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1

Verifying Design with Proof Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verifying design instead of code can be an effective and practical approach to obtaining verified software. This paper argues that proof scores are an attractive method for verifying design, in that they achieve a balance in which the respective capabilities of humans and machines are utilized optimally.

Kokichi Futatsugi; Joseph A. Goguen; Kazuhiro Ogata

2005-01-01

2

Seismic methods for verifying nuclear test bans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismological research of the past 25 years related to verification of a Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TIBT) indicates that a treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in all environments, including underground explosions, can be monitored with high reliablility down to explosions of very small size (about one kiloton). There would be high probability of successful identification of explosions of that size even if elaborate measures were taken to evade detection. Seismology provides the principal means of detecting, locating and identifying underground explosions and of determining their yields. We discuss a number of methods for identifying detected seismic events as being either explosions or earthquakes including the event's location, depth and spectral character. The seismic waves generated by these two types of sources differ in a number of fundamental ways that can be utilized for identification or discrimination. All of the long-standing issues related to a comprehensive treaty were resolved in principle (and in may cases in detail) in negotiations between the U.S., the U.S.S.R. and Britian from 1977 to 1980. Those negotiations have not resumed since 1980. Inadequate seismic means of verifying a CTBT, Soviet cheating on the 150-kt limit of the Treshold Test Ban Treaty of 1976, and the need to develop and test new nuclear weapons were cited in 1982 by the U.S. government as reasons for not continuing negotiations for a CTBT. The first two reservations, which depend heavily on seismological information, are not supported scientifically. A CTBT could help to put a lid on the seemingly endless testing of new generations of nuclear weapons by both superpowers.

Sykes, Lynn R.; Evernden, Jack F.; Cifuentes, Inés

1983-10-01

3

The seismic design handbook  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on the planning, analysis, and design of earthquake resistant building structures. Theories and concepts of earthquake resistant design and their implementation in seismic design practice are presented.

Naeim, F. (John A. Martin and Associates, Los Angeles, CA (US))

1989-01-01

4

Verifying IP-core based system-on-chip designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a methodology for verifying system-on-chip designs. In our methodology, the problem of verifying system-on-chip designs is decomposed into three tasks. First, we verify, once and for all, the standard bus interconnecting IP cores in the system. The next task is to verify the glue logic, which connects the IP cores to the buses. Finally, using the verified bus

Pankaj Chauhan; Edmund M. Clarke; Yuan Lu; Dong Wang

1999-01-01

5

SEISMIC BRIDGE FRAGILITIES FOR POST-DESIGN VERIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional probabilistic statements of bridge damage due to seismic loading, known as fragility curves are often utilized in risk assessment and prioritization activities. This study proposes and illustrates the use of bridge fragility curves in verifying the performance objectives which govern a bridge's seismic design. The bridge fragility is convolved with a probabilistic representation of the seismic shaking hazard at

BRYANT G. NIELSON; MATTHEW E. BOWERS

6

Position paper: Seismic design criteria  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

Farnworth, S.K.

1995-05-22

7

DISPLACEMENT SPECTRA FOR SEISMIC DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Displacement-based seismic design and assessment of structures require the reliable definition of displacement spectra for a wide range of periods and damping levels. The displacement spectra derived from acceleration spectra in existing seismic codes do not provide a suitable answer and there are no existing frequency-dependent attenuation relationships derived specifically for this purpose. Using a carefully processed dataset of European

JULIAN J. BOMMER; AMR S. ELNASHAI

1999-01-01

8

Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

2009-01-01

9

Design of a verifiable subset for HAL/S  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt to evaluate the applicability of program verification techniques to the existing programming language, HAL/S is discussed. HAL/S is a general purpose high level language designed to accommodate the software needs of the NASA Space Shuttle project. A diversity of features for scientific computing, concurrent and real-time programming, and error handling are discussed. The criteria by which features were evaluated for inclusion into the verifiable subset are described. Individual features of HAL/S with respect to these criteria are examined and justification for the omission of various features from the subset is provided. Conclusions drawn from the research are presented along with recommendations made for the use of HAL/S with respect to the area of program verification.

Browne, J. C.; Good, D. I.; Tripathi, A. R.; Young, W. D.

1979-01-01

10

Toward a verifiable approach to the design of concurrent computations  

SciTech Connect

Distributed programs are dependent on explicit message passing between disjoint components of the computation. This paper is concerned with investigating an approach for proving correctness of distributed programs under an assumed data-exchange capability. Stated informally, the data exchange assumption is that every message is passed correctly, i.e., neither lost nor corrupted. One approach for constructing a proof under this assumption would be to embed an abstract model of the data communications mechanism into the program specification. The Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard provides a basis for such a modal. In support of our investigations, we have developed a high-level specification using the ASLAN specification language. Our specification is based on a generalized communications model from which the MPI modelmay be derived. We describe the specification of this model and an approach to the specification of distributed programs with explicit message passing based on a verifiable data exchange model.

Chisholm, G.H.

1993-01-01

11

Toward a verifiable approach to the design of concurrent computations  

SciTech Connect

Distributed programs are dependent on explicit message passing between disjoint components of the computation. This paper is concerned with investigating an approach for proving correctness of distributed programs under an assumed data-exchange capability. Stated informally, the data exchange assumption is that every message is passed correctly, i.e., neither lost nor corrupted. One approach for constructing a proof under this assumption would be to embed an abstract model of the data communications mechanism into the program specification. The Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard provides a basis for such a modal. In support of our investigations, we have developed a high-level specification using the ASLAN specification language. Our specification is based on a generalized communications model from which the MPI modelmay be derived. We describe the specification of this model and an approach to the specification of distributed programs with explicit message passing based on a verifiable data exchange model.

Chisholm, G.H.

1993-05-01

12

Verifying Temporal Properties of CommUnity Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the use of some verification techniques for reasoning about temporal properties of CommUnity designs. We concentrate\\u000a on the verification of temporal properties in the context of branching-time temporal logic using the SMV tool.\\u000a \\u000a We also discuss ways of modularising the temporal reasoning, by exploiting the various kinds of morphisms between designs\\u000a available in CommUnity. Moreover, we combine SMV

Nazareno Aguirre; Germán Regis; T. S. E. Maibaum

2007-01-01

13

DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.  

SciTech Connect

A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

2003-07-15

14

Structural concepts and details for seismic design  

SciTech Connect

This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

Not Available

1991-09-01

15

NRC Seismic Design Margins Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies estimate that seismically induced core melt comes mainly from earthquakes in the peak ground acceleration range from 2 to 4 times the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) acceleration used in plant design. However, from the licensing perspective of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, there is a continuing need for consideration of the inherent quantitative seismic margins because of, among other things, the changing perceptions of the seismic hazard. This paper discusses a Seismic Design Margins Program Plan, developed under the auspices of the US NRC, that provides the technical basis for assessing the significance of design margins in terms of overall plant safety. The Plan will also identify potential weaknesses that might have to be addressed, and will recommend technical methods for assessing margins at existing plants. For the purposes of this program, a general definition of seismic design margin is expressed in terms of how much larger that the design basis earthquake an earthquake must be to compromise plant safety. In this context, margin needs to be determined at the plant, system/function, structure, and component levels. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Cummings, G.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Budnitz, R.J.

1985-08-01

16

Feasibility study and verified design concept for new improved hot gas facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MSFC Hot Gas Facility (HGF) was fabricated in 1975 as a temporary facility to provide immediate turnaround testing to support the SRB and ET TPS development. This facility proved to be very useful and was used to make more than 1300 runs, far more than ever intended in the original design. Therefore, it was in need of constant repair and needed to be replaced with a new improved design to support the continuing SRB/ET TPS product improvement and/or removal efforts. MSFC contracted with Lockheed-Huntsville to work on this improved design through contract NAS8-36304 Feasibility Study and Verified Design Concept for the New Improved Hot Gas Facility. The results of Lockheed-Huntsville's efforts under this contract are summarized.

1986-01-01

17

Seismic Design Criteria for Buried Pipelines. (Seismic Vulnerability, Behavior and Design of Underground Piping Systems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Overall aims of this research are to develop a systematic way of assessing the adequacy and vulnerability of water/sewer distribution systems subjected to seismic loads and to develop future design methodologies. To aid in the design of buried pipelines a...

L. R. L. Wang R. C. Y. Fung

1978-01-01

18

Seismic Design of Bridges Design Example No. 3: Single Span AASHTO Precast Girder Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes one of seven seismic design examples that illustrate 'how' to apply AASHTO's seismic analysis and design requirements on actual different bridge types across the United States. Each provides a complete set of 'designer's notes' cov...

C. Spry J. Guarre L. Marsh R. Griebenow R. Mast S. Johnson W. Wilson

1996-01-01

19

Determination of seismic design forces for slender precast slab structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of simple models to determine the seismic design forces for slender precast slab structure is described. The results from initial analyses using these models indicate that the seismic design actions that these structures undergo could differ markedly from values that may be obtained from simpler methods of analysis. Typically these structures are used as warehouses and factories and

B. J. Davidson

20

Seismic design accelerations for the LSST telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be located on a seismically active Chilean mountain. Seismic ground accelerations produce the telescope's most demanding load cases. Consequently, accurate prediction of these accelerations is required. These seismic accelerations, in the form of Peak Spectral Acceleration (PSA), were compared for site specific surveys, the Chilean building codes and measured seismic accelerations. Methods were also investigated for adjusting for variations in damping level and return period. The return period is the average interval of time between occurrences of a specific intensity.

Neill, Douglas R.; Warner, Mike; Sebag, Jacques

2012-09-01

21

Seismic Design: Cost Impact on High-Rise Residential Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research study examines the cost impact of providing increased seismic resistance for prototype high-rise apartment buildings. Eleven U.S. cities were chosen as case studies. Structures were designed to meet the Local Building Codes and seismic requi...

1977-01-01

22

Seismic upgrade design for an exhaust stack building  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust stack building of a nuclear reactor facility with complex structural configuration has been analyzed and evaluated and retrofitted for seismic forces. The building was built in the 1950`s and had not been designed to resist seismic forces. A rigorous analysis and evaluation program was implemented to minimize costly retrofits required to upgrade the building to resist high seismic forces. Seismic evaluations were performed for the building in its as-is configuration, and as modified for several upgrade schemes. Soil-structure-interaction, basemat flexibility and the influence of the nearby reactor building were considered in rigorous seismic analyses. These analyses and evaluations enabled limited upgrades to qualify the stack building for the seismic forces. Some of the major conclusions of this study are: a phased approach of seismic analyses, utilizing simplified models to evaluate practicable upgrade schemes, and, then incorporating the most suitable scheme in a rigorous model to obtain design forces for upgrades, is an efficient and cost- effective approach for seismic qualification of nuclear facilities to higher seismic criteria; and finalizing the upgrade of a major nuclear facility is an iterative process, which continues throughout the construction of the upgrades.

Maryak, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Malik, L.E. [Advanced Engineering Consultants Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1991-12-31

23

Seismic upgrade design for an exhaust stack building  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust stack building of a nuclear reactor facility with complex structural configuration has been analyzed and evaluated and retrofitted for seismic forces. The building was built in the 1950's and had not been designed to resist seismic forces. A rigorous analysis and evaluation program was implemented to minimize costly retrofits required to upgrade the building to resist high seismic forces. Seismic evaluations were performed for the building in its as-is configuration, and as modified for several upgrade schemes. Soil-structure-interaction, basemat flexibility and the influence of the nearby reactor building were considered in rigorous seismic analyses. These analyses and evaluations enabled limited upgrades to qualify the stack building for the seismic forces. Some of the major conclusions of this study are: a phased approach of seismic analyses, utilizing simplified models to evaluate practicable upgrade schemes, and, then incorporating the most suitable scheme in a rigorous model to obtain design forces for upgrades, is an efficient and cost- effective approach for seismic qualification of nuclear facilities to higher seismic criteria; and finalizing the upgrade of a major nuclear facility is an iterative process, which continues throughout the construction of the upgrades.

Maryak, M.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Malik, L.E. (Advanced Engineering Consultants Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States))

1991-01-01

24

Verifying a Smart Design of TCAP. A Synergetic Experience. Software Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An optimization of the SS No. 7 Transport Capabilities Procedures is verified by specifying both the original and the optimized TCAP in (micrometer)CRL, generating transition systems for both using the (micrometer)CRL tool set, and checking weak bisimulat...

T. Arts I. A. van Langevelde

1999-01-01

25

Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy utilizes deterministic seismic design/evaluation criteria developed to achieve probabilistic performance goals. These seismic design and evaluation criteria are intended to apply equally to the design of new facilities and to the evaluation of existing facilities. In addition, the criteria are intended to cover design and evaluation of buildings, equipment, piping, and other structures. Four separate sets of seismic design/evaluation criteria have been presented each with a different performance goal. In all these criteria, earthquake loading is selected from seismic hazard curves on a probabilistic basis but seismic response evaluation methods and acceptable behavior limits are deterministic approaches with which design engineers are familiar. For analytical evaluations, conservatism has been introduced through the use of conservative inelastic demand-capacity ratios combined with ductile detailing requirements, through the use of minimum specified material strengths and conservative code capacity equations, and through the use of a seismic scale factor. For evaluation by testing or by experience data, conservatism has been introduced through the use of an increase scale factor which is applied to the prescribed design/evaluation input motion.

Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States); Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

26

On verifying a high-level design. [cost and error analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of design verification techniques is presented, and some of the current research in high-level design verification is described. Formal hardware description languages that are capable of adequately expressing the design specifications have been developed, but some time will be required before they can have the expressive power needed to be used in real applications. Simulation-based approaches are more useful in finding errors in designs than they are in proving the correctness of a certain design. Hybrid approaches that combine simulation with other formal design verification techniques are argued to be the most promising over the short term.

Mathew, Ben; Wehbeh, Jalal A.; Saab, Daniel G.

1993-01-01

27

Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

2006-10-01

28

Prevention of seismic damages in telescope design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the best astronomical sites are unfortunately located in potentially seismic areas. An appropriate study to evaluate the dynamic forces acting on telescope optics is therefore crucial, to prevent them from damages in case of earthquakes. We present a procedure to estimate the response of the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) telescope primary mirror to a Maximum Likely Earthquake (MLE) in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) site of Cerro Paranal, Northern Chile.

Perrotta, F.; Schipani, P.; Martelli, F.; Parodi, G.; Ottolini, M.

29

Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ehinger, M.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1991-01-01

30

Coupling induced seismic hazard analysis with reservoir design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hazard and risk perspective in research on induced seismicity usually focuses on the question how to reduce the occurrence of induced earthquakes. However, it is also well accepted that shear-dilatancy accompanied by seismic energy radiation is a required process for reservoir creation in low permeability rock. Assessment of induced seismic hazard for a planned stimulation experiment must take into account the target reservoir properties. We present a generic modelling study, in which induced seismic hazard can be analysed in balance with the permeability enhancement and the size of the stimulated reservoir. The model has two coupled components: 1) a flow model that solves the pressure diffusion equations, and 2) a stochastic seismicity model, which uses the transient pressure disturbances to trigger seismic events at so-called seed points. At triggering, a magnitude is randomly drawn from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution with a local b-value that depends on the stress state at the seed point. In the source area of the events the permeability is increased depending on the amount of slip, but only by a maximum factor of 200. Due to the stochastic nature of the modelling approach, a representative number of 500 model realizations are computed. The results demonstrate that planning and controlling of reservoir engineering operation may be compromised by the considerable variability of maximum observed magnitude, reservoir size, b-value and seismogenic index arising from the intrinsic virtually random nature of induced seismicity. We also find that injection volume has the highest impact on both reservoir size and seismic hazard, while changing injection rate and strategy at constant final injection volume has a negligible effect. However, the impact of site-specific parameters on seismicity and reservoir properties is greater than the volume effect. In particular, conditions that lead to high b-values - for instance a low differential stress level - have a high positive impact on seismic hazard. However, as smaller magnitudes contribute less to permeability enhancement the efficiency of stimulation is degraded in case of high b-value conditions. Nevertheless, target permeability enhancement can be still be achieved under high b-value condition without reaching an unacceptable seismic hazard level, if either initial permeability is already high or if several fractures are stimulated. The proposed modelling approach is a first step towards including induced seismic hazard analysis into the design of reservoir stimulation.

Gischig, V.; Wiemer, S.; Alcolea, A. R.

2013-12-01

31

EVALUATING DESIGN AND VERIFYING COMPLIANCE OF CREATED WETLANDS IN THE VICINITY OF TAMPA, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Completed mitigation projects are being studied by the Wetlands Research Program nationwide to identify critical design features, develop methods for evaluating projects, determine the functions they perform, and describe how they change with time. his report is the second in a s...

32

Seismic fragility assessment of RC frame structure designed according to modern Chinese code for seismic design of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following several damaging earthquakes in China, research has been devoted to find the causes of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) building sand studying the vulnerability of existing buildings. The Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (CCSDB) has evolved over time, however, there is still reported earthquake induced damage of newly designed RC buildings. Thus, to investigate modern Chinese seismic design code, three low-, mid- and high-rise RC frames were designed according to the 2010 CCSDB and the corresponding vulnerability curves were derived by computing a probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM).The PSDM was computed by carrying out nonlinear time history analysis using thirty ground motions obtained from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Finally, the PSDM was used to generate fragility curves for immediate occupancy, significant damage, and collapse prevention damage levels. Results of the vulnerability assessment indicate that the seismic demands on the three different frames designed according to the 2010 CCSDB meet the seismic requirements and are almost in the same safety level.

Wu, D.; Tesfamariam, S.; Stiemer, S. F.; Qin, D.

2012-09-01

33

A verified design of a fault-tolerant clock synchronization circuit: Preliminary investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schneider demonstrates that many fault tolerant clock synchronization algorithms can be represented as refinements of a single proven correct paradigm. Shankar provides mechanical proof that Schneider's schema achieves Byzantine fault tolerant clock synchronization provided that 11 constraints are satisfied. Some of the constraints are assumptions about physical properties of the system and cannot be established formally. Proofs are given that the fault tolerant midpoint convergence function satisfies three of the constraints. A hardware design is presented, implementing the fault tolerant midpoint function, which is shown to satisfy the remaining constraints. The synchronization circuit will recover completely from transient faults provided the maximum fault assumption is not violated. The initialization protocol for the circuit also provides a recovery mechanism from total system failure caused by correlated transient faults.

Miner, Paul S.

