Connect

Seismic probabilistic risk assessment or a seismic margin study will require a reliable data base of seismic fragility of various equipment classes. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has selected a group of equipment and generically evaluated the seismic fragility of each equipment class by use of existing test data. This paper briefly discusses the evaluation methodology and the fragility results. The fragility analysis results when used in the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) Program for nuclear power plants are expected to provide insights into seismic vulnerabilities of equipment for earthquakes beyond the design basis. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.

1990-01-01

184

Verify MesoNAM Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AMU conducted an objective analysis of the MesoNAM forecasts compared to observed values from sensors at specified KSC/CCAFS wind towers by calculating the following statistics to verify the performance of the model: 1) Bias (mean difference), 2) Standard deviation of Bias, 3) Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and 4) Hypothesis test for Bias = O. The 45 WS LWOs use the MesoNAM to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at KSC and CCAFS had not been measured objectively. The analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point to the observed values from the sensors on wind towers. The data were stratified by tower sensor, month and onshore/offshore wind direction based on the orientation of the coastline to each tower's location. The model's performance statistics were then calculated for each wind tower based on sensor height and model initialization time. The period of record for the data used in this task was based on the operational start of the current MesoNAM in mid-August 2006 and so the task began with the first full month of data, September 2006, through May 2010. The analysis of model performance indicated: a) The accuracy decreased as the forecast valid time from the model initialization increased, b) There was a diurnal signal in T with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, c) There was a diurnal signal in Td with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night, and d) The model parameters at each vertical level most closely matched the observed parameters at heights closest to those vertical levels. The AMU developed a GUI that consists of a multi-level drop-down menu written in JavaScript embedded within the HTML code. This tool allows the LWO to easily and efficiently navigate among the charts and spreadsheet files containing the model performance statistics. The objective statistics give the LWOs knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses and the GUI allows quick access to the data which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

Bauman, William H., III

2010-01-01

185

Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

I. Wong

2004-11-05

186

Seismic waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What causes seismic waves and how do they travel through the Earth? This instructional tutorial, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to seismic waves caused by earthquakes. Students answer questions as they move through the tutorial and investigate how P and S waves travel through layers of the Earth. In one activity, students can produce and view wave motion in a chain of particles. Scored student results are provided. A second activity introduces Love and Rayleigh waves. In a third activity, students study P and S waves by activating four seismographs, watching the resulting P and S waves travel through the Earth, and answering interactive questions. Five web sites about waves, seismic action, and earthquakes are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

187

Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site for this Topic in Depth comes from the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences at Michigan Technological University and is called What Is Seismology? (1). The site describes the basics of seismology, the various types of waves associated with it, and even contains a link that shows you how to make your own P and S waves. Next is the Earthquakes Overview site (2), provided by The Tech Museum. Visitors can explore topics such as seismographs and waves through an informative and well done site that can be enjoyed by all age levels. The third site, from the USGS Earthquakes Hazard Program (3) Web site, contains animations of various seismic waves that gives a very clear look at what happens during an earthquake. The site also contains other relevant links worth investigating. The University of Alaska Fairbanks Seismic Waves (4) Web site provides a diagram of an earthquake wave traveling through the earth and shows how far it travels 15 seconds to 4 minutes after an earthquake event. The fifth site, called UK Macroseismology Home Page (5), explores the study of observable effects of earthquakes on people, buildings, and nature. Included are descriptions of macroseismic methods and the usefulness of macroseismic studies, among others. The Lesson Plans - High School (6) Web site offered by the Mid-America Earthquake Center contains links to several good lesson plans from various sources related to earthquakes and seismic waves. The seventh site is maintained by the Earth Ocean Atmosphere Scientific Systems company. The main page called Earthstation Library (7) offers information on several topics including a multimedia presentation on earthquakes and seismic waves. Under the Shockwave Demonstrations heading, visitors will find a link that provides a very interesting, visually stunning look at the subject. Lastly, from Earthscope comes the Earthscope Data (8) Web site, which provides a map that gives locations and links to seismic stations that give real-time seismic data from around the US.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

188

SEISMIC RISK MITIGATION THROUGH RETROFITTING NONDUCTILE CONCRETE FRAME SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of existing buildings across the world consists of non-ductile structural systems. Performance of structures during recent earthquakes has demonstrated seismic vulnerability of these systems. The majority were designed prior to the enactment of modern seismic codes, while some were designed more recently in areas where code enforcement can not be ensured. These structures constitute significant seismic risk,

MURAT SAATCIOGLU

189

COLORADO FRONT RANGE SEISMICITY AND SEISMIC HAZARD  

E-print Network

and usefulness of the resulting hazard maps. The state of Colorado has a rapidly growing population, active, seismic, seismicity, crust, fault, hazard ABSTRACT Construction of seismic hazard and risk maps depends from additional analysis of existing seismic data sets is recognized. INTRODUCTION The level

Sheehan, Anne F.

190

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30

191

Analyzing Interaction Patterns to Verify a Simulation/Game Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order for simulations and games to be effective for learning, instructional designers must verify that the underlying computational models being used have an appropriate degree of fidelity to the conceptual models of their real-world counterparts. A simulation/game that provides incorrect feedback is likely to promote misunderstanding and…

Myers, Rodney Dean

2012-01-01

192

Modeling the Java Bytecode Verifier Mark C. Reynolds 1 ,2  

E-print Network

Modeling the Java Bytecode Verifier Mark C. Reynolds 1 ,2 Computer Science Department Boston University Boston, US Abstract The Java programming language has been widely described as secure by design. Nevertheless, a number of serious security vulnerabilities have been discovered in Java, particularly

193

Modeling the Java Bytecode Verifier Mark C. Reynolds1 ,2  

E-print Network

Modeling the Java Bytecode Verifier Mark C. Reynolds1 ,2 Computer Science Department Boston University Boston, US Abstract The Java programming language has been widely described as secure by design. Nevertheless, a number of serious security vulnerabilities have been discovered in Java, particularly

194

Architecture Rationalization: A Methodology for Architecture Verifiability, Traceability and Completeness  

E-print Network

Architecture Rationalization: A Methodology for Architecture Verifiability, Traceability-mail: {atang, jhan}@it.swin.edu.au Abstract Architecture modeling is practiced extensively in the software of architecture designs. Deficiencies in any of these three areas in an architecture model can be costly and risky

Han, Jun

195

Seismic Reflection and Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides a brief introduction to the process of seismic exploration. Included are a definition of seismic exploration, a listing of possible applications of seismic methods, definitions of seismic reflection and refraction, and an explanation of data processing with seismic methods. The text descriptions are accompanied by visualizations helping to aid the reader in their understanding of the concepts discussed.

196

Strong Motion Instrumentation of Seismically-Strengthened Port Structures in California by CSMIP  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) has instrumented five port structures. Instrumentation of two more port structures is underway and another one is in planning. Two of the port structures have been seismically strengthened. The primary goals of the strong motion instrumentation are to obtain strong earthquake shaking data for verifying seismic analysis procedures and strengthening schemes, and for post-earthquake evaluations of port structures. The wharves instrumented by CSMIP were recommended by the Strong Motion Instrumentation Advisory Committee, a committee of the California Seismic Safety Commission. Extensive instrumentation of a wharf is difficult and would be impossible without the cooperation of the owners and the involvement of the design engineers. The instrumentation plan for a wharf is developed through study of the retrofit plans of the wharf, and the strong-motion sensors are installed at locations where specific instrumentation objectives can be achieved and access is possible. Some sensor locations have to be planned during design; otherwise they are not possible to install after construction. This paper summarizes the two seismically-strengthened wharves and discusses the instrumentation schemes and objectives. ?? 2009 ASCE.

Huang, M.J.; Shakal, A.F.

2009-01-01

197

Design of an UML conceptual model and implementation of a GIS with metadata information for a seismic hazard assessment cooperative project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work illustrates the advantages of using a Geographic Information System in a cooperative project with researchers of different countries, such as the RESIS II project (financed by the Norwegian Government and managed by CEPREDENAC) for seismic hazard assessment of Central America. As input data present different formats, cover distinct geographical areas and are subjected to different interpretations, data inconsistencies may appear and their management get complicated. To achieve data homogenization and to integrate them in a GIS, it is required previously to develop a conceptual model. This is accomplished in two phases: requirements analysis and conceptualization. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to compose the conceptual model of the GIS. UML complies with ISO 19100 norms and allows the designer defining model architecture and interoperability. The GIS provides a frame for the combination of large geographic-based data volumes, with an uniform geographic reference and avoiding duplications. All this information contains its own metadata following ISO 19115 normative. In this work, the integration in the same environment of active faults and subduction slabs geometries, combined with the epicentres location, has facilitated the definition of seismogenetic regions. This is a great support for national specialists of different countries to make easier their teamwork. The GIS capacity for making queries (by location and by attributes) and geostatistical analyses is used to interpolate discrete data resulting from seismic hazard calculations and to create continuous maps as well as to check and validate partial results of the study. GIS-based products, such as complete, homogenised databases and thematic cartography of the region, are distributed to all researchers, facilitating cross-national communication, the project execution and results dissemination.

Torres, Y.; Escalante, M. P.

2009-04-01

198

Verifying timing synchronization constraints in distributed embedded architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correct functioning of automotive embedded controllers requires hard real-time constraints on a number of system parameters. To avoid costly design iterations, these timing constraints should be verified during the design stage itself. In this paper, we describe a formal verification technique for a class of timing constraints called timing synchronization constraints in the recent adaptation of AUTOSAR standard (WPII-1.2 Timing

A. C. Rajeev; Swarup Mohalik; S. Ramesh

2012-01-01

199

Seismic Signals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not so long ago, people living near volcanoes had little that might help them to anticipate an eruption. A deep rumble, a puff of smoke, and ash might foreshadow a major volcanic event. Or a volcano might erupt with no warning at all. This interactive feature illustrates some of the types of seismic activity that may preceed an eruption, which modern seismologists are studying in hopes of improving their ability to predict eruptions.

200

Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration elucidates the concept of propagation of compressional waves (primary or P waves) and shear waves (secondary or S waves), which constitute the seismic waves used in locating and modeling earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, and for imaging the interior structure of the Earth. The demonstration uses a slinky, pushed along its axis to create a compressional (longitudinal) wave, and moved up and down on one end to create a shear (transverse) wave.

Jeffrey Barker

201

Seismic discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the Final Report on the Lincoln Laboratory Vela Uniform program. Section I presents an overview of the program from its beginning; summaries of our technical accomplishments for the Fiscal Years 1964 through 1982 are presented in Sec. II. The implementation of the Seismic Data Center is described in Sec. III. A list of publications relevant to our research is supplied in Sec. IV.

Chinnery, M. A.

1982-09-01

202

Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the different types of seismic waves in an environment they can control. Using an interactive, online wave generator, they will study P waves, S waves, Love waves, and Rayleigh waves, and examine a combination of P and S waves that crudely simulates the wave motion experienced during an earthquake. A tutorial is provided to show how the wave generator is used.

203

Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

Justin Coleman; Piyush Sabharwall

2014-09-01

204

Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.  

SciTech Connect

The HH Seismic hammer is a large, %22weight-drop%22 source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

Jones, Kyle Richard

2014-10-01

205

How to Bypass Verified Boot Security in Chromium OS  

E-print Network

Verified boot is an interesting feature of Chromium OS that should detect any modification in the firmware, kernel or the root file system (rootfs) by a dedicated adversary. However, by exploiting a design flaw in verified boot, we show that an adversary can replace the original rootfs by a malicious rootfs containing exploits such as a spyware and still pass the verified boot process. The exploit is based on the fact that although a kernel partition is paired with a rootfs, verification of kernel partition and rootfs are independent of each other. We experimentally demonstrate an attack using both the base and developer version of Chromium OS in which the adversary installs a spyware in the target system to send cached user data to the attacker machine in plain text which are otherwise inaccessible in encrypted form. We also discuss possible directions to mitigate the vulnerability.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Qiao, Chunming; Sridhar, Ramalingam

2012-01-01

206

Device-Independent Verifiable Blind Quantum Computation  

E-print Network

As progress on experimental quantum processors continues to advance, the problem of verifying the correct operation of such devices is becoming a pressing concern. Although recent progress has resulted in several protocols which can verify the output of a quantum computation performed by entangled but non-communicating processors, the overhead for such schemes is prohibitive, scaling at least as the 22nd power of the number of gates. We present a new approach based on a combination of verified blind quantum computation and Bell state self-testing. This approach has significantly reduced overhead, with resources scaling as a quartic polynomial in the number of gates.

Michal Hajdušek; Carlos A. Pérez-Delgado; Joseph F. Fitzsimons

2015-02-09

207

Towards Automatic Analysis of Election Verifiability Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a symbolic definition that captures some cases of election verifiability for electronic voting protocols. Our definition is given in terms of reachability assertions in the applied pi calculus and is amenable to automated reasoning using the software tool ProVerif. The definition distinguishes three aspects of verifiability, which we call individual, universal, and eligibility verifiability. We demonstrate the applicability of our formalism by analysing the protocols due to Fujioka, Okamoto & Ohta and a variant of the one by Juels, Catalano & Jakobsson (implemented as Civitas by Clarkson, Chong & Myers).

Smyth, Ben; Ryan, Mark; Kremer, Steve; Kourjieh, Mounira

208

iMUSH: The design of the Mount St. Helens high-resolution active source seismic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount St. Helens is one of the most societally relevant and geologically interesting volcanoes in the United States. Although much has been learned about the shallow structure of this volcano since its eruption in 1980, important questions still remain regarding its magmatic system and connectivity to the rest of the Cascadia arc. For example, the structure of the magma plumbing system below the shallowest magma chamber under the volcano is still only poorly known. This information will be useful for hazard assessment for the southwest Washington area, and also for gaining insight into fundamental scientific questions such as the assimilation and differentiation processes that lead to the formation of continental crust. As part of the multi-disciplinary imaging of Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment, funded by NSF GeoPRISMS and EarthScope, an active source seismic experiment will be conducted in late summer 2014. The experiment will utilize all of the 2600 IRIS/PASSCAL/USArray Texan instruments. The instruments will be deployed as two 1000-instrument consecutive refraction profiles (one N/S and one WNW/ESE). Each of these profiles will be accompanied by two 1600-instrument areal arrays at varying distances from Mount St. Helens. Finally, one 2600-instrument areal array will be centered on Mount St. Helens. These instruments will record a total of twenty-four 500-1000 kg shots. Each refraction profile will have an average station spacing of 150 m, and a total length of 150 km. The stations in the areal arrays will be separated by ~1 km. A critical step in the success of this project is to develop an experimental setup that can resolve the most interesting aspects of the magmatic system. In particular, we want to determine the distribution of shot locations that will provide good coverage throughout the entire model space, while still allowing us to focus on regions likely to contain the magmatic plumbing system. In this study, we approach this problem by calculating Fréchet kernels with dynamic ray tracing. An initial observation from these kernels is that waves traveling across the largest offsets of the experiment (~150km) have sensitivity below depths of 30km. This means that we may be able to image the magmatic system down to the Moho, estimated at ~40 km. Additional work is focusing on searching for the shot locations that provide high resolution around very shallow features beneath Mount St. Helens, such as the first magmatic reservoir at about 3 km depth, and the associated Mount St. Helens seismic zone. One way in which we are guiding this search is to find the shot locations that maximize sensitivity values within the regions of interest after summing Fréchet kernels from each shot/station pair

Kiser, Eric; Levander, Alan; Harder, Steve; Abers, Geoff; Creager, Ken; Vidale, John; Moran, Seth; Malone, Steve

2013-04-01

209

Artificial Seismic Shadow Zone Created by Metamaterials  

E-print Network

We developed a completely new method of earthquake-proof engineering to create an artificial seismic shadow zone using acoustic metamaterials. Helmholtz resonators intercept acoustic waves according to their resonance frequency, which creates a negative modulus or stop-band of the wave. By designing huge empty boxes with a few side-holes corresponding to the resonance frequencies of seismic waves and burying them around the buildings that we want to protect, the velocity of the seismic wave becomes imaginary. The meta-barrier composed of many meta-boxes attenuates the seismic waves, which reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially by dissipating the seismic energy. This is a mechanical method of converting the seismic energy into sound and heat. We estimated the sound level generated from a seismic wave. The meta-barrier creates a seismic shadow zone, protecting all the buildings within the zone. This method of area protection differs from the point protection of conventional seismic design, including th...

Kim, Sang-Hoon

2012-01-01

210

Seismic engineering for piping systems, tanks and power plant equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference on seismic effects on reactor components. Topics considered at the conference included damping in seismic design, variation in damping with response amplitude in piping systems, space HVAC ducts, testing and qualification methods, fluid-structure interactions, LMFBR tanks, small bore piping systems, pressure vessels, and piping stress-strain correlations for seismic loadings of reactor

T. H. Liu; P. Y. Chen; Y. A. Patel; D. C. Ma

1986-01-01

211

Polar Seismic TETwalker: Integrating Engineering Teaching and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the TETwalker robot platform at NASA\\/Goddard Space Flight Center, the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has begun work on designing and modeling the integration of seismic surveying equipment into the TETwalker robot architecture for use in polar environments. Employing multiple Seismic TETwalker robots will allow gathering of polar seismic data in previously inaccessible or unexplored

C. M. Gifford; I. Ruiz; B. L. Carmichael; U. B. Wade; A. Agah

2007-01-01

212

Techniques for Determining the Geofiltration Properties of Clayey Soils Related to the Design of Seismically Stable Suffosion Earthen-Rock Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic stability of earth dams for the most part is evaluated based on mechanical stability characteristics of the retaining prisms; these are analyzed by numerical methods with allowance for the additional loading generated by a seismic wave of specified magnitude on its passage through the dam location. One may quote a whole range of instructive examples [1, 2] of

V. N. Zhilenkov

2003-01-01

213

Seismic risk perception in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

2014-05-01

214

Voter verifiability in homomorphic election schemes  

E-print Network

Voters are now demanding the ability to verify that their votes are cast and counted as intended. Most existing cryptographic election protocols do not treat the voter as a computationally-limited entity separate from the ...

Forsythe, Joy Marie

2005-01-01

215

2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey recently updated the National Seismic Hazard Maps by incorporating new seismic, geologic, and geodetic information on earthquake rates and associated ground shaking. The 2008 versions supersede those released in 1996 and 2002. These maps are the basis for seismic design provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, earthquake loss studies, retrofit priorities, and land-use planning. Their use in design of buildings, bridges, highways, and critical infrastructure allows structures to better withstand earthquake shaking, saving lives and reducing disruption to critical activities following a damaging event. The maps also help engineers avoid costs from over-design for unlikely levels of ground motion.

Petersen, M.D.; and others

2008-01-01

216

Seismic no-data zone, offshore Mississippi delta: depositional controls on geotechnical properties, velocity structure, and seismic attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Seismic acquisition problems plague exploration and production offshore the Mississippi delta. Geologic and geotechnical analyses of 300-ft borings and 20-ft piston cores, combined with subbottom acoustic measurements, help identify and predict the locations, types, and magnitudes of anomalous seismic zones. This knowledge is used to design acquisition and processing techniques to circumvent the seismic problems.

May, J.A.; Meeder, C.A.; Tinkle, A.R.; Wener, K.R.

1986-09-01

217

PRA-Based SMA: the First Tool toward a Risk-Informed Approach to the Seismic Design of the IRIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, modular, medium-power PWR with an integral primary system layout. As part of the “safety-by-design_” philosophy that inspired the project from the very beginning, a risk-informed approach to its design phase is being adopted and a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is being used as an active tool in pursuing an advanced level

Yuji KUMAGAI; Andrea MAIOLI; Marco E. RICOTTI; Hisashi NINOKATA; Mario D. CARELLI

2007-01-01

218

IMPLEMENTATION OF SEISMIC STOPS IN PIPING SYSTEMS.  

SciTech Connect

Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station -Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

BEZLER,P.

1993-02-01

219

The intelligent seismic retrofitting of structure based on the magnetorheological dampers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the state-of-the-art about seismic damage principles and aseismic strengthening technology, analysis and design method of seismic retrofitting for earthquake damaged reinforced concrete frame using magnetorheological (MR) damper is proposed. Three levels of fortification objects are put forward and quantified or intelligent retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame using MR damper. The experiment system of a three-floor reinforced concrete frame-shear wall eccentric structure has been built based on Matlab/Simulink software environment and hardware/software resources of dSPACE. The shaking table experiment of seismic retrofitting of earthquake damaged reinforced concrete frame-shear wall structure using MR damper is implemented using rapid control prototyping (RCP) technology. The validity of passive control strategies and semi-active control strategy is verified under El Centro earthquake excitations with different peak value. The experimental results indicate that MR dampers can significantly enhance aseismic performance level of the seismic damaged reinforced concrete frame, and meet all the earthquake fortification levels. The aseismic ability of MR damper intelligent aseismic structure system of auto-reinforcement is much better than both the damaged structure and the aseismic structure reinforced by the passive damper.