1992-01-01

34

Next generation seismic fragility curves for California bridges incorporating the evolution in seismic design philosophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the seismic risk to highway bridges is crucial in pre-earthquake planning, and post-earthquake response of transportation systems. Such assessments provide valuable knowledge about a number of principal effects of earthquakes such as traffic disruption of the overall highway system, impact on the regions’ economy and post-earthquake response and recovery, and more recently serve as measures to quantify resilience. Unlike previous work, this study captures unique bridge design attributes specific to California bridge classes along with their evolution over three significant design eras, separated by the historic 1971 San Fernando and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes (these events affected changes in bridge seismic design philosophy). This research developed next-generation fragility curves for four multispan concrete bridge classes by synthesizing new knowledge and emerging modeling capabilities, and by closely coordinating new and ongoing national research initiatives with expertise from bridge designers. A multi-phase framework was developed for generating fragility curves, which provides decision makers with essential tools for emergency response, design, planning, policy support, and maximizing investments in bridge retrofit. This framework encompasses generational changes in bridge design and construction details. Parameterized high-fidelity three-dimensional nonlinear analytical models are developed for the portfolios of bridge classes within different design eras. These models incorporate a wide range of geometric and material uncertainties, and their responses are characterized under seismic loadings. Fragility curves were then developed considering the vulnerability of multiple components and thereby help to quantify the performance of highway bridge networks and to study the impact of seismic design principles on the performance within a bridge class. This not only leads to the development of fragility relations that are unique and better suited for bridges in California, but also leads to the creation of better bridge classes and sub-bins that have more consistent performance characteristics than those currently provided by the National Bridge Inventory. Another important feature of this research is associated with the development of damage state definitions and grouping of bridge components in a way that they have similar consequences in terms of repair and traffic implications following a seismic event. These definitions are in alignment with the California Department of Transportation’s design and operational experience, thereby enabling better performance assessment, emergency response, and management in the aftermath of a seismic event. The fragility curves developed as a part of this research will be employed in ShakeCast, a web-based post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data and generates potential damage assessment notifications for emergency managers and responders.

Ramanathan, Karthik Narayan

35

Aseismic Design Procedures for Reinforced Concrete Frames. Seismic Behavior and Design of Buildings, Report No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve reinforced concrete frames are designed for earthquake and gravity loads using three different procedures for determining the seismic design loads. The procedures are: (1) UBC static load approach; (2) modal analysis using inelastic response spectr...

D. Persinko J. M. Biggs W. K. Lau

1979-01-01

36

Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Special Moment Frames: A Guide for Practicing Engineers. NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reinforced concrete special moment frames are used as part of seismic force-resisting systems in buildings that are designed to resist earthquakes. Beams, columns, and beam-column joints in moment frames are proportioned and detailed to resist flexural, a...

C. D. Lubke J. D. Hooper J. P. Moehle

2008-01-01

37

Direct displacement-based design of seismically isolated bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Displacement-Based Design (DBD) procedure for bridges equipped with different seismic Isolation Systems (IS’s) is proposed.\\u000a It has been derived from the Direct DBD method recently developed by Priestley and co-workers. The key aspect of the proposed\\u000a procedure is the definition of a uniform target displacement of the deck, which is assigned by the designer to accomplish\\u000a a given performance

D. Cardone; M. Dolce; G. Palermo

2009-01-01

38

Sensor placement for the analysis of seismic surface waves: sources of error, design criterion and array design algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic surface waves can be measured by deploying an array of seismometers on the surface of the earth. The goal of such measurement surveys is, usually, to estimate the velocity of propagation and the direction of arrival of the seismic waves. In this paper, we address the issue of sensor placement for the analysis of seismic surface waves from ambient vibration wavefields. First, we explain in detail how the array geometry affects the mean-squared estimation error of parameters of interest, such as the velocity and direction of propagation, both at low and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Secondly, we propose a cost function suitable for the design of the array geometry with particular focus on the estimation of the wavenumber of both Love and Rayleigh waves. Thirdly, we present and compare several computational approaches to minimize the proposed cost function. Numerical experiments verify the effectiveness of our cost function and resulting array geometry designs, leading to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries, both at low and high SNR levels.

Maranò, Stefano; Fäh, Donat; Lu, Yue M.

2014-06-01

39

Sensor placement for the analysis of seismic surface waves: sources of error, design criterion and array design algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic surface waves can be measured by deploying an array of seismometers on the surface of the earth. The goal of such measurement surveys is, usually, to estimate the velocity of propagation and the direction of arrival of the seismic waves. In this paper, we address the issue of sensor placement for the analysis of seismic surface waves from ambient vibration wavefields. First, we explain in detail how the array geometry affects the mean-squared estimation error of parameters of interest, such as the velocity and direction of propagation, both at low and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Secondly, we propose a cost function suitable for the design of the array geometry with particular focus on the estimation of the wavenumber of both Love and Rayleigh waves. Thirdly, we present and compare several computational approaches to minimize the proposed cost function. Numerical experiments verify the effectiveness of our cost function and resulting array geometry designs, leading to greatly improved estimation performance in comparison to arbitrary array geometries, both at low and high SNR levels.

Maranò, Stefano; Fäh, Donat; Lu, Yue M.

2014-04-01

40

Verifying the Field of View Afforded to the Pilot due to Cockpit Design, Stature, and Aerodrome Design Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper examined the contribution of various design parameters towards the pilot’s forward field of view (FFOV). This study\\u000a was based upon the SQ006 crash at Chiang Kai Shek Airport, Taipei, Taiwan on 31 Oct 2000. A 3-dimensional scale model was\\u000a created to simulate certain design features experienced on the night of the accident. A simulation of the Boeing 747-400

Eugene Aik Min Khoo; Kee Yong Lim

2004-01-01

41

Malargüe seismic array: Design and deployment of the temporary array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the goals and the current status of the Malargüe seismic array. Our main goal is imaging and monitoring the subsurface below the Malargüe region, Mendoza, Argentina. More specifically, we focus on the Planchon-Peteroa Volcano and an area just east of the town of Malargüe. We start our project installing a temporary array of 38 seismic stations, which records continuously for one year. The array consists of two subarrays: one array located on the flanks of the volcano; the other spread out on a plateau just east of the Andes. The imaging targets, like the Moho and the Nazca slab, are relatively deep. Yet, the array has a dense station spacing, allowing exploration-type processing. For high-resolution imaging, also a dense source spacing is required. This we aim to achieve by creating virtual sources at the receiver positions, with a technique called seismic interferometry (SI). The array is designed such that a recent improvement of SI can be applied to the recordings. Other goals are to collect high-quality core-phase measurements and to characterize sources of microseism noise in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, we plan to collaborate with researchers from the Pierre Auger Collaboration to study coupling of seismic, atmospheric, and cosmic signals using data from our instruments and from the Pierre Auger detectors.

Ruigrok, E.; Draganov, D.; Gómez, M.; Ruzzante, J.; Torres, D.; Lópes Pumarega, I.; Barbero, N.; Ramires, A.; Castaño Gañan, A. R.; van Wijk, K.; Wapenaar, K.

2012-10-01

42

Comparison of Two Currently used and One Proposed Seismic Design Methods for Steel Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forced-based, the displacement-based and the hybrid seismic design methods as applied to plane steel frames are briefly presented and critically compared. The forced-based seismic design method forms the basis of almost all the current seismic design codes, while the displacement-based one is a rather new seismic design method already adopted by some seismic design codes. The hybrid seismic design method is a new method which appropriately combines the best elements of both the force and the displacement-based methods and affects considerable improvements upon these elements. Advantages and disadvantages of these three seismic design methods are presented as derived first on the basis of their description and on the basis of the results of their application to three plane steel frames as compared to those coming out of inelastic time-history analyses involving eight different earthquakes.

Karavasilis, Theodore L.; Bazeos, Nikitas; Beskos, Dimitri E.

43

Seismic Design, Analysis, and Remedial Measures to Improve Stability of Existing Earth Dams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the seismic design of new embankment dams and analysis of existing dams, and possible courses of action to mitigate seismic hazards in the event that analysis indicates unsatisfactory conditions. Also discussed are the use of pseudos...

W. F. Marcuson A. G. Franklin

1983-01-01

44

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and...appropriate for federally assisted new building construction: (1) 2003 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Copies of...

2012-01-01

45

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and...appropriate for federally assisted new building construction: (1) 2003 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Copies of...

2007-01-01

46

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section...Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic...federally assisted new building construction: (1) 1997...

2006-01-01

47

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and...appropriate for federally assisted new building construction: (1) 2003 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Copies of...

2011-01-01

48

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section...Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic...federally assisted new building construction: (1) 1997...

2005-01-01

49

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and...appropriate for federally assisted new building construction: (1) 2003 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Copies of...

2008-01-01

50

Seismic design technology for Breeder Reactor structures. Volume 3: special topics in reactor structures  

SciTech Connect

This volume is divided into six chapters: analysis techniques, equivalent damping values, probabilistic design factors, design verifications, equivalent response cycles for fatigue analysis, and seismic isolation. (JDB)

Reddy, D.P. (ed)

1983-04-01

51

A New Design of Seismic Stations Deployed in South Tyrol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When designing the seismic network in South Tyrol, the seismic service of Austria and the Civil defense in South Tyrol combined more that 10 years experience in running seismic networks and private communication systems. In recent years the high data return rate of > 99% and network uptime of > 99.% is achieved by the combination of high quality station design and equipment, and the use of the Antelope data acquisition and processing software which comes with suite of network monitoring & alerting tools including Nagios, etc. The new Data Center is located in city of Bolzano and is connected to the other Data Centers in Austria, Switzerland, and Italy for data back up purposes. Each Data Center uses also redundant communication system if the primary system fails. When designing the South Tyrol network, new improvements were made in seismometer installations, grounding, lighting protection and data communications in order to improve quality of data recorded as well as network up-time, and data return. The new 12 stations are equipped with 6 Channels Q330+PB14f connected to STS2 + EpiSensor sensor. One of the key achievements was made in the grounding concept for the whole seismic station - and aluminum boxes were introduced which delivered Faraday cage isolation. Lightning protection devices are used for the equipment inside the aluminum housing where seismometer and data logger are housed. For the seismometer cables a special shielding was introduced. The broadband seismometer and strong-motion sensor are placed on a thick glass plate and therefore isolated from the ground. The precise seismometer orientation was done by a special groove on the glass plate and in case of a strong earthquake; the seismometer is tide up to the base plate. Temperature stability was achieved by styrofoam sheets inside the seismometer aluminum protection box.

Melichar, P.; Horn, N.

2007-05-01

52

Standardized seismic design (SSD) for nuclear power plants - a utility perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

US nuclear power plants are designed, engineered, and constructed to stringent standards. Their seismic adequacy is assured by compliance with regulatory standards and demonstrated by both probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and seismic margin studies. Future seismic siting criteria, however, require fundamental changes in the philosophy of how the rule should be written as well as in the actual application of

T. F. OHara; J. P. Jacobson; F. X. Bellini; W. J. Briggs

2009-01-01

53

Seismicity and seismic response of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) reactor plants  

SciTech Connect

On March 4, 1977, a strong earthquake occurred at Vrancea, Romania, about 350 km from the Kozloduy plant in Bulgaria. Subsequent to this event, construction of the unit 2 of the Armenia plant was delayed over two years while seismic features were added. On December 7, 1988, another strong earthquake struck northwest Armenia about 90 km north of the Armenia plant. Extensive damage of residential and industrial facilities occurred in the vicinity of the epicenter. The earthquake did not damage the Armenia plant. Following this event, the Soviet government announced that the plant would be shutdown permanently by March 18, 1989, and the station converted to a fossil-fired plant. This paper presents the results of the seismic analyses of the Soviet-designed VVER (Water-cooled, Water moderated Energy Reactor) plants. Also presented is the information concerning seismicity in the regions where VVERs are located and information on seismic design of VVERs. The reference units are the VVER-440 model V230 (similar to the two units of the Armenia plant) and the VVER-1000 model V320 units at Kozloduy in Bulgaria. This document provides an initial basis for understanding the seismicity and seismic response of VVERs under seismic events. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Ma, D.C.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Seidensticker, R.W.; Purvis, E.E. III

1989-01-01

54

Seismic design of RC external beam-column joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes an alternative method for the earthquake-resistant design of HDC external beam-column joints which is based\\u000a on the assumption that the load transferred from the beam and column elements to the joint is predominantly resisted by a\\u000a diagonal strut mechanism. The validity of the proposed method is verified experimentally through a comparative study of the\\u000a behaviour of seven

Gregoria Kotsovou; Harris Mouzakis

55

Design of engineered cementitious composites for ductile seismic resistant elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on designing Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) to achieve high performance seismic resistant elements. To attain this goal, three major tasks have been accomplished. Task 1 aims at achieving new ECCs involving low cost fiber, which often involve fiber rupture in crack bridging, thus named as "Fiber Rupture Type ECC". Achieving the new ECC requires a new practical and comprehensive composite design theory. For this theory, single fiber behavior was first investigated. Specifically, fiber rupture in composite and chemical bond in fiber/matrix interface were experimentally examined and mathematically modeled. Then this model for single fiber behavior was implemented into a proposed bridging law, a theoretical model for relationship between fiber bridging stress of composite and Crack Opening Displacement (COD). This new bridging law was finally employed to establish a new composite design theory. Task 2 was initiated to facilitate structural interpretation of ECC's material behavior investigated in Task 1. For this purpose, uniaxial tensile behavior, one of the most important ECC's properties, was theoretically characterized with stress-strain relation from micromechanics view point. As a result, a theory is proposed to express ECC's tensile stress-strain relation in terms of micromechanics parameters of composites, such as bond strengths. Task 3 primarily demonstrates an integrated design scheme for ductile seismic elements that covers from micromechanics in single fiber level to structural design tool, such as with non-linear FEM analysis. The significance of this design scheme is that the influences of ECC's microstructure on element's structural performance is quantitatively captured. This means that a powerful tool is obtained for tailoring constitutive micromechanics parameters in order to maximize structural performance of elements. While the tool is still preliminary, completing this tool in future studies will enable one to optimally exploit the performance of constitutive materials, thus resulting in maximum structural safety with reasonable cost.

Kanda, Tetsushi

56

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section...standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and construction of...ASCE) 7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other...

2010-01-01

57

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. 1792.103 Section...standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and construction of...ASCE) 7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other...

2009-01-01

58

Seismic Analysis and Design of Buried Pipelines (Seismic Vulnerability, Behavior and Design of Underground Piping Systems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis procedures and design criteria for buried pipeline systems to resist earthquakes are described. Increasing attention is being devoted to the earthquake damage of buried pipelines because of the impact of disturbed conveyor systems on the citizenr...

L. R. L. Wang

1979-01-01

59

Design Of Bridges For Non Synchronous Seismic Motion  

SciTech Connect

this paper aims to develop and validate structural design criteria which account for the effects of earthquakes spatial variability. In past works [1, 2] the two simplest forms of this problem were dealt with: differential displacements between two points belonging to the soil or to two single degree of freedom structures. Seismic action was defined according to EC8 [3]; the structures were assumed linear elastic sdof oscillators. Despite this problem may seem trivial, existing codes models appeared improvable on this aspect. For the differential displacements of two points on the ground, these results are now validated and generalized using the newly developed response spectra contained in the new seismic Italian code [4]; the resulting code formulation is presented. Next, the problem of statistically defining the differential displacement among any number of points on the ground (which is needed for continuos deck bridges) is approached, and some preliminary results shown. It is also shown that the current codes (e.g. EC8) rules may be improved on this aspect.

Nuti, Camillo [Dipartimento di Strutture, Dis, Universita di Roma 3, Via Segre 4-6, 00146, Roma (Italy); Vanzi, Ivo [Dipartimento di Progettazione, Pricos, Universita di Chieti, Viale Pindaro 42, 65127, Pescara (Italy)

2008-07-08

60

Design and application of an electromagnetic vibrator seismic source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vibrational seismic sources frequently provide a higher-frequency seismic wavelet (and therefore better resolution) than other sources, and can provide a superior signal-to-noise ratio in many settings. However, they are often prohibitively expensive for lower-budget shallow surveys. In order to address this problem, I designed and built a simple but effective vibrator source for about one thousand dollars. The "EMvibe" is an inexpensive electromagnetic vibrator that can be built with easy-to-machine parts and off-the-shelf electronics. It can repeatably produce pulse and frequency-sweep signals in the range of 5 to 650 Hz, and provides sufficient energy for recording at offsets up to 20 m. Analysis of frequency spectra show that the EMvibe provides a broader frequency range than the sledgehammer at offsets up to ??? 10 m in data collected at a site with soft sediments in the upper several meters. The EMvibe offers a high-resolution alternative to the sledgehammer for shallow surveys. It is well-suited to teaching applications, and to surveys requiring a precisely-repeatable source signature.

Haines, S. S.

2006-01-01

61

Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 2. Evaluation of seismic designs: a review of seismic design requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Piping  

SciTech Connect

This document reports the position and recommendations of the NRC Piping Review Committee, Task Group on Seismic Design. The Task Group considered overlapping conservation in the various steps of seismic design, the effects of using two levels of earthquake as a design criterion, and current industry practices. Issues such as damping values, spectra modification, multiple response spectra methods, nozzle and support design, design margins, inelastic piping response, and the use of snubbers are addressed. Effects of current regulatory requirements for piping design are evaluated, and recommendations for immediate licensing action, changes in existing requirements, and research programs are presented. Additional background information and suggestions given by consultants are also presented.

Not Available

1985-04-01

62

Seismic Analysis Issues in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of several seismic analysis issues encountered during a review of recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

Miranda, M.; Morante, R.; Xu, J.

2011-07-17

63

DESIGN OF FRP JACKETS FOR SEISMIC RETROFIT OF CIRCULAR CONCRETE COLUMNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and experimental research was conducted to develop a design procedure for seismic retrofit of existing circular concrete columns using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) jackets. The analytical research is an extension of earlier work on the development of a displacement based design procedure for column confinement. The experimental work involves full-size bridge columns tested under simulated seismic loading, consisting

G. ELNABELSY; M. SAATCIOGLU

2004-01-01

64

Assessment of the impact of degraded shear wall stiffnesses on seismic plant risk and seismic design loads  

SciTech Connect

Test results sponsored by the USNRC have shown that reinforced shear wall (Seismic Category I) structures exhibit stiffnesses and natural frequencies which are smaller than those calculated in the design process. The USNRC has sponsored Sandia National Labs to perform an evaluation of the effects of the reduced frequencies on several existing seismic PRAs in order to determine the seismic risk implications inherent in these test results. This report presents the results for the re-evaluation of the seismic risk for three nuclear power plants: the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, and Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit 1 (ANO-1). Increases in core damage frequencies for seismic initiated events at Peach Bottom were 25 to 30 percent (depending on whether LLNL or EPRI hazard curves were used). At the ANO-1 site, the corresponding increases in plant risk were 10 percent (for each set of hazard curves). Finally, at Zion, there was essentially no change in the computed core damage frequency when the reduction in shear wall stiffness was included. In addition, an evaluation of deterministic ``design-like`` structural dynamic calculations with and without the shear stiffness reductions was made. Deterministic loads calculated for these two cases typically increased on the order of 10 to 20 percent for the affected structures.

Klamerus, E.W.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J.J.; Asfura, A.P.; Doyle, D.J. [EQE Engineering, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-02-01

65

Seismiset suunnittelu- ja analyysimenetelmaet. (Seismic design and analysis methods).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic load is in many areas of the world the most important loading situation from the point of view of structural strength. Taking this into account it is understandable, that there has been a strong allocation of resources in the seismic analysis duri...