Li, Xiu-ling; Li, Hong-nan

2009-03-01

220

An investigation of the principles and practices of seismic isolation in bridge structures  

E-print Network

Within the past decade, seismic isolation systems have gained rapid popularity in the earthquake resistant design of bridge structures. This popularity has come in response to the inadequacy of earlier seismic design and ...

Lapointe, Evan M. (Evan McNeil), 1981-

2004-01-01

221

Design of a potential long-term test of gas production from a hydrate deposit at the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska: Geomechanical system response and seismic monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to optimize the design of a potential long-term production test at the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska, we have developed a coupled modeling framework that includes the simulation of (1) large-scale production at the test site, (2) the corresponding geomechanical changes in the system caused by production, and (3) time-lapse geophysical (seismic) surveys. The long-term test

L. Chiaramonte; M. B. Kowalsky; J. Rutqvist; G. J. Moridis

2009-01-01

222

Seismic fragilities for non-ductile reinforced concrete frames – Role of aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic fragilities are essential to earthquake loss estimation and performance-based earthquake engineering in regions of high seismicity. Construction practices for frames in regions of moderate seismicity are quite different, and such frames have received less attention in the literature. Fragilities for performance levels identified in recent seismic regulations are developed herein for reinforced concrete frames designed for gravity load in

Ozan Cem Celik; Bruce R. Ellingwood

2010-01-01

223

LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O. [and others

1997-01-01

224

A university-developed seismic source for shallow seismic surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of this study were to (1) design and develop a low cost seismic source for shallow seismic surveys and (2) test the performance of the developed source at a test site. The surface seismic source, referred to here as a university-developed seismic source is based upon the principle of an accelerated weight drop. A 30 kg activated mass is lifted by a mechanical rack and pinion gear and is accelerated by a mounted spring. When the mass is released from 0.5 m above the surface, it hits a 30 kg base plate and energy is transferred to the ground, generating a seismic wave. The developed source is portable, environmentally friendly, easy to operate and maintain, and is a highly repeatable impact source. To compare the developed source with a sledgehammer source, a source test was performed at a test site, a study site for mapping a major fault zone in southern Thailand. The sledgehammer and the developed sources were shot along a 300 m long seismic reflection profile with the same parameters. Data were recorded using 12 channels off-end geometry with source and receiver spacing of 5 m, resulting in CDP stacked sections with 2.5 m between traces. Source performances were evaluated based on analyses of signal penetration, frequency content and repeatability, as well as the comparison of stacked sections. The results show that both surface sources are suitable for seismic studies down to a depth of about 200 m at the site. The hammer data are characterized by relatively higher frequency signals than the developed source data, whereas the developed source generates signals with overall higher signal energy transmission and greater signal penetration. In addition, the repeatability of the developed source is considerably higher than the hammer source.

Yordkayhun, Sawasdee; Na Suwan, Jumras

2012-07-01

225

Lamport clocks: verifying a directory cache-coherence protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern shared-memory multiprocessors use complex memory sys- tem implementations that include a variety of non-trivial and inter- acting optimizations. More time is spent in verifying the correctness of such implementations than in designing the system. In particular, large-scale Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) sys- tems usually rely on a directory cache-coherence protocol to pro- vide the illusion of a sequentially consistent

Manoj Plakal; Daniel J. Sorin; Anne E. Condon; Mark D. Hill

1998-01-01

226

Seismic retrofitting of deficient Canadian buildings  

E-print Network

Many developed countries such as Canada and the United States are facing a significant infrastructure crisis. Most of their facilities have been built with little consideration of seismic design and durability issues. As ...

Gemme, Marie-Claude

2009-01-01

227

Seismic refraction exploration  

SciTech Connect

In seismic exploration, refracted seismic energy is detected by seismic receivers to produce seismograms of subsurface formations. The seismograms are produced by directing seismic energy from an array of sources at an angle to be refracted by the subsurface formations and detected by the receivers. The directivity of the array is obtained by delaying the seismic pulses produced by each source in the source array.

Ruehle, W.H.

1980-12-30

228

A Verifiable Secret Shuffle of Homomorphic Encryptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shuffle consists of a permutation and re-encryption of a set of input ciphertexts. One application of shuffles is to build\\u000a mix-nets. We suggest an honest verifier zero-knowledge argument for the correctness of a shuffle of homomorphic encryptions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Our scheme is more efficient than previous schemes both in terms of communication and computation. The honest verifier zero-knowledge\\u000a argument has a

Jens Groth

2010-01-01

229

Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01

230

Seismic sources  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

1987-04-20

231

The ENAM Explosive Seismic Source Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the pilot study conducted as part of the eastern North American margin (ENAM) community seismic experiment (CSE) to test an innovative design of land explosive seismic source for crustal-scale seismic surveys. The ENAM CSE is a community based onshore-offshore controlled- and passive-source seismic experiment spanning a 400 km-wide section of the mid-Atlantic East Coast margin around Cape Hatteras. The experiment was designed to address prominent research questions such as the role of the pre-existing lithospheric grain on the structure and evolution of the ENAM margin, the distribution of magmatism, and the along-strike segmentation of the margin. In addition to a broadband OBS deployment, the CSE will acquire multichannel marine seismic data and two major onshore-offshore controlled-source seismic profiles recording both marine sources (airguns) and land explosions. The data acquired as part of the ENAM CSE will be available to the community immediately upon completion of QC procedures required for archiving purposes. The ENAM CSE provides an opportunity to test a radically new and more economical design for land explosive seismic sources used for crustal-scale seismic surveys. Over the years we have incrementally improved the performance and reduced the cost of shooting crustal seismic shots. These improvements have come from better explosives and more efficient configuration of those explosives. These improvements are largely intuitive, using higher velocity explosives and shorter, but larger diameter explosive configurations. However, recently theoretical advances now allow us to model not only these incremental improvements, but to move to more radical shot designs, which further enhance performance and reduce costs. Because some of these designs are so radical, they need experimental verification. To better engineer the shots for the ENAM experiment we are conducting an explosives test in the region of the ENAM CSE. The results of this test will guide engineering for the main ENAM experiment as well as other experiments in the future.

Harder, S. H.; Magnani, M. B.

2013-12-01

232

Verifying Concurrent Memory Reclamation Algorithms with Grace  

E-print Network

Verifying Concurrent Memory Reclamation Algorithms with Grace Alexey Gotsman, Noam Rinetzky proposed for it--such as haz- ard pointers, read-copy-update and epoch-based reclamation--have proved very challenging for formal reasoning. In this paper, we show that different memory reclamation techniques actually

Rinetzky, Noam

233

Verifying Magic Square Properties Sample Proof  

E-print Network

Verifying Magic Square Properties Sample Proof Theorem. Adding the same number n to each entry in a 3 by 3 magic square with magic number M yields a magic square with magic number M + 3n. Proof. Suppose we are given a 3 by 3 magic square, called Square 1, and the three numbers in some row, column

White, Donald L.

234

NASA/TM2009215726 Formally Verified Practical  

E-print Network

NASA/TM­2009­215726 Formally Verified Practical Algorithms For Recovery From Loss of Separation of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia June 2009 #12;The NASA STI Program Office . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific

Butler, Ricky W.

235

Attempts to Verify Written English Anthony Penniston  

E-print Network

problem. 2. Related work The ultimate goal of natural language processing is the automatic "understanding and verifying the grammatical correctness of sentences in written English. Keywords natural language processing, there exist several modern natural language processing (NLP) techniques: dictionaries for spelling checkers

Harley, Eric R.

236

Verifying Hybrid Systems Involving Transcendental Functions  

E-print Network

Verifying Hybrid Systems Involving Transcendental Functions Paul Jackson1 , Andrew Sogokon1 , JamesTarski proof en- gine for problems involving special functions such as sin, cos, exp, etc. Transcendental between KeYmaera and external tools have involved polynomi- als over the reals, but not transcendental

Jackson, Paul

237

Broadband seismology and small regional seismic networks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

Herrmann, Robert B.

1995-01-01

238

E-Verify is a service of DHS and SSA WHAT IS E-VERIFY?  

E-print Network

-Verify, or when completing the Form I-9 should call the Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Office as an employee have certain rights and responsibilities. fast free simple secure (888) 464-4218 www.dhs.gov/E-Verify Employment Verification. Done. You Have Rights You Should Know Your Rights and Responsibilities Under E

Bolding, M. Chad

239

Cloud Verifier: Verifiable Auditing Service for IaaS Clouds Joshua Schiffman  

E-print Network

Cloud Verifier: Verifiable Auditing Service for IaaS Clouds Joshua Schiffman Security Architecture University Park, PA, USA yus138,hvijay,tjaeger@cse.psu.edu Abstract--Cloud computing has commoditized compute paradigm, its adoption has been stymied by cloud platform's lack of trans- parency, which leaves customers

Jaeger, Trent

240

Seismic behavior of buried pipelines constructed by design criteria and construction specifications of both Korea and the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake loss estimation systems in the US, for example HAZUS (Hazard in US), have been established based on sufficient damage records for the purpose of prevention and efficient response to earthquake hazards; however, in Korea, insufficient data sets of earthquakes and damage records are currently available. In this study, the earthquake damages to pipelines in Korea using the pipeline repair rate (RR) recommended in HAZUS was reevaluated with the degree of confidence when RR is used without modification for the damage estimation of pipelines in Korea. The numerical analyses using a commercial finite element model, ABAQUS, were carried out to compare stresses and strains mobilized in both brittle and ductile pipelines constructed by the design criteria and construction specifications of both Korea and the US. These pipelines were embedded in dense sand overlying three different in situ soils (clay, sand, and gravel) subjected to earthquake excitations with peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 0.2 to 1.2 g and 1994 Northridge and 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake loadings. The numerical results show that differences in the stress and strain rates are less than 10%. This implies that RR in HAZUS can be used for earthquake damage estimation of pipelines with a 90% confidence level in Korea.

Jeon, S.-S.

2013-09-01

241

Seismic qualification of unanchored equipment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes procedures used to design and qualify unanchored equipment to survive Seismic events to the PC = 4 level in a moderate seismic area. The need for flexibility to move experimental equipment together with the requirements for remote handling in a highly-radioactive non-reactor nuclear facility precluded normal equipment anchorage. Instead equipment was designed to remain stable under anticipated DBE floor motions with sufficient margin to achieve the performance goal. The equipment was also designed to accommodate anticipated sliding motions with sufficient. The simplified design criteria used to achieve these goals were based on extensive time-history simulations of sliding, rocking, and overturning of generic equipment models. The entire process was subject to independent peer review and accepted in a Safety Evaluation Report. The process provides a model suitable for adaptation to similar applications and for assessment of the potential for seismic damage of existing, unanchored equipment In particular, the paper describes: (1) Two dimensional sliding studies of deformable equipment subject to 3-D floor excitation as the basis for simplified sliding radius and sliding velocity design criteria. (2) Two dimensional rocking and overturning simulations of rigid equipment used to establish design criteria for minimum base dimensions and equipment rigidity to prevent overturning. (3) Assumed mode rocking analyses of deformable equipment models used to establish uplift magnitudes and subsequent impacts during stable rocking motions. The model used for these dynamic impact studies is reported elsewhere.

Moran, T.J.

1995-12-01

242

Seismic sources  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

Green, Michael A. (Oakland, CA); Cook, Neville G. W. (Lafayette, CA); McEvilly, Thomas V. (Berkeley, CA); Majer, Ernest L. (El Cirrito, CA); Witherspoon, Paul A. (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01

243

Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

1979-01-01

244

Positively Verifying Mating of Previously Unverifiable Flight Connectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current practice is to uniquely key the connectors, which, when mated, could not be verified by ground tests such as those used in explosive or non-explosive initiators and pyro valves. However, this practice does not assure 100-percent correct mating. This problem could be overcome by the following approach. Errors in mating of interchangeable connectors can result in degraded or failed space mission. Mating of all flight connectors considered not verifiable via ground tests can be verified electrically by the following approach. It requires two additional wires going through the connector of interest, a few resistors, and a voltage source. The test-point voltage V(sub tp) when the connector is not mated will be the same as the input voltage, which gets attenuated by the resistor R(sub 1) when the female (F) and male (M) connectors are mated correctly and properly. The voltage at the test point will be a function of R(sub 1) and R(sub 2). Monitoring of the test point could be done on ground support equipment (GSE) only, or it can be a telemetry point. For implementation on multiple connector pairs, a different value for R(sub 1) or R(sub 2) or both can be selected for each pair of connectors that would result in a unique test point voltage for each connector pair. Each test point voltage is unique, and correct test point voltage is read only when the correct pair is mated correctly together. Thus, this design approach can be used to verify positively the correct mating of the connector pairs. This design approach can be applied to any number of connectors on the flight vehicle.

Pandipati R. K. Chetty

2011-01-01

245

Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate  

SciTech Connect

We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

Amos Nur

2009-01-08

246

Towards composition of verified hardware devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computers are being used where no affordable level of testing is adequate. Safety and life critical systems must find a replacement for exhaustive testing to guarantee their correctness. Through a mathematical proof, hardware verification research has focused on device verification and has largely ignored system composition verification. To address these deficiencies, we examine how the current hardware verification methodology can be extended to verify complete systems.

Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

1991-01-01

247

Integration of onshore and offshore seismological data to study the seismicity of the Calabrian Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pollino Massif marks the transition from the Southern Appenninic to the Calabrian Arc. On the western side it is characterized by a moderately sized seismicity (about 9 M > 4 events in the last 50 years), well documented in the last 400 years. The moment tensor solutions available in this area yields, mainly, normal faults with coherent Southern Appeninic trend. This remains true also for the events that are localized on the calabrian side of Pollino, South of the massif. In most of the Sibari plane, seismic activity is very scarce, while it is again rather marked on its southeastern corner, both onshore and offshore. The above observations point to the perspective that the stress field of a vast portion of Northern Calabria still resembles that of the Southern Appenines. In this frame, it becomes important to investigate the offshore seismicity of the Sibari Gulf and the deformation pattern within the Sibari Plane. The latter might function as a hinge to transfer the deformation of the extensional fault system in the Pollino area to a different offshore fault system. Since return times of larger events might be very long, we need to investigate the true seismic potential of the offshore faults and to verify whether they are truly strike slip or if they could involve relevant thrust or normal components, that would add to the risk that of potentially associated tsunamis. Despite their importance in the understanding of the seismotectonic processes taking place in the Southern Appenninic - Calabrian Arc border and surrounding areas, the seismicity and the seismogenic volumes of the Sibari Gulf until now has not been well characterized due to the lack of offshore seismic stations. The seismicity of the Calabrian is monitored by the Italian National Seismic Network (INSN) managed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and by the Calabrian Regional Seismic Network (CRSN) managed by the University of Calabria. Both the network comprise only on-land seismic stations. The lack of offshore stations prevents accurate determination of the hypocentral parameters also for moderate-strong earthquakes that occur in the Calabria offshore. With the aim of investigate the near shore seismicity in the Sibari Gulf and its eventual relationship with the Pollino activity, in the early 2014 will start a project for the improvement of the Calabrian Seismic Network in monitoring the Sibari Gulf area by deploying several Ocean Bottom Seismometers with Hydrophone (OBS/H). For this experiment, each OBS/H is equipped with a broad-band seismometer housed in a glass sphere designed to operate at a depth of up to 6000 m and with an autolevelling sensor system. The OBS/Hs are also equipped with an hydrophone. Analogical signals are recorded with a sampling frequency of 200 Hz by a four-channel 21 bits datalogger. In this work, we plan to present the preliminary results of the monitoring campaign showing the largest improvement in hypocenter locations derived from the integration of the onshore and offshore seismic stations.

D'Alessandro, Antonino; Guerra, Ignazio; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Gervasi, Anna; Harabaglia, Paolo; Luzio, Dario; Stellato, Gilda

2014-05-01

248

Seismic data acquisition method  

SciTech Connect

The field locations of seismic shot points are chosen to produce partial multifold data, the static correction equations of which are at least partially coupled. The seismic cross sections resulting therefrom are substantially improved.

Johnson, P.W.

1984-08-21

249

Parallel Seismic Ray Tracing  

E-print Network

Seismic ray tracing is a common method for understanding and modeling seismic wave propagation. The wavefront construction (WFC) method handles wavefronts instead of individual rays, thereby providing a mechanism to control ray density...

Jain, Tarun K

2013-12-09

250

Seismic analysis of the large 70-meter antenna. Part 2: General dynamic response and a seismic safety check  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive dynamic analysis for the new JPL 70-meter antenna structure is presented. Analytical procedures are based on the normal mode decomposition which include dumping and special forcing functions. The dynamic response can be obtained for any arbitrarily selected point on the structure. A new computer program for computing the time-dependent, resultant structural displacement, summing the effects of all participating modes, was developed also. Program compatibility with natural frequency analysis output was verified. The program was applied to the JPL 70-meter antenna structure and the dynamic response for several specially selected points was computed. Seismic analysis of structures, a special application of the general dynamic analysis, is based also on the normal modal decomposition. Strength specification of the antenna, with respect to the earthquake excitation, is done by using the common response spectra. The results indicated basically a safe design under an assumed 5% or more damping coefficient. However, for the antenna located at Goldstone, with more active seismic environment, this study strongly recommends and experimental program that determines the true damping coefficient for a more reliable safety check.

Kiedron, K.; Chian, C. T.

1985-01-01

251

USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and distances.

Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

2000-01-01

252

Seismic behavior of structural silicone glazing  

SciTech Connect

In seismic events, glass curtain walls undergo racking deformation, while the flat glass lites do not rack due to their high shear stiffness. If the glass curtain wall is not isolated from the building frame by specifically designed connections that accommodate relative motion, seismic racking motion of the building frame will demand significant resiliency of the sealant that secures the glass to the curtain wall framing. In typical four-sided structural silicone glazing systems used in buildings with unbraced moment frames, the magnitude of seismic racking is likely to stress the sealants significantly beyond the sealant design strength. In this paper, the extent of the expected seismic racking motion, the behavior of the structural silicone glazing when subjected to the expected racking motion, and the field performance of a building with four-sided structural silicone glazing during the Northridge earthquake are discussed. The details of a curtain wall design concept consisting of shop-glazed subframes connected to the building frame and the connections that accommodate seismic motion of the subframe relative to the building frame is developed. Specific recommendations are made for the design of the four-sided structural silicone glazing systems for seismic loads.

Zarghamee, M.S.; Schwartz, T.A. [Simpson Gumpertz and Heger Inc., Arlington, MA (United States); Gladstone, M. [Dow Corning Corp., Fremont, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

253

Seismic Refraction Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following lab will introduce students to the basic concepts of seismic refraction as well as some actual data collected during seismic refraction surveys. You will use your knowledge of seismic refraction to calculate various parameters of interest. The two travel time data sets come from an existing SERC activity by Robert Cicerone at Bridgewater State College.

Scott Marshall

254

Virtual Seismic Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Seismic Atlas is an open access community resource to share the geological interpretation of seismic data. By browsing freely through the site you will find seismic images and interpretations. And you can down load higher resolution images for your use.

Virtual Seismic Atlas

255

Seismic performance of reinforced concrete frames with nominal ductility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental study is undertaken in this thesis to evaluate the seismic performance of Nominally Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (NDMRFs) designed to conform to the current Canadian provisions. Buildings of different heights and typical configurations are considered. The frames of such buildings are designed as nominally ductile frames for the combined gravity and seismic loading in accordance with

Khaled Ahmed Hamdy

1992-01-01

256

Seismic performance of reinforced concrete frames with nominal ductility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental study is undertaken in this thesis to evaluate the seismic performance of Nominally Ductile Moment Resisting Frames (NDMRFs) designed to conform to the current Canadian provisions.^ Buildings of different heights and typical configurations are considered. The frames of such buildings are designed as nominally ductile frames for the combined gravity and seismic loading in accordance with

Khaled Ahmed Hamdy

1992-01-01

257

Seismic behavior and retrofitting of reinforced concrete moment resistant frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many multistory reinforced concrete frame structures built prior to 1970's located in seismic zones have been designed only for gravity loads without any considerations for lateral loads. These structures are referred to as Gravity Load Designed (GLD) frames. The lack of seismic considerations in GLD structures results in non-ductile behavior that may cause the lateral load resistance of these buildings

Shahram Talebi

2003-01-01

258

Seismic Performance of Masonry Infill Walls Retrofitted With CFRP Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis: Synopsis: Synopsis: Synopsis: Synopsis: A significant portion of existing building stock that was constructed prior to the enactment of modern seismic design provisions consists of gravity-load-designed reinforced concrete frames, infilled with unreinforced masonry walls. These structures are susceptible to extensive seismic damage when subjected to strong earthquakes and require retrofitting in order to comply with the provisions of current

M. Saatcioglu; F. Serrato; S. Foo

259

Revolutionary seismic vessel sees first action in North Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the design of a new seismic surveying vessel which was developed in response to the increased need for 3D seismic data acquisition. To help in the distribution of the seismic equipment in tow, this ship was developed to have a wide, continuous beam to allow uniform distribution of a large number of seismic streamers. This width to length ratio also provides better stability of the ship as it moves through the water increasing the quality of the seismic data. The propulsion systems have also been constructed to better drag the arrays through the water. Specifications and cost benefit analysis of this new seismic vessel are reviewed and compared to conventional seismic survey methods and vessels.