P. Varpasuo

1993-01-01

66

Engineering Seismic Base Layer for Defining Design Earthquake Motion  

SciTech Connect

Engineer's common sense that incident wave is common in a widespread area at the engineering seismic base layer is shown not to be correct. An exhibiting example is first shown, which indicates that earthquake motion at the ground surface evaluated by the analysis considering the ground from a seismic bedrock to a ground surface simultaneously (continuous analysis) is different from the one by the analysis in which the ground is separated at the engineering seismic base layer and analyzed separately (separate analysis). The reason is investigated by several approaches. Investigation based on eigen value problem indicates that the first predominant period in the continuous analysis cannot be found in the separate analysis, and predominant period at higher order does not match in the upper and lower ground in the separate analysis. The earthquake response analysis indicates that reflected wave at the engineering seismic base layer is not zero, which indicates that conventional engineering seismic base layer does not work as expected by the term 'base'. All these results indicate that wave that goes down to the deep depths after reflecting in the surface layer and again reflects at the seismic bedrock cannot be neglected in evaluating the response at the ground surface. In other words, interaction between the surface layer and/or layers between seismic bedrock and engineering seismic base layer cannot be neglected in evaluating the earthquake motion at the ground surface.

Yoshida, Nozomu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University, Tagajo 1-13-1, Miyagi (Japan)

2008-07-08

67

Probabilistic seismic hazard characterization and design parameters for the Pantex Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) updated the seismic hazard and design parameters at the Pantex Plant. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were first updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL (1993, 1998), Frankel et al. (1996), and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account

D. L. Bernreuter; W. Foxall; J. B. Savy

1998-01-01

68

Seismic and dynamic analyses for design of offshore pipelines traversing sloped bottom profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are developed for determining initial failure criteria and the major flow dynamics information necessary in design of an offshore pipeline traversing sloped bottom profiles subject to both seismic activity and surface wave action. It is shown that customary two-parameter seismic specifications are not adequate to establish a unique solution for the stress and displacement history of the pipeline. Soil

Kistler

1983-01-01

69

Verifying RET mask layouts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mask layouts with reticle enhancement techniques (RET) - including optical proximity correction (OPC), phase shift mask (PSM), Off-axis illumination, assist features (AF) - no longer closely resemble the design or wafer layouts. RET techniques are also applied with varying degrees of rigor to different portions of the layout, to constrain overall mask complexity while maintaining design requirements in critical areas. These factors make verifying RET mask layouts much more challenging. The simulation-based verification principle is straightforward: a wafer layout is simulated from the RET mask layout and compared to the intended design layout or 'target'. The required simulation technologies are mature and available today in commercial tools capable of handling large data files. The challenge in efficient verification is to establish comprehensive required for sub- wavelength lithography. Today, some simple criteria are inferred from the design or lithographic effects. Ideally, more specific information related to design 'intent' and tolerances should be built into the physical design for use in RET synthesis and verification, as well as in circuit and timing analysis. In this paper we explore emerging RET verification strategies that offer a high degree of flexibility and programmability. We will also illustrate how these techniques can take advantage of 'design intent' information embedded in the physical design, resulting in robust verification that is not confused by the complex tradeoffs required for today's sophisticated RET methodologies.

Mayhew, Jeffrey P.; Rieger, Michael L.; Li, Jiangwei; Zhang, Lin; Tang, Zongwu; Shiely, James P.

2002-07-01

70

Seismic design and analysis considerations for high level nuclear waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

A high level nuclear waste repository, like the one at Nevada`s Yucca Mountain that is being investigated for site suitability, will have some unique seismic design and analysis considerations. These are discussed, and a design philosophy that can rationally account for the unique performance objectives of such facilities is presented. A case is made for the use of DOE`s performance goal-based seismic design and evaluation methodology that is based on a hybrid ``deterministic`` and ``probabilistic`` concept. How and to what extent this methodology should be modified to adopt it for a potential site like Yucca Mountain is also outlined. Finally, the issue of designing for seismic fault rupture is discussed briefly, and the desirability of using the proposed seismic design philosophy in fault rupture evaluation is described.

Hossain, Q.A.

1993-09-30

71

EVALUATING DESIGN AND VERIFYING COMPLIANCE OF WETLANDS CREATED UNDER SECTION 404 OF THE CLEAN WATER ACT IN OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

Permit specifications, construction plans, and field measurements were used to examine the correlation between design and conditions "asbuilt" in a population of 11 palustrine emergent marshes created in the metropolitan area of Portland, Oregon between 1980-1986. he projects ran...

72

Spent nuclear fuel project seismic design criteria, NRC equivalency evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

This Paper provides the basis for concluding that using the seismic design criteria, defined in DOE order 4580.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and its implementing standards provides safety equivalent to NRC criteria.

Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-30

73

LRFD-Based Analysis and Design Procedures for Bridge Bearings and Seismic Isolators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development and application of analysis and design specifications for bridge bearings and seismic isolators that (a) are based on the LRFD framework, (b) are based on similar fundamental principles, which include the latest devel...

A. Filiatrault I. Kalpakidis M. C. Constantinou R. A. Ecker Lay

2011-01-01

74

Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

Glezil, Dorothy

75

Development of Techniques for the Design and Fabrication of Seismic Model Receiving Transducers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ferroelectric ceramic transducer materials were investigated to determine their application to the design and fabrication of seismic model receiving transducers. Selected materials were used in the fabrication of (1) normal and (2) transverse displacement...

C. W. Dickey

1968-01-01

76

Design and implementation of telemetry seismic data acquisition system based on embedded P2P Ethernet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design of telemetry seismic data acquisition system is presented which uses embedded, point to point (P2P) Ethernet networks. In our presentation, we explain the idea and motivation behind the use of P2P Ethernet topology and show the problems when such topology is used in seismic acquisition system. The presented paper focuses on the network protocols developed by us which include the generation of route table and dynamic IP address management. This new design has been implemented based on ARM and FPGA, which we have tested in laboratory and seismic exploration.

Zhang, L.; Lin, J.; Chen, Z.

2011-12-01

77

Low-Noise Potential of Advanced Fan Stage Stator Vane Designs Verified in NASA Lewis Wind Tunnel Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advent of new, more stringent noise regulations in the next century, aircraft engine manufacturers are investigating new technologies to make the current generation of aircraft engines as well as the next generation of advanced engines quieter without sacrificing operating performance. A current NASA initiative called the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has set as a goal a 6-EPNdB (effective perceived noise) reduction in aircraft engine noise relative to 1992 technology levels by the year 2000. As part of this noise program, and in cooperation with the Allison Engine Company, an advanced, low-noise, high-bypass-ratio fan stage design and several advanced technology stator vane designs were recently tested in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (an anechoic facility). The project was called the NASA/Allison Low Noise Fan.

Hughes, Christopher E.

1999-01-01

78

Seismic Analysis/Design of Curved Steel Box Girder Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of a study of the seismic response of curved steel box girder bridges. One, two, three, four, and five-span bridges are examined and a model is developed in which special elements are introduced to account for the curved geometry and...

C. P. Heins M. N. Abdel-Salam

1983-01-01

79

Seismic Retrofitting and Design of Highway Bridges in New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the second phase of a comprehensive analytical study on the seismic response of highway bridges in New Jersey. Most bridges in New Jersey are multi-span simply supported (MSSS) where due to impact at the joints the seis...

M. A. Saadeghvaziri A. Yazdani-Motlagh

1999-01-01

80

Design, simulated operation, and evaluation of a short-period seismic discrimination processor in the context of a world-wide seismic surveillance system. Technical report No. 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief summary of a series of system studies describes the data flow, file structures, and data processing required to operate a world-wide seismic surveillance network. One of the design problems in developing a surveillance mode of operation is to provide the seismic analyst-computer interaction needed to efficiently perform discrimination processing to effectively classify events as earthquakes or explosions. Efficiency

Sax

1976-01-01

81

Design, simulated operation, and evaluation of a short-period seismic discrimination processor in the context of world-wide seismic surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief summary of a series of system studies describes the data flow, file structures, and data processing required to operate a world-wide seismic surveillance network. One of the design problems in developing a surveillance mode of operation is to provide the seismic analyst-computer interaction needed to efficiently perform discrimination processing to effectively classify events as earthquakes or explosions. Efficiency

R. L. Sax

1976-01-01

82

Direct Displacement-Based Design of Buildings with Different Seismic Isolation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A displacement-based design (DBD) procedure for buildings equipped with different seismic isolation systems is proposed. It has been derived from the Direct Dispaced-Based Design (DDBD) method recently developed by Priestley et al. [2007]. The key aspect of the proposed procedure is the definition of a target displacement profile for the structure. It is assigned by the designer to achieve given

D. Cardone; G. Palermo; M. Dolce

2010-01-01

83

Design, manufacturing and evaluation of the performance of steel like fiber reinforced elastomeric seismic isolators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, specimens of fiber reinforced elastomeric seismic isolators have been designed, manufactured and their dynamic and mechanical characteristics have then been studied by performing vertical and horizontal (compression–shear) tests. For the sake of comparison, one steel reinforced elastomeric isolator specimen has also been designed, manufactured and subjected to similar tests. In design of fiber reinforced isolators, the tensile

Ghasem Dehghani Ashkezari; Ali Akbar Aghakouchak; Mehrdad Kokabi

2008-01-01

84

SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF R.C. BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS DESIGNED FOR GRAVITY LOADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inherent seismic vulnerability of reinforced concrete beam-column connections designed for gravity load only is herein investigated. Experimental tests on six 2\\/3 scaled beam-column subassemblies, with structural deficiencies typical of Italian construction practice between the 50's and 70's, were performed under simulated seismic loads. Interior, exterior tee and knee joints, characterized by the use of smooth bars, inadequate detailing of

S. Pampanin; G. M. Calvi; M. Moratti

85

Performance testing biometric verifiers  

SciTech Connect

The performance and availability of the five basic identity verifiers can now meet the requirements of most physical and information security needs. However, with the lack of any evaluation standards, the independent testing of verifiers requires care with due consideration for both parts of the verifier systems; the verifier hardware and software and the user with his biometric features which is the least consistent part of the system. The method of testing and data processing must be done with care and should be reported along with reduced results.

Maxwell, R.

1990-03-01

86

Seismic design factors for RC special moment resisting frames in Dubai, UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the seismic design factors for three reinforced concrete (RC) framed buildings with 4, 16 and 32-stories in Dubai, UAE utilizing nonlinear analysis. The buildings are designed according to the response spectrum procedure defined in the 2009 International Building Code (IBC'09). Two ensembles of ground motion records with 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years (10/50 and 2/50, respectively) are used. The nonlinear dynamic responses to the earthquake records are computed using IDARC-2D. Key seismic design parameters are evaluated; namely, response modification factor ( R), deflection amplification factor ( C d), system overstrength factor ( ? o), and response modification factor for ductility ( R d ) in addition to inelastic interstory drift. The evaluated seismic design factors are found to significantly depend on the considered ground motion (10/50 versus 2/50). Consequently, resolution to the controversy of Dubai seismicity is urged. The seismic design factors for the 2/50 records show an increase over their counterparts for the 10/50 records in the range of 200%-400%, except for the ? o factor, which shows a mere 30% increase. Based on the observed trends, perioddependent R and C d factors are recommended if consistent collapse probability (or collapse prevention performance) in moment frames with varying heights is to be expected.

Alhamaydeh, Mohammad; Abdullah, Sulayman; Hamid, Ahmed; Mustapha, Abdilwahhab

2011-12-01

87

Seismic design repair and retrofit strategies for steel roof deck diaphragms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural engineers will often rely on the roof diaphragm to transfer lateral seismic loads to the bracing system of single-storey structures. The implementation of capacity-based design in the NBCC 2005 has caused an increase in the diaphragm design load due to the need to use the probable capacity of the bracing system, thus resulting in thicker decks, closer connector patterns

John-Edward Franquet

2010-01-01

88

Verifying Diagnostic Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Livingstone PathFinder (LPF) is a simulation-based computer program for verifying autonomous diagnostic software. LPF is designed especially to be applied to NASA s Livingstone computer program, which implements a qualitative-model-based algorithm that diagnoses faults in a complex automated system (e.g., an exploratory robot, spacecraft, or aircraft). LPF forms a software test bed containing a Livingstone diagnosis engine, embedded in a simulated operating environment consisting of a simulator of the system to be diagnosed by Livingstone and a driver program that issues commands and faults according to a nondeterministic scenario provided by the user. LPF runs the test bed through all executions allowed by the scenario, checking for various selectable error conditions after each step. All components of the test bed are instrumented, so that execution can be single-stepped both backward and forward. The architecture of LPF is modular and includes generic interfaces to facilitate substitution of alternative versions of its different parts. Altogether, LPF provides a flexible, extensible framework for simulation-based analysis of diagnostic software; these characteristics also render it amenable to application to diagnostic programs other than Livingstone.

Lindsey, Tony; Pecheur, Charles

2004-01-01

89

Evaluation of collapse resistance of RC frame structures for Chinese schools in seismic design categories B and C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (GB50011-2001), ten typical reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures, used as school classroom buildings, are designed with different seismic fortification intensities (SFIs) (SFI=6 to 8.5) and different seismic design categories (SDCs) (SDC=B and C). The collapse resistance of the frames with SDC=B and C in terms of collapse fragility curves are quantitatively evaluated and compared via incremental dynamic analysis (IDA). The results show that the collapse resistance of structures should be evaluated based on both the absolute seismic resistance and the corresponding design seismic intensity. For the frames with SFI from 6 to 7.5, because they have relatively low absolute seismic resistance, their collapse resistance is insufficient even when their corresponding SDCs are upgraded from B to C. Thus, further measures are needed to enhance these structures, and some suggestions are proposed.

Tang, Baoxin; Lu, Xinzheng; Ye, Lieping; Shi, Wei

2011-09-01

90

41 CFR 102-76.30 - What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of Federal facilities? 102-76.30 Section...REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction § 102-76.30 What seismic safety...

2013-07-01

91

Architecture for Verifiable Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verifiable MDS Architecture (VMA) is a software architecture that facilitates the construction of highly verifiable flight software for NASA s Mission Data System (MDS), especially for smaller missions subject to cost constraints. More specifically, the purpose served by VMA is to facilitate aggressive verification and validation of flight software while imposing a minimum of constraints on overall functionality. VMA exploits the state-based architecture of the MDS and partitions verification issues into elements susceptible to independent verification and validation, in such a manner that scaling issues are minimized, so that relatively large software systems can be aggressively verified in a cost-effective manner.

Reinholtz, William; Dvorak, Daniel

2005-01-01

92

Estimation of Strength Degradation of Wooden Houses by Aged Deterioration and Seismic Design Code using Fragility Curves Classified by Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimated aged deterioration and strength difference by the seismic design code revision of wooden houses using fragility curves classified by age. First, we calculated strength distribution in each age by seismic response analyses using a wooden house cluster model, and we got relation between age and a base shear coefficient. Next, we separated relations between age and a base shear coefficient to the aged deterioration and seismic design model. We found that strength degraded 30?40% for 30 years by aged deterioration, but after that it became constant and that revision of seismic design code in 1981 made about 20?30% difference, whereas revision in 1959 had almost no influence.

Suzuki, Tatsuya; Sakai, Yuki

93

State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design.\\u000a Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe\\u000a classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more\\u000a information

Aiwen Liu; Kun Chen; Jian Wu

2010-01-01

94

optimization of seismic network design: application to a geophysical international lunar network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the next decade, some lunar seismic experiments are planned under the international lunar network initiative, such as NASA ILN Anchor nodes mission or Lunette DISCOVERY proposal, JAXA SELENE-2 and LUNA-GLOB penetrator missions, during which 1 to 4 seismic stations will be deployed on the lunar surface. Yamada et al. (submitted) have described how to design the optimized network in order to obtain the best scientific gain from these future lunar landing missions. In this presentation, we will describe the expected gain from the new lunar seismic observations potentially obtained by the optimized network compared with past Apollo seismic experiments. From the Apollo seismic experiments, valuable information about the lunar interior structure was obtained using deep and shallow moonquakes, and meteoroid impacts (e.g., Nakamura et al., 1983, Lognonné et al., 2003). However, due to the limited sensitivity of Apollo lunar seismometers and the narrowness of the seismic network, the deep lunar structure, especially the core, was not properly retrieved. In addition, large uncertainties are associated with the inferred crustal thickness around the Apollo seismic stations. Improvements of these knowledge will help us to understand the origin of the Earth-Moon system and the initial differentiation of the Moon. Therefore, we have studied the optimization of a seismic network consisting of three or four new seismometers in order to place better constraints on the lunar mantle structure and /or crustal thickness. The network is designed to minimize the a posteriori errors and maximize the resolution of the velocity perturbations inside the mantle and /or the crust through a linear inverse method. For the inversion, the deep moonquakes from active sources already located by Apollo seismic data are used, because it is known that these events occur repeatedly at identical nests depending on tidal constraints. In addition, we use randomly distributed meteoroid impacts located either by the new seismic network or by detection of the impact flashes from Earth-based observation. The use of these impact events will greatly contribute to improve the knowledge of shallow structures, in particular the crust. Finally, a comparison between the a posteriori errors deduced from our optimized network with those of the Apollo network will indicate the potential of the optimized network and the expected scientific gain. This method will be a useful tool to consider for future geophysical network landing missions.

Yamada, R.; Garcia, R. F.; Lognonne, P.; Calvet, M.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J.; Le Feuvre, M.

2010-12-01

95

Verifying Ballast Water Treatment Performance  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NSF International, Battelle, and U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a protocol for verifying the technical performance of commercially available technologies designed to treat ship ballast water for potentially invasive species. The...

96

Deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria to meet probabilistic performance goals  

SciTech Connect

For DOE facilities across the United States, seismic design and evaluation criteria are based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and IPEEE for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a deterministic specification of earthquake loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic seismic hazard curves for specification of earthquake loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 12 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Short, S.A. (ABB Impell Corp., Mission Viejo, CA (USA)); Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Hill, J.R. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Safety Appraisals)

1990-12-01

97

Seismic Assessment of High-Raised Designed Structures Based on 2800 Iranian Seismic Code (same as UBC1997)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic design codes have been applied by researchers to employ an appropriate performance of structures during earthquakes, in this regard, variety of load patterns, history and location of plastic hinges, ultimate capacity of structure, demand capacity of structure and response to many other questions about actual and assumptive performance of structures during earthquake have been considered by experts in this fields. In order to decline the retrofit cost of structure, evaluation of non-linear behavior of structure during the earthquake has been studied more. Since last 1980's the first generation of structural retrofit codes was established while designing codes were using linear behavior of structure. Consequently, comparison of design and retrofit code results, which are evaluated the actual behavior of the structure, has been considered. This research evaluates structures designed by 2800 code with performance levels, described in FEMA356, and also it compares results of modal analysis with outcomes of static non-linear analysis by application of load patterns mentioned in FEMA356. This structure designed and controlled by all regulations in 2800 code then it is evaluated by FEMA356 regulations. Finally, results are presented performance point of structure and distribution of plastic hinges over the whole structure when it collapses.

Negar, Moharrami Gargari; Rassol, Mirgaderi

2008-07-01

98

Seismic Assessment of High-Raised Designed Structures Based on 2800 Iranian Seismic Code (same as UBC1997)  

SciTech Connect

Seismic design codes have been applied by researchers to employ an appropriate performance of structures during earthquakes, in this regard, variety of load patterns, history and location of plastic hinges, ultimate capacity of structure, demand capacity of structure and response to many other questions about actual and assumptive performance of structures during earthquake have been considered by experts in this fields. In order to decline the retrofit cost of structure, evaluation of non-linear behavior of structure during the earthquake has been studied more. Since last 1980's the first generation of structural retrofit codes was established while designing codes were using linear behavior of structure. Consequently, comparison of design and retrofit code results, which are evaluated the actual behavior of the structure, has been considered. This research evaluates structures designed by 2800 code with performance levels, described in FEMA356, and also it compares results of modal analysis with outcomes of static non-linear analysis by application of load patterns mentioned in FEMA356. This structure designed and controlled by all regulations in 2800 code then it is evaluated by FEMA356 regulations. Finally, results are presented performance point of structure and distribution of plastic hinges over the whole structure when it collapses.

Negar, Moharrami Gargari [Ministry of Roads and Transportation, Ports and Shipping Organization, P.S.O Building, South Didar St, Shahid Haghani Highway, Vanak Sq, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rassol, Mirgaderi [University of Tehran, Englab Square, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08

99

Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Trolley Seismic Uplift Constraint Design Loads  

SciTech Connect

The MCO Handling Machine (MHM) trolley moves along the top of the MHM bridge girders on east-west oriented rails. To prevent trolley wheel uplift during a seismic event, passive uplift constraints are provided as shown in Figure 1-1. North-south trolley wheel movement is prevented by flanges on the trolley wheels. When the MHM is positioned over a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) storage tube, east-west seismic restraints are activated to prevent trolley movement during MCO handling. The active seismic constraints consist of a plunger, which is inserted into slots positioned along the tracks as shown in Figure 1-1. When the MHM trolley is moving between storage tube positions, the active seismic restraints are not engaged. The MHM has been designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis (Reference 3) reported seismic uplift restraint loading and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed with the east-west seismic restraints activated and the uplift restraints experiencing only vertical loading. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the east-west trolley restraints are not engaged. For this case, the associated trolley movements would result in east-west lateral loads on the uplift constraints due to friction, as shown in Figure 1-2. During preliminary evaluations, questions were raised as to whether the EDERER calculations considered the latest ALSTHOM seismic analysis loads (See NCR No. 00-SNFP-0008, Reference 5). Further evaluation led to the conclusion that the EDERER calculations used appropriate vertical loading, but the uplift restraints would need to be re-analyzed and modified to account for lateral loading. The disposition of NCR 00-SNFP-0008 will track the redesign and modification effort. The purpose of this calculation is to establish bounding seismic loads (vertical and horizontal) for input into the uplift restraint hardware redesign calculations. To minimize iterations on the uplift redesign effort, efforts were made to assure that the final loading input was reasonable but unquestionably on the conservative side.

SWENSON, C.E.

2000-03-09

100

Verifying Chandra Absolute Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibrating the absolute time accuracy of Chandra requires requires the efforts of many people. Here we present some attempts to verify this accuracy. HRC observations of the Crab indicated that the Chandra clock is within 0.2 msec of being correct. Checking ACIS requires correcting for the time delays caused by the continuous clocking readout. A method is presented to correct

Allyn Tennant

2001-01-01

101

Verifying Hybrid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid systems are modeled as phase transition systems with sampling semantics. By identifying a set of important events it is ensured that all significant state changes are observed, thus correcting previous drawbacks of the sampling computations semantics. A proof rule for verifying properties of hybrid systems is presented and illustrated on several examples.

Zohar Manna; Amir Pnueli

1992-01-01

102

Seismic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings using Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) as an alternative to solid timber or glue-laminated timber has greatly improved the viability of structural timber for the seismic design of certain types of buildings. The low mass, flexibility of design and rapidity of construction all create the potential for increased use of LVL timber in low-rise multi-storey buildings. Based on

A. Palermo; S. Pampanin; A. Buchanan; M. Newcombe

2005-01-01

103

A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy for waste repository facilities  

SciTech Connect

A performance goal-based seismic design philosophy, compatible with DOE`s present natural phenomena hazards mitigation and ``graded approach`` philosophy, has been proposed for high level nuclear waste repository facilities. The rationale, evolution, and the desirable features of this method have been described. Why and how the method should and can be applied to the design of a repository facility are also discussed.

Hossain, Q.A.

1994-02-01

104

Seismic Design Criteria for Buried Water Pipeline in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this report was to determine the effect of earthquakes on buried water pipelines constructed in Puerto Rico. The work established the design earthquake parameters required together with a simplified dynamic analysis technique that...

R. Jimenez-Perez

1983-01-01

105

Effects of surface topography on ground shaking prediction: implications for seismic hazard analysis and recommendations for seismic design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the role of topographic effects on the prediction of earthquake ground motion. Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are mathematical models that estimate the shaking level induced by an earthquake as a function of several parameters, such as magnitude, source-to-site distance, style of faulting and ground type. However, little importance is given to the effects of topography, which, as known, may play a significant role on the level, duration and frequency content of ground motion. Ridges and crests are often lost inside the large number of sites considered in the definition of a GMPE. Hence, it is presumable that current GMPEs are unable to accurately predict the shaking level at the top of a relief. The present work, which follows the article of Massa et al. about topographic effects, aims at overcoming this limitation by amending an existing GMPE with an additional term to account for the effects of surface topography at a specific site. First, experimental ground motion values and ground motions predicted by the attenuation model of Bindi et al. for five case studies are compared and contrasted in order to quantify their discrepancy and to identify anomalous behaviours of the sites investigated. Secondly, for the site of Narni (Central Italy), amplification factors derived from experimental measurements and numerical analyses are compared and contrasted, pointing out their impact on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and design norms. In particular, with reference to the Italian building code, our results have highlighted the inadequacy of the national provisions concerning the definition of the seismic load at top of ridges and crests, evidencing a significant underestimation of ground motion around the site resonance frequency.

Barani, Simone; Massa, Marco; Lovati, Sara; Spallarossa, Daniele

2014-06-01

106

Effects of surface topography on ground shaking prediction: implications for seismic hazard analysis and recommendations for seismic design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the role of topographic effects on the prediction of earthquake ground motion. Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are mathematical models that estimate the shaking level induced by an earthquake as a function of several parameters, such as magnitude, source-to-site distance, style of faulting and ground type. However, little importance is given to the effects of topography, which, as known, may play a significant role on the level, duration and frequency content of ground motion. Ridges and crests are often lost inside the large number of sites considered in the definition of a GMPE. Hence, it is presumable that current GMPEs are unable to accurately predict the shaking level at the top of a relief. The present work, which follows the article of Massa et al. about topographic effects, aims at overcoming this limitation by amending an existing GMPE with an additional term to account for the effects of surface topography at a specific site. First, experimental ground motion values and ground motions predicted by the attenuation model of Bindi et al. for five case studies are compared and contrasted in order to quantify their discrepancy and to identify anomalous behaviours of the sites investigated. Secondly, for the site of Narni (Central Italy), amplification factors derived from experimental measurements and numerical analyses are compared and contrasted, pointing out their impact on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and design norms. In particular, with reference to the Italian building code, our results have highlighted the inadequacy of the national provisions concerning the definition of the seismic load at top of ridges and crests, evidencing a significant underestimation of ground motion around the site resonance frequency.

Barani, Simone; Massa, Marco; Lovati, Sara; Spallarossa, Daniele

2014-04-01

107

Review of selected recent research on US seismic design and retrofit strategies for steel structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper provides a brief review of selected recent work on the development of solutions for the seismic design and retrofit of steel structures by various members of the US research community. In particular, this paper focuses on research on retrofit of beam-to-column moment connections, frame modifications at beams' mid- span, self-centering systems, zipper frames, buckling-restrained braced frames, steel

Michel Bruneau; Michael Engelhardt; Andre Filiatrault; S C Goel; Ahmad Itani; Jerome Hajjar; Roberto Leon; James Ricles; Bozidar Stojadinovic; Chia-Ming Uang

2005-01-01

108

Software interface verifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Telos study of 40 recent subsystem deliveries into the DSN at JPL found software interface testing to be the single most expensive and error-prone activity, and the study team suggested creating an automated software interface test tool. The resulting Software Interface Verifier (SIV), which was funded by NASA/JPL and created by Telos, employed 92 percent software reuse to quickly create an initial version which incorporated early user feedback. SIV is now successfully used by developers for interface prototyping and unit testing, by test engineers for formal testing, and by end users for non-intrusive data flow tests in the operational environment. Metrics, including cost, are included. Lessons learned include the need for early user training. SIV is ported to many platforms and can be successfully used or tailored by other NASA groups.

Soderstrom, Tomas J.; Krall, Laura A.; Hope, Sharon A.; Zupke, Brian S.

1994-01-01

109

Martian seismicity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

1991-01-01

110

Decision making with epistemic uncertainty under safety constraints: An application to seismic design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The problem of accounting for epistemic uncertainty in risk management decisions is conceptually straightforward, but is riddled with practical difficulties. Simple approximations are often used whereby future variations in epistemic uncertainty are ignored or worst-case scenarios are postulated. These strategies tend to produce sub-optimal decisions. We develop a general framework based on Bayesian decision theory and exemplify it for the case of seismic design of buildings. When temporal fluctuations of the epistemic uncertainties and regulatory safety constraints are included, the optimal level of seismic protection exceeds the normative level at the time of construction. Optimal Bayesian decisions do not depend on the aleatory or epistemic nature of the uncertainties, but only on the total (epistemic plus aleatory) uncertainty and how that total uncertainty varies randomly during the lifetime of the project. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Veneziano, D.; Agarwal, A.; Karaca, E.

2009-01-01

111

Designing Shots for the 2010 Seismic Refraction and Reflection Survey in the Salton Trough, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF and the USGS have funded a large seismic refraction and reflection survey of the Salton Trough in southern California. The goals of the project are to study earthquake hazards on the San Andreas and Imperial Faults as well as rifting processes in the northernmost Gulf of California extensional province. Seismic velocity models and reflection images of the basins, whole crust, and upper mantle will constrain the structure and petrology of the rift valley, adjacent ranges and bounding faults. Fault and sedimentary basin geometry and 3-D seismic velocity will aid in the construction of seismic hazard models in an area considered at high risk. The obliquely rifted continent appears to be producing new lithosphere in the central trough by magmatic underplating and sedimentation. Interactions between extension, magmatism, sedimentation, and faulting will be constrained by the seismic images. Fieldwork is tentatively scheduled to take place in January 2010. To prepare for the upcoming fieldwork, shot design was investigated based on data from a 1979 USGS seismic survey, when 41 shots of varying sizes were detonated at 9 locations throughout the Imperial Valley. Picking errors in the first arrival travel times were correlated with source-receiver offset, shot size, and shot- hole geology. As expected, shots in the irrigated valley farmland in lake sediments produced much better shot coupling than those located in unsorted desert stream wash. This is likely due to better packing of the lake sediments and/or drilling through a shallower water table. The goals of the 2010 survey include two 250- km whole-crust refraction profiles. This would require shot sizes of 1000-1500 kg to record the entire length of these lines. Several shorter upper-crust refraction lines would require ~500-kg shots to record to distances greater than 50 km. Dense refraction and low-fold reflection shots spaced at 2-4 km in the valley floor need 100-200 kg to image both whole-crust low-fold reflectivity and refraction to distances greater than 20 km.

Feng, H. S.; Hole, J. A.; Fuis, G. S.; Stock, J. M.

2008-12-01

112

SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)  

SciTech Connect

This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The primary reasons for this difference is the greater activity rate used in contemporary models for the Charleston source zone and proper incorporation of uncertainty and randomness in GMAMs.

(NOEMAIL), R

2005-12-14

113

Research program for seismic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment. Task 4. Use of fragility in seismic design of nuclear plant equipment. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

The Research Program for Seismic Qualification of Nuclear Plant Electrical and Mechanical Equipment has spanned a period of three years and resulted in seven technical summary reports, each of which have covered in detail the findings of different tasks and subtasks, and have been combined into five NUREG/CR volumes. Volume 4 presents study of the use of fragility concepts in the design of nuclear plant equipment and compares the results of state-of-the-art proof testing with fragility testing.

Kana, D. D.; Pomerening, D. J.

1984-08-01

114

Seismic Considerations: Hotels and Motels. Revised Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview; Part I, Seismic Considerations for Hotel and Motel Decision-Makers (Earthquakes and Loding Facilities, Seismic Hazard Mitigation and the Cost/Benefits of Seismic Design); Part II, Seismic Considerations for Hotel and Motel Designers (H...

1990-01-01

115

A Mechanically Verified Code Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

ionProcedural user-defined PROCEDURE, predefined PROCEDUREAbstractionFigure 2-1: Features of Micro-Gypsytools available for verifying programs in Gypsy. Verified programs are then preprocessed into a formacceptable to our verified code generator and translated into semantically equivalent Piton programs. Analternative approach to proving the correctness of Micro-Gypsy programs is to verify them directly in theBoyer-Moore logic using the semantics defined by the Micro-Gypsy...

William D. Young

1989-01-01

116

Ground motion values for use in the seismic design of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The proposed trans-Alaska oil pipeline, which would traverse the state north to south from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast to Valdez on Prince William Sound, will be subject to serious earthquake hazards over much of its length. To be acceptable from an environmental standpoint, the pipeline system is to be designed to minimize the potential of oil leakage resulting from seismic shaking, faulting, and seismically induced ground deformation. The design of the pipeline system must accommodate the effects of earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.5 to 8.5 as specified in the 'Stipulations for Proposed Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System.' This report characterizes ground motions for the specified earthquakes in terms of peak levels of ground acceleration, velocity, and displacement and of duration of shaking. Published strong motion data from the Western United States are critically reviewed to determine the intensity and duration of shaking within several kilometers of the slipped fault. For magnitudes 5 and 6, for which sufficient near-fault records are available, the adopted ground motion values are based on data. For larger earthquakes the values are based on extrapolations from the data for smaller shocks, guided by simplified theoretical models of the faulting process.

Page, Robert A.; Boore, D. M.; Joyner, W. B.; Coulter, H. W.

1972-01-01

117

Report on seismic design of buildings incorporated with cool storage roof system. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates the seismic design of buildings incorporated with Cool Storage Roof (CSR) system developed by the Davis Energy Group Inc. The CSR system is designed to provide a cost-effective cooling system for commercial buildings. The basic co...

Y. H. Chai K. M. Romstad

1994-01-01

118

Seismic Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power stations, bridges, constructions, etc.) are given.

Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

119

A Multi-Objective Advanced Design Methodology of Composite Beam-to-Column Joints Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-objective advanced design methodology dealing with seismic actions followed by fire on steel-concrete composite full strength joints with concrete filled tubes is proposed in this paper. The specimens were designed in detail in order to exhibit a suitable fire behaviour after a severe earthquake. The major aspects of the cyclic behaviour of composite joints are presented and commented upon. The data obtained from monotonic and cyclic experimental tests have been used to calibrate a model of the joint in order to perform seismic simulations on several moment resisting frames. A hysteretic law was used to take into account the seismic degradation of the joints. Finally, fire tests were conducted with the objective to evaluate fire resistance of the connection already damaged by an earthquake. The experimental activity together with FE simulation demonstrated the adequacy of the advanced design methodology.

Pucinotti, Raffaele; Ferrario, Fabio; Bursi, Oreste S.

2008-07-01

120

A Multi-Objective Advanced Design Methodology of Composite Beam-to-Column Joints Subjected to Seismic and Fire Loads  

SciTech Connect

A multi-objective advanced design methodology dealing with seismic actions followed by fire on steel-concrete composite full strength joints with concrete filled tubes is proposed in this paper. The specimens were designed in detail in order to exhibit a suitable fire behaviour after a severe earthquake. The major aspects of the cyclic behaviour of composite joints are presented and commented upon. The data obtained from monotonic and cyclic experimental tests have been used to calibrate a model of the joint in order to perform seismic simulations on several moment resisting frames. A hysteretic law was used to take into account the seismic degradation of the joints. Finally, fire tests were conducted with the objective to evaluate fire resistance of the connection already damaged by an earthquake. The experimental activity together with FE simulation demonstrated the adequacy of the advanced design methodology.

Pucinotti, Raffaele [Department of Mechanics and Materials, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, loc. Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, 89126 (Italy); Ferrario, Fabio; Bursi, Oreste S. [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 7, Trento, 38050 (Italy)

2008-07-08

121

The optimum design of time delay in time-domain seismic beam-forming based on receiver array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, it is hard to bring high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data in seismic prospecting in the mining area especially when noise in the field is strong. To improve the quality of seismic data from complicated ore body, we developed Time-domain Seismic Beam-forming Based on Receiver Array (TSBBRA) method, which can extract directional wave beam in any direction. But only the direction parameter from the target body matches with the direction of reflected waves, the quality of reflected seismic data can be improved. So it's important to determine the direction of reflected waves from target bodies underground. In addition, previous studies have shown that the time delay parameter of TSBBRA can be used to control the direction of the main beam, so it is of great significance for studying the optimization design of the delay time parameter of TSBBRA. The optimum design of time delay is involved in seismic pre-processing, which uses delay and sum in time-domain to form directional reflected seismic beam with the strongest energy of the specified receiving array. Firstly, we establish the velocity model according to the original seismic records and profiles of the assigned exploration area. Secondly, we simulate the propagation of seismic wave and the response of receiver array with finite-difference method. Then, we calculate optimum beam direction from assigned reflection targets and give directional diagrams. And then we synthetize seismic records with a group of time delay using TSBBRA, give the curves that energy varies with time-delay, and obtain the optimum time-delay. The results are as follows: The optimum delay time is 1.125 ms, 0.625 ms, 0.500 ms for reflected wave that form first, second and third target. Besides, to analyze the performance of TSBBRA, we calculated SNR of reflected wave signal before and after TABBRA processing for the given model. The result shows that SNR increased by 1.2~9.4 dB with TSBBRA averagely. In conclusion, the optimum design of time delay of TSBBRA based on wave equation is an effective method to improve SNR of seismic data in the exploration of complicated ore body.

Ge, L.; Jiang, T.; Xu, X.; Jia, H.; Yang, Z.