Greenway, J. [PGS Exploration AS, Oslo (Norway)

1995-08-28

260

Basis for seismic provisions of DOE-STD-1020  

SciTech Connect

DOE-STD-1020 provides for a graded approach for the seismic design and evaluation of DOE structures, systems, and components (SSC). Each SSC is assigned to a Performance Category (PC) with a performance description and an approximate annual probability of seismic-induced unacceptable performance, P{sub F}. The seismic annual probability performance goals for PC 1 through 4 for which specific seismic design and evaluation criteria are presented. DOE-STD-1020 also provides a seismic design and evaluation procedure applicable to achieve any seismic performance goal annual probability of unacceptable performance specified by the user. The desired seismic performance goal is achieved by defining the seismic hazard in terms of a site-specified design/evaluation response spectrum (called herein, the Design/Evaluation Basis Earthquake, DBE). Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates are used to establish the DBE. The resulting seismic hazard curves define the amplitude of the ground motion as a function of the annual probability of exceedance P{sub H} of the specified seismic hazard. Once the DBE is defined, the SSC is designed or evaluated for this DBE using adequately conservative deterministic acceptance criteria. To be adequately conservative, the acceptance criteria must introduce an additional reduction in the risk of unacceptable performance below the annual risk of exceeding the DBE. The ratio of the seismic hazard exceedance probability P{sub H} to the performance goal probability P{sub F} is defined herein as the risk reduction ratio. The required degree of conservatism in the deterministic acceptance criteria is a function of the specified risk reduction ratio.

Kennedy, R.C. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States); Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

261

Salvo: Seismic imaging software for complex geologies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Salvo, a three-dimensional seismic-imaging software for complex geologies. Regions of complex geology, such as overthrusts and salt structures, can cause difficulties for many seismic-imaging algorithms used in production today. The paraxial wave equation and finite-difference methods used within Salvo can produce high-quality seismic images in these difficult regions. However this approach comes with higher computational costs which have been too expensive for standard production. Salvo uses improved numerical algorithms and methods, along with parallel computing, to produce high-quality images and to reduce the computational and the data input/output (I/O) costs. This report documents the numerical algorithms implemented for the paraxial wave equation, including absorbing boundary conditions, phase corrections, imaging conditions, phase encoding, and reduced-source migration. This report also describes I/O algorithms for large seismic data sets and images and parallelization methods used to obtain high efficiencies for both the computations and the I/O of seismic data sets. Finally, this report describes the required steps to compile, port and optimize the Salvo software, and describes the validation data sets used to help verify a working copy of Salvo.

OBER,CURTIS C.; GJERTSEN,ROB; WOMBLE,DAVID E.

2000-03-01

262

Verifying speculative multithreading in an application  

DOEpatents

Verifying speculative multithreading in an application executing in a computing system, including: executing one or more test instructions serially thereby producing a serial result, including insuring that all data dependencies among the test instructions are satisfied; executing the test instructions speculatively in a plurality of threads thereby producing a speculative result; and determining whether a speculative multithreading error exists including: comparing the serial result to the speculative result and, if the serial result does not match the speculative result, determining that a speculative multithreading error exists.

Felton, Mitchell D

2014-11-18

263

Verifying speculative multithreading in an application  

DOEpatents

Verifying speculative multithreading in an application executing in a computing system, including: executing one or more test instructions serially thereby producing a serial result, including insuring that all data dependencies among the test instructions are satisfied; executing the test instructions speculatively in a plurality of threads thereby producing a speculative result; and determining whether a speculative multithreading error exists including: comparing the serial result to the speculative result and, if the serial result does not match the speculative result, determining that a speculative multithreading error exists.

Felton, Mitchell D

2014-12-09

264

Marine Seismic Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Marine Seismic Data Center (MSDC) of the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). MSDC's purpose is to organize seismic reflection and refraction data into a modern relational database management system accessible through the Internet. The web site provides access to metadata, SEG-Y (seismic shot record conversion) files, navigation files, seismic profile images, processing histories and more. The main features of the web site include a geographic search engine, a metadata search engine, and metadata pages for the cruises. A tool for plotting seismic sections is being tested and will be added in the future.

265

Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges  

SciTech Connect

There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

Pilat, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25

266

Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2002  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the earthquake activity on Hanford for FY 2002. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 1,177 triggers during fiscal year 2002. Of these triggers, 553 were earthquakes. Two earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 13 occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 12 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 17 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 13 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was associated with major structures, and 28 were random events. There were no earthquake triggers of the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during fiscal year 2002.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2002-11-15

267

Seismic vulnerability assessments in risk analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of seismic vulnerability is a critical issue within natural and technological risk analysis. In general, there are three common types of methods used for development of vulnerability functions of different elements at risk: empirical, analytical and expert estimations. The paper addresses the empirical methods for seismic vulnerability estimation for residential buildings and industrial facilities. The results of engineering analysis of past earthquake consequences, as well as the statistical data on buildings behavior during strong earthquakes presented in the different seismic intensity scales, are used to verify the regional parameters of mathematical models in order to simulate physical and economic vulnerability for different building types classified according to seismic scale MMSK-86. Verified procedure has been used to estimate the physical and economic vulnerability of buildings and constructions against earthquakes for the Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area, which are characterized by rather high level of seismic activity and high population density. In order to estimate expected damage states to buildings and constructions in the case of the earthquakes according to the OSR-97B (return period T=1,000 years) within big cities and towns, they were divided into unit sites and their coordinates were presented as dots located in the centers of unit sites. Then the indexes obtained for each unit site were summed up. The maps of physical vulnerability zoning for Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area includes two elements: percent of different damage states for settlements with number of inhabitants less than 1,000 and vulnerability for cities and towns with number of inhabitants more than 1,000. The hypsometric scale is used to represent both elements on the maps. Taking into account the size of oil pipe line systems located in the highly active seismic zones in the Russian Federation the corresponding procedures have been developed. They are based on mathematical modeling of the system elements' interaction: the oil pipe line and ground, in the case of seismic loads. As a result the dependence-ships between the probability of oil pipe line system to be damaged, and the intensity of shaking in grades of seismic scales have been obtained. The following three damage states for oil pipe line systems have been considered: light damage - elastic deformation of the linear part; localized plastic deformation without breaching the pipeline; average damage - significant plastic deformation of the linear part; fistulas in some areas; complete destruction - large horizontal and vertical displacements of the linear part; mass fistulas, cracks; "guillotine break" of pipe line in some areas.

Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

2013-04-01

268

Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the horizontal force a building should be able to withstand during an earthquake. This seismic hazard map of the Americas depicts the likely level of short-period ground motion from earthquakes in a fifty-year window. Short-period ground motions effect short-period structures (e.g., one-to-two story buildings). The largest seismic hazard values in the western hemisphere generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. Although the largest earthquakes ever recorded are the 1960 Chile and 1964 Alaska subduction zone earthquakes, the largest seismic hazard (PGA) value in the Americas is in Southern California (U.S.), along the San Andreas fault.

Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

1999-01-01

269

Seismic retrofitting of the Ste-Justine Hospital in Montreal  

E-print Network

Seismic engineering provides design and construction techniques so that buildings and other structures can survive the tremendous forces of earthquakes. While codes and design practices have resulted in greatly improved ...

Chartrand, Valerie

2009-01-01

270

Verifying a job applicant's factual credentials.  

PubMed

Nearly one-third of all job applicants may make unjustified claims, exaggerate, omit important information, or lie in their resumes, employment applications, or interviews. Checking credentials before you hire is the best way to protect your staff and patients and to save time, money, and effort. In this article, the author identifies the most common job application lies and pinpoints the three most common resume/application red flags. In addition, the article suggests specific information that the applicant should supply in the application to help the employer get to the truth. It offers practical advice for verifying academic credentials, employment history, and awards and honors. Finally, this article provides useful suggestions for avoiding discrimination suits in hiring practices and techniques for coping with employees who have lied to you. PMID:11873447

Sachs, Laura

2002-01-01

271

Verifying timestamps of occultation observation systems  

E-print Network

We describe an image timestamp verification system to determine the exposure timing characteristics and continuity of images made by an imaging camera and recorder, with reference to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The original use was to verify the timestamps of stellar occultation recording systems, but the system is applicable to lunar flashes, planetary transits, sprite recording, or any area where reliable timestamps are required. The system offers good temporal resolution (down to 2 msec, referred to UTC) and provides exposure duration and interframe dead time information. The system uses inexpensive, off-the- shelf components, requires minimal assembly and requires no high-voltage components or connections. We also describe an application to load FITS (and other format) image files, which can decode the verification image timestamp. Source code, wiring diagrams and built applications are provided to aid the construction and use of the device.

A., M; Gault, Dave; Bolt, Greg; McEwan, Alistair; Filipovic, Miroslav D; White, Graeme L

2015-01-01

272

Verifiable process monitoring through enhanced data authentication.  

SciTech Connect

To ensure the peaceful intent for production and processing of nuclear fuel, verifiable process monitoring of the fuel production cycle is required. As part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-EURATOM collaboration in the field of international nuclear safeguards, the DOE Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Directorate General-Energy (DG-ENER) developed and demonstrated a new concept in process monitoring, enabling the use of operator process information by branching a second, authenticated data stream to the Safeguards inspectorate. This information would be complementary to independent safeguards data, improving the understanding of the plant's operation. The concept is called the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS). EDAS transparently captures, authenticates, and encrypts communication data that is transmitted between operator control computers and connected analytical equipment utilized in nuclear processes controls. The intent is to capture information as close to the sensor point as possible to assure the highest possible confidence in the branched data. Data must be collected transparently by the EDAS: Operator processes should not be altered or disrupted by the insertion of the EDAS as a monitoring system for safeguards. EDAS employs public key authentication providing 'jointly verifiable' data and private key encryption for confidentiality. Timestamps and data source are also added to the collected data for analysis. The core of the system hardware is in a security enclosure with both active and passive tamper indication. Further, the system has the ability to monitor seals or other security devices in close proximity. This paper will discuss the EDAS concept, recent technical developments, intended application philosophy and the planned future progression of this system.

Goncalves, Joao G. M. (European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy); Schwalbach, Peter (European Commission Directorate General%3CU%2B2014%3EEnergy, Luxemburg); Schoeneman, Barry Dale; Ross, Troy D.; Baldwin, George Thomas

2010-09-01

273

Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging  

SciTech Connect

This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could make SSR surveying considerably more efficient and less expensive, particularly when geophone intervals of 25 cm or less are required. The most recent research analyzed the difference in seismic response of the geophones with variable geophone spike length and geophones attached to various steel media. Experiments investigated the azimuthal dependence of the quality of data relative to the orientation of the rigidly attached geophones. Other experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the data are being amplified in much the same way that an organ pipe amplifies sound have so far proved inconclusive. Taken together, the positive results show that SSR imaging within a few meters of the earth's surface is possible if the geology is suitable, that SSR imaging can complement GPR imaging, and that SSR imaging could be made significantly more cost effective, at least in areas where the topography and the geology are favorable. Increased knowledge of the Earth's shallow subsurface through non-intrusive techniques is of potential benefit to management of DOE facilities. Among the most significant problems facing hydrologists today is the delineation of preferential permeability paths in sufficient detail to make a quantitative analysis possible. Aquifer systems dominated by fracture flow have a reputation of being particularly difficult to characterize and model. At chemically contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and others at Department of Defense (DOD) installations worldwide, establishing the spatial extent of the contamination, along with the fate of the contaminants and their transport-flow directions, is essential to the development of effective cleanup strategies. Detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface is important not only in environmental, groundwater, and geotechnical engineering applications, but also in neotectonics, mining geology, and the analysis of petroleum reservoir analogs. Near-surface seismology is in the vanguard of non-intrusive approaches to increase knowledge of the shallow subsurface; our

Steeples, Don W.

2004-12-09

274

Oklahoma seismic network. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States)]|[Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Energy Center

1993-07-01

275

Seismic isolation: Which way to go?  

SciTech Connect

There are known limitations in current seismic isolation designs which, particularly, use shearing type (e.g. rubber) bearings as isolators. This paper identifies some of the limitations and describes an alternative design. The technical basis and advantages of the new approach are presented.

Shustov, V. [Seismic Risk Evaluation Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

276

Verifying Soft Deadlines with Probabilistic Timed Automata ?  

E-print Network

The design and analysis of many systems, to mention communication proto- cols, embedded systems embedded systems, monitoring equipment, communication and multimedia pro- tocols, requires detailed of soft deadlines. 2 Background The design and analysis of many hardware and software systems, for example

Segala, Roberto

277

March 2000 Seismicity Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animated map of seismic activity in southern California during March 2000, part of a series of monthly seismicity reports and images, is available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC). This is particularly interesting because over half of the 1,626 earthquakes detected in the region were aftershocks from the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake. Color still maps and tables of seismic activity for April-August have also been added recently.

278

Verifying the Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function Method  

E-print Network

The planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) technique for determining distances to galaxies now has been applied to 34 galaxies, including 6 in the Virgo cluster and 3 in the Fornax cluster. Of these, 16 galaxies are late-type or spirals and presumably contain Cepheid variables useful for verifying the PNLF method. For 7 of these galaxies, Cepheid distances exist; the PNLF distances agree with the Cepheid distances within the dispersion of 8% and within a zero-point offset of 1%. In addition, 3 small groups were studied (NGC 1023, Leo I, and Coma I) where both spiral and elliptical distances were obtained to investigate the magnitude of any systematic dependence on spiral versus elliptical Hubble type. None was found. Since the PNLF method agrees well with the Cepheid system, and there is no measurable dependence on Hubble type, it follows that PNLF distances to the ellipticals in Virgo and Fornax also are on the Cepheid scale. This conclusion is strengthened by the Cepheid distances to several Virgo galaxies and the recent determination of a Cepheid distance to Fornax.

George Jacoby

1996-08-20

279

Seismic Imaging and Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-09

280

Volcano seismicity in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc than they are in the eastern and western regions. I tie these observations to trends in magma geochemistry and regional tectonic features, and present two hypotheses to explain what could control volcanism in the Aleutian arc.

Buurman, Helena

281

Sectionalized marine seismic cable  

SciTech Connect

A marine seismic cable is sectionalized with the individual cable sections being joined by articulated connector assemblies which permit relative bending movement between such individual cable sections.

Neeley, W.P.

1984-05-22

282

Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BASIX, the Bay Area Seismic Imaging eXperiment, conducted in September 1991, was designed to use a combination of verticalincidence and wide-angle seismic data to image the San Andreas and associated faults. The results of this experiment will provide, for the first time, a detailed image of the plate boundary between the Pacific and North American plates.Basic to our understanding of the earthquake cycle in the San Francisco Bay area is detailed knowledge of the structure and evolution of the complex boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. This boundary is a broad, complex zone in which slip is distributed over the San Andreas, Hayward, Rodgers Creek, Calaveras, Green Valley, and Antioch faults. The San Andreas accounts for approximately 40-60% of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates—the rest is distributed across these other faults located in the East Bay.

BASIX Working Group

283

A control system verifier using automated reasoning software  

SciTech Connect

An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logical axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions of the combined system.

Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

1985-08-01

284

Seismic Waves and the Slinky: A Guide For Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching guide is designed to introduce the concepts of waves and seismic waves that propagate within the Earth, and to provide ideas and suggestions for how to teach about seismic waves. The guide provides information on the types and properties of seismic waves and instructions for using some simple materials, especially the slinky, to effectively demonstrate seismic wave characteristics and wave propagation. Most of the activities described in the guide are useful both as demonstrations for the teacher and as exploratory activities for students.

Lawrence Braile

285

Operations plan for the Regional Seismic Test Network  

SciTech Connect

The Regional Seismic Test Network program was established to provide a capability for detection of extremely sensitive earth movements. Seismic signals from both natural and man-made earth motions will be analyzed with the ultimate objective of accurately locating underground nuclear explosions. The Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has designed an unattended seismic station capable of recording seismic information received at the location of the seismometers installed as part of that specific station. A network of stations is required to increase the capability of determining the source of the seismic signal and the location of the source. Current plans are to establish a five-station seismic network in the United States and Canada. The Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, has been assigned the responsibility for deploying, installing, and operating these remote stations. This Operation Plan provides the basic information and tasking to accomplish this assignment.

Not Available

1981-05-15

286

Measurement of the seismic attenuation performance of the VIRGO Superattenuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gravitational wave detector VIRGO aims at extending the detection band down to a few Hertz by isolating the mirrors of the interferometer from seismic noise. This result is achieved by hanging each mirror through an elastic suspension (Superattenuator), designed to filter mechanical vibrations in all the degrees of freedom. An experimental upper limit of the mirror residual seismic noise

S. Braccini; L. Barsotti; C. Bradaschia; G. Cella; A. Di Virgilio; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; F. Frasconi; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; F. Paoletti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; R. Poggiani; E. Campagna; G. Guidi; G. Losurdo; F. Martelli; M. Mazzoni; B. Perniola; F. Piergiovanni; R. Stanga; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; L. Brocco; S. Frasca; E. Majorana; A. Pai; C. Palomba; P. Puppo; P. Rapagnani; F. Ricci; G. Ballardin; R. Barillé; R. Cavalieri; E. Cuoco; V. Dattilo; D. Enard; R. Flaminio; A. Freise; S. Hebri; L. Holloway; P. La Penna; M. Loupias; J. Marque; C. Moins; A. Pasqualetti; P. Ruggi; R. Taddei; Z. Zhang; F. Acernese; S. Avino; F. Barone; E. Calloni; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Eleuteri; L. Giordano; L. Milano; S. Pardi; K. Qipiani; I. Ricciardi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; D. Babusci; G. Giordano; P. Amico; L. Bosi; L. Gammaitoni; F. Marchesoni; M. Punturo; F. Travasso; H. Vocca; C. Boccara; J. Moreau; V. Loriette; V. Reita; J. M. Mackowski; N. Morgado; L. Pinard; A. Remillieux; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Bizouard; V. Brisson; F. Cavalier; A. C. Clapson; M. Davier; P. Hello; S. Krecklbergh; F. Beauville; D. Buskulic; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; F. Marion; A. Masserot; B. Mours; E. Tournefier; D. Tombolato; D. Verkindt; M. Yvert; S. Aoudia; F. Bondu; A. Brillet; E. Chassande-Mottin; F. Cleva; J. P. Coulon; B. Dujardin; J. D. Fournier; H. Heitmann; C. N. Man; A. Spallicci; J. Y. Vinet

2005-01-01

287

Seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete frame with added viscoelastic dampers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes an experimental and analytical study on the seismic retrofit of a 13-scale reinforced concrete frame using viscoelastic dampers. After the frame had been damaged in the laboratory under simulated strong earthquake ground motions, two sets of viscoelastic dampers were designed and implemented to the structure, and the frame was subjected to further simulated seismic excitations. Test results

M. L. Lai

1995-01-01

288

1 INTRODUCTION This paper considers seismic resistance for  

E-print Network

in inelastic range, such as some buildings whose decoration is very expensive, nuclear power plant, museum1 INTRODUCTION This paper considers seismic resistance for structures and seismic control damper and semi-active control using in new design or existed buildings, bridges, facilities and other

Spencer Jr., B.F.

289

UTILIZATION OF SEISMIC AND INFRASOUND SIGNALS FOR CHARACTERIZING MINING EXPLOSIONS  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF SEISMIC AND INFRASOUND SIGNALS FOR CHARACTERIZING MINING EXPLOSIONS Brian Stump1 is designed to quantify mining explosions as sources of seismic and infrasound signals. The study focuses and the Tyrone Mine in New Mexico. The seismo- acoustic station at Ft. Hancock, Texas, and the infrasound upgrade

Stump, Brian W.

290

A robust control method for seismic protection of civil frame building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, more and more experimental studies indicate that a mature active control design toward practical implementation requires consideration of robustness criteria in the design process, which includes the performance robustness in reducing tracking error and in resistance to external disturbance and measurement noise, and the stability robustness with respect to system uncertainty. In this paper, a robust control method employing these robustness criteria that can be further converted to a generalized H? control problem is presented for control of civil structures. To facilitate computation of H? controllers, an efficient solution procedure based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI), the so-called LMI-based H? control, is introduced. For verifying applicability of the proposed method, extensive simulations were conducted on a numerical building model with active bracings under seismic excitation, which was constructed from a full-scale steel frame building that was once tested on a shake table. In the simulation, system uncertainty is assumed in the controller design and the use of acceleration feedback is emphasized for practical consideration. From the simulation results, it is demonstrated that the performance of H? controllers proposed is remarkable and robust, and the efficiency of LMI-based approach is also approved. Therefore, this robust control method is suitable for application to seismic protection of civil frame buildings.

Wu, Jong-Cheng; Chih, Hsin-Hsien; Chen, Chern-Hwa

2006-06-01

291

Self-verifiable paper documents and automatic content verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes a method for the creation and automatic content verification of low-cost self-verifiable paper documents. The image of an original document is decomposed to symbol templates and their corresponding locations. The resulting data is further compressed and encrypted, and encoded in custom designed high-capacity color barcodes. The original image and barcodes are printed on the same paper to form a self-verifiable authentic document. During content verification, the paper document is scanned to obtain the barcodes and target image. The original image is reconstructed from data extracted from the barcodes, which is then registered with and compared to the target image. The verification is carried out hierarchically from the entire image down to word and symbol levels. For symbol level comparison, multiple types of features and shape matching are utilized in a cascade. The proposed verification method is inexpensive, robust and fast. Evaluation on 216 character tables and 102 real documents achieved greater than 99% alteration detection rate and less than 1% false positives at the word/symbol level.

Tian, Yibin; Zhan, Xiaonong; Wu, Chaohong; Ming, Wei

2014-02-01

292

Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations  

SciTech Connect

Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5?Hz to 50?Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L., E-mail: yilungmo@central.uh.edu [University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Laskar, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Menq, F. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2014-07-28

293

Statistical classification methods applied to seismic discrimination  

SciTech Connect

To verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), low energy seismic activity must be detected and discriminated. Monitoring small-scale activity will require regional (within {approx}2000 km) monitoring capabilities. This report provides background information on various statistical classification methods and discusses the relevance of each method in the CTBT seismic discrimination setting. Criteria for classification method selection are explained and examples are given to illustrate several key issues. This report describes in more detail the issues and analyses that were initially outlined in a poster presentation at a recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting. Section 2 of this report describes both the CTBT seismic discrimination setting and the general statistical classification approach to this setting. Seismic data examples illustrate the importance of synergistically using multivariate data as well as the difficulties due to missing observations. Classification method selection criteria are presented and discussed in Section 3. These criteria are grouped into the broad classes of simplicity, robustness, applicability, and performance. Section 4 follows with a description of several statistical classification methods: linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, variably regularized discriminant analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, logistic discriminant analysis, K-th Nearest Neighbor discrimination, kernel discrimination, and classification and regression tree discrimination. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized in Section 5.

Ryan, F.M. [ed.; Anderson, D.N.; Anderson, K.K.; Hagedorn, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.

1996-06-11

294

Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

Yan, Y.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Shi, Z.

2014-07-01

295

Cross-correlation—an objective tool to indicate induced seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differentiation between natural and induced seismicity is crucial for the ability to safely and soundly carry out various underground experiments and operations. This paper defines an objective tool for one of the criteria used to discriminate between natural and induced seismicity. The qualitative correlation between earthquake rates and the injected volume has been an established tool for investigating the possibility of induced, or triggered, seismicity. We derive mathematically, and verify using numerical examples, that the definition of normalized cross-correlation (NCC) between positive random functions exhibits high values with a limit equal to one, if these functions (such as earthquake rates and injection volumes) have a large mean and low standard deviation. In such a case, the high NCC values do not necessarily imply temporal relationship between the phenomena. Instead of positive-value time histories, the functions with their running mean subtracted should be used for cross-correlation. The NCC of such functions (called here NCCEP) may be close to zero, or may oscillate between positive and negative values in cases where seismicity is not related to injection. We apply this method for case studies of seismicity in Colorado, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and south-central Oklahoma, and show that NCCEP reliably determines induced seismicity. Finally, we introduce a geomechanical model explaining the positive cross-correlation observed in the induced seismicity data sets.

Oprsal, Ivo; Eisner, Leo

2014-03-01

296

Seismic qualification of equipment in operating nuclear power plants: Unresolved Safety Issue A-46  

Microsoft Academic Search

The margin of safety provided in existing nuclear power plant equipment to resist seismically induced loads and perform their intended safety functions may vary considerably, because of significant changes in design criteria and methods for the seismic qualification of equipment over the years. Therefore, the seismic qualification of equipment in operating plants must be reassessed to determine whether requalification is

1987-01-01

297

K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and an area from 23.00° to 39.00°N and 59.00° to 80.00°E. A threshold magnitude of 5.2 is considered for K-means cluster analysis. The current study uses the traditional metrics of cluster quality, in addition to a seismic hazard contextual metric to attempt to constrain the preferred number of clusters found in the data. The spatial distribution of earthquakes from the catalogue was used to define the seismic clusters for Pakistan, which can be used further in the process of defining seismogenic sources and corresponding earthquake recurrence models for estimates of seismic hazard and risk in Pakistan. Consideration of the different approaches to cluster validation in a seismic hazard context suggests that Pakistan may be divided into K = 19 seismic clusters, including some portions of the neighbouring countries of Afghanistan, Tajikistan and India.

Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

2014-07-01

298

Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together with ONEV and BME, installed 4 seismic stations with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the Haitian Government. The 4 stations include strong motion and broad-band sensors, complementing the 8 sensors initially installed. The stations communicate via SATMEX5 with the Canadian HUB, which sends the data back to Haiti with minimum delay. In the immediate future, data transfer will be improved with the installation of a main antenna for data reception and the Seismic Warning Center of Port-au-Prince. A bidirectional satellite communication is considered of fundamental importance for robust real-time data transmission that is not affected in the case of a catastrophic event.

Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

2013-05-01

299

SEISMIC RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structures designed according to earlier codes with inadequate seismic provisions have not performed satisfactorily during recent earthquakes. The seismic performance of an existing three-storey reinforced concrete building designed according to the 1963 ACI 313-63 is evaluated and compared to the performance of a similar frame designed according to current code provisions. Non-linear static and dynamic analyses of the reinforced concrete

A. GHOBARAH; N. M. ALY; M. EL-ATTAR

1998-01-01

300

End-to-end verifiability for optical scan voting systems  

E-print Network

End-to-end verifiable voting systems allow voters to verify that their votes are cast as intended, collected as cast, and counted as collected. Essentially, end-to-end voting systems provide voters assurance that each step ...

Shen, Emily (Emily Huei-Yi)

2008-01-01

301

Automatic Generation of the C# Code for Security Protocols Verified with Casper\\/FDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal methods technique offer a means of verifying the correctness of the design process used to create the security protocol. Notwithstanding the successful verification of the design of security protocols, the implementation code for them may contain security flaws, due to the mistakes made by the programmers or bugs in the programming language itself. We propose an ACG-C# tool, which

Chul-wuk Jeon; Il-gon Kim; Jin-young Choi

2005-01-01

302

Multilevel dual-channel NAND flash memories with high-speed read and verifying program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multilevel dual channel (MLDC) NAND flash memory cell structures with asymmetrically-doped channel regions are proposed. The channel structures with a MLDC flash cell consisted of the two different doping channel regions. The technical computer aided design simulation results showed that the designed MLDC NAND flash cell provided the high-speed multilevel reading and program verifying due to the sensing of

Jae-Ho Kim; Joung-Woo Lee; Kyung-Sik; Tae Whan Kim

2006-01-01

303

Verifying Soft Deadlines with Probabilistic Timed Automata  

E-print Network

The design and analysis of many systems, to mention communication proto- cols, embedded systems of many hardware and software systems, for example embedded systems, monitoring equipment, communication of safety-critical systems, such as hospital monitoring equipment, vehicle controllers, etc., it is es

Oxford, University of

304

Seismicity of southern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistics of more than 150 Swedish earthquakes were analyzed. The analysis includes epicenter and focal depth determination, fault plane solution, estimates of seismic moment, corner frequencies, stress drops, and peak ground motions. A seismic hazard study illustrating how the knowledge of the earthquake ground motions can be used is presented. The analysis shows that the earthquakes are due to

R. Slunga; P. Norrman; A. C. Glans

1983-01-01

305

Borehole seismic unit  

SciTech Connect

Fracture orientation can be measured by using a triaxial geophone package located at the fracture interval within the wellbore. Seismic signals produced by the fracture can be recorded and measured to determine the direction of the fracture. Reported herein is a description of a borehole seismic unit and procedures to accomplish this task.

Seavey, R.W.

1982-05-01

306

28 CFR 802.13 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Verifying your identity. 802.13 Section 802.13 Judicial...Privacy Act § 802.13 Verifying your identity. (a) Requests for your own records...about yourself, you must verify your identity. You must state your full...

2011-07-01

307

20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Verifying your identity. 401.45 Section 401.45 Employees...Privacy Act § 401.45 Verifying your identity. (a) When required. Unless...representative, you must verify your identity in accordance with paragraph (b)...

2011-04-01

308

20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Verifying your identity. 401.45 Section 401.45 Employees...Privacy Act § 401.45 Verifying your identity. (a) When required. Unless...representative, you must verify your identity in accordance with paragraph (b)...

2013-04-01

309

20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Verifying your identity. 401.45 Section 401.45 Employees...Privacy Act § 401.45 Verifying your identity. (a) When required. Unless...representative, you must verify your identity in accordance with paragraph (b)...

2012-04-01

310

28 CFR 802.13 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Verifying your identity. 802.13 Section 802.13 Judicial...Privacy Act § 802.13 Verifying your identity. (a) Requests for your own records...about yourself, you must verify your identity. You must state your full...

2012-07-01

311

20 CFR 401.45 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Verifying your identity. 401.45 Section 401.45 Employees...Privacy Act § 401.45 Verifying your identity. (a) When required. Unless...representative, you must verify your identity in accordance with paragraph (b)...

2014-04-01

312

28 CFR 802.13 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Verifying your identity. 802.13 Section 802.13 Judicial...Privacy Act § 802.13 Verifying your identity. (a) Requests for your own records...about yourself, you must verify your identity. You must state your full...

2013-07-01

313

28 CFR 802.13 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Verifying your identity. 802.13 Section 802.13 Judicial...Privacy Act § 802.13 Verifying your identity. (a) Requests for your own records...about yourself, you must verify your identity. You must state your full...

2014-07-01

314

Department of Computing On Modelling and Verifying Railway  

E-print Network

and Verifying Railway Interlockings: Tracking Train Lengths Phillip James Faron Moller Hoang Nga Nguyen Markus Roggenbach Steve Schneider Helen Treharne May 19 2013 #12;On Modelling and Verifying Railway Interlockings The safety analysis of interlocking railway systems involves verifying free- dom from collision, derailment

Doran, Simon J.

315

Agda as a Platform for the Development of Verified  

E-print Network

Agda as a Platform for the Development of Verified Railway Interlocking Systems Karim Kanso framework that aids the development of verified railway interlocking systems in the Agda theorem prover on next page) III #12;IV Part II discusses the railway domain and developing verified interlocking systems

Setzer, Anton

316

Opening on September 12, 2012, during the week of the Toronto International Film Festival, the Design Exchange in Downtown Toronto will host the exhibit titled "Considering the Quake| Seismic Design on the Edge," which will  

E-print Network

for aquatic events of the 2008 Beijing Olympics, their York University subway project in Toronto with Foster leaders of seismic technology. Cast Connex products have been utilized in projects including the World Trade Center 3 building and the Whitney Museum. Several other original projects are also featured

Volesky, Bohumil

317

Empirical correlation verifies true formation skin  

SciTech Connect

To determine formation (true) skin and the rate-dependent skin, a semi-theoretical equation is proposed for relating the critical value of flow rate (q{sub c}) to formation permeability, formation porosity, and gas/oil dynamic viscosity. An accurate evaluation of skin is important for designing remedial treatments or evaluating gas well productivity. Three examples illustrate the proposed equation. In all cases, the actual gas/oil flow rates are compared with the calculated critical flow rate.

Kutasov, I.M. [MultiSpectrum Technologies, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

1995-04-03

318

Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring for Emergency Response and Hazards Assessment: Recent Developments at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has put into operation a new generation of seismic acquisition, processing and distribution subsystems that seamlessly integrate regional, national and global seismic network data for routine monitoring of earthquake activity and response to large, damaging earthquakes. The system, Bulletin Hydra, was designed to meet Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) design goals to handle

R. P. Buland; M. Guy; D. Kragness; J. Patton; B. Erickson; M. Morrison; C. Bryon; D. Ketchum; H. Benz

2009-01-01

319

Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis.

Chen, W. P.; Onesto, A. T.; DeVita, V.

1987-02-01

320

Seismic analysis of a reinforced concrete containment vessel model  

SciTech Connect

Pre-and post-test analytical predictions of the dynamic behavior of a 1:10 scale model Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel are presented. This model, designed and constructed by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., was subjected to seismic simulation tests using the high-performance shaking table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory in Japan. A group of tests representing design-level and beyond-design-level ground motions were first conducted to verify design safety margins. These were followed by a series of tests in which progressively larger base motions were applied until structural failure was induced. The analysis was performed by ANATECH Corp. and Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, employing state-of-the-art finite-element software specifically developed for concrete structures. Three-dimensional time-history analyses were performed, first as pre-test blind predictions to evaluate the general capabilities of the analytical methods, and second as post-test validation of the methods and interpretation of the test result. The input data consisted of acceleration time histories for the horizontal, vertical and rotational (rocking) components, as measured by accelerometers mounted on the structure's basemat. The response data consisted of acceleration and displacement records for various points on the structure, as well as time-history records of strain gages mounted on the reinforcement. This paper reports on work in progress and presents pre-test predictions and post-test comparisons to measured data for tests simulating maximum design basis and extreme design basis earthquakes. The pre-test analyses predict the failure earthquake of the test structure to have an energy level in the range of four to five times the energy level of the safe shutdown earthquake. The post-test calculations completed so far show good agreement with measured data.

RANDY,JAMES J.; CHERRY,JEFFERY L.; RASHID,YUSEF R.; CHOKSHI,NILESH

2000-02-03

321

Seismic exploration fundamentals. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book includes discussions of the new techniques in seismic exploration including vertical seismic profiles, shear wave exploration, seismic stratigraphy and interactive interpretation. The book is not about theory, but describes the techniques actually used in seismic exploration, from program planning to recommendations for drilling. Figures are used to illustrate various points throughout the book, and photographs of equipment and field work are included.

Coffeen, J.A.

1986-01-01

322

Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2003  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the seismic activity in and around the Hanford Site during Fiscal year 2003. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 1,336 triggers during fiscal year 2003. Of these triggers, 590 were earthquakes. One hundred and one earthquakes of the 590 earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 35 (34.6%) occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 29 (28.7%) were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 37 (36.7%) were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 48 (47%) earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 4 (4%) earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 49 (49%) were classified as random events. During the third and fourth quarters, an earthquake swarm consisting of 27 earthquakes occurred on the south limb of Rattlesnake Mountain. The earthquakes are centered over the northwest extension of the Horse Heaven Hills anticline and probably occur near the interface of the Columbia River Basalt Group and pre-basalt sediments.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2003-12-01

323

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2005  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 337 triggers during the third quarter of fiscal year 2005. Of these triggers, 20 were earthquakes within the Hanford Seismic Network. The largest earthquake within the Hanford Seismic Network was a magnitude 1.3 event May 25 near Vantage, Washington. During the third quarter, stratigraphically 17 (85%) events occurred in the Columbia River basalt (approximately 0-5 km), no events in the pre-basalt sediments (approximately 5-10 km), and three (15%) in the crystalline basement (approximately 10-25 km). During the first quarter, geographically five (20%) earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 10 (50%) earthquakes were associated with a major geologic structure, and 5 (25%) were classified as random events.

Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Sweeney, Mark D.

2005-09-01

324

Seismic liquefaction analysis of a reservoir dam foundation in the South–North Water Diversion Project in China. Part II: seismic response simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As shown in Part I of this study, the saturated surface silt of the dam foundations in Tianjin is vulnerable to liquefaction\\u000a with a seismic intensity of VII. According to the Chinese codes for the seismic design of buildings (Hydropower Research Institute\\u000a of China), specifications for seismic design of hydraulic structures (DL 5073–2000), China Water Power Press, Beijing (in\\u000a Chinese)

Yu Huang; Hu Zheng; Zhijing Zhuang

325

Seismic performance of RC shear wall structure with novel shape memory alloy dampers in coupling beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wall system is widely adopted in high rise buildings because of its high lateral stiffness in resisting earthquakes. According to the concept of ductility seismic design, coupling beams in shear wall structure are required to yield prior to the damage of wall limb. However, damage in coupling beams results in repair cost post earthquake and even in some cases it is difficult to repair the coupling beams if the damage is severe. In order to solve this problem, a novel passive SMA damper was proposed in this study. The coupling beams connecting wall limbs are split in the middle, and the dampers are installed between the ends of the two cantilevers. Then the relative flexural deformation of the wall limbs is transferred to the ends of coupling beams and then to the SMA dampers. After earthquakes the deformation of the dampers can recover automatically because of the pseudoelasticity of austenite SMA material. In order to verify the validity of the proposed dampers, seismic responses of a 12-story coupled shear wall with such passive SMA dampers in coupling beams was investigated. The additional stiffness and yielding deformation of the dampers and their ratios to the lateral stiffness and yielding displacements of the wall limbs are key design parameters and were addressed. Analytical results indicate that the displacement responses of the shear wall structure with such dampers are reduced remarkably. The deformation of the structure is concentrated in the dampers and the damage of coupling beams is reduced.

Mao, Chenxi; Dong, Jinzhi; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping

2012-04-01

326

Seismic station, USGS Northern California Seismic Network  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Traditional seismic stations such as this one require a source of power (solar here), a poured concrete foundation and several square feet of space. They are not always practical to install in urban areas, and that's where NetQuakes comes in....

327

Seismic Hazard of Eritrea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of spatially smoothed seismicity developed by Frankel(1995) and later extended by Lapajne et al.(1997) , is applied to estimate the seismic hazard of Eritrea. The extended method unlike the original one involves the delineation of the whole region into subregions with statistically determined directions of seismogenic faults pertaining to the respective tectonic regions (Poljak, 2000). Fault-rupture oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing results in spatial models of expected seismicity. Seismic catalogue was compiled from ISC, NEIC, and Turyomurgyendo(1996) and homogenized to Ms. Three seismicity models suggested by Frankel(1995) which are based on different time and magnitude intervals are used in this approach, and a fourth model suggested by Lapajne et al.(2000), which is based on the seismic energy release is also used to enhance the influence of historical events on the hazard computation. Activity rates and maximum likelihood estimates of b- values for the different models are computed using the OHAZ program. The western part of the region shows no seismic activity. b -value for models 1-3 is estimated to be 0.91. Mmax has been estimated to be 7.0. Correlation distances are obtained objectively from the location error in the seismic catalogue. The attenuation relationship by Ambraseys et al .(1996) was found suitable for the region under study. PGA values for 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years (return period of 475 years) are computed for each model and a combined seismic hazard map was produced by subjectively assigning weights to each of the models. A worst case map is also obtained showing the highest PGA values at each location from the four hazard maps. The map indicates a higher hazard along the main tectonic features of the East African and the Red sea rift systems, with its highest PGA values within Eritrea exceeding 25% of g being located north of the red sea port of Massawa. In areas around Asmara PGA values exceed 10% of g.

Hagos, L.; Arvidsson, R.

2003-04-01

328

SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION  

SciTech Connect

In this report we will show some new Q related seismic attributes on the Burlington-Seitel data set. One example will be called Energy Absorption Attribute (EAA) and is based on a spectral analysis. The EAA algorithm is designed to detect a sudden increase in the rate of exponential decay in the relatively higher frequency portion of the spectrum. In addition we will show results from a hybrid attribute that combines attenuation with relative acoustic impedance to give a better indication of commercial gas saturation.

Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

2003-04-01

329

Frictional melting of peridotite and seismic slip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the frictional strength along a fault at seismic slip rates (about 1 m\\/s) is a key factor controlling earthquake mechanics. At mantle depths, friction-induced melting and melt lubrication may influence earthquake slip and seismological data. We report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate dynamic fault strength and frictional melting processes in mantle rocks. We performed 20 experiments

P. Del Gaudio; G. Di Toro; R. Han; T. Hirose; S. Nielsen; T. Shimamoto; A. Cavallo

2009-01-01

330

The retrofitting of existing buildings for seismic criteria  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the process for retrofitting a building for seismic criteria. It explains the need for a new, performance-based design code to provide a range of acceptable building behavior. It then outlines the ...