2013-12-01

122

Spatial correlation analysis of seismic noise for STAR X-ray infrastructure design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian PON MaTeRiA project is focused on the creation of a research infrastructure open to users based on an innovative and evolutionary X-ray source. This source, named STAR (Southern Europe TBS for Applied Research), exploits the Thomson backscattering process of a laser radiation by fast-electron beams (Thomson Back Scattering - TBS). Its main performances are: X-ray photon flux 109-1010 ph/s, Angular divergence variable between 2 and 10 mrad, X-ray energy continuously variable between 8 keV and 150 keV, Bandwidth ?E/E variable between 1 and 10%, ps time resolved structure. In order to achieve this performances, bunches of electrons produced by a photo-injector are accelerated to relativistic velocities by a linear accelerator section. The electron beam, few hundreds of micrometer wide, is driven by magnetic fields to the interaction point along a 15 m transport line where it is focused in a 10 micrometer-wide area. In the same area, the laser beam is focused after being transported along a 12 m structure. Ground vibrations could greatly affect the collision probability and thus the emittance by deviating the paths of the beams during their travel in the STAR source. Therefore, the study program to measure ground vibrations in the STAR site can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. The environmental and facility noise may affect the X-ray operation especially if the predominant wavelengths in the microtremor wavefield are much smaller than the size of the linear accelerator. For wavelength much greater, all the accelerator parts move in phase, and therefore also large displacements cannot generate any significant effect. On the other hand, for wavelengths equal or less than half the accelerator size several parts could move in phase opposition and therefore small displacements could affect its proper functioning. Thereafter, it is important to characterize the microtremor wavefield in both frequencies and wavelengths domains. For this reason, we performed some measurements of seismic noise in order to characterize the environmental noise in the site in which the X-ray accelerator arise. For the characterization of the site, we carried out several passive seismic monitoring experiments at different times of the day and in different weather conditions. We recorded microtremor using an array of broadband 3C seismic sensors arranged along the linear accelerator. For each measurement point, we determined the displacement, velocity and acceleration spectrogram and power spectral density of both horizontal and vertical components. We determined also the microtremor horizontal to vertical spectral ratio as function of azimuth to individuate the main ground vibration direction and detect the existence of site or building resonance frequencies. We applied a rotation matrix to transform the North-South and East-West signal components in transversal and radial components, respect to the direction of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, for each couple of seismic stations we determined the coherence function to analyze the seismic noise spatial correlation. These analyses have allowed us to exhaustively characterize the seismic noise of the study area, from the point of view of the power and space-time variability, both in frequency and wavelength.

D'Alessandro, Antonino; Agostino, Raffaele; Festa, Lorenzo; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio; Palmer, Dennis T.; Serafini, Luca

2014-05-01

123

Experimental design considerations for verifying the performance of screening technologies for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soils and sediments.  

PubMed

A performance verification demonstration of technologies capable of detecting dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment samples was conducted in April 2004 under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. A demonstration plan was developed with input from the participating technology developers who were part of an advisory panel convened to provide technical guidance for this test. The development of the experimental design began with the framework traditionally used for testing field analytical monitoring technologies under the SITE MMT Program, but various unique aspects of the participating technologies and the expected applications for these technologies necessitated modification of several elements of the traditional design. These critical experimental design considerations are described in this manuscript, along with issues encountered and the remedies that were developed. A summary of the performance data for each technology tested is also presented. PMID:18462774

Dindal, Amy; Billets, Stephen

2008-08-01

124

Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results  

SciTech Connect

For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses.

Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso [Dipartimento di Modellistica per l'Ingegneria, Universita della Calabria, 87036, Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza (Italy)

2008-07-08

125

Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS time delays clearly separated for the shot of IMI explosives (characterized by much higher detonation velocity than ANFO). Additionally acoustic records at close distances from WSMR explosions Distant Image (2440 tons of ANFO) and Minor Uncle (2725 tons of ANFO) were used to extend the charge and distance range for the SS delay scaled relationship, that showed consistency with SMR ANFO shots. The developed specific charge design contributed to the success of this unique dual Sayarim explosion experiment, providing the strongest GT0 sources since the establishment of the IMS network, that demonstrated clearly the most favorable westward/ eastward infrasound propagation up to 3400/6250 km according to appropriate summer/winter weather pattern and stratospheric wind directions, respectively, and thus verified empirically common models of infrasound propagation in the atmosphere. The research was supported by the CTBTO, Vienna, and the Israel Ministry of Immigrant Absorption.

Gitterman, Y.

2012-04-01

126

MASSACHUSETTS DEP EELGRASS VERIFIED POINTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field verified points showing presence or absence of submerged rooted vascular plants along Massachusetts coastline. In addition to the photo interpreted eelgrass coverage (EELGRASS), this point coverage (EGRASVPT) was generated based on field-verified sites as well as all field...

127

The VLISP Verified Scheme System  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The vlisp project has produced a rigorously verified compiler from Scheme to bytecodes, and a verified interpreter for the resulting byte codes. The official denotational semanticsfor Scheme provides the main criterion of correctness. The Wand-Clinger technique was usedto prove correctness of the primary compiler step. Then a state machine operational semanticsis proved to be faithful to the denotational semantics.

Joshua D. Guttman; John D. Ramsdell; Vipin Swarup

1995-01-01

128

Aspects of information feedback and parameter update design for a seismic surveillance system. Technical report No. 14  

Microsoft Academic Search

An information feedback and parameter update design study is presented as an extension of an earlier study of a seismic surveillance system. Based on system concepts developed in the previous study, the report gives an overview of system interactions, and discusses the problems related to detection threshold control and the computation and application of beamforming and event classification parameter corrections.

R. Unger; R. L. Sax

1974-01-01

129

Status of personnel identity verifiers  

SciTech Connect

Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported.

Maxwell, R.L.

1985-01-01

130

A New Seismic Broadband Sensor Designed for Easy and Rapid Deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properly deploying digital seismic broadband sensors in the field can be time consuming and logistically challenging. On active volcanoes the time it takes to install such instruments has to be particularly short in order to minimize the risk for the deployment personnel. In addition, once a seismometer is installed it is not always feasible to pay regular visits to the deployment site in order to correct for possible movements of the seismometer due to settling, sliding or other external events. In order to address those issues we have designed a new type of versatile and very robust three component feedback sensor which can be easily installed and is capable of self correcting changes of its tilt and measuring orientation changes during deployment. The instrument can be installed by direct burial in soil, in a borehole, in glacial ice and can even be used under water as an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS). It components are fitted above each other in a cylindrical stainless steel casing with a diameter of 51 mm. Each seismic sensor has a flat response to velocity between 30s to 100 Hz and a tilt tolerance of up to 20 degrees. A tilt sensor and a two axis magnetometer inside the casing capture changes in tilt and horizontal orientation during the course of the deployment. Their output can be fed into internal motors which in turn adjust the actual orientation of each sensor in the casing. First production models of this instrument have been deployed as OBS in an active submarine volcanic area along the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the NE Pacific. We are currently finishing units to be deployed for volcano monitoring in Icelandic glaciers. This instrument will be offered as an analogue version or with a 24-bit-digitizer fitted into the same casing. A pointy tip can be added to the casing ease direct burial.

Guralp, Cansun; Pearcey, Chris; Nicholson, Bruce; Pearce, Nathan

2014-05-01

131

EAGLE - Design of 2003 Controlled Source Seismic Profile Across the Ethiopian Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE) is a project to image the crust and upper mantle just prior to break-up in the northern Ethiopian Rift, where the transition from continental rifting to incipient sea-floor spreading is captured. A major component of EAGLE is a 400km cross-rift controlled source profile involving the detonation of 8 borehole shots into a nominal 450 recorders distributed along the line. The principal objective of this part of the project is to provide a cross-rift P-wave velocity model of the crust and upper mantle across a transitional rift segment. The results will be used: (1) to constrain the volume of magmatic material that has been added to the crust across the rift; (2) to determine the distribution of crustal strain; (3) to identify pre-rift variations in lithospheric properties that may have influenced high strain location; and (4) to provide high resolution crustal velocity control to enhance interpretation of teleseismic and local earthquake data recorded on the linked EAGLE passive array projects. A planning visit to Ethiopia in 2001 resulted in 7 of the 8 borehole sites being provisionally identified. Information concerning population distribution and environmental risk, water table depths and restrictions on the use of underwater shots will limit the distance to which seismic energy can be observed from each shotpoint. Results from previous surveys both in Ethiopia and in the Kenya Rift enable expected amplitude-distance relations to be estimated. Using (1) the optimum crustal seismic velocity model consistent with available gravity data, (2) the proposed distribution of shots and recording stations, (3) the range to which energy from each shot should be observed, and(4) field and remote sensing constraints on major rift structures and volcanic centres, 2-D forward modelling of first arrival travel times is being undertaken to enable tighter control on the experiment design in line with the defined experiment objectives.

Maguire, P. K.; Ebinger, C. J.; Asfaw, L. M.; Mackenzie, G.; Khan, M. A.

2001-12-01

132

Identity Verifier Evaluation of Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because the development of personnel identity verifiers is active in several areas, it is important that an independent comparative evaluation of such devices be continuously pursued for the security industry to apply such devices. An evaluation of severa...

R. L. Maxwell

1987-01-01

133

A Practical Voter-Verifiable Election Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an election scheme designed to allow voters to verify that their vote is accurately included in the tabulation. The scheme provides a high degree of transparency whilst ensuring the secrecy of votes. Assurance is derived from close auditing of all the steps of the vote recording and counting process with minimal dependence on the system components. Thus, assurance

David Chaum; Peter Y. A. Ryan; Steve A. Schneider

2005-01-01

134

Seismic design technology for breeder reactor structures. Volume 4. Special topics in piping and equipment  

SciTech Connect

This volume is divided into five chapters: experimental verification of piping systems, analytical verification of piping restraint systems, seismic analysis techniques for piping systems with multisupport input, development of floor spectra from input response spectra, and seismic analysis procedures for in-core components. (DLC)

Reddy, D.P.

1983-04-01

135

On the Need for Reliable Seismic Input Assessment for Optimized Design and Retrofit of Seismically Isolated Civil and Industrial Structures, Equipment, and Cultural Heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the experience of recent violent earthquakes, the limits of the methods that are currently used for the definition\\u000a of seismic hazard are becoming more and more evident to several seismic engineers. Considerable improvement is felt necessary\\u000a not only for the seismic classification of the territory (for which the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment—PSHA—is generally\\u000a adopted at present), but also

Alessandro Martelli

2011-01-01

136

Verifying the Hanging Chain Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wave equation with variable tension is a classic partial differential equation that can be used to describe the horizontal displacements of a vertical hanging chain with one end fixed and the other end free to move. Using a web camera and TRACKER software to record displacement data from a vibrating hanging chain, we verify a modified version…

Karls, Michael A.

2013-01-01

137

A Verified Runtime for a Verified Theorem Prover  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Theorem provers, such as ACL2, HOL, Isabelle and Coq, rely on the correctness of runtime systems for programming languages\\u000a like ML, OCaml or Common Lisp. These runtime systems are complex and critical to the integrity of the theorem provers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In this paper, we present a new Lisp runtime which has been formally verified and can run the Milawa theorem prover.

Magnus O. Myreen; Jared Davis

138

Conceptual Design and Architecture of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) for Seismic Experiments Over Martian Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keywords: MER, Mars, Rover, Seismometer Mars has been a subject of human interest for exploration missions for quite some time now. Both rover as well as orbiter missions have been employed to suit mission objectives. Rovers have been preferentially deployed for close range reconnaissance and detailed experimentation with highest accuracy. However, it is essential to strike a balance between the chosen science objectives and the rover operations as a whole. The objective of this proposed mechanism is to design a vehicle (MER) to carry out seismic studies over Martian surface. The conceptual design consists of three units i.e. Mother Rover as a Surrogate (Carrier) and Baby Rovers (two) as seeders for several MEMS-based accelerometer / seismometer units (Nodes). Mother Rover can carry these Baby Rovers, having individual power supply with solar cells and with individual data transmission capabilities, to suitable sites such as Chasma associated with Valles Marineris, Craters or Sand Dunes. Mother rover deploys these rovers in two opposite direction and these rovers follow a triangulation pattern to study shock waves generated through firing tungsten carbide shells into the ground. Till the time of active experiments Mother Rover would act as a guiding unit to control spatial spread of detection instruments. After active shock experimentation, the babies can still act as passive seismometer units to study and record passive shocks from thermal quakes, impact cratering & landslides. Further other experiments / payloads (XPS / GAP / APXS) can also be carried by Mother Rover. Secondary power system consisting of batteries can also be utilized for carrying out further experiments over shallow valley surfaces. The whole arrangement is conceptually expected to increase the accuracy of measurements (through concurrent readings) and prolong life cycle of overall experimentation. The proposed rover can be customised according to the associated scientific objectives and further needs.

Garg, Akshay; Singh, Amit

2012-07-01

139

Soil Surface Seismic Hazard and Design Basis Guideline for PC 1 and 2 SRS Facilities  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of Savannah River Site (SRS) soil seismic hazard for oscillator frequencies of 1, 2, 5, and 10 Hz. This soil surface hazard supersedes all previous soil hazard analyses conducted for the SRS.

Lee, R.C.

2000-04-26

140

High-resolution seismic exploration methods for boreholes and tunnels: experiments, results and test site design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While surface to ground seismic exploration methods are well known, the utilization of seismic waves for underground surveying is less developed. The major challenge in subsurface seismics is the spatial ambiguity of the recorded wave field due to limited aperture of seismic source and receiver survey geometry. We developed novel imaging techniques and the appropriate measurement systems like phased array borehole sources for directional enhancement of seismic wave energy. Different procedures such as 3-component Kirchhoff-Migration and Fresnel-Volume-Migration were tested and improved to enhance the spatial resolution. The goal of these new approaches is to advance instruments for the detection of small-scale tectonic features or lithological changes in boreholes and tunnels. The key component for the experiments was the setup of our underground lab 150 m below surface (education and research mine Reiche Zeche, TU Freiberg, SE Germany). Surrounded by three galleries, the site comprises a block of homogeneous high-grade gneisses of about 50 m width and 100 m length ensuring constant environmental conditions. Along the galleries thirty 3-component geophones are anchored 1-2 m deep with a distance of 4-9 m from each other. Within this test site, two horizontal 8 ½" boreholes (20 and 30 m long) as well as a vertical hole (70 m depth) allow for 3D nearfield seismic experiments for high-resolution exploration and monitoring of geological structures.

Giese, R.; Harms, U.; Jaksch, K.; Krüger, K.

2012-12-01

141

Proceedings of the First PRC-US Workshop on Seismic Analysis and Design of Special Bridges. Held in Shanghai, China on October 8-10, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This seismic analysis and design of special bridges (SADSB) workshop series is based on a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York and the ...

G. C. Lee L. Fan

2003-01-01

142

Verifying Programs with Unreliable Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the verification of a particular class of infinite-state systems, namely systems consisting of finite-state processes that communicate via unbounded lossy FIFO channels. This class is able to model e.g. link protocols such as the Alternating Bit Protocol and HDLC. For this class of systems, we show that several interesting verification problems are decidable by giving algorithms for verifying

Parosh Aziz Abdulla; Bengt Jonsson

1993-01-01

143

Verifying Programs with Unreliable Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the verification of a particular class of infinite-state systems, namely systems consisting of finite-state processes that communicate via unbounded lossy FIFO channels. This class is able to model, e.g., link protocols such as the Alternating Bit Protocol and HDLC. For this class of systems, we show that several interesting verification problems are decidable by giving algorithms for verifying

Parosh Aziz Abdulla; Bengt Jonsson

1996-01-01

144

Verifying Correct Functionality of Avionics Subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project focuses on the testing of the telecommunications interface subsystem of the Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform to ensure proper functionality. The Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform is a set of basic tools designed to be used in future spacecraft. The responsibilities of the telecommunications interface include communication between the spacecraft and ground teams as well as acting as the bus controller for the system. The tests completed include bit wise read\\write tests to each register, testing of status bits, and verifying various bus controller activities. Testing is accomplished through the use of software-based simulations run on an electronic design of the system. The tests are written in Verilog Hardware Definition Language and they simulate specific states and conditions in telecommunication interfaces. Upon successful completion, the output is examined to verify that the system responded appropriately.

Meuer, Ben t.

2005-01-01

145

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances  

SciTech Connect

This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

1995-10-01

146

Proceedings of seismic engineering 1991  

SciTech Connect

This book contains proceedings of the Seismic Engineering Technical Subcommittee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division. Topics covered include: seismic damping and energy absorption, advanced seismic analysis methods, new analysis techniques and applications of advanced methods, seismic supports and test results, margins inherent in the current design methods, and risk assessment, and component and equipment qualification.

Ware, A.G. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, ID (United States))

1991-01-01

147

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

2000-01-26

148

Procedures for SDDA Boston Building Inventory. Seismic Design Decision Analysis, Internal Study Report No. 66.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of obtaining building information and categorizing it with respect to seismic response for a ten-mile square area in Boston are described. A knowledge of the distribution of various types of buildings in an area is essential for estimating the con...

B. Schumacker J. Ochshorn

1976-01-01

149

Multi-Canister Overpack Handling Machine Trolley Seismic Uplift Constraint Design Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MCO Handling Machine (MHM) trolley moves along the top of the MHM bridge girders on east-west oriented rails. To prevent trolley wheel uplift during a seismic event, passive uplift constraints are provided. North-south trolley wheel movement is preven...

2002-01-01

150

Application of Seismic Design Requirements to Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Structures and Systems and Components  

SciTech Connect

The methodology followed in assignment of Performance Class (PC) for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) seismic loads for Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Structures, Systems and Components is defined. The loading definition associated with each PC and structure, system and component is then defined.

CREA, B.A.

1999-11-15

151

Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Trolley Seismic Uplift Constraint Design Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MCO Handling Machine (MHM) trolley moves along the top of the MHM bridge girders on east-west oriented rails. To prevent trolley wheel uplift during a seismic event, passive uplift constraints are provided as shown in Figure 1-1. North-south trolley wheel movement is prevented by flanges on the trolley wheels. When the MHM is positioned over a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO)

2000-01-01

152

Cyclic Testing for Seismic Design Guide of Beam-Column Joints with Closely Spaced Headed Bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the overly strict requirements for clear headed-bar spacing in ACI 318-08 and the lack of headed bar provisions in CEB-FIB MC 90, two approximately 2\\/3-scale exterior beam-column connection subassemblies were tested under cyclic lateral loading. The tests primarily explored the effect on their seismic performance of using (a) small clear spacings and (b) multiple layers of headed bars in

Thomas H.-K. Kang; Woosuk Kim; Myoungsu Shin

2012-01-01

153

Static and seismic design of one-way and two-way jack arch masonry slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel I-beam, brick jack arch slabs have long been used to floor and roof industrial and residential buildings in many parts of the world. Collapse of a large number of these non-homogeneous one-way slabs during past earthquakes has highlighted their poor seismic performance. However, due to their easy construction together with low cost, the jack-arch slab is still widely used

Mahmoud R. Maheri; Hamid Rahmani

2003-01-01

154

A Seismic Isolation Application Using Rubber Bearings; Hangar Project in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Seismic isolation is an effective design strategy to mitigate the seismic hazard wherein the structure and its contents are protected from the damaging effects of an earthquake. This paper presents the Hangar Project in Sabiha Goekcen Airport which is located in Istanbul, Turkey. Seismic isolation system where the isolation layer arranged at the top of the columns is selected. The seismic hazard analysis, superstructure design, isolator design and testing were based on the Uniform Building Code (1997) and met all requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code (2007). The substructure which has the steel vertical trusses on facades and RC H shaped columns in the middle axis of the building was designed with an R factor limited to 2.0 in accordance with Turkish Earthquake Code. In order to verify the effectiveness of the isolation system, nonlinear static and dynamic analyses are performed. The analysis revealed that isolated building has lower base shear (approximately 1/4) against the non-isolated structure.