Besing, Christa, 1978-

2004-01-01

331

3-D Seismic Methods for Shallow Imaging Beneath Pavement  

E-print Network

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on survey design and acquisition of near-surface 3D seismic reflection and surface wave data on pavement. Increased efficiency for mapping simple subsurface interfaces through a combined use...

Miller, Brian

2013-05-31

332

Method of migrating seismic records  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

Ober, Curtis C. (Las Lunas, NM); Romero, Louis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Ghiglia, Dennis C. (Longmont, CO)

2000-01-01

333

Induced Seismicity Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by attorney and author Darlene Cypser, contains a bibliography of references dealing with induced seismicity; that is, earthquakes caused by human activities such as mining, nuclear testing or petroleum production. The homepage contains an author's note explaining that most induced seismicity is not damaging, and provides a list of the bibliography's categories. The categories are arranged by source of induced seismicity (e.g., oil and gas, nuclear testing, etc.). Additional sections, such as one on legal implications of induced earthquakes, and another comprised of magazine and newspaper citations, are also included.

334

Seismic Hazard Characterization at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS): Status report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Seismic Hazard Characterization project for the Savannah River Site (SRS-SHC) is to develop estimates of the seismic hazard for several locations within the SRS. Given the differences in the geology and geotechnical characteristics at each location, the estimates of the seismic hazard are to allow for the specific local conditions at each site. Characterization of seismic hazard is a critical factor for the design of new facilities as well as for the review and potential retrofit of existing facilities at SRS. The scope of the SRS seismic hazard characterization reported in this document is limited to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The goal of the project is to provide seismic hazard estimates based on a state-of-the-art method which is consistent with developments and findings of several ongoing studies which are deemed to bring improvements in the state of the seismic hazard analyses.

Savy, J.B.

1994-06-24

335

Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)  

SciTech Connect

Cultural development of new subpolar areas of Russia is associated with a need for detailed seismic research, including both mapping of regional seismicity and seismic monitoring of specific mining enterprises. Of special interest are the northern territories of European Russia, including shelves of the Kara and Barents Seas, Yamal Peninsula, and the Timan-Pechora region. Continuous seismic studies of these territories are important now because there is insufficient seismological knowledge of the area and an absence of systematic data on the seismicity of the region. Another task of current interest is the necessity to consider the seismic environment in the design, construction, and operation of natural gas extracting enterprises such as the construction of the North European Gas Pipeline. Issues of scientific importance for seismic studies in the region are the complex geodynamical setting, the presence of permafrost, and the complex tectonic structure. In particular, the Uralian Orogene (Fig. 1) strongly affects the propagation of seismic waves. The existing subpolar seismic stations [APA (67,57{sup o}N; 33,40{sup o}E), LVZ (67,90{sup o}N; 34,65{sup o}E), and NRIL (69,50{sup o}N; 88,40{sup o}E)] do not cover the extensive area between the Pechora and Ob Rivers (Fig. 1). Thus seismic observations in the Vorkuta area, which lies within the area of concern, represent a special interest. Continuous recording at a seismic station near the city of Vorkuta (67,50{sup o}N; 64,11{sup o}E) [1] has been conducted since 2005 for the purpose of regional seismic monitoring and, more specifically, detection of seismic signals caused by local mining enterprises. Current surveys of local seismic noise [7,8,9,11], are particularly aimed at a technical survey for the suitability of the site for installation of a small-aperture seismic array, which would include 10-12 recording instruments, with the Vorkuta seismic station as the central element. When constructed, this seismic array will considerably improve the recording capacity of regional and local seismic events. It will allow detection of signatures of seismic waves propagating in submeridional and sublatitudinal directions. The latter is of special interest not only to access the influence of the Urals on propagation patterns of seismic waves, but also to address other questions, such as the structure and dynamic characteristics of the internal dynamo of the Earth [9,13]. Recording seismic waves at low angular distances from seismically active subpolar zones will allow us to collect data on vortical and convective movements in subpolar lithosphere blocks and at the boundary of the inner core of the Earth, possibly giving essential clues to the modeling of the Earth's electromagnetic field [3,13]. The present study considers basic features of seismic noise at the Vorkuta station obtained through the analysis of seismic records from March, 2006 till December, 2007.

Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

2008-05-15

336

WiggleView : Visualizing Large Seismic Datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wiggleview is a tool for visualizing seismic data collected from a worldwide network of seismometers. The visualization consists of overlaying familiar 2D seismic traces recorded for the N-S, E-W and vertical components of the earth's displacement over the topographic map of the affected area. In addition, a 3D particle trace consisting of the integration of these 3 components provides a depiction of how an object placed at a particular seismic recording station would shake at the instant of the event. Data for the seismic events is obtained from repositories maintained by IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) at the Data Management Center, Seattle Washington. Suppose a seismologist wants to examine data gathered when an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale hit Turkey on October 31,1998. Wiggleview displays data at 20 stations for this event. The tool's strength lies in being able to depict as many as 60 channels of waveforms and 20 traces of particle motion on a single display. This allows one to watch the seismic wave field expand about a source and see how it differs from place to place. It can also assist in understanding surface wave multipathing and anisotropy -- this is important for revealing structure and for seismic hazard estimation. Wiggleview was designed for two display platforms: the standard PC-based desktop or laptop with a modern-day game graphics card; and a stereoscopic projection system called the Geowall. The stereoscopic nature of the images enhances depth perception and thus allows better understanding of attenuation due to distance and earth structure, source directivity and seismic hazard estimation. Illustrations are available at the Wiggleview website http://www.evl.uic.edu/atul/wiggleview

Nayak, A. M.; Leigh, J.; Johnson, A.; Russo, R.; Morin, P.; Laughbon, C.; Ahern, T.

2002-12-01

337

Seismic review table. Final report, October 1979April 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Seismic Review Table is a summary of Engineering Design parameters that were employed in the seismic analysis and design of nuclear power plants. The table covers 71 reactors licensed to operate by the U.S.N.R.C. The information contained is listed plant by plant and consists of OBE and SSE 'g' level and Modified Mercalli Intensity; Earthquake Time History used to

M. Subudhi; M. Reich; B. Koplik

1980-01-01

338

Application of automated reasoning software: procedure generation system verifier  

SciTech Connect

An on-line, automated reasoning software system for verifying the actions of other software or human control systems has been developed. It was demonstrated by verifying the actions of an automated procedure generation system. The verifier uses an interactive theorem prover as its inference engine with the rules included as logic axioms. Operation of the verifier is generally transparent except when the verifier disagrees with the actions of the monitored software. Testing with an automated procedure generation system demonstrates the successful application of automated reasoning software for verification of logical actions in a diverse, redundant manner. A higher degree of confidence may be placed in the verified actions gathered by the combined system.

Smith, D.E.; Seeman, S.E.

1984-09-01

339

Seismic exploration for water on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed to soft-land three seismometers in the Utopia-Elysium region and three or more radio controlled explosive charges at nearby sites that can be accurately located by an orbiter. Seismic signatures of timed explosions, to be telemetered to the orbiter, will be used to detect present surface layers, including those saturated by volatiles such as water and/or ice. The Viking Landers included seismometers that showed that at present Mars is seismically quiet, and that the mean crustal thickness at the site is about 14 to 18 km. The new seismic landers must be designed to minimize wind vibration noise, and the landing sites selected so that each is well formed on the regolith, not on rock outcrops or in craters. The explosive charges might be mounted on penetrators aimed at nearby smooth areas. They must be equipped with radio emitters for accurate location and radio receivers for timed detonation.

Page, Thornton

1987-01-01

340

AUTOMATING SHALLOW SEISMIC IMAGING  

SciTech Connect

The current project is a continuation of an effort to develop ultrashallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method potentially applicable to DOE facilities. The objective of the present research is to develop and demonstrate the use of a cost-effective, automated method of conducting shallow seismic surveys, an approach that represents a significant departure from conventional seismic-survey field procedures. Initial testing of a mechanical geophone-planting device suggests that large numbers of geophones can be placed both quickly and automatically. The development of such a device could make the application of SSR considerably more efficient and less expensive. The imaging results obtained using automated seismic methods will be compared with results obtained using classical seismic techniques. Although this research falls primarily into the field of seismology, for comparison and quality-control purposes, some GPR data will be collected as well. In the final year of th e research, demonstration surveys at one or more DOE facilities will be performed. An automated geophone-planting device of the type under development would not necessarily be limited to the use of shallow seismic reflection methods; it also would be capable of collecting data for seismic-refraction and possibly for surface-wave studies. Another element of our research plan involves monitoring the cone of depression of a pumping well that is being used as a proxy site for fluid-flow at a contaminated site. Our next data set will be collected at a well site where drawdown equilibrium has been reached. Noninvasive, in-situ methods such as placing geophones automatically and using near-surface seismic methods to identify and characterize the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies for DOE and others.

Steeples, Don W.

2003-09-14

341

Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate

Steeples; Don W

2004-01-01

342

Characterization of the Virgo Seismic Environment  

E-print Network

The Virgo gravitational wave detector is an interferometer (ITF) with 3km arms located in Pisa, Italy. From July to October 2010, Virgo performed its third science run (VSR3) in coincidence with the LIGO detectors. Despite several techniques adopted to isolate the interferometer from the environment, seismic noise remains an important issue for Virgo. Vibrations produced by the detector infrastructure (such as air conditioning units, water chillers/heaters, pumps) are found to affect Virgo's sensitivity, with the main coupling mechanisms being through beam jitter and scattered light processes. The Advanced Virgo (AdV) design seeks to reduce ITF couplings to environmental noise by having most vibration-sensitive components suspended and in-vacuum, as well as muffle and relocate loud machines. During the months of June and July 2010, a Guralp-3TD seismometer was stationed at various locations around the Virgo site hosting major infrastructure machines. Seismic data were examined using spectral and coherence analysis with seismic probes close to the detector. The primary aim of this study was to identify noisy machines which seismically affect the ITF environment and thus require mitigation attention. Analyzed machines are located at various distances from the experimental halls, ranging from 10m to 100m. An attempt is made to measure the attenuation of emitted noise at the ITF and correlate it to the distance from the source and to seismic attenuation models in soil.

The Virgo Collaboration; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; P. Astone; G. Ballardin; F. Barone; M. Barsuglia; A. Basti; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; M. G. Beker; A. Belletoile; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; M. Blom; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; V. Boschi; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; M. Branchesi; T. Briant; A. Brillet; V. Brisson; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; B. Canuel; F. Carbognani; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; E. Chassande-Mottin; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; E. Cuoco; S. DAntonio; V. Dattilo; M. Davier; R. Day; R. De Rosa; G. Debreczeni; W. Del Pozzo; M. del Prete; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; A. Dietz; M. Drago; G. Endroczi; V. Fafone; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; L. A. Forte; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; F. Garufi; M. E. Gaspar; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; R. Gouaty; M. Granata; C. Greverie; G. M. Guidi; J. -F. Hayau; A. Heidmann; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; P. Jaranowski; I. Kowalska; A. Krolak; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; T. G. F. Li; N. Liguori; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; G. Losurdo; E. Majorana; I. Maksimovic; N. Man; M. Mantovani; F. Marchesoni; F. Marion; J. Marque; F. Martelli; A. Masserot; C. Michel; L. Milano; Y. Minenkov; M. Mohan; N. Morgado; A. Morgia; S. Mosca; B. Mours; L. Naticchioni; F. Nocera; G. Pagliaroli; L. Palladino; C. Palomba; F. Paoletti; M. Parisi; A. Pasqualetti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; G. Persichetti; F. Piergiovanni; M. Pietka; L. Pinard; R. Poggiani; M. Prato; G. A. Prodi; M. Punturo; P. Puppo; D. S. Rabeling; I. Racz; P. Rapagnani; V. Re; T. Regimbau; F. Ricci; F. Robinet; A. Rocchi; L. Rolland; R. Romano; D. Rosinska; P. Ruggi; B. Sassolas; D. Sentenac; L. Sperandio; R. Sturani; B. Swinkels; M. Tacca; L. Taffarello; A. Toncelli; M. Tonelli; O. Torre; E. Tournefier; F. Travasso; G. Vajente; J. F. J. van den Brand; C. Van Den Broeck; S. van der Putten; M. Vasuth; M. Vavoulidis; G. Vedovato; D. Verkindt; F. Vetrano; A. Vicere; J. -Y. Vinet; S. Vitale; H. Vocca; R. L. Ward; M. Was; M. Yvert; A. Zadrozny; J. -P. Zendri

2011-08-08

343

Seismic bearing capacity and settlements of foundations  

SciTech Connect

Field and laboratory observations of seismic settlements of shallow foundations on granular soils that are not attributable to changes in density or liquefaction are explained in terms of seismic degradation of bearing capacity. Limit analysis using a Coulomb-type mechanism including inertial forces in the soil and on the footing gives expressions for seismic bearing capacity factors that are directly related to their static counterparts. Comparison of the two depicts clearly the rapid deterioration of the overall foundation capacity with increasing acceleration. Such periodic inertial fluidization causes finite settlements that are possible even in moderate earthquakes. Reduction in foundation capacity is due to both the seismic degradation of soil strength and the lateral inertial forces transmitted by shear to the foundation through the structure and any surcharge. A straightforward sliding-block procedure with examples is also presented for computing these settlements due to loss of bearing capacity for short time periods. The approach also leads to a design procedure for footings based on limiting seismic settlements to a prescribed value.

Richards, R. Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States)); Elms, D.G. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)); Budhu, M. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1993-04-01

344

Seismic Consequence Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

M. Gross

2004-10-25

345

Downhole hydraulic seismic generator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a downhole seismic source for operation within a borehole to produce seismic energy waves through surrounding earth strata. It includes an elongated housing adapted for lowering into the borehole by a cable means; a hydraulic oscillator means carried by the housing for producing seismic vibrations in the housing; a hydraulic pressure source carried by the housing for providing a flow of high pressure hydraulic fluid, comprising a pump means for recycling the hydraulic fluid and for recharging the downhole seismic source and an electric motor for driving the pump means, the hydraulic pressure source further comprising a low pressure fluid accumulator which receives spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator means and from the clamp valve means and outputs hydraulic fluid to any pump means which outputs a high pressure hydraulic fluid, a heat exchanger means for receiving the high pressure fluid from the pump means and for dissipating heat produced by the pump means in the hydraulic fluid, and a high pressure accumulator for receiving the high pressure hydraulic fluid from the heat exchanger means and for providing the high pressure fluid as an output to an electro-hydraulic servovalve means, whereby the downhole seismic source is recharged for future operation; an electro-hydraulic servovalve means operably connected between the hydraulic pressure source and the hydraulic oscillator means for controlling the flow of high pressure hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic pressure source into the hydraulic oscillator means which thus produces the seismic vibrations; and a clamping means.

Gregory, D.L.; Hardee, H.C.; Smallwood, D.O.

1992-05-19

346

Enhancing Seismic Monitoring Capability for Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Seismicity in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of natural gas produced from unconventional sources, such as the shale gas, has increased dramatically since the last decade. One of the key factors in the success of shale gas production is the application of hydraulic fracturing (also known as "fracking") to facilitate the efficient recovery of natural gas from shale matrices. As the fracking operation becomes routine in all major shale gas fields, its potential to induce local earthquakes at some locations has become a public concern. To address this concern, Natural Resources Canada has initiated a research effort to investigate the potential links between fracking operations and induced seismicity in some major shale gas basins of Canada. This federal-provincial collaborative research aims to assess if shale gas fracking can alter regional pattern of background seismicity and if so, what the relationship between how fracking is conducted and the maximum magnitude of induced seismicity would be. Other objectives include the investigation of the time scale of the interaction between fracking events and induced seismicity and the evaluation of induced seismicity potential for shale gas basins under different tectonic/geological conditions. The first phase of this research is to enhance the detection and monitoring capability for seismicity possibly related to shale gas recovery in Canada. Densification of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) is currently underway in northeast British Columbia where fracking operations are taking place. Additional seismic stations are planned for major shale gas basins in other regions where fracking might be likely in the future. All newly established CNSN stations are equipped with broadband seismographs with real-time continuous data transmission. The design goal of the enhanced seismic network is to significantly lower the detection threshold such that the anticipated low-magnitude earthquakes that might be related to fracking operations can be identified and located shortly after their occurrence.

Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.; Farahbod, A.; Lamontagne, M.

2012-12-01

347

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic report for Fiscal year 2003  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 356 triggers during the third quarter of fiscal year 2003. Of these triggers, 141 were earthquakes. Thirty-four earthquakes of the 141 earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 15 occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 13 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 6 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 22 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was associated with a major geologic structure, and 11 were classified as random events. During the third quarter, an earthquake swarm consisting of 15 earthquakes occurred on the south limb of Rattlesnake Mountain. The earthquakes are centered over the northwest extension of the Horse Heaven Hills anticline and probably occur at the base of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2003-09-11

348

A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on data obtained by the first set of safety checks. The strengthening philosophy adopt in the projects will be described in the paper.

Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Maggiò, F.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.

2008-07-01

349

Seismic Hazard analysis of Adjaria Region in Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most commonly used approach to determining seismic-design loads for engineering projects is probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis (PSHA). The primary output from a PSHA is a hazard curve showing the variation of a selected ground-motion parameter, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA), against the annual frequency of exceedance (or its reciprocal, return period). The design value is the ground-motion level that corresponds to a preselected design return period. For many engineering projects, such as standard buildings and typical bridges, the seismic loading is taken from the appropriate seismic-design code, the basis of which is usually a PSHA. For more important engineering projects— where the consequences of failure are more serious, such as dams and chemical plants—it is more usual to obtain the seismic-design loads from a site-specific PSHA, in general, using much longer return periods than those governing code based design. Calculation of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard was performed using Software CRISIS2007 by Ordaz, M., Aguilar, A., and Arboleda, J., Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mexico. CRISIS implements a classical probabilistic seismic hazard methodology where seismic sources can be modelled as points, lines and areas. In the case of area sources, the software offers an integration procedure that takes advantage of a triangulation algorithm used for seismic source discretization. This solution improves calculation efficiency while maintaining a reliable description of source geometry and seismicity. Additionally, supplementary filters (e.g. fix a sitesource distance that excludes from calculation sources at great distance) allow the program to balance precision and efficiency during hazard calculation. Earthquake temporal occurrence is assumed to follow a Poisson process, and the code facilitates two types of MFDs: a truncated exponential Gutenberg-Richter [1944] magnitude distribution and a characteristic magnitude distribution [Youngs and Coppersmith, 1985]. Notably, the software can deal with uncertainty in the seismicity input parameters such as maximum magnitude value. CRISIS offers a set of built-in GMPEs, as well as the possibility of defining new ones by providing information in a tabular format. Our study shows that in case of Ajaristkali HPP study area, significant contribution to Seismic Hazard comes from local sources with quite low Mmax values, thus these two attenuation lows give us quite different PGA and SA values.

Jorjiashvili, Nato; Elashvili, Mikheil

2014-05-01

350

USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of resources provides seismic hazard assessments and information on design values and mitigation for the U.S. and areas around the world. Map resources include the U.S. National and Regional probabilistic ground motion map collection, which covers the 50 states, Puerto Rico, and selected countries. These maps display peak ground acceleration (PGA) values, and are used as the basis for seismic provisions in building codes and for new construction. There is also a custom mapping and analysis tool, which enables users to re-plot these maps for area of interest, get hazard values using latitude/longitude or zip code, find predominant magnitudes and distances, and map the probability of given magnitude within a certain distance from a site. The ground motion calculator, a Java application, determines hazard curves, uniform hazard response spectra, and design parameters for sites in the 50 states and most territories. There is also a two-part earthquake hazards 'primer', which provides links to hazard maps and frequently-asked-questions, and more detailed information for building and safety planners.

351

Seismicity in Northern Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR in October 2012. The instrumental analysis like the determination of hypocenters, magnitudes and fault plane solutions whenever possible, is supplemented by macroseismic investigations based on reports by the public.

Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

2013-04-01

352

xTune: Online Verifiable Cross-Layer Adaptation for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems  

E-print Network

xTune: Online Verifiable Cross-Layer Adaptation for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems Minyoung Adaptation Cross Layer Formal Executable Specification Controller A. B. C. Monitor & Analysis System optimization is needed [12]. Therefore, this thesis proposes a unified framework that enables system design

Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

353

Actively learning to verify safety for FIFO Abhay Vardhan, Koushik Sen, Mahesh Viswanathan, Gul Agha  

E-print Network

to analyze a larger class of FIFO systems automatically than a naive encoding would allow. We show the upper as natural models for various software systems at the design and modeling stage. An interesting class, the verification problem in general can shown to be undecidable. In the Lever (LEarning to VERify) project, we

Sen, Koushik

354

Actively learning to verify safety for FIFO Abhay Vardhan, Koushik Sen, Mahesh Viswanathan, Gul Agha #  

E-print Network

to analyze a larger class of FIFO systems automatically than a naive encoding would allow. We show the upper as natural models for various software systems at the design and modeling stage. An interesting class, the verification problem in general can shown to be undecidable. In the Lever (LEarning to VERify) project, we

Sen, Koushik

355

Parallel computation of seismic analysis of high arch dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel computation programs are developed for three-dimensional meso-mechanics analysis of fully-graded dam concrete and seismic response analysis of high arch dams (ADs), based on the Parallel Finite Element Program Generator (PFEPG). The computational algorithms of the numerical simulation of the meso-structure of concrete specimens were studied. Taking into account damage evolution, static preload, strain rate effect, and the heterogeneity of the meso-structure of dam concrete, the fracture processes of damage evolution and configuration of the cracks can be directly simulated. In the seismic response analysis of ADs, all the following factors are involved, such as the nonlinear contact due to the opening and slipping of the contraction joints, energy dispersion of the far-field foundation, dynamic interactions of the dam-foundation-reservoir system, and the combining effects of seismic action with all static loads. The correctness, reliability and efficiency of the two parallel computational programs are verified with practical illustrations.

Chen, Houqun; Ma, Huaifa; Tu, Jin; Cheng, Guangqing; Tang, Juzhen

2008-03-01

356

Verifying the Dependence of Fractal Coefficients on Different Spatial Distributions  

SciTech Connect

A fractal distribution requires that the number of objects larger than a specific size r has a power-law dependence on the size N(r) = C/r{sup D}propor tor{sup -D} where D is the fractal dimension. Usually the correlation integral is calculated to estimate the correlation fractal dimension of epicentres. A 'box-counting' procedure could also be applied giving the 'capacity' fractal dimension. The fractal dimension can be an integer and then it is equivalent to a Euclidean dimension (it is zero of a point, one of a segment, of a square is two and of a cube is three). In general the fractal dimension is not an integer but a fractional dimension and there comes the origin of the term 'fractal'. The use of a power-law to statistically describe a set of events or phenomena reveals the lack of a characteristic length scale, that is fractal objects are scale invariant. Scaling invariance and chaotic behavior constitute the base of a lot of natural hazards phenomena. Many studies of earthquakes reveal that their occurrence exhibits scale-invariant properties, so the fractal dimension can characterize them. It has first been confirmed that both aftershock rate decay in time and earthquake size distribution follow a power law. Recently many other earthquake distributions have been found to be scale-invariant. The spatial distribution of both regional seismicity and aftershocks show some fractal features. Earthquake spatial distributions are considered fractal, but indirectly. There are two possible models, which result in fractal earthquake distributions. The first model considers that a fractal distribution of faults leads to a fractal distribution of earthquakes, because each earthquake is characteristic of the fault on which it occurs. The second assumes that each fault has a fractal distribution of earthquakes. Observations strongly favour the first hypothesis.The fractal coefficients analysis provides some important advantages in examining earthquake spatial distribution, which are: - Simple way to quantify scale-invariant distributions of complex objects or phenomena by a small number of parameters. - It is becoming evident that the applicability of fractal distributions to geological problems could have a more fundamental basis. Chaotic behaviour could underlay the geotectonic processes and the applicable statistics could often be fractal.The application of fractal distribution analysis has, however, some specific aspects. It is usually difficult to present an adequate interpretation of the obtained values of fractal coefficients for earthquake epicenter or hypocenter distributions. That is why in this paper we aimed at other goals - to verify how a fractal coefficient depends on different spatial distributions. We simulated earthquake spatial data by generating randomly points first in a 3D space - cube, then in a parallelepiped, diminishing one of its sides. We then continued this procedure in 2D and 1D space. For each simulated data set we calculated the points' fractal coefficient (correlation fractal dimension of epicentres) and then checked for correlation between the coefficients values and the type of spatial distribution.In that way one can obtain a set of standard fractal coefficients' values for varying spatial distributions. These then can be used when real earthquake data is analyzed by comparing the real data coefficients values to the standard fractal coefficients. Such an approach can help in interpreting the fractal analysis results through different types of spatial distributions.

Gospodinov, Dragomir [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Geophysical Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.3, Sofia (Bulgaria); Marekova, Elisaveta; Marinov, Alexander [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

2010-01-21

357

Seismic Safety Study  

SciTech Connect

During the past three decades, the Laboratory has been proactive in providing a seismically safe working environment for its employees and the general public. Completed seismic upgrades during this period have exceeded $30M with over 24 buildings structurally upgraded. Nevertheless, seismic questions still frequently arise regarding the safety of existing buildings. To address these issues, a comprehensive study was undertaken to develop an improved understanding of the seismic integrity of the Laboratory's entire building inventory at the Livermore Main Site and Site 300. The completed study of February 2005 extended the results from the 1998 seismic safety study per Presidential Executive Order 12941, which required each federal agency to develop an inventory of its buildings and to estimate the cost of mitigating unacceptable seismic risks. Degenkolb Engineers, who performed the first study, was recontracted to perform structural evaluations, rank order the buildings based on their level of seismic deficiencies, and to develop conceptual rehabilitation schemes for the most seriously deficient buildings. Their evaluation is based on screening procedures and guidelines as established by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC). Currently, there is an inventory of 635 buildings in the Laboratory's Facility Information Management System's (FIMS's) database, out of which 58 buildings were identified by Degenkolb Engineers that require seismic rehabilitation. The remaining 577 buildings were judged to be adequate from a seismic safety viewpoint. The basis for these evaluations followed the seismic safety performance objectives of DOE standard (DOE STD 1020) Performance Category 1 (PC1). The 58 buildings were ranked according to three risk-based priority classifications (A, B, and C) as shown in Figure 1-1 (all 58 buildings have structural deficiencies). Table 1-1 provides a brief description of their expected performance and damage state following a major earthquake, rating the seismic vulnerability (1-10) where the number 10 represents the highest and worst. Buildings in classifications A and B were judged to require the Laboratory's highest attention towards rehabilitation, classification C buildings could defer rehabilitation until a major remodel is undertaken. Strengthening schemes were developed by Degenkolb Engineers for the most seriously deficient A and B classifications (15 total), which the Laboratory's Plant Engineering Department used as its basis for rehabilitation construction cost estimates. A detailed evaluation of Building 2580, a strengthening scheme, and a construction cost estimate are pending. Specific details of the total estimated rehabilitation costs, a proposed 10-year seismic rehabilitation plan, exemption categories by building, DOE performance guidelines, cost comparisons for rehabilitation, and LLNL reports by Degenkolb Engineers are provided in Appendix A. Based on the results of Degenkolb Engineers evaluations, along with the prevailing practice for the disposition of seismically deficient buildings and risk-based evaluations, it is concluded that there is no need to evacuate occupants from these 58 buildings prior to their rehabilitation.

Tokarz, F J; Coats, D W

2006-05-16

358

Seismic performance of an I-girder to inverted-T bent cap bridge connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis represents a portion of the research conducted as part of an investigation for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) regarding the seismic response and overall moment capacity of precast I-girder to inverted-T bent cap bridge connections for seismic applications. The current design practice, as outlined by Caltrans' Seismic Design Criteria, assumes that the connection between the precast I-girders

Richard Manning Snyder

2010-01-01

359

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2009  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. This includes three recently acquired Transportable Array stations located at Cold Creek, Didier Farms, and Phinney Hill. For the Hanford Seismic Network, ten local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2009. All earthquakes were considered as “minor” with magnitudes (Mc) less than 1.0. Two earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), most likely in the Columbia River basalts; five earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the sub-basalt sediments); and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, four earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2009-03-15

360

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 16 local earthquakes during the first quarter of FY 2011. Six earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), seven earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the pre-basalt sediments, and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, thirteen earthquakes were located in known swarm areas and three earthquakes were classified as random events. The highest magnitude event (1.8 Mc) was recorded on October 19, 2010 at depth 17.5 km with epicenter located near the Yakima River between the Rattlesnake Mountain and Horse Heaven Hills swarm areas.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2011-03-31

361

Verifying Multi-threaded C Programs with SPIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key challenge in model checking software is the difficulty of verifying properties of implementation code, as opposed to checking an abstract algorithmic description. We describe a tool for verifying multi- threaded C programs that uses the SPIN model checker. Our tool works by compiling a multi-threaded C program into a typed bytecode for- mat, and then using a virtual

Anna Zaks; Rajeev Joshi

2008-01-01

362

Using Language Inference to Verify Omega-Regular Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel machine learning based approach was proposed re- cently as a complementary technique to the acceleration based meth- ods for verifying innite state systems. In this method, the set of states satisfying a xp oint property is learnt as opposed to being iteratively computed. We extend the machine learning based approach to verify- ing general !-regular properties that include

Abhay Vardhan; Koushik Sen; Mahesh Viswanathan; Gul Agha

2005-01-01

363

Access Control in Publicly Verifiable Outsourced Computation James Alderman  

E-print Network

Publicly Verifiable Outsourced Computation (PVC) allows devices with restricted re- sources to delegate. Thus there is a need to apply access control mechanisms in PVC environments. In this work, we define a new framework for Publicly Verifiable Outsourced Computation with Access Control (PVC-AC) that applies

364

Expressive Power of Definite Clauses for Verifying Authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to the work of Bruno Blanchet definite clauses are an established technique for verifying security properties of communication protocols. We investigate the expressive power of this approach with respect to verifying authenticity. A translation from protocols into definite clauses is given, and direct proofs for correctness and completeness of the authenticity verification based on these clauses are shown. These

Gilberto Filé; Roberto Vigo

2009-01-01

365

Boogie: A Modular Reusable Verifier for Object-Oriented Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program verifier is a complex system that uses compiler technology, program semantics, property inference, verification-condition generation, automatic decision procedures, and a user interface. This paper describes the architecture of a state-of-the-art program verifier for object-oriented programs.

Michael Barnett; Bor-yuh Evan Chang; Robert Deline; Bart Jacobs; K. Rustan M. Leino

2005-01-01

366

Verifying Properties of Electronic Voting Protocols Stephanie Delaune  

E-print Network

Verifying Properties of Electronic Voting Protocols St´ephanie Delaune LSV, France T´el´ecom R.D.Ryan@cs.bham.ac.uk Abstract In this paper we report on some recent work to formally specify and verify electronic voting is a formal language similar to the pi calcu- lus but with useful extensions for modelling cryptographic

Ryan, Mark

367

Flutter Stability Verified for the Trailing Edge Blowing Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TURBO-AE aeroelastic code has been used to verify the flutter stability of the trailing edge blowing (TEB) fan, which is a unique technology demonstrator being designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center for testing in Glenn s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Air can be blown out of slots near the trailing edges of the TEB fan blades to fill in the wakes downstream of the rotating blades, which reduces the rotor-stator interaction (tone) noise caused by the interaction of wakes with the downstream stators. The TEB fan will demonstrate a 1.6-EPNdB reduction in tone noise through wake filling. Furthermore, the reduced blade-row interaction will decrease the possibility of forced-response vibrations and enable closer spacing of blade rows, thus reducing engine length and weight. The detailed aeroelastic analysis capability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes TURBO-AE code was used to check the TEB fan rotor blades for flutter stability. Flutter calculations were first performed with no TEB flow; then select calculations were repeated with TEB flow turned on.

Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh

2005-01-01

368

Separation of seismic blended data by sparse inversion over dictionary learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development of blended acquisition calls for the new procedure to process blended seismic measurements. Presently, deblending and reconstructing unblended data followed by conventional processing is the most practical processing workflow. We study seismic deblending by advanced sparse inversion with a learned dictionary in this paper. To make our method more effective, hybrid acquisition and time-dithering sequential shooting are introduced so that clean single-shot records can be used to train the dictionary to favor the sparser representation of data to be recovered. Deblending and dictionary learning with l1-norm based sparsity are combined to construct the corresponding problem with respect to unknown recovery, dictionary, and coefficient sets. A two-step optimization approach is introduced. In the step of dictionary learning, the clean single-shot data are selected as trained data to learn the dictionary. For deblending, we fix the dictionary and employ an alternating scheme to update the recovery and coefficients separately. Synthetic and real field data were used to verify the performance of our method. The outcome can be a significant reference in designing high-efficient and low-cost blended acquisition.

Zhou, Yanhui; Chen, Wenchao; Gao, Jinghuai

2014-07-01

369

Compliant liquid column damper modified by shape memory alloy device for seismic vibration control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid column dampers (LCDs) have long been used for the seismic vibration control of flexible structures. In contrast, tuning LCDs to short-period structures poses difficulty. Various modifications have been proposed on the original LCD configuration for improving its performance in relatively stiff structures. One such system, referred to as a compliant-LCD has been proposed recently by connecting the LCD to the structure with a spring. In this study, an improvement is attempted in compliant LCDs by replacing the linear spring with a spring made of shape memory alloy (SMA). Considering the dissipative, super-elastic, force-deformation hysteresis of SMA triggered by stress-induced micro-structural phase transition, the performance is expected to improve further. The optimum parameters for the SMA-compliant LCD are obtained through design optimization, which is based on a nonlinear random vibration response analysis via stochastic linearization of the force-deformation hysteresis of SMA and dissipation by liquid motion through an orifice. Substantially enhanced performance of the SMA-LCD over a conventional compliant LCD is demonstrated, the consistency of which is further verified under recorded ground motions. The robustness of the improved performance is also validated by parametric study concerning the anticipated variations in system parameters as well as variability in seismic loading.

Gur, Sourav; Mishra, Sudib Kumar; Bhowmick, Sutanu; Chakraborty, Subrata

2014-10-01

370

Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8  

SciTech Connect

The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

Ivanka, Paskaleva [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mihaela, Kouteva [CLSMEE-BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Franco, Vaccari [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Panza, Giuliano F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

2008-07-08

371

Seismic deformation analysis of Tuttle Creek Dam Timothy D. Stark, Michael H. Beaty, Peter M. Byrne, Gonzalo Castro,  

E-print Network

Seismic deformation analysis of Tuttle Creek Dam Timothy D. Stark, Michael H. Beaty, Peter M. Byrne, and David L. Mathews Abstract: To facilitate the design of seismic remediation for Tuttle Creek Dam in east central Kansas, a seismic finite differ- ence analysis of the dam was performed using the software FLAC

372

Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments.

Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

2014-04-01

373

Probability-based PGA estimations using the double-lognormal distribution: Including site-specific seismic hazard analysis for four sites in Taiwan  

E-print Network

includes site-specific seismic hazard analysis for four nuclear power plant sites in Taiwan. The results for seismic hazard assessment of nuclear power plant sites [11]. However, methodological limita- tions of PSHA agreement with an empirical control, and offers transparency, traceability, and verifiability. & 2012

Wu, Yih-Min

374

Magnitude correlations in global seismicity  

SciTech Connect

By employing natural time analysis, we analyze the worldwide seismicity and study the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We find that global seismicity exhibits nontrivial magnitude correlations for earthquake magnitudes greater than M{sub w}6.5.

Sarlis, N. V. [Solid State Section and Solid Earth Physics Institute, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos GR-157 84, Athens (Greece)

2011-08-15

375

Evaluation of Seismic Risk of Siberia Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outcomes of modern geophysical researches of the Geophysical Survey SB RAS, directed on study of geodynamic situation in large industrial and civil centers on the territory of Siberia with the purpose of an evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of extreme situations of natural and man-caused character, are pre- sented in the paper. First of all it concerns the testing and updating of a geoinformation system developed by Russian Emergency Ministry designed for calculations regarding the seismic hazard and response to distructive earthquakes. The GIS database contains the catalogues of earthquakes and faults, seismic zonation maps, vectorized city maps, information on industrial and housing fund, data on character of building and popula- tion in inhabited places etc. The geoinformation system allows to solve on a basis of probabilistic approaches the following problems: - estimating the earthquake impact, required forces, facilities and supplies for life-support of injured population; - deter- mining the consequences of failures on chemical and explosion-dangerous objects; - optimization problems on assurance technology of conduct of salvage operations. Using this computer program, the maps of earthquake risk have been constructed for several seismically dangerous regions of Siberia. These maps display the data on the probable amount of injured people and relative economic damage from an earthquake, which can occur in various sites of the territory according to the map of seismic zona- tion. The obtained maps have allowed determining places where the detailed seismo- logical observations should be arranged. Along with it on the territory of Siberia the wide-ranging investigations with use of new methods of evaluation of physical state of industrial and civil establishments (buildings and structures, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, dams, etc.), high-performance detailed electromagnetic researches of ground conditions of city territories, roads, runways, etc., studying of seismic con- dition in large industrial and civil centers and others.

Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

376

ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated

E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P. F. Peterson

2010-01-01

377

Research on seismic stress triggering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has\\u000a been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress\\u000a triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake\\u000a triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on

Yong-Ge Wan; Zhong-Liang Wu; Gong-Wei Zhou; Jing Huang; Li-Xin Qin

2002-01-01

378

Induced seismicity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

Segall, P.

1997-09-18

379

Seismic Anisotropy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P wave anisotropy, the direction dependence of P wave velocities, is widely recognized to exist in the crust and upper mantle. The anisotropic effects of layered media, of aligned crystals in ductile rock, and of aligned cracks in brittle rock have been observed or have been speculated to yield information on earth structure and geomechanical processes. Crustal and upper mantle P wave seismic anisotropy were the principal subject in 1982 at the First International Workshop on Seismic Anisotropy (IIWSA), at Suzdal, U.S.S.R. The workshop proceedings, with a comprehensive overview of seismic anisotropy, appeared in the January 1984 issue of the Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society (GJRAS, vol. 76).

Leary, Peter

380

Evolution of optically nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the deployment of the credit card, the number of credit card fraud cases has grown rapidly with a huge amount of loss in millions of US dollars. Instead of asking more information from the credit card's holder or taking risk through payment approval, a nondestructive and data-non-intrusive credit card verifier is highly desirable before transaction begins. In this paper, we review optical techniques that have been proposed and invented in order to make the genuine credit card more distinguishable than the counterfeit credit card. Several optical approaches for the implementation of credit card verifiers are also included. In particular, we highlight our invention on a hyperspectral-imaging based portable credit card verifier structure that offers a very low false error rate of 0.79%. Other key features include low cost, simplicity in design and implementation, no moving part, no need of an additional decoding key, and adaptive learning.

Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

2010-04-01

381

Seismic structure of Taal volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate seismicity and tectonic structure under Taal volcano, Philippines, a temporary seismic array consisting of 8 stations was deployed in this area since March 2008. As a pioneer seismic study in this area, our first goal is to build a robust 1-D velocity model using local earthquakes. In the mean time, we also apply ambient noise cross-correlation

Shuei-Huei You; Yuancheng Gung; Konstantinos I. Konstantinou; Cheng-Horng Lin; Emmy T. Y. Chang

2010-01-01

382

Multi-purpose seismic transducer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose seismic transducer includes a first seismic sensor having a first transfer function. A transfer-function shaping filter is coupled to the output of the first seismic sensor. The filter is adjustable to shape the first transfer function to match a plurality of different second transfer functions.

Hall, E.M.

1981-02-24

383

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-03-21

384

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, seven local earthquakes were recorded during the second quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the second quarter (February 3, 2008 - magnitude 2.3 Mc) was located northeast of Richland in Franklin County at a depth of 22.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, two earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), three earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and two earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, five earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and two earthquakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-06-26

385

Second Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 506 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the second quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twenty-seven seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46--47{degree} N latitude and 119--120{degree} W longitude; 12 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 2 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 5 were quarry blasts. Three earthquakes appear to be related to geologic structures, eleven earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and seven earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the second quarter of FY 2000.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

2000-07-17

386

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its con-tractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (E WRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 818 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the third quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Thirteen seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46-47{degree} N latitude and 119-120{degree} W longitude; 7 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 1 was an earthquake in the pre-basalt sediments, and 5 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Three earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and 10 earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the third quarter of FY 2000.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

2000-09-01

387

First quarter Hanford seismic report for fiscal year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EW uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 311 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twelve seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46--47{degree}N latitude and 119--120{degree}W longitude; 2 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 3 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 1 was a quarry blast. Two earthquakes appear to be related to a major geologic structure, no earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and 9 earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the first quarter of FY 2000.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

2000-02-23

388

South Carolina Seismic Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of South Carolina offers data from the seismic network that stretches from the Blue Ridge Mountains to the Atlantic coast. Users can view maps of earthquake activity in South Carolina since 1996. The website offers a synopsis of the Charleston Earthquake in 1886, which was the largest historic earthquake in the Southeastern United States. Visitors can find a catalogue of the earthquakes occurring between 1698 and 1998 and a map of the East Coast seismicity from 1973 to 2000 as well as publications, technical reports, and bulletins.