Sesigur, Haluk; Cili, Feridun [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Division of Theory of Structures 34434, Taskisla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2008-07-08

155

Verify MesoNAM Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AMU conducted an objective analysis of the MesoNAM forecasts compared to observed values from sensors at specified KSC/CCAFS wind towers by calculating the following statistics to verify the performance of the model: 1) Bias (mean difference), 2) Standard deviation of Bias, 3) Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and 4) Hypothesis test for Bias = O. The 45 WS LWOs use the MesoNAM to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at KSC and CCAFS had not been measured objectively. The analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point to the observed values from the sensors on wind towers. The data were stratified by tower sensor, month and onshore/offshore wind direction based on the orientation of the coastline to each tower's location. The model's performance statistics were then calculated for each wind tower based on sensor height and model initialization time. The period of record for the data used in this task was based on the operational start of the current MesoNAM in mid-August 2006 and so the task began with the first full month of data, September 2006, through May 2010. The analysis of model performance indicated: a) The accuracy decreased as the forecast valid time from the model initialization increased, b) There was a diurnal signal in T with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, c) There was a diurnal signal in Td with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night, and d) The model parameters at each vertical level most closely matched the observed parameters at heights closest to those vertical levels. The AMU developed a GUI that consists of a multi-level drop-down menu written in JavaScript embedded within the HTML code. This tool allows the LWO to easily and efficiently navigate among the charts and spreadsheet files containing the model performance statistics. The objective statistics give the LWOs knowledge of the model's strengths and weaknesses and the GUI allows quick access to the data which will result in improved forecasts for operations.

Bauman, William H., III

2010-01-01

156

Procedures for Computing Site Seismicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthqua...

J. Ferritto

1994-01-01

157

Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances  

SciTech Connect

This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

1993-01-01

158

Seismic design spectra 200 West and East Areas DOE Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This document presents equal hazard response spectra for the W236A project for the 200 East and West new high-level waste tanks. The hazard level is based upon WHC-SD-W236A-TI-002, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis, DOE Hanford Site, Washington. Spectral acceleration amplification is plotted with frequency (Hz) for horizontal and vertical motion and attached to this report. The vertical amplification is based upon the preliminary draft revision of Standard ASCE 4-86. The vertical spectral acceleration is equal to the horizontal at frequencies above 3.3Hz because of near-field, less than 15 km, sources.

Tallman, A.M.

1995-12-31

159

Computer simulation and verification of DC power plants for seismic qualification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power plant integrity and resistance to earthquakes are of special interest to those living in areas of high seismic risk. Power products must be designed and tested to ensure survivability. A cost effective analytical approach using PC based software is described and verified. Medium sized power plants are selected for structural examination. They are -48 VDC plants with maximum current

G. K. Crowe

1994-01-01

160

How Students Verify Conjectures: Teachers' Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, "How Students Verify Conjectures" [Bergqvist, T. (2000). "How students verify conjectures." "Research reports in Mathematics Education" 3]. Teachers' expectations of students' reasoning and performance are examined, and also how…

Bergqvist, Tomas

2005-01-01

161

Development of design guidelines for seismically isolated nuclear reactors and research and development work performed by ENEA  

SciTech Connect

ENEA began work on seismic isolation in Italy in 1988 in cooperation with ISMES. Until now, work has been limited to horizontal systems and focused on high-damping steel-laminated elastomer bearings. Work consists of both the assessment of proposed design guidelines for isolated nuclear reactors (developed in collaboration with General Electric Company) and research and development (R and D) experimental and numerical studies, partly performed in support of the guideline development. Experiments include static and dynamic characterization of single bearings, analysis of a full-scale isolated structure and an actual building with in situ techniques, and shake table tests of scaled isolated structures. In this paper the main features of the guidelines document and R and D studies are described, and some initial measured data are presented.

Martelli, A.; Forni, M.; Indirli, M.; Masoni, P.; Spadoni, B. (ENEA, Dept. of Innovative Reactors, Bologna (IT)); Bonacina, G. (ISMES S.p.A., Seriate, Bergamo (IT)); Di Pasquale, G.; Sano, T. (ENEA, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Health Protection, Roma (IT)); Gluekler, E.L. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States). Nuclear Energy Div.)

1992-02-01

162

Seismic-acoustic communication for UGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) and takes into consideration both present and future aspects of the practical deployment of this equipment under conditions of Electronic Warfare (EW), including the integration of UGS into a joint system using the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). The first part of the paper deals with the possibilities, characteristics and useable properties of seismic-acoustic communication in the group of nodes, supplementing the information coverage of existing UGS, including the selection of a suitable working frequency band for seismic communication. The second part of the paper then describes an alternative method of communication between nodes and UGS using LF radio communication, and analyses the design and real properties of a proposed communication channel in LF band, the design of a loop antenna and its mechanical construction. The interim conclusions of each section generalize the results of seismic-acoustic and radio LF communications as verified in practice, and describe both the advantages and disadvantages of communication channels defined in this way. The third part of the paper deals with the possibility of integrating the nodes-UGS to a central system consisting of a UAS device. It covers the design and an energy evaluation of a system operating on the principle of data selection from UGS. In addition, the paper includes illustrative photographs of the practical design and graphic results of real measurements.

Cechak, Jaroslav

2010-04-01

163

Proceedings of the Fourth PRC-US Workshop on Seismic Analysis and Design of Special Bridges: Advancing Bridge Technologies in Research, Design, Construction and Preservation Held in Chongqing, China, June 19-21, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fourth workshop in the PRC-US Workshop on Seismic Analysis and Design of Special Bridges was held June 19-21, 2006, in Chongqing, China, the 'City of Bridges'. It was designed to exchange state-of-the-art information on highway bridge technologies and...

G. C. Lee L. Fan L. Zhang

2006-01-01

164

Seismic hazard analyses for Taipei city including deaggregation, design spectra, and time history with excel applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the difficulty of earthquake forecast, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been a method to best estimate site-specific ground motion or response spectra in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology. In this paper, the first in-depth PSHA study for Taipei, the economic center of Taiwan with a six-million population, was carried out. Unlike the very recent PSHA study for Taiwan, this study includes the follow-up hazard deaggregation, response spectra, and the earthquake motion recommendations. Hazard deaggregation results show that moderate-size and near-source earthquakes are the most probable scenario for this city. Moreover, similar to the findings in a few recent studies, the earthquake risk for Taipei should be relatively high and considering this city's importance, the high risk should not be overlooked and a potential revision of the local technical reference would be needed. In addition to the case study, some innovative Excel applications to PSHA are introduced in this paper. Such spreadsheet applications are applicable to geosciences research as those developed for data reduction or quantitative analysis with Excel's user-friendly nature and wide accessibility.

Wang, Jui-Pin; Huang, Duruo; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Shao, Kuo-Shin; Wu, Yuan-Chieh; Chang, Chih-Wei

2013-03-01

165

Land 3D-seismic data: Preprocessing quality control utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, normal moveout, first breaks, and offset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent proliferation of the 3D reflection seismic method into the near-surface area of geophysical applications, especially in response to the emergence of the need to comprehensively characterize and monitor near-surface carbon dioxide sequestration in shallow saline aquifers around the world, justifies the emphasis on cost-effective and robust quality control and assurance (QC/QA) workflow of 3D seismic data preprocessing that is suitable for near-surface applications. The main purpose of our seismic data preprocessing QC is to enable the use of appropriate header information, data that are free of noise-dominated traces, and/or flawed vertical stacking in subsequent processing steps. In this article, I provide an account of utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, first breaks, and normal moveout for rapid and thorough graphical QC/QA diagnostics, which are easy to apply and efficient in the diagnosis of inconsistencies. A correlated vibroseis time-lapse 3D-seismic data set from a CO2-flood monitoring survey is used for demonstrating QC diagnostics. An important by-product of the QC workflow is establishing the number of layers for a refraction statics model in a data-driven graphical manner that capitalizes on the spatial coverage of the 3D seismic data. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

Raef, A.

2009-01-01

166

Seismic isolation and passive response-control buildings in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a brief introduction to seismic isolation and passive structural response-control buildings in Japan. A total number of 287 projects on seismic-isolated building structures had obtained the required special permission in Japan by the end of September 1996. The effectiveness of seismic isolation buildings has been demonstrated and verified through the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu (Kobe) earthquake. It has resulted in a remarkable increase of the number of projects on seismic isolation buildings. Passive response-control buildings have been constructed in order to reduce the effects from earthquakes and/or wind induced vibration of buildings. One of the lessons learned from the damage due to the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake is the importance of developing seismic design concepts to control the damage of buildings within the repairable level during major earthquakes. The passive response-control technology has a high possibility of achieving this goal. The features and trends in seismic isolation and passive response-control buildings in Japan are introduced.

Kitagawa, Yoshikazu; Midorikawa, Mitsumasa

1998-10-01

167

Theoretical and practical considerations for the design of the iMUSH active-source seismic experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-disciplinary imaging of Magma Under St. Helens (iMUSH) experiment seeks to understand the details of the magmatic system that feeds Mount St. Helens using active- and passive-source seismic, magnetotelluric, and petrologic data. The active-source seismic component of this experiment will take place in the summer of 2014 utilizing all of the 2600 PASSCAL 'Texan' Reftek instruments which will record twenty-four 1000-2000 lb shots distributed around the Mount St. Helens region. The instruments will be deployed as two consecutive refraction profiles centered on the volcano, and a series of areal arrays. The actual number of areal arrays, as well as their locations, will depend strongly on the length of the experiment (3-4 weeks), the number of instrument deployers (50-60), and the time it will take per deployment given the available road network. The current work shows how we are balancing these practical considerations against theoretical experiment designs in order to achieve the proposed scientific goals with the available resources. One of the main goals of the active-source seismic experiment is to image the magmatic system down to the Moho (35-40 km). Calculating sensitivity kernels for multiple shot/receiver offsets shows that direct P waves should be sensitive to Moho depths at offsets of 150 km, and therefore this will likely be the length of the refraction profiles. Another primary objective of the experiment is to estimate the locations and volumes of different magma accumulation zones beneath the volcano using the areal arrays. With this in mind, the optimal locations of these arrays, as well as their associated shots, are estimated using an eigenvalue analysis of the approximate Hessian for each possible experiment design. This analysis seeks to minimize the number of small eigenvalues of the approximate Hessian that would amplify the propagation of data noise into regions of interest in the model space, such as the likely locations of magma reservoirs. In addition, this analysis provides insight into the tradeoff between the number of areal array deployments and the information that will be gained from the experiment. An additional factor incorporated into this study is the expected data quality in different regions around Mount St. Helens. Expected data quality is determined using the signal-to-noise ratios of data from existing seismometers in the region, and from forward modeling the wavefields from different experiment designs using SPECFEM3D software. In particular, we are interested in evaluating how topography near the volcano and low velocity volcaniclastic layers affect data quality. This information is especially important within 5 km of the volcano where only hiking trails are available for instrument deployment, and in a large area north of the volcano where road maintenance has lagged since the 1980 eruption. Instrument deployment will be slow in these regions, and therefore it is essential to understand if deployment of instruments here is a reasonable use of resources. A final step of this study will be validating different experiment designs based upon the above criteria by inverting synthetic data from velocity models that contain a generalized representation of the magma system to confirm that the main features of the models can be recovered.

Kiser, E.; Levander, A.; Harder, S. H.; Abers, G. A.; Creager, K. C.; Vidale, J. E.; Moran, S. C.; Malone, S. D.

2013-12-01

168

Preclosure seismic design methodology for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Topical report YMP/TR-003-NP  

SciTech Connect

This topical report describes the methodology and criteria that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to use for preclosure seismic design of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the proposed geologic repository operations area that are important to safety. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60 (10 CFR 60), Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, states that for a license to be issued for operation of a high-level waste repository, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must find that the facility will not constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public. Section 60.131 (b)(1) requires that SSCs important to safety be designed so that natural phenomena and environmental conditions anticipated at the geologic repository operations area will not interfere with necessary safety functions. Among the natural phenomena specifically identified in the regulation as requiring safety consideration are the hazards of ground shaking and fault displacement due to earthquakes.

NONE

1996-10-01

169

Seismic and layout design for a tank-type fast reactor  

SciTech Connect

Hitachi Ltd. of Japan, with the assistance of the Bechtel Group, Inc. and the General Electric Company of the US, initiated a conceptual design study of a compact tank-type LMFBR. The Bechtel work concentrated on layout of the nuclear island (NI), and its orientation with respect to the Control (CB) and Turbine (TGB) Buildings. This joint effort was carried out during 1982 and 1983 in four steps. Each step produced improvements in the design and reduced the plant size and cost. This paper described the design evolution and the final result with respect to Bechtel's development of the NI layout.

Goodman, L.; Yamaki, Hideo; Davies, S.M.

1984-06-01

170

Seismic Design of Low-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories and Toxic Waste Management Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identification of the elements of typical hazardous waste facilities (HFWs) that are the major contributors to the risk are focussed on as the elements which require additional considerations in the design and construction of low-level nuclear waste manag...

D. H. Chung D. L. Bernreuter

1984-01-01

171

Seismic Design Procedures in the Framework of Evolutionary Based Structural Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early seventies structural optimization has been the subject of intensive research and several different approaches\\u000a have been advocated for the optimal design of structures in terms of optimization methods or problem formulation. Most of\\u000a the attention of the engineering community has been directed towards the optimum design of structures under static loading\\u000a conditions with the assumption of linear

Manolis Papadrakakis; Nikolaos D. Lagaros; Michalis Fragiadakis

172

Alternative Shear Panel Configurations for Light Wood Construction. Development, Seismic Performance, and Design Guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear panels are used in light wood construction to resist lateral loads resulting from earthquakes or strong winds. These panels are typically made of wooden sheathing nailed to building frame members, but this standard panel design interferes with the installation of sheet insulation. A non-insulated shear panel conducts heat between the building interior and exterior wasting considerable amounts of energy. Several alternative shear panel designs were developed to avoid this insulation-mounting problem and sample panels were tested according to standard cyclic test protocols. One of the alternative designs consisted of diagonal steel straps nailed directly to the structural framing. Several others consisted of sheathing nailed to 2 x 4 framing then set into a larger 2 x 6 structural frame in such a way that no sheathing protruded beyond the edge of the 2 x 6 members. Also samples of industry-standard shear panels were constructed and tested in order to establish a performance baseline. Analytical models were developed to size test panels and predict panel behavior. A procedure was developed for establishing design capacities based on both test data and established baseline panel design capacity. The behavior of each panel configuration is documented and recommended design capacities are presented.

Wilcoski, James; Fischer, Chad; Allison, Tim; Malach, Kelly Jo

2002-04-01

173

Fully stressed design of passive controllers in framed structures for seismic loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the optimal design problem of added damping in framed structures. Interstory performance indices for linear and nonlinear structures are chosen and restricted to allowable values under the excitation of an ensemble of realistic ground motion records. Optimality criteria are formulated based on fully stressed characteristics of the optimal solution, and a simple analysis\\/redesign procedure is proposed for

R. Levy; O. Lavan

2006-01-01

174

Alternative Shear Panel Configurations for Light Wood Construction. Development, Seismic Performance, and Design Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear panels are used in light wood construction to resist lateral loads resulting from earthquakes or strong winds. These panels are typically made of wooden sheathing nailed to building frame members, but this standard panel design interferes with the installation of sheet insulation. A non-insulated shear panel conducts heat between the building interior and exterior wasting considerable amounts of energy.

James Wilcoski; Chad Fischer; Tim Allison; Kelly Jo Malach

2002-01-01

175

Seismic performance analysis and design suggestion for frame buildings with cast-in-place staircases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many staircases in reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures suffered severe damage during the Wenchuan earthquake. Elastic analyses for 18 RC structure models with and without staircases are conducted and compared to study the influence of the staircase on the stiffness, displacements and internal forces of the structures. To capture the yielding development and damage mechanism of frame structures, elasto-plastic analysis is carried out for one of the 18 models. Based on the features observed in the analyses, a new type of staircase design i.e., isolating them from the master structure to eliminate the effect of K-type struts, is proposed and discussed. It is concluded that the proposed method of staircase isolation is effective and feasible for engineering design, and does not significantly increase the construction cost.

Feng, Yuan; Wu, Xiaobin; Xiong, Yaoqing; Li, Congchun; Yang, Wen

2013-06-01

176

Towards Automatic Analysis of Election Verifiability Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a symbolic definition that captures some cases of election verifiability for electronic voting protocols. Our definition is given in terms of reachability assertions in the applied pi calculus and is amenable to automated reasoning using the software tool ProVerif. The definition distinguishes three aspects of verifiability, which we call individual, universal, and eligibility verifiability. We demonstrate the applicability of our formalism by analysing the protocols due to Fujioka, Okamoto & Ohta and a variant of the one by Juels, Catalano & Jakobsson (implemented as Civitas by Clarkson, Chong & Myers).

Smyth, Ben; Ryan, Mark; Kremer, Steve; Kourjieh, Mounira

177

The status of personnel identity verifiers  

SciTech Connect

Identity verification devices based on the interrogation of six different human biometric features or actions now exist and in general have been in development for about ten years. The capability of these devices to meet the cost and operational requirements of speed, accuracy, ease of use and reliability has generally increased although the verifier industry is still immature. Sandia Laboratories makes a continuing effort to stay abreast of identity verifier developments and to assess the capabilities and improvements of each device. Operating environment and procedures more typical of field use can often reveal performance results substantially different from laboratory tests. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is herein reported.

Maxwell, R.L.

1985-01-01

178

Seismic analysis of diagrid structural frames with shear-link fuse devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new concept for enhancing the seismic ductility and damping capacity of diagrid structural frames by using shear-link fuse devices and its seismic performance is assessed through nonlinear static and dynamic analysis. The architectural elegancy of the diagrid structure attributed to its triangular leaning member configuration and high structural redundancy make this system a desirable choice for tall building design. However, forming a stable energy dissipation mechanism in diagrid framing remains to be investigated to expand its use in regions with high seismicity. To address this issue, a diagrid framing design is proposed here which provides a competitive design option in highly seismic regions through its increased ductility and improved energy dissipation capacity provided by replaceable shear links interconnecting the diagonal members at their ends. The structural characteristics and seismic behavior (capacity, stiffness, energy dissipation, ductility) of the diagrid structural frame are demonstrated with a 21-story building diagrid frame subjected to nonlinear static and dynamic analysis. The findings from the nonlinear time history analysis verify that satisfactory seismic performance can be achieved by the proposed diagrid frame subjected to design basis earthquakes in California. In particular, one appealing feature of the proposed diagrid building is its reduced residual displacement after strong earthquakes.

Moghaddasi B, Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng

2013-09-01

179

Computing Symbolic Models for Verifying Cryptographic Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of automatically verifying infinite-state cryptographic protocols. Specifically, we present an algorithm that given a finite process describ- ing a protocol in a hostile environment (trying to force the system into a \\

Marcelo P. Fiore; Martín Abadi

2001-01-01

180

Verifiable Classroom Voting: Where Cryptography Meets Pedagogy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we propose - and have implemented - the first verifiable classroom voting system. The subject of secure classroom voting has so far received almost no attention from the security community. Though several commercial classroom voting systems...

C. Shepherd D. Clarke F. Hao

2013-01-01

181

Viscous Heating of Fluid Dampers Under Wind and Seismic Load: Experimental Studies, Mathematical Modeling and Design Formulae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results from a comprehensive experimental program that investigates the problem of viscous heating of fluid dampers under wind and seismic loading. Three fluid dampers of different size with corresponding force outputs of 3, 15,...