389

Seismic exploration system improvement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a seismic exploration system having geophone locations along a survey line with at least one geophone connected to separate circuits connected to corresponding terminals of a roll-along common depth point switch. A means is described for identifying a specific one of the geophone locations as the switch changes connections, comprising means for superimposing a signal outside the useful range of seismic energy signals generated by the geophones on the one of the separate circuits connected to the specific geophone location whereby the location may be identified on the changed connection side of the switch.

Bearden, J.M.

1987-01-06

390

Geophysical Monitoring at the CO2SINK Site: Combining Seismic and Geoelectric Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CO2SINK project at the German town of Ketzin (near Berlin), is aimed at a pilot storage of CO2, and at developing and testing efficient integrated monitoring procedures (physical, chemical, and biological observations) for assessing the processes triggered within the reservoir by a long term injection operation. In particular, geophysical methods as seismic and geoelectric measurements have delivered the structural framework, and they enable to observe the reaction of the reservoir and the caprock to CO2 propagation at locations which are not accessible for direct observations. We report on the seismic monitoring program of the CO2SINK project which comprises baseline and repeat observations at different scales in time and space, combined with comprehensive geoelectrical monitoring performed in the Ketzin wells and on the surface. The main objectives of the 3D seismic survey (carried out in spring 2005) were to provide the structural model around the location of the Ketzin wells, to verify earlier geologic interpretations of structure based on vintage 2D seismic and borehole data, as well as providing a baseline for future seismic surveys. The uppermost 1000 m are well imaged and show an anticlinal structure with an east-west striking central graben on its top. The 3D baseline survey was extended by VSP (vertical seismic profiling), MSP (moving source profiling) on 7 profiles, and crosshole tomographic measurements. 2D "star" measurements were carried out on the 7 MSP profiles in order to tie-in the down-hole surveys with the 3D baseline survey. These measurements provide enhanced resolution in time (faster and more cost effective than a full 3D survey) and space (higher source and receiver frequencies). Three crosshole measurements were performed, one baseline survey in May 2008, and two repeats in July and August 2008, respectively. A third crosshole repeat is planned for a later stage in the project when a steady state situation has been reached in the reservoir between the two observation boreholes Ktzi 200 and Ktzi 202. The interpretation of the time lapse crosshole seismic measurements is still work in progress. A time lapse effect can be recognized on cross correlations of baseline and repeat data indicating that considering the full wave form of the recordings does have the potential to locate subtle changes in the seismic properties of the reservoir due to CO2 injection. In addition, we show the results of the site-specific geoelectrical monitoring concept VERA (Vertical Electrical Resistivity Array), which covers electrical resistivity measurements in all three Ketzin wells. The array consists of 45 permanent electrodes (15 in each well), placed on the electrically insulated casings of the wells in the 600 m to 750 m depth range with a spacing of 10 m. This layout has been designed according to numerical forward modeling assuming electrical properties of pre- and post-injection scenarios. In addition to the geoelectric downhole measurement setup, surface to surface, and surface to downhole measurements are added in order to enlarge the area of observation between the three Ketzin wells to a hemispherical area (with a radius of about 1.5 km) around the wells. First results of the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) fit the expected reservoir behaviour. Higher resistivity values (presently up to factor 3 compared to other horizons) represent the intervals of the sandstone reservoir as preferred pathways of the CO2 propagation.

Giese, R.; Lüth, S.; Cosma, C.; Juhlin, C.; Kiessling, D.; Schütt, H.; Schöbel, B.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Schilling, F.; Co2SINK Group

2009-04-01

391

Seismic risk assessment of buildings in Izmir, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Izmir, the third largest city and a major economic center in Turkey, has more than three million residents and half million\\u000a buildings. In this study, the seismic risk in reinforced concrete buildings that dominate the building inventory in Izmir\\u000a is investigated through multiple approaches. Five typical reinforced concrete buildings were designed, modeled and assessed\\u000a for seismic vulnerability. The sample structures

Kas?m A. Korkmaz; Ayhan Irfanoglu; Ali H. Kayhan

2010-01-01

392

An application of Marquardt's procedure to the seismic inverse problem  

SciTech Connect

The seismic inverse problem is to infer characteristics of the subsurface from measurements of the wave field at the surface. The Marquardt procedure offers one approach to this problem. In applying this procedure, a linear relationship is developed between the wave field and some parameter which describes a physical property of the subsurface. Then a selection criterion is designed to choose the subsurface parameter which provides the best match for the observed seismic data.

Keys, R.G.

1986-03-01

393

Autonomous, continuously recording broadband seismic stations at high-latitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

IRIS PASSCAL is in the third year of an NSF funded development and acquisition effort to establish a pool of cold-hardened seismic stations specifically for high-latitude broadband deployments. We have two complete years of field trials and have successfully recorded continuous seismic data during both years with data recovery rates of ~90%. Our design is premised on a 2W autonomous

B. Beaudoin; T. Parker; B. Bonnett; G. Tytgat; K. Anderson; J. Fowler

2009-01-01

394

A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

Haines, Seth S.

2007-01-01

395

VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. We use Microsoft Excel 2003 and have not tested VISION with Microsoft Excel 2007. The VISION team uses both Powersim Studio 2005 and 2009 and it should work with either.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

2009-08-01

396

Encrypted Receipts for Voter-Verified Elections Using Homomorphic Encryption  

E-print Network

Voters are now demanding the ability to verify that their votes are cast and counted as intended. Most existing cryptographic election protocols do not treat the voter as a computationally-limited entity separate from the ...

Forsythe, Joy Marie

397

28 CFR 802.13 - Verifying your identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...access to records about yourself, you must verify your identity. You must state your full name, current address, and date and place of birth. You must sign your request and your signature must either be...

2010-07-01

398

Optimizing and verifying an ensemble-based rainfall model  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I modified, optimized, and verified the stochastic Recursive Cluster-point Rainfall model of Chatdarong (2006). A novel error metric allows comparison of the stochastic ensemble of rainfall image forecasts ...

Friedman, Sara Hargrove

2007-01-01

399

Towards verifiable adaptive control for safety critical applications  

E-print Network

To be implementable in safety critical applications, adaptive controllers must be shown to behave strictly according to predetermined specifications. This thesis presents two tools for verifying specifications relevant to ...

Schwager, Mac

2005-01-01

400

Sub-seismic Deformation Prediction of Potential Pathways and Seismic Validation - The Joint Project PROTECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint project PROTECT (PRediction Of deformation To Ensure Carbon Traps) aims to determine the existence and characteristics of sub-seismic structures that can potentially link deep reservoirs with the surface in the framework of CO2 underground storage. The research provides a new approach of assessing the long-term integrity of storage reservoirs. The objective is predicting and quantifying the distribution and the amount of sub-/seismic strain caused by fault movement in the proximity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The study is developing tools and workflows which will be tested at the CO2CRC Otway Project Site in the Otway Basin in south-western Victoria, Australia. For this purpose, we are building a geometrical kinematic 3-D model based on 2-D and 3-D seismic data that are provided by the Australian project partner, the CO2CRC Consortium. By retro-deforming the modeled subsurface faults in the inspected subsurface volume we can determine the accumulated sub-seismic deformation and thus the strain variation around the faults. Depending on lithology, the calculated strain magnitude and its orientation can be used as an indicator for fracture density. Furthermore, from the complete 3D strain tensor we can predict the orientation of fractures at sub-seismic scale. In areas where we have preliminary predicted critical deformation, we will acquire in November this year new near- surface, high resolution P- and S-wave 2-D seismic data in order to verify and calibrate our model results. Here, novel and parameter-based model building will especially benefit from extracting velocities and elastic parameters from VSP and other seismic data. Our goal is to obtain a better overview of possible fluid migration pathways and communication between reservoir and overburden. Thereby, we will provide a tool for prediction and adapted time-dependent monitoring strategies for subsurface storage in general including scientific visualization capabilities. Acknowledgement This work was sponsored in part by the Australian Commonwealth Government through the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC). PROTECT (PRediction Of deformation To Ensure Carbon Traps) is funded through the Geotechnologien Programme (grant 03G0797) of the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). The PROTECT research group consists of Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover, Technical University Darmstadt, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung in Leipzig, Trappe Erdöl Erdgas Consultant in Isernhagen (all Germany), and Curtin University in Perth, Australia.

Krawczyk, C. M.; Kolditz, O.

2013-12-01

401

A case study: Time-lapse seismic monitoring of a thin heavy oil reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a case study on time-lapse seismic monitoring. The target area is located at East Senlac in the vicinity of Alberta and Saskatchewan border, a heavy oil reservoir in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to observe rock property related seismic anomalies, two perpendicular seismic lines have been set up. One seismic line along the N-S direction is subject to Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) while the other seismic line along the W-E direction is not affected. This case study covers the subjects of feasibility study, processing strategy, repeatability evaluation, seismic attribute analysis, and impedance inversion. Systematic feasibility study is conducted by prediction of rock properties based on Gassmann's equation, technical risk assessment, forward modelling and seismic survey design. The first stage simulation of oil substitution by steam indicates that it is feasible to perform time-lapse seismic monitoring project, but great challenge might be encountered. Continuous gas injection barely induces seismic variations. In the aspect of seismic data processing, better seismic quality is obtained by employing the prestack simultaneous processing (PSP) strategy. The three metrics, Pearson correlation, normalized root-mean-squares and predictability are employed to quantify the post-stack seismic repeatability. Higher repeatability along the W-E direction than along the N-S direction shows different local geology environment. The non-uniform CMP stack fold distribution is found the main factor to affect seismic repeatability. The seismic attribute, power spectra calculated from the N-S seismic surveys demonstrate that higher frequency energy tend to increase with time due to the possible decrease in pore pressure and pore temperature. On the other hand, the inverted impedance using the recently proposed hybrid data transformation shows mixed impedance variations. The continuous gas injection and the simultaneous drop in temperature and pressure are possibly the main reason to result in this mixed impedance variations.

Zhang, Yajun

402

Seismic Behavior of Spent Fuel Dry Cask Storage Systems  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting a research program to investigate technical issues concerning the dry cask storage systems of spent nuclear fuel by conducting confirmatory research for establishing criteria and review guidelines for the seismic behavior of these systems. The program focuses on developing 3-D finite element analysis models that address the dynamic coupling of a module/cask, a flexible concrete pad, and an underlying soil/rock foundation, in particular, the soil-structure-interaction. Parametric analyses of the coupled models are performed to include variations in module/cask geometry, site seismicity, underlying soil properties, and cask/pad interface friction. The analyses performed include: 1) a rectangular dry cask module typical of Transnuclear West design at a site in Western USA where high seismicity is expected; 2) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Eastern USA where low seismicity is expected; and 3) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Western USA with medium high seismicity. The paper includes assumptions made in seismic analyses performed, results, and conclusions. (authors)

Shaukat, Syed K. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Luk, Vincent K. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0744 (United States)

2002-07-01

403

Hanford quarterly seismic report -- 97A seismicity on and near the Hanford Site, Pasco Basin, Washington, October 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Seismic Monitoring is part of PNNL`s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team (SMART) operates, maintains, and analyzes data from the hanford Seismic Network (HSN), extending the site historical seismic database and fulfilling US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office requirements and orders. The SMART also maintains the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN). The University of Washington uses the data from the EWRN and other seismic networks in the Northwest to provide the SMART with necessary regional input for the seismic hazards analysis at the Hanford Site. The SMART is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw seismic data from the HSN located on and around the Hanford Site. These unprocessed data are permanently archived. SMART also is tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity, monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site, and build a local earthquake database (processed data) that is permanently archived. Local earthquakes are defined as earthquakes that occur within 46 degrees to 47 degrees west longitude and 119 degrees to 120 degrees north latitude. The data are used by the Hanford contractor for waste management activities, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of an earthquake on the Hanford Site.

Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

1997-02-01

404

Seismic Inversion Methods  

SciTech Connect

With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

Jackiewicz, Jason [New Mexico State University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

2009-09-16

405

Continous Seismic Profiling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS collaborated with cooperator U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to conduct continuous seismic-reflection profiling in the Havasu National Wildlife Refuge. The survey was conducted as part of an applied research and technology transfer effort by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch of Geophysics ...

406

The Viking seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-axis short-period seismometer is now operating on Mars in the Utopia Planitia region. The noise background correlates well with wind gusts. Although no quakes have been detected in the first 60 days of observation, it is premature to draw any conclusions about the seismicity of Mars. The instrument is expected to return data for at least 2 years.

Anderson, D. L.; Miller, W. F.; Duennebier, F. K.; Lazarewicz, A. R.; Sutton, G.; Latham, G. V.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, M. F.; Kovach, R. L.; Knight, T. C. D.

1976-01-01

407

AUTOMATING SHALLOW SEISMIC IMAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

Our current EMSP project continues an effort begun in 1997 to develop ultrashallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method applicable to DOE facilities. The objective of the present research is to refine and demonstrate the use of an automated method of conducting shallow seis...

408

Lunar seismicity and tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for an analysis of all moonquake data obtained by the Apollo seismic stations during the period from November 1969 to May 1974 and a preliminary analysis of critical data obtained in the interval from May 1974 to May 1975. More accurate locations are found for previously located moonquakes, and additional sources are located. Consideration is given to the sources of natural seismic signals, lunar seismic activity, moonquake periodicities, tidal periodicities in moonquake activity, hypocentral locations and occurrence characteristics of deep and shallow moonquakes, lunar tidal control over moonquakes, lunar tectonism, the locations of moonquake belts, and the dynamics of the lunar interior. It is concluded that: (1) moonquakes are distributed in several major belts of global extent that coincide with regions of the youngest and most intense volcanic and tectonic activity; (2) lunar tides control both the small quakes occurring at great depth and the larger quakes occurring near the surface; (3) the moon has a much thicker lithosphere than earth; (4) a single tectonic mechanism may account for all lunar seismic activity; and (5) lunar tidal stresses are an efficient triggering mechanism for moonquakes.

Lammlein, D. R.

1977-01-01

409

Probabilistic seismic hazard estimation of Manipur, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the estimation of spectral acceleration for Manipur based on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The 500 km region surrounding Manipur is divided into seven tectonic zones and major faults located in these zones are used to estimate seismic hazard. The earthquake recurrence relations for the seven zones have been estimated from past seismicity data. Ground motion prediction equations proposed by Boore and Atkinson (2008 Earthq. Spectra 24 99-138) for shallow active regions and Atkinson and Boore (2003 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93 1703-29) for the Indo-Burma subduction zone are used for estimating ground motion. The uniform hazard response spectra for all the nine constituent districts of Manipur (Senapati, Tamenglong, Churachandpur, Chandel, Imphal east, Imphal west, Ukhrul, Thoubal and Bishnupur) at 100-, 500- and 2500-year return periods have been computed from PSHA. A contour map of peak ground acceleration over Manipur is also presented for 100-, 500-, and 2500-year return periods with variations of 0.075-0.225, 0.18-0.63 and 0.3-0.1.15 g, respectively, throughout the state. These results may be of use to planners and engineers for site selection, designing earthquake resistant structures and, further, may help the state administration in seismic hazard mitigation.

Pallav, Kumar; Raghukanth, S. T. G.; Darunkumar Singh, Konjengbam

2012-10-01

410

Study on Application of Seismic Isolation System to ABWR-II Building  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the result of a study that evaluated the applicability of the seismic isolation system to nuclear power plants. The study focuses on possibilities of a standard design with improved seismic safety of building and equipment for ABWR-II. A base isolation system with laminated lead rubber bearing was applied in the study. Based on the structural design of isolated buildings, it was confirmed that the design seismic loads can be largely reduced and that seismic elements of buildings and equipment can be easily designed compared with non-isolated buildings. Improvement in the building construction cost and period was also confirmed. The analytical results of seismic probabilistic safety assessments showed that an isolated building has a much higher degree of the seismic safety than a non-isolated building. The study concludes that the seismic isolation system is well applicable to ABWR-II plants. In addition, with an aim to enhance the earthquake-resistance of future ABWR-II plants, a building concept was developed, in which a lot of important equipment are laid out on a floor directly supported by the base isolation system. On this plant, further improvement of the seismic reliability is expected due to reduction of the seismic responses of important equipment. (authors)

Hideaki Saito; Hideo Tanaka; Atsuko Noguchi [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 4-1, Egsaki-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-8510 (Japan); Junji Suhara [Shimizu Corporation, 2-3, Shibaura 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8007 (Japan); Yasuaki Fukushima [Kajima Corporation, 5-30, Akasaka 6-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8502 (Japan)

2004-07-01

411

New seismic codes and their impact on the acoustician  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New seismic building codes for HVAC and electrical equipment, pipe ducts and conduits are being adopted nationwide. These codes affect the way acousticians practice their profession. Recently published model codes (such as IBC, NFPA, ASCE and NBC T1809-4) specify systems that require documented seismic protection. Specific performance and prescriptive code provisions that affect acoustical system applications and how they can be made to comply is included. Key terms in these codes (life safety, essential, seismic use group, category and importance factor) are explained and illustrated. A table listing major code seismic demand formulas (horizontal static seismic force, acting at the center of gravity of the equipment, pipe duct or conduit), is a useful reference. A table that defines which HVAC systems require static or dynamic analysis based on seismic use group, design category and importance factor is provided. A discussion of code-mandated Certificates of Compliance for both mountings and equipment is included and may impact acoustical decisions. New codes may require that engineers, architects and acousticians use seismic restraints with acoustical ceilings, floating floors, resilient pipe duct supports, HVAC equipment and architectural items. ``How To'' for all of this is presented with tables, details and graphs.

Lama, Patrick J.

2005-09-01

412

Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves.

Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1994-01-01

413

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

1999-05-26

414

Seismic Monitoring of Poland - Description and Results of Temporary Seismic Project with Mobile Seismic Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a temporary seismic project aimed at developing the national database of natural seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment, officially called "Monitoring of Seismic Hazard of Territory of Poland" (MSHTP). Due to low seismicity of Poland, the project was focused on events of magnitude range 1-3 in selected regions in order to maximize the chance of recording any natural event. The project used mobile seismic stations and was divided into two stages. Five-year measurements brought over one hundred natural seismic events of magnitudes ML range 0.5-3.8. Most of them were located in the Podhale region in the Carpathians. Together with previously recorded events this made it possible to conduct a preliminary study on ground motion prediction equation for this region. Only one natural event, of magnitude ML = 3.8, was recorded outside the Carpathians in a surprising location in central-west Poland

Trojanowski, Jacek; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan

2015-02-01

415

Seismic monitoring of Poland — description and results of temporary seismic project with mobile seismic network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a temporary seismic project aimed at developing the national database of natural seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment, officially called "Monitoring of Seismic Hazard of Territory of Poland" (MSHTP). Due to low seismicity of Poland, the project was focused on events of magnitude range 1-3 in selected regions in order to maximize the chance of recording any natural event. The project used mobile seismic stations and was divided into two stages. Five-year measurements brought over one hundred natural seismic events of magnitudes M L range 0.5-3.8. Most of them were located in the Podhale region in the Carpathians. Together with previously recorded events this made it possible to conduct a preliminary study on ground motion prediction equation for this region. Only one natural event, of magnitude M L = 3.8, was recorded outside the Carpathians in a surprising location in central-west Poland.

Trojanowski, Jacek; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan

2014-12-01

416

Numerical Analytical Model for Seismic Behavior of Prestressing Concrete Bridge Column Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional bridge seismic design practices depend on the ductility capacity of bridge columns. However, damaged columns tend to produce large residual deformations following a seismic event due to the formation of a flexural plastic hinge. Improved seismic response can be realized through the use of unbonded post-tensioning prestressing cast-in-place (CIP) column systems or precast segmental column systems. These bridge column

Zhiqiang Wang; Wei Song; Yuanyuan Wang; Hongyi Wei

2011-01-01

417

Seismic Rotations Observed with Inertial Seismic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interest of the seismological community has arisen for possible rotation effects of the Earth on signals recorded by inertial seismometers. Wiechert and Schluter (1903) and more recently Pancha et al. (2000), Igel et al. (2005, 2006) show that, in the teleseismic range, rotations may be neglected and account for less than 0.1% of the translation waves generated by earthquakes. On the contrary, we may see effects of rotation on seismic traces recorded in the near field of an earthquake. As instruments will deliver unsaturated signals in this near field, rotation detection will be more and more frequent. We may observe rotation effects as well in the noise signal at long period. - In the near field, the three components integrated signal of the accelerograms (i.e; velocity signal) diverge and this drift is the effect of an nearly invisible little jump in acceleration signal. The second integrated step diverges and the co-seismic displacement could not be estimated. - By studying the long period noise, we have found that the two horizontal components of some of GEOSCOPE stations with STS-1 seismometer from Streckeisen, present the same noise both in amplitude and in phase with a coherency greater than 95%. This similarity could occur at some stations and not at others and during some time periods. Therefore, the noise has a quite stable horizontal polarisation at N045 during these periods. We may argue that these two separate effects comes from ground rotations and the way they are recorded by seismic instruments. For example, GEOSCOPE stations equipped by STS-2 which have a quite different mechanical structure do not exhibit the polarisation effect. Mechanical pendulums as vertical LaCoste sensor and horizontal 'garden-gate' sensor present effects of rotations on the different translation motions of the mass. Therefore, for the long period noise, a quite probable explanation is that a rotation around the vertical axis acts similarly on the two horizontal sensors while a translation effect quite similar on both components will require a quite coherent well polarized noise always oriented to N045. Geoscope stations of PPT (Papeete, Tahiti) and NOUC (Nouméa, New Caledonia) present this feature quite systematically. In the near field, tilt effect acts alone at the second order on the vertical component. The two horizontal components are recording linearly the tilt waves (with a great amplification especially at long period) and the rotation around the vertical axis. Therefore, the horizontal trace is the mixture of both the two rotating effects and the translating signal we can do discriminate. We may conclude that a sensor which will record the six degrees of freedom of the ground motion should be a quite important issue in the future if we want to understand correctly near-field ground motions. We may foresee that these new measurements will be information for better understanding the Earth structure and seismic source mechanisms.

Jean, V.

2006-12-01

418

The Algerian Seismic Network: Performance from data quality analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic monitoring in Algeria has seen a great change after the Boumerdes earthquake of May 21st, 2003. Indeed the installation of a New Digital seismic network (ADSN) upgrade drastically the previous analog telemetry network. During the last four years, the number of stations in operation has greatly increased to 66 stations with 15 Broad Band, 02 Very Broad band, 47 Short period and 21 accelerometers connected in real time using various mode of transmission ( VSAT, ADSL, GSM, ...) and managed by Antelope software. The spatial distribution of these stations covers most of northern Algeria from east to west. Since the operation of the network, significant number of local, regional and tele-seismic events was located by the automatic processing, revised and archived in databases. This new set of data is characterized by the accuracy of the automatic location of local seismicity and the ability to determine its focal mechanisms. Periodically, data recorded including earthquakes, calibration pulse and cultural noise are checked using PSD (Power Spectral Density) analysis to determine the noise level. ADSN Broadband stations data quality is controlled in quasi real time using the "PQLX" software by computing PDFs and PSDs of the recordings. Some other tools and programs allow the monitoring and the maintenance of the entire electronic system for example to check the power state of the system, the mass position of the sensors and the environment conditions (Temperature, Humidity, Air Pressure) inside the vaults. The new design of the network allows management of many aspects of real time seismology: seismic monitoring, rapid determination of earthquake, message alert, moment tensor estimation, seismic source determination, shakemaps calculation, etc. The international standards permit to contribute in regional seismic monitoring and the Mediterranean warning system. The next two years with the acquisition of new seismic equipment to reach 50 new BB stations led to densify the network and to enhance performance of the Algerian Digital Seismic Network.

Yelles, Abdelkarim; Allili, Toufik; Alili, Azouaou

2013-04-01

419

Analysis of induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs - an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this overview we report results of analyzing induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs in various tectonic settings in particular within the framework of the European GEISER project. In the exploration phase of a geothermal field, the seismic network, subsurface fault mapping and in situ stress are of primary interest. The image of the seismic cloud observed is dependent on the design of the installed network, the velocity model used and the applied location technique. In the stimulation phase, the attention is turned to reservoir hydraulics (i.e., fluid pressure, injection volume) and their relation to larger magnitude seismic events, their source characteristics and occurrence in space and time. Source mechanisms indicate a change in isotropic components of the full waveform moment tensor for events close to the injection well (tensile cracks) as compared later stages (shear cracks) further away from the injection well. Tensile events with >15% isotropic components coincide with high Gutenberg-Richter b-values and low Brune stress drops. We identified in situ stress as the most critical parameter for reservoir development and reservoir life-time estimates after the presence of heat. This is because near-well stresses can change from one to another stimulation, and multiple stimulated wells (in crystalline rock only) follow the field Kaiser effect, where little or no seismicity is produced until the previous maximum stress level is exceeded. We recommend to obtain a 3D velocity model of Vp and Vs down to reservoir depth prior to exploitation, apply real-time seismicity and frequency analyses of local 4D tomography for Vp/Vs ratios, and locate seismicity in real-time so that field operators are in a position to adjust the rate and volume of the fluid injected if seismic events start to occur far away from the boundary of the seismicity cloud.

Jousset, Philippe; Zang, Arno; Oye, Volker; Deichman, Nicholas; Gritto, Roland; McGarr, Art; Majer, Ernest; Bruhn, David

2014-05-01

420

Seismic hazard maps for Jordan and vicinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic methods are used to quantify the seismic hazard in Jordan and neighbouring regions. The hazard model incorporates the uncertainties associated with the seismicity parameters and the attenuation equation. Seven seismic sources are identified in the region and the seismicity parameters of these sources are estimated by making use of all the available information. Seismic hazard computations and the selection

M. Semih Yücemen

1992-01-01

421

Teaching Reflection Seismic Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Without pictures, it is difficult to give students a feeling for wave propagation, transmission, and reflection. Even with pictures, wave propagation is still static to many. However, when students use and modify scripts that generate wavefronts and rays through a geologic model that they have modified themselves, we find that students gain a real feeling for wave propagation. To facilitate teaching 2-D seismic reflection data processing (from acquisition through migration) to our undergraduate and graduate Reflection Seismology students, we use Seismic Un*x (SU) software. SU is maintained and distributed by Colorado School of Mines, and it is freely available (at www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes). Our approach includes use of synthetic and real seismic data, processing scripts, and detailed explanation of the scripts. Our real data were provided by Gregory F. Moore of the University of Hawaii. This approach can be used by any school at virtually no expense for either software or data, and can provide students with a sound introduction to techniques used in processing of reflection seismic data. The same software can be used for other purposes, such as research, with no additional expense. Students who have completed a course using SU are well equipped to begin using it for research, as well. Scripts for each processing step are supplied and explained to the students. Our detailed description of the scripts means students do not have to know anything about SU to start. Experience with the Unix operating system is preferable but not necessary -- our notes include Computer Hints to help the beginner work with the Unix operating system. We include several examples of synthetic model building, acquiring shot gathers through synthetic models, sorting shot gathers to CMP gathers, gain, 1-D frequency filtering, f-k filtering, deconvolution, semblance displays and velocity analysis, flattening data (NMO), stacking the CMPs, and migration. We use two real (marine) data sets. One of these is very easy to process, yet provides an extraordinary example of the importance of migration after stack. The other data set is a challenge to process, due to contamination by multiples. Students who complete the SU exercises learn the structure of reflection seismic data, the fundamentals of seismic data processing, and gain an introduction to signal processing, providing them with the tools required to make appropriate career choices and/or to continue their research.

Forel, D.; Benz, T.; Pennington, W. D.

2004-12-01

422

Multilevel geophone tool strings improve well seismic projects  

SciTech Connect

Multilevel strings of geophone tools are changing the economics of well seismic because rig downtime is divided by almost the number of levels while data quality is considerably improved. Since the introduction of well seismic methods, check shots, vertical seismic profiles, and walkaway VSPs, the cost of rig downtime has been a major consideration. It has limited the use of well seismic, particularly offshore. Multilevel geophone tools were initially developed with the reduction of rig downtime in mind. Single level tools are now starting to be replaced by strings of tools. Putting tools on a string offered an opportunity to improve their mechanical characteristics. Some of these improvements resulted from design, while others were due simply to the fact that a string of tools operates simultaneously at more than one level.

Barry, W. (CGG Logging, Aberdeen, Scotland (GB)); Omnes, G. (CGG, Massy (FR))

1991-01-14

423

Verifying the accuracy of the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer  

E-print Network

TITAN (TRIUMF's Ion Traps for Atomic and Nuclear science) is an online facility designed to carry out high-precision mass measurements on singly and highly charged radioactive ions. The TITAN Penning trap has been built and optimized in order to perform such measurements with an accuracy in the sub ppb-range. A detailed characterization of the TITAN Penning trap is presented and a new compensation method is derived and demonstrated, verifying the performance in the range of sub-ppb.

M. Brodeur; V. L. Ryjkov; T. Brunner; S. Ettenauer; A. T. Gallant; V. V. Simon; M. J. Smith; A. Lapierre; R. Ringle; P. Delheij; M. Good; D. Lunney; J. Dilling

2011-11-05

424

Validating the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS) by Neurological History and Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS) is an 8-item structured interview designed to identify stroke-free individuals. Previously, the QVSFS was validated with medical record review in a cohort with a low prevalence (7.1%) of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the QVSFS by comparing it with

William J. Jones; Linda S. Williams; James F. Meschia

425

A method for verifying treatment times for simple high-dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy procedures  

SciTech Connect

An empirical method for verifying the total treatment time for either a one- or a two-catheter high-dose-rate procedure has been developed. The method can be performed quickly and allows for easy verification of the accuracy of the treatment time arrived at by a computerized planning system. The method is designed to confirm the treatment time to within 10{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.}

Miller, A.V.; Davis, M.G.; Horton, J.L. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

1996-11-01

426

Seismic performance of reinforced concrete moment resisting frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moment resisting frames (MRF) are typically classified as “ductile”, “nominally ductile”, and “GLD” (Gravity Load Designed). The seismic performance of these structures can be evaluated in terms of its lateral load resistance, distribution of interstory drift, and the sequence of yielding of the members. In this study a typical 5-story frame is designed as (a) ductile, (b) nominally ductile, (c)

R. Sadjadi; M. R. Kianoush; S. Talebi

2007-01-01

427

Seismic behavior of bridge piers including soil-structure interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a rule, widely used practices do not consider soil-structure interaction (SSI) in the seismic design of bridges. This study attempts to assess the significance of SSI for the design of bridge piers placed on either a homogeneous deep soil stratum or a shallow soil stratum overlying a rigid bedrock. The objective is pursued through a simple, yet capable to

C Spyrakos

1992-01-01

428

Comment on "How can seismic hazard around the New Madrid seismic zone be similar to that in California?" by Arthur Frankel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

PSHA is the method used most to assess seismic hazards for input into various aspects of public and financial policy. For example, PSHA was used by the U.S. Geological Survey to develop the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Frankel et al., 1996, 2002). These maps are the basis for many national, state, and local seismic safety regulations and design standards, such as the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, the International Building Code, and the International Residential Code. Adoption and implementation of these regulations and design standards would have significant impacts on many communities in the New Madrid area, including Memphis, Tennessee and Paducah, Kentucky. Although "mitigating risks to society from earthquakes involves economic and policy issues" (Stein, 2004), seismic hazard assessment is the basis. Seismologists should provide the best information on seismic hazards and communicate them to users and policy makers. There is a lack of effort in communicating the uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment in the central U.S., however. Use of 10%, 5%, and 2% PE in 50 years causes confusion in communicating seismic hazard assessment. It would be easy to discuss and understand the design ground motions if the true meaning of the ground motion derived from PSHA were presented, i.e., the ground motion with the estimated uncertainty or the associated confidence level.

Wang, Z.; Shi, B.; Kiefer, J.D.

2005-01-01

429

Hanford annual second quarter seismic report, fiscal year 1998: Seismicity on and near the Hanford Site, Pasco, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the US Department of Energy and its contractors. The staff also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of an earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (ENN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the second quarter of FY98 for stations in the HSN was 99.92%. The operational rate for the second quarter of FY98 for stations of the EWRN was 99.46%. For the second quarter of FY98, the acquisition computer triggered 159 times. Of these triggers 14 were local earthquakes: 7 (50%) in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 3 (21%) in the pre-basalt sediments, and 4 (29%) in the crystalline basement. The geologic and tectonic environments where these earthquakes occurred are discussed in this report. The most significant seismic event for the second quarter was on March 23, 1998 when a 1.9 Mc occurred near Eltopia, WA and was felt by local residents. Although this was a small event, it was felt at the surface and is an indication of the potential impact on Hanford of seismic events that are common to the Site.

Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

1998-06-01

430

Seismic capacity of switchgear  

SciTech Connect

As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

1989-01-01

431

Engineering seismic risk analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper introduces a method for the evaluation of the seismic risk at the site of an engineering project. The results are in terms of a ground,motion parameter (such as peak acceleration) versus average,return period. The method,incorporates the influence of all potential sources of earthquakes and the average activity rates assigned to them. Arbitrary geographical relationships between,the site and

C. A. Cornell

1968-01-01

432

Albuquerque Basin seismic network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

1977-01-01

433

IRIS Seismic Monitor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IRIS Seismic Monitor allows users to monitor global earthquakes in near real time. Researchers can locate the geology, vault conditions, site description, station instrumentation, and additional information on stations throughout the world. Visitors can learn about the latest earthquake news, including special reports of earthquakes that significantly affected human populations or had scientific significance. Students and teachers can find images and descriptions of plate tectonics as well as links to outside educational resources.

434

Seismic Eruption Teaching Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents educational modules for teaching about earthquakes, volcano eruptions and related plate tectonic concepts using an interactive computer program for mapping called Seismic/Eruption (also called SeisVolE). The program includes up-to-date earthquake and volcanic eruption catalogs and allows the user to display earthquake and volcanic eruption activity in "speeded up real time" on global, regional or local maps that also show the topography of the area in a shaded relief map image. SeisVolE is an interactive program that includes a number of tools that allow the user to analyze earthquake and volcanic eruption data and produce effective displays to illustrate seismicity and volcano patterns. The program can be used to sort data and provide results for statistical analysis, to generate detailed earthquake and volcano activity maps of specific areas or for specific purposes, to investigate earthquake sequences such as foreshocks and aftershocks, and to produce cross section or 3-D perspective views of earthquake locations. The Seismic/Eruption program can be a powerful and effective tool for teaching about plate tectonics and geologic hazards using earthquake and volcano locations, and for learning (or practicing) fundamental science skills such as statistical analysis, graphing, and map skills. The teaching modules describe and illustrate how to use the Seismic/Eruption program effectively in demonstrations, classroom presentations and interactive presentations, and independent study/research. Because the program has many useful options and can be used to examine earthquake activity and volcanic eruption data, the modules provide instructions and examples of quantitative analysis, graphing of results, creating useful maps and cross section diagrams, and performing in-depth exploration and research. The examples are intended to illustrate the features and capabilities of the program and stimulate interest in using the program for discovery learning in Earth science, especially earthquakes, volcanoes and plate tectonics.

Lawrence Braile

435

The viking seismic experiment.  

PubMed

A three-axis short-period seismometer is now operating on Mars in the Utopia Planitia region. The noise background correlates well with wind gusts. Although no quakes have been detected in the first 60 days of observation, it is premature to draw any conclusions about the seismicity of Mars. The instrument is expected to return data for at least 2 years. PMID:17797092

Anderson, D L; Duennebier, F K; Latham, G V; Toksöz, M F; Kovach, R L; Knight, T C; Lazarewicz, A R; Miller, W F; Nakamura, Y; Sutton, G

1976-12-11

436

Swept Impact Seismic Technique (SIST)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A coded seismic technique is developed that can result in a higher signal-to-noise ratio than a conventional single-pulse method does. The technique is cost-effective and time-efficient and therefore well suited for shallow-reflection surveys where high resolution and cost-effectiveness are critical. A low-power impact source transmits a few to several hundred high-frequency broad-band seismic pulses during several seconds of recording time according to a deterministic coding scheme. The coding scheme consists of a time-encoded impact sequence in which the rate of impact (cycles/s) changes linearly with time providing a broad range of impact rates. Impact times used during the decoding process are recorded on one channel of the seismograph. The coding concept combines the vibroseis swept-frequency and the Mini-Sosie random impact concepts. The swept-frequency concept greatly improves the suppression of correlation noise with much fewer impacts than normally used in the Mini-Sosie technique. The impact concept makes the technique simple and efficient in generating high-resolution seismic data especially in the presence of noise. The transfer function of the impact sequence simulates a low-cut filter with the cutoff frequency the same as the lowest impact rate. This property can be used to attenuate low-frequency ground-roll noise without using an analog low-cut filter or a spatial source (or receiver) array as is necessary with a conventional single-pulse method. Because of the discontinuous coding scheme, the decoding process is accomplished by a "shift-and-stacking" method that is much simpler and quicker than cross-correlation. The simplicity of the coding allows the mechanical design of the source to remain simple. Several different types of mechanical systems could be adapted to generate a linear impact sweep. In addition, the simplicity of the coding also allows the technique to be used with conventional acquisition systems, with only minor modifications.

Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.; Black, R.A.

1996-01-01

437

The SCALE Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data - VALID  

SciTech Connect

The Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) at ORNL contains high quality, independently reviewed models and results that improve confidence in analysis. VALID is developed and maintained according to a procedure of the SCALE quality assurance (QA) plan. This paper reviews the origins of the procedure and its intended purpose, the philosophy of the procedure, some highlights of its implementation, and the future of the procedure and associated VALID library. The original focus of the procedure was the generation of high-quality models that could be archived at ORNL and applied to many studies. The review process associated with model generation minimized the chances of errors in these archived models. Subsequently, the scope of the library and procedure was expanded to provide high quality, reviewed sensitivity data files for deployment through the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE). Sensitivity data files for approximately 400 such models are currently available. The VALID procedure and library continue fulfilling these multiple roles. The VALID procedure is based on the quality assurance principles of ISO 9001 and nuclear safety analysis. Some of these key concepts include: independent generation and review of information, generation and review by qualified individuals, use of appropriate references for design data and documentation, and retrievability of the models, results, and documentation associated with entries in the library. Some highlights of the detailed procedure are discussed to provide background on its implementation and to indicate limitations of data extracted from VALID for use by the broader community. Specifically, external users of data generated within VALID must take responsibility for ensuring that the files are used within the QA framework of their organization and that use is appropriate. The future plans for the VALID library include expansion to include additional experiments from the IHECSBE, to include experiments from areas beyond criticality safety, such as reactor physics and shielding, and to include application models. In the future, external SCALE users may also obtain qualification under the VALID procedure and be involved in expanding the library. The VALID library provides a pathway for the criticality safety community to leverage modeling and analysis expertise at ORNL.

Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL] [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

438

Seismic databases of The Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Caucasus is one of the active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The region needs continues seismic monitoring systems for better understanding of tectonic processes going in the region. Seismic Monitoring Center of Georgia (Ilia State University) is operating the digital seismic network of the country and is also collecting and exchanging data with neighboring countries. The main focus of our study was to create seismic database which is well organized, easily reachable and is convenient for scientists to use. The seismological database includes the information about more than 100 000 earthquakes from the whole Caucasus. We have to mention that it includes data from analog and digital seismic networks. The first analog seismic station in Georgia was installed in 1899 in the Caucasus in Tbilisi city. The number of analog seismic stations was increasing during next decades and in 1980s about 100 analog stations were operated all over the region. From 1992 due to political and economical situation the number of stations has been decreased and in 2002 just two analog equipments was operated. New digital seismic network was developed in Georgia since 2003. The number of digital seismic stations was increasing and in current days there are more than 25 digital stations operating in the country. The database includes the detailed information about all equipments installed on seismic stations. Database is available online. That will make convenient interface for seismic data exchange data between Caucasus neighboring countries. It also makes easier both the seismic data processing and transferring them to the database and decreases the operator's mistakes during the routine work. The database was created using the followings: php, MySql, Javascript, Ajax, GMT, Gmap, Hypoinverse.

Gunia, I.; Sokhadze, G.; Mikava, D.; Tvaradze, N.; Godoladze, T.

2012-12-01

439

Seismic excitation by space shuttles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of

H. Kanamori; J. Mori; B. Sturtevant; D. L. Anderson; T. Heaton

1992-01-01

440

Application of seismic isolation to industrial tanks  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art in the application of seismic isolation to industrial tanks is presented. Use of seismic isolation in industrial tanks can reduce lateral shaking forces by factors of 3 to 5 for strong earthquake loadings. This level of force reduction offers a practical and economical means of designing tanks on a linear elastic basis, and thereby reduces the risk of local failures and leakage during earthquakes. The case studies presented include: LNG Storage Tanks, an Ammonia Storage Tank, and an Emergency Fire and Cooling Water Tank. The tank capacities range from 50 thousand gallons to 19 million gallons. Two applications are new tanks, and one is a retrofit of an existing tank. The methodology for the design of the isolation bearings and tank structures is presented. The dynamic analysis methods used to perform the seismic analysis of the isolated tanks are reviewed, including the hydrodynamic modeling methods. The engineering principles and theory of the Friction Pendulum isolation bearings are discussed. This pendulum based isolation system results in the same natural period of vibration regardless of changes in the fluid levels in the tank, or temperature, aging, and environmental conditions. Test results for the isolation bearings are presented, including co