C. Black N. Makris

2005-01-01

182

Secure and Verifiable P2P Card Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of secure and verifiable P2P card games. An efficient scheme was proposed to achieve secret encoding, distribution, revealing, and verification in a fully distributed way. The proposed card shuffling scheme is based on lightweight operations such as permutation and modular addition. Compared with most of previous approaches basing on public key cryptosystems and their alike,

Chun-chao Yeh

2008-01-01

183

Development of Procedures for Computing Site Seismicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthqua...

J. Ferritto

1993-01-01

184

Artificial Seismic Shadow Zone by Acoustic Metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a new method of earthquake-proof engineering to create an artificial seismic shadow zone using acoustic metamaterials. By designing huge empty boxes with a few side-holes corresponding to the resonance frequencies of seismic waves and burying them around the buildings that we want to protect, the velocity of the seismic wave becomes imaginary. The meta-barrier composed of many meta-boxes attenuates the seismic waves, which reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially by dissipating the seismic energy. This is a mechanical method of converting the seismic energy into sound and heat. We estimated the sound level generated from a seismic wave. This method of area protection differs from the point protection of conventional seismic design, including the traditional cloaking method. The artificial seismic shadow zone is tested by computer simulation and compared with a normal barrier.

Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

2013-08-01

185

An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

Maurer, W. D.

1977-01-01

186

Azimuthal variation of radiation of seismic energy from cast blasts  

SciTech Connect

As part of a series of seismic experiments designed to improve the understanding of the impact of mining blasts on verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, a sixteen station network of three-component seismic sensors were deployed around a large cast shot in the Black Thunder Mine. The seismic stations were placed, where possible, at a range of 2.5 kilometers with a constant inter-station spacing of 22.5 degrees. All of the data were recorded with the seismometers oriented such that the radial component pointed to the middle point of the approximately 2 kilometer long shot. High quality data were recorded at each station. Data were scaled to a range of 2.5 kilometers and the sum of the absolute value of the vertical, radial, and transverse channels computed. These observations were used to construct radiation patterns of the seismic energy propagating from the cast shot. It is obvious that cast shots do not radiate seismic energy isotropically. Most of the vertical motion occurs behind the highwall while radial and transverse components of motion are enhanced in directions parallel to the highwall. These findings have implications for local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and possibly for regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic observations of cast blasting. Locally, it could be argued that peak particle velocities could be scaled not only by range but also by azimuthal direction from the shot. This result implies that long term planning of pit orientation relative to sensitive structures could mitigate problems with vibration levels from future blasting operations. Regionally, the local radiation pattern may be important in determining the magnitude of large scale cast blasts. Improving the transparency of mining operations to international seismic monitoring systems may be possible with similar considerations.

Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martin, R.L. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States)

1996-12-31

187

Synthesising verified access control systems in XACML  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) was proposed by the OASIS committee to be used as a standard language in e-business [6]. However, policy files written in XACML are hard to read and analyse directly. In this paper, we present a tool which generates verified XACML scripts from access control system descriptions in simple but expressive language proposed in

Nan Zhang; Mark Ryan; Dimitar P. Guelev

2004-01-01

188

Verifying ET-LOTOS programmes with KRONOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that real-time systems described in a reasonable subset of ET-LOTOScan be verified with Kronos by compiling them into timed automata. We illustrate thepractical interest of our approach with a case study: the Tick-Tock protocol

Conrado Daws; Alfredo Olivero; Sergio Yovine

1994-01-01

189

VLISP: A Verified Implementation of Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VLISP project showed how to produce a comprehensively verified implementation for a programming language, namely Scheme. This paper introduces two more detailed studies on VLISP [13, 21]. It summarizes the basic techniques that were used repeatedly throughout the effort. It presents scientific conclusions about the applicability of the these techniques as well as engineering conclusions about the crucial choices

Joshua D. Guttman; John D. Ramsdell; Mitchell Wand

1995-01-01

190

A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers  

SciTech Connect

Personnel identity verification devices, which are based on the examination and assessment of a body feature or a unique repeatable personal action, are steadily improving. These biometric devices are becoming more practical with respect to accuracy, speed, user compatibility, reliability and cost, but more development is necessary to satisfy the varied and sometimes ill-defined future requirements of the security industry. In an attempt to maintain an awareness of the availability and the capabilities of identity verifiers for the DOE security community, Sandia Laboratories continue to comparatively evaluate the capabilities and improvements of developing devices. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is discussed in this paper. Operating environments and procedures more typical of physical access control use can reveal performance substantially different from the basic laboratory tests.

Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

1987-01-01

191

A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers  

SciTech Connect

Personnel identity verification devices, which are based on the examination and assessment of a body feature or a unique repeatable personal action, are steadily improving. These biometric devices are becoming more practical with respect to accuracy, speed, user compatibility, reliability and cost, but more development is necessary to satisfy the varied and sometimes ill-defined future requirements of the security industry. In an attempt to maintain an awareness of the availability and the capabilities of identity verifiers for the DOE security community, Sandia Laboratories continues to comparatively evaluate the capabilities and improvements of developing devices. An evaluation of several recently available verifiers is discussed in this paper. Operating environments and procedures more typical of physical access control use can reveal performance substantially different from the basic laboratory tests.

Maxwell, R.L.; Wright, L.J.

1987-07-01

192

Fully Verified Java Card API Reference Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formally verified reference implementation of the JAVA CARD API. This case study has been developed with the KeY verification system. The KeY system allows us to symbolically execute the JAVA source code of the API in the KeY verification environment and, in turn, prove correctness of the implementation w.r.t. formal specification we developed along the way. The

Wojciech Mostowski

2007-01-01

193

Towards verifying contract regulated service composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a novel approach to (semi-)automatically compile and verify contract-regulated service compositions implemented as multi-agent systems. We model web service behaviours and the contracts governing them\\u000a as WSBPEL specification. We use the formalism of temporal-epistemic logic, suitably extended to deal with compliance\\/violations\\u000a of contracts, to specify properties of service compositions. We compile the WSBPEL behaviours into a specialised

Alessio Lomuscio; Hongyang Qu; Monika Solanki

194

The VLISP Verified PreScheme Compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper describes a verified compiler for PreScheme, the implementation languagefor the vlisp run-time system. The compiler and proof were divided into three parts: A transformationalfront end that translates source text into a core language, a syntax-directed compiler thattranslates the core language into a combinator-based tree-manipulation language, and a linearizerthat translates combinator code into code for an abstract stored-program

Dino P. Oliva; John D. Ramsdell; Mitchell Wand

1995-01-01

195

Towards composition of verified hardware devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computers are being used where no affordable level of testing is adequate. Safety and life critical systems must find a replacement for exhaustive testing to guarantee their correctness. Through a mathematical proof, hardware verification research has focused on device verification and has largely ignored system composition verification. To address these deficiencies, we examine how the current hardware verification methodology can be extended to verify complete systems.

Schubert, E. Thomas; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

1991-01-01

196

Seismic Isolation of Highway Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 200 bridges have been designed or retrofitted in the United States using seismic isolation in the last 20 years, and more than a thousand bridges around the world now use this cost- effective technique for seismic protection. Intended to supplem...

2006-01-01

197

E-x method for seismic trace interpolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic trace interpolation is often necessary to generate better images during the stacking, migration, or other phases of seismic data processing to address problems such as irregularly distributed or noisy traces. Commonly used point-wise interpolation methods, such as the geostatistical or Krige and MINimum Curvature (MINC) methods, do not work well for trace interpolation because they are not suitable for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of seismic recording. Noise and the limited bandwidth in seismic data impede the identification and tracing of reflectance events across traces, which greatly limits the performance of those methods that rely on this as the first step. A key improvement in seismic trace interpolation appeared with the development of the F-x, F-K, and a series of other related methods. The F-x method is based on a self-regression model in the frequency domain that predicts higher frequency components using low frequency information and can give the optimized results for linear reflectance events. Further more, the F-x and related methods require regularly sampled traces and linear reflectance events. Simultaneously, the F-K method estimates the non-existent high frequency components of the interpolated traces by iteration, using the known traces as constraints. The F-K method also requires that recorded seismic traces have the same equal interval and it is not able to assure convergence of the high frequency component estimation during the iteration procedure. In this approach, a new seismic trace interpolation method, E-x, is introduced which interpolates seismic traces in the Eigen and spatial (x) domains. It is based on the fact that the acquired seismic traces span an eigen-space. It can also be understood as the inversion problem of spatial principal component analysis using the covariance, not correlation, matrix of observed seismic traces. If the eigen-traces concept is defined as the eigen-vectors of the recorded seismic traces, then all eigen-traces can compose an orthogonal base for the spanned eigen-space. Thus one known trace will correlate to one point in the eigen-space and a series of recorded traces sorted spatially (such as along a profile) will correlate with a trajectory of points in the eigen-space. Then, a trace interpolation becomes as easy as searching for a certain point along that trajectory and inversely transforming that point to get an estimated seismic trace. The singular spectrum analysis (SSA) technique can describe the energy distribution of these eigen-traces. The E-x method can also be used for noise reduction by selecting a subspace of the eigen-spaces in the inverse transformation. The E-x method is specifically designed for seismic trace interpolation and does not assume linear seismic reflectance events, knowledge of their true dips, or equally sampled traces. Synthetic and observed marine seismic profile data from the east coast of Canada are processed using the developed E-x method to demonstrate and verify the accuracy and performance of this method for trace interpolation and noise reduction. Future developments allow for the possibility of extending and integrating the E-x method with other methods. Key words: Seismic trace interpolation; Noise reduction; Eigen-trace; Inverse spatial principal component analysis; Singular spectrum analysis (SSA)

Li, Q.; Dehler, S.

2012-04-01

198

Impact of lateral force-resisting system and design/construction practices on seismic performance and cost of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local design and construction practices in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), together with Dubai's unique rate of development, warrant special attention to the selection of Lateral Force-Resisting Systems (LFRS). This research proposes four different feasible solutions for the selection of the LFRS for tall buildings and quantifies the impact of these selections on seismic performance and cost. The systems considered are: Steel Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF), Concrete SMRF, Steel Dual System (SMRF with Special Steel Plates Shear Wall, SPSW), and Concrete Dual System (SMRF with Special Concrete Shear Wall, SCSW). The LFRS selection is driven by seismic setup as well as the adopted design and construction practices in Dubai. It is found that the concrete design alternatives are consistently less expensive than their steel counterparts. The steel dual system is expected to have the least damage based on its relatively lesser interstory drifts. However, this preferred performance comes at a higher initial construction cost. Conversely, the steel SMRF system is expected to have the most damage and associated repair cost due to its excessive flexibility. The two concrete alternatives are expected to have relatively moderate damage and repair costs in addition to their lesser initial construction cost.

AlHamaydeh, Mohammad; Galal, Khaled; Yehia, Sherif

2013-09-01

199

Recent advances in the Lesser Antilles observatories Part 1 : Seismic Data Acquisition Design based on EarthWorm and SeisComP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lesser Antilles observatories are in charge of monitoring the volcanoes and earthquakes in the Eastern Caribbean region. During the past two years, our seismic networks have evolved toward a full digital technology. These changes, which include modern three components sensors, high dynamic range digitizers, high speed terrestrial and satellite telemetry, improve data quality but also increase the data flows to process and to store. Moreover, the generalization of data exchange to build a wide virtual seismic network around the Caribbean domain requires a great flexibility to provide and receive data flows in various formats. As many observatories, we have decided to use the most popular and robust open source data acquisition systems in use in today observatories community : EarthWorm and SeisComP. The first is renowned for its ability to process real time seismic data flows, with a high number of tunable modules (filters, triggers, automatic pickers, locators). The later is renowned for its ability to exchange seismic data using the international SEED standard (Standard for Exchange of Earthquake Data), either by producing archive files, or by managing output and input SEEDLink flows. French Antilles Seismological and Volcanological Observatories have chosen to take advantage of the best features of each software to design a new data flow scheme and to integrate it in our global observatory data management system, WebObs [Beauducel et al., 2004]1, see the companion paper (Part 2). We assigned the tasks to the different softwares, regarding their main abilities : - EarthWorm first performs the integration of data from different heterogeneous sources; - SeisComP takes all this homogeneous EarthWorm data flow, adds other sources and produces SEED archives and SEED data flow; - EarthWorm is then used again to process this clean and complete SEEDLink data flow, mainly producing triggers, automatic locations and alarms; - WebObs provides a friendly human interface, both to the administrator for station management, and to the regular user for real time everyday analysis of the seismic data (event classification database, location scripts, automatic shakemaps and regional catalog with associated hypocenter maps).

Saurel, Jean-Marie; Randriamora, Frédéric; Bosson, Alexis; Kitou, Thierry; Vidal, Cyril; Bouin, Marie-Paule; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Clouard, Valérie

2010-05-01

200

Procedures for computing site seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthquake ground motion. The Navy's problem is further complicated by the presence of soft saturated marginal soils that can significantly amplify the levels of seismic shaking as evidenced in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command's seismic design manual, NAVFAC P355.l, requires a probabilistic assessment of ground motion for design of essential structures. This report presents the basis for the Navy's Seismic Hazard Analysis procedure that was developed and is intended to be used with the Seismic Hazard Analysis computer program and user's manual. This report also presents data on geology and seismology to establish the background for the seismic hazard model developed. The procedure uses the historical epicenter data base and available geologic data, together with source models, recurrence models, and attenuation relationships to compute the probability distribution of site acceleration and an appropriate spectra. This report discusses the developed stochastic model for seismic hazard evaluation and the associated research.

Ferritto, John

1994-02-01

201

Verifying FGS FSW on Faint Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New FGS flight software has been implemented to facilitate the reliable acquisition and tracking of faint stars in POS mode and for the reliable positioning of the scan path in Trans mode. The target in this proposal has been observed as visit 35 in proposal 9169, without the new FGS FSW. In that instance IFOV wandered by about 0.6" before the start of the Transfer mode scans, causing the scan path to be situated such that the y-axis interferogram was not sampled. This target, a V=15.8 white dwarf, is to be re-observed in this proposal to verify the effectiveness of the new FSW.

Nelan, Edmund

2001-07-01

202

Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges  

SciTech Connect

There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

Pilat, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25

203

Broadband seismic energy source  

SciTech Connect

A vibratory seismic energy source capable of generating significant energy over a broad frequency band is described. The vibrating baseplate and associated structure are designed to have minimum weight while still retaining sufficient structural integrity to permit the use of high actuator forces. This, coupled with a large reaction mass results in the generation of significant energy levels in the earth at high frequencies.

Bedenbender, J.W.; Weber, R.M.

1981-03-03

204

Field testing of new unattended small size seismic module for various target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Sensing Systems (GSS) has achieved outstanding and verifiable results in the design and performance of seismic systems with near zero false alarm rates for the detection of walking and running persons. These results were realized in a number of detection systems and in particular in small size seismic detection modules. Preliminary testing of these seismic modules in various environment noise conditions shows that such small unattended modules can be successfully used for other target detection. Potential target sets can include light and heavy vehicles, helicopters, aircraft, and ships. This paper describes preliminary results of such target detection and preliminary experimental data about corresponding detection range. We show that the new unattended, small size detection module demonstrates reliable performance in various environment conditions.

Pakhomov, Alex; Goldburt, Tim

2006-10-01

205

PDF interpolation technique for seismic fragility analysis of bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a probability density function (PDF) interpolation technique for the evaluation of seismic fragility curves as a function of the return period. Seismic fragility curves have been developed in terms of various seismic intensities, such as the peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity and pseudovelocity spectrum. However, of these seismic intensity measures, the return period of design

Jin-Hak Yi; Sang-Hoon Kim; Shigeru Kushiyama

2007-01-01

206

Annual Hanford seismic report -- fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site.

Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

1996-12-01

207

Teacher Directed Design: Content Knowledge, Pedagogy and Assessment under the Nevada K-12 Real-Time Seismic Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education professionals and seismologists under the emerging SUN (Shaking Up Nevada) program are leveraging the existing infrastructure of the real-time Nevada K-12 Seismic Network to provide a unique inquiry based science experience for teachers. The concept and effort are driven by teacher needs and emphasize rigorous content knowledge acquisition coupled with the translation of that knowledge into an integrated seismology based earth sciences curriculum development process. We are developing a pedagogical framework, graduate level coursework, and materials to initiate the SUN model for teacher professional development in an effort to integrate the research benefits of real-time seismic data with science education needs in Nevada. A component of SUN is to evaluate teacher acquisition of qualified seismological and earth science information and pedagogy both in workshops and in the classroom and to assess the impact on student achievement. SUN's mission is to positively impact earth science education practices. With the upcoming EarthScope initiative, the program is timely and will incorporate EarthScope real-time seismic data (USArray) and educational materials in graduate course materials and teacher development programs. A number of schools in Nevada are contributing real-time data from both inexpensive and high-quality seismographs that are integrated with Nevada regional seismic network operations as well as the IRIS DMC. A powerful and unique component of the Nevada technology model is that schools can receive "stable" continuous live data feeds from 100's seismograph stations in Nevada, California and world (including live data from Earthworm systems and the IRIS DMC BUD - Buffer of Uniform Data). Students and teachers see their own networked seismograph station within a global context, as participants in regional and global monitoring. The robust real-time Internet communications protocols invoked in the Nevada network provide for local data acquisition, remote multi-channel data access, local time-series data management, interactive multi-window waveform display and time-series analysis with centralized meta-data control. Formally integrating educational seismology into the K-12 science curriculum with an overall "positive" impact to science education practices necessarily requires a collaborative effort between professional educators and seismologists yet driven exclusively by teacher needs.

Cantrell, P.; Ewing-Taylor, J.; Crippen, K. J.; Smith, K. D.; Snelson, C. M.

2004-12-01

208

Seismic component fragility data base for IPEEE  

SciTech Connect

Seismic probabilistic risk assessment or a seismic margin study will require a reliable data base of seismic fragility of various equipment classes. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has selected a group of equipment and generically evaluated the seismic fragility of each equipment class by use of existing test data. This paper briefly discusses the evaluation methodology and the fragility results. The fragility analysis results when used in the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) Program for nuclear power plants are expected to provide insights into seismic vulnerabilities of equipment for earthquakes beyond the design basis. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.

1990-01-01

209

Symbolic Techniques for Formally Verifying Industrial Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of correct computer systems is extremely difficult. However, it is also a very important task. Such systems are frequently used in applications where failures can have catastrophic consequences, or cause significant financial losses. Simulation...

S. Campos E. M. Clarke M. Minea

1996-01-01

210

Provtorkningar i Sagverk foer Verifiering av Torkningsmodeller (Drying Tests in Sawmills to Verify Drying Models).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Present work is the result of a project with the aim to perform several industrial drying tests of softwood, pine and spruce. The results from the tests will be used to verify new drying models. In the test measurements and documentation were made regardi...

J. G. Salin A. Rosenkilde K. Berg

1999-01-01

211

Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

1979-01-01

212

A new seismic discriminant for earthquakes and explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the spread of nuclear weapons technology, more regions of the world need to be monitored in order to verify nuclear nonproliferation and limited test-ban treaties. Seismic monitoring is the primary means to remotely sense contained underground explosions ``Bolt, 1976; Dahlman and Israelson, 1977''. Both underground explosions and earthquakes generate seismic energy, which propagates through the Earth as elastic waves.

Bradley B. Woods; Donald V. Helmberger

1993-01-01

213

A methodology for generating verified combinatorial circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level programming languages offer significant expressivity but provide little or no guarantees about resource use. Resource-bounded languages --- such as hardware-description languages --- provide strong guarantees about the runtime behavior of computations but often lack mechanisms that allow programmers to write more structured, modular, and reusable programs. To overcome this basic tension in language design, recent work advocated the use

Oleg Kiselyov; Kedar N. Swadi; Walid Taha

2004-01-01

214

Seismic Tomography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

1984-01-01

215

Verifying command sequences for satellite systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a formal basis for the design of a Checker used in validating safe schedules and in selecting error recovery schedules for satellite control systems. This design includes a high-level specification of Checker behavior and properties (called flight rules) of safe schedules. Specifications are written in Timed Linear Logic (TLL). Validation of schedules is performed in terms of real-time telemetry and deduction system proof rules. Telemetry (state information for satellite subsystems) serves as input to the Checker. Detection of violation of a flight rule by the Checker results in the selection of a contingency plan (error recovery schedule). The Checker is illustrated in terms of the TOPEX/Poseidon Oceanographic Satellite System.

Peters, James F., III; Ramanna, Sheela

1992-10-01

216

Subsurface imaging with ocean bottom seismic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean bottom seismic, suited for shallow water and obstructed offshore areas, offers a range of benefits--higher bandwidth, design flexibility and virtually unlimited offsets. Its future may include reservoir monitoring. This article will discuss aspects of technology dealing with ocean bottom seismic. Topics presented include: Operational details; Design considerations; Receiver placement; Earlier applications; Attenuating reverberations with dual sensors; and Future applications.

Cafarelli

1995-01-01

217

Seismic Rehabilitation of Concrete Frame Beam-Column Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reinforced concrete frame structures were designed and constructed before the development of seismic codes or according to earlier versions of seismic codes. Thus, these structures were designed only for gravity loads or for much lower lateral loads than the loads specified by the current seismic codes. Non-ductile reinforcement details in the form of insufficient shear reinforcement in the joint

Tarek Abbas El-Amoury

2004-01-01

218

Seismic rehabilitation of concrete frame beam-column joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reinforced concrete frame structures were designed and constructed before the development of seismic codes or according to earlier versions of seismic codes. Thus, these structures were designed only for gravity loads or for much lower lateral loads than the loads specified by the current seismic codes. Non-ductile reinforcement details in the form of insufficient shear reinforcement in the joint

Tarek Abbas El-Amoury

2004-01-01

219

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30

220

10 CFR 100.23 - Geologic and seismic siting criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...investigate all geologic and seismic factors (for example, volcanic activity) that may affect the design and operation of the...through an appropriate analysis, such as a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis or suitable sensitivity analyses. Paragraph...

2010-01-01

221

10 CFR 100.23 - Geologic and seismic siting criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...investigate all geologic and seismic factors (for example, volcanic activity) that may affect the design and operation of the...through an appropriate analysis, such as a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis or suitable sensitivity analyses. Paragraph...

2009-01-01

222

Cycles in mining seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic models of self-organized criticality and intermittent criticality are used to describe the structure of seismic catalogs. The intermittent models introduce three phases of the seismic cycle: increase in seismic energy, seismic relaxation, and seismic quiescence after the final relaxation. In this paper, seismic mining catalogs from a deep copper mine are searched to find these three phases of the seismic cycle. In spite of the differences between the seismic records from earthquakes and the building of stresses in the mine, the cycles can be estimated in mining seismicity.

Marcak, Henryk

2013-07-01

223

Seismic Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the different types of seismic waves in an environment they can control. Using an interactive, online wave generator, they will study P waves, S waves, Love waves, and Rayleigh waves, and examine a combination of P and S waves that crudely simulates the wave motion experienced during an earthquake. A tutorial is provided to show how the wave generator is used.

224

Seismic Waves and the Slinky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching guide is designed to introduce the concepts of seismic waves that propagate within the Earth, and to provide ideas and suggestions for how to teach about seismic waves. The guide provides information on the types and properties of seismic waves and instructions for using the slinky to effectively demonstrate seismic wave characteristics and wave propagation. Most of the activities described in the guide are useful both as demonstrations for the teacher and as exploratory activities for students. A slinky is used to demonstrate P and S waves, Love wave on floor or tabletop, and Rayleigh waves by using three people and a long slinky. Five slinkys attached to wood block show that waves propagate in all directions from the source and that wave vibration for P and S sources will be different in different directions from the source.

Braile, Lawrence

225

Seismic isolation for Advanced LIGO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The baseline design concept for a seismic isolation component of the proposed 'Advanced LIGO' detector upgrade has been developed with proof-of-principle experiments and computer models. It consists of a two-stage in-vacuum active isolation platform that is supported by an external hydraulic actuation stage. Construction is underway for prototype testing of a full-scale preliminary design.

R Adhikari; G. Allen; S. Cowley; E. Daw; D. DeBra; J. Giaime; G. Hammond; M. Hammond; C. Hardham; J. How; W. Hua; W. Johnson; B. Lantz; K. Mason; R. Mittleman; J. Nichol; S. Richman; J. Rollins; D. Shoemaker; G. Stapfer; R. Stebbins

2002-01-01

226

Passive seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, deployment, and operation of the Apollo 16 passive seismic experiment (PSE) are discussed. Since activation, all elements of the PSE have operated as planned, with the exception of the sensor thermal control system. Significant progress in the measurement of meteoroid flux in near-earth space has been made, along with dilineation of active moonquake source regions. The data obtained indicate that moonquakes are concentrated at great depth (800 to 1000 km) and that the apparent disparity between meteoroid flux estimtes based on lunar crater counts and those from earth-based observations can be resolved by seismic measurements in favor of the lower flux indicated by the crater count method. The results obtained from the PSE are summarized and their significance is discussed in detail.

Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.

1972-01-01

227

Stress analysis, code evaluation, and design modification of a plate resulting from seismic loads and hypothetical core disruptive accident loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study addresses the structural analysis and evaluation of a design modification for a plate in the Fast Flux Test Facility heat temperature control system. The plate being considered is near a fuel transfer port system. The plate is flat and is suppo...

M. A. Rezvani H. H. Ziada

1992-01-01

228

A direct displacement-based method for the seismic design of bridges on bi-linear isolation devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extension of the displacement-based design procedure for bridges supported on hysteretic isolation bearings. An equivalent damping ratio, derived from the particular characteristics of bridges supported on lead rubber bearings (LRBs), is proposed. The trend of the equivalent damping ratio that is obtained is similar to that of the hysteretic energy bearing dissipation, over the whole range

Manuel Jara; Joan R. Casas

2006-01-01

229

Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be

Merz

1991-01-01

230

The study of seismic margins evaluation methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of a seismic margin review of a plant is to determine if the plant can safely withstand an earthquake larger than the design-basis earthquake (DBE), namely the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE). In the mid-1980s, two different methodologies for the seismic margin assessment (SMA) of nuclear power plants were developed. One was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute

Lei-lei Xu; Min-jun Zhang; Qin-fang Zhang

2011-01-01

231

A Very High Resolution, Deep-Towed Multichannel Seismic Survey in the Yaquina Basin off Peru ? Technical Design of the new Deep-Tow Streamer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the project INGGAS a new deep towed acoustic profiling instrument consisting of a side scan sonar fish and a 26 channel seismic streamer has been developed for operation in full ocean depth. The digital channels are build by single hydrophones and three engineering nodes (EN) which are connected either by 1 m or 6.5 m long cable segments. Together with high frequent surface sources (e.g. GI gun) this hybrid system allows to complete surveys with target resolutions of higher frequency content than from complete surface based configurations. Consequently special effort has been addressed to positioning information of the submerged towed instrument. Ultra Short Base Line (USBL) navigation of the tow fish allows precise coordinate evaluation even with more than 7 km of tow cable. Specially designed engineering nodes comprise a single hydrophone with compass, depth, pitch and roll sensors. Optional extension of the streamer up to 96 hydrophone nodes and 75 engineering nodes is possible. A telemetry device allows up- and downlink transmission of all system parameters and all recorded data from the tow fish in real time. Signals from the streamer and the various side scan sensors are multiplexed along the deep-sea cable. Within the telemetry system coaxial and fiber optic connectors are available and can be chosen according to the ships needs. In case of small bandwidth only selected portions of data are transmitted onboard to provide full online quality control while a copy of the complete data set is stored within the submerged systems. Onboard the record strings of side scan and streamer are demultiplexed and distributed to the quality control (QC) systems by Ethernet. A standard marine multichannel control system is used to display shot gather, spectra and noise monitoring of the streamer channels as well as data storage in SEG format. Precise navigation post processing includes all available positioning information from the vessel (DGPS), the USBL, the streamer (EN) and optional first break information. Therefore exact positioning of each hydrophone can be provided throughout the entire survey which is an essential input for later migration processing of the seismic data.

Bialas, J.; Breitzke, M.

2002-12-01

232

Seismic stability procedures for solid-waste landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

US federal regulations require that municipal solid-waste landfills located in seismic impact zones be designed to resist earthquake hazards. However, due to the lack of well-documented case histories, analytical procedures for evaluating the seismic performance of waste fills are not well established. Typically, procedures that were developed to analyze the seismic stability of earth embankments are applied to landfills, but

Jonathan D. Bray; Anthony J. Augello; Gerald A. Leonards; Pedro C. Repetto; R. John Byrne

1995-01-01

233

Review of the response of buried pipelines under seismic excitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed review of the literature on earthquake response and seismic-resistant design of underground piping systems reveals that current research has three main courses of pursuit: (1) the qualitative analysis of the types of damage possible, (2) the quantitative analysis of the damage, and (3) models for pipelines in a seismic environment. Seismic damage is caused primarily by ground movement

T. Ariman; G. E. Muleski

1980-01-01

234

DESIGN AND RETROFITTING STRATEGY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS Course Notes on Recent Advances in Seismic Design of RC Buildings in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A simplified strut-and-tie model has previously been developed for determining the shear strength of beam-column joints. Based on the existing model, a proposal for designing the shear strength of beam-column joints to resist earthquake is made in this paper. The associated retrofitting strategy of the existing beam-column joints of the low-rise buildings is also suggested. The design approach proposed

S. J. HWANG; H. J. LEE

235

2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey recently updated the National Seismic Hazard Maps by incorporating new seismic, geologic, and geodetic information on earthquake rates and associated ground shaking. The 2008 versions supersede those released in 1996 and 2002. These maps are the basis for seismic design provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, earthquake loss studies, retrofit priorities, and land-use planning. Their use in design of buildings, bridges, highways, and critical infrastructure allows structures to better withstand earthquake shaking, saving lives and reducing disruption to critical activities following a damaging event. The maps also help engineers avoid costs from over-design for unlikely levels of ground motion.

Petersen, M. D.; Others

2008-01-01

236

Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01

237

New generation seismic vessel deployed  

SciTech Connect

A uniquely shaped and outfitted seismic vessel, the Ramform Explorer, has been launched by Petroleum GeoServices, and is already at work. The ship`s design is the result of extensive model-tank testing and theoretical studies and was selected to provide motion characteristics that would produce savings for the operator in terms of all-weather capability. The vessel`s unique wedge shape results in an extreme beam aft (131 ft), compared to its overall length of 262 ft, which gives high stability and volumetric load capacity. In addition, the resulting large deck area overcomes traditional limits to seismic equipment handling. The ship is designed to two up to 12 full-length seismic-recording streamers, compared to the traditional six streamers. The ship has been fitted with Syntron, Inc.`s Syntrak 480 marine digital telemetry system, and plans call for acquiring four additional hardware packages that would allow for subsequent deployment of 12 full streamers.

NONE

1995-09-01

238

Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babe?-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers will be installed in several schools in the most important seismic areas (Vrancea, Dobrogea), vulnerable cities (Bucharest, Ploiesti, Iasi) or high populated places (Cluj, Sibiu, Timisoara, Zal?u). All the elements of the seismic station are especially designed for educational purposes and can be operated independently by the students and teachers themselves. The first stage of ROEDUSEIS project was centered on the work of achievement of educational materials for all levels of pre-university education (kindergarten, primary, secondary and high school). A study of necessity preceded the achievement of educational materials. This was done through a set of questionnaires for teachers and students sent to participating schools. Their responses formed a feedback instrument for properly materials editing. The topics covered within educational materials include: seismicity (general principles, characteristics of Romanian seismicity, historical local events), structure of the Earth, measuring of earthquakes, seismic hazard and risk.

Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

2013-04-01

239

Seismic safety of low ductility structures used in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important aspects of the design, seismic damage evaluation and safety assessment of structures with low ductility\\u000a like waffle slabs buildings or flat beams framed buildings are examined in this work. These reinforced concrete structural\\u000a typologies are the most used in Spain for new buildings but many seismic codes do not recommend them in seismic areas. Their\\u000a expected seismic

J. C. Vielma; A. H. Barbat; S. Oller

2010-01-01

240

IMPLEMENTATION OF SEISMIC STOPS IN PIPING SYSTEMS.  

SciTech Connect

Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station -Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

BEZLER,P.

1993-02-01

241

Seismic sources  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

1987-04-20

242

Seismic refraction exploration  

SciTech Connect

In seismic exploration, refracted seismic energy is detected by seismic receivers to produce seismograms of subsurface formations. The seismograms are produced by directing seismic energy from an array of sources at an angle to be refracted by the subsurface formations and detected by the receivers. The directivity of the array is obtained by delaying the seismic pulses produced by each source in the source array.

Ruehle, W.H.

1980-12-30

243

Pattern-Based Abstraction for Verifying Secrecy in Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method based on abstract interpretation for verifying secrecy properties of crypto- graphic protocols. Our method allows to verify secrecy properties in a general model allowing an unbounded number of sessions, an unbounded number of principals and an unbounded size of messages. As abstract domain we use sets of so-called super terms. Super terms are obtained by allowing

Liana Bozga; Yassine Lakhnech; Michaël Périn

2003-01-01

244

Verifying the Dependence of Fractal Coefficients on Different Spatial Distributions  

SciTech Connect

A fractal distribution requires that the number of objects larger than a specific size r has a power-law dependence on the size N(r) = C/r{sup D}propor tor{sup -D} where D is the fractal dimension. Usually the correlation integral is calculated to estimate the correlation fractal dimension of epicentres. A 'box-counting' procedure could also be applied giving the 'capacity' fractal dimension. The fractal dimension can be an integer and then it is equivalent to a Euclidean dimension (it is zero of a point, one of a segment, of a square is two and of a cube is three). In general the fractal dimension is not an integer but a fractional dimension and there comes the origin of the term 'fractal'. The use of a power-law to statistically describe a set of events or phenomena reveals the lack of a characteristic length scale, that is fractal objects are scale invariant. Scaling invariance and chaotic behavior constitute the base of a lot of natural hazards phenomena. Many studies of earthquakes reveal that their occurrence exhibits scale-invariant properties, so the fractal dimension can characterize them. It has first been confirmed that both aftershock rate decay in time and earthquake size distribution follow a power law. Recently many other earthquake distributions have been found to be scale-invariant. The spatial distribution of both regional seismicity and aftershocks show some fractal features. Earthquake spatial distributions are considered fractal, but indirectly. There are two possible models, which result in fractal earthquake distributions. The first model considers that a fractal distribution of faults leads to a fractal distribution of earthquakes, because each earthquake is characteristic of the fault on which it occurs. The second assumes that each fault has a fractal distribution of earthquakes. Observations strongly favour the first hypothesis.The fractal coefficients analysis provides some important advantages in examining earthquake spatial distribution, which are: - Simple way to quantify scale-invariant distributions of complex objects or phenomena by a small number of parameters. - It is becoming evident that the applicability of fractal distributions to geological problems could have a more fundamental basis. Chaotic behaviour could underlay the geotectonic processes and the applicable statistics could often be fractal.The application of fractal distribution analysis has, however, some specific aspects. It is usually difficult to present an adequate interpretation of the obtained values of fractal coefficients for earthquake epicenter or hypocenter distributions. That is why in this paper we aimed at other goals - to verify how a fractal coefficient depends on different spatial distributions. We simulated earthquake spatial data by generating randomly points first in a 3D space - cube, then in a parallelepiped, diminishing one of its sides. We then continued this procedure in 2D and 1D space. For each simulated data set we calculated the points' fractal coefficient (correlation fractal dimension of epicentres) and then checked for correlation between the coefficients values and the type of spatial distribution.In that way one can obtain a set of standard fractal coefficients' values for varying spatial distributions. These then can be used when real earthquake data is analyzed by comparing the real data coefficients values to the standard fractal coefficients. Such an approach can help in interpreting the fractal analysis results through different types of spatial distributions.

Gospodinov, Dragomir [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Geophysical Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.3, Sofia (Bulgaria); Marekova, Elisaveta; Marinov, Alexander [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

2010-01-21

245

A university-developed seismic source for shallow seismic surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of this study were to (1) design and develop a low cost seismic source for shallow seismic surveys and (2) test the performance of the developed source at a test site. The surface seismic source, referred to here as a university-developed seismic source is based upon the principle of an accelerated weight drop. A 30 kg activated mass is lifted by a mechanical rack and pinion gear and is accelerated by a mounted spring. When the mass is released from 0.5 m above the surface, it hits a 30 kg base plate and energy is transferred to the ground, generating a seismic wave. The developed source is portable, environmentally friendly, easy to operate and maintain, and is a highly repeatable impact source. To compare the developed source with a sledgehammer source, a source test was performed at a test site, a study site for mapping a major fault zone in southern Thailand. The sledgehammer and the developed sources were shot along a 300 m long seismic reflection profile with the same parameters. Data were recorded using 12 channels off-end geometry with source and receiver spacing of 5 m, resulting in CDP stacked sections with 2.5 m between traces. Source performances were evaluated based on analyses of signal penetration, frequency content and repeatability, as well as the comparison of stacked sections. The results show that both surface sources are suitable for seismic studies down to a depth of about 200 m at the site. The hammer data are characterized by relatively higher frequency signals than the developed source data, whereas the developed source generates signals with overall higher signal energy transmission and greater signal penetration. In addition, the repeatability of the developed source is considerably higher than the hammer source.

Yordkayhun, Sawasdee; Na Suwan, Jumras

2012-07-01

246

Seismic reflection imaging of shallow oceanographic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling can provide high lateral resolution images of deep ocean thermohaline fine structure. However, the shallowest layers of the water column (z < 150 m) have remained unexplored by this technique until recently. In order to explore the feasibility of shallow seismic oceanography (SO), we reprocessed and analyzed four multichannel seismic reflection sections featuring reflectors at depths between 10 and 150 m. The influence of the acquisition parameters was quantified. Seismic data processing dedicated to SO was also investigated. Conventional seismic acquisition systems were found to be ill-suited to the imaging of shallow oceanographic structures, because of a high antenna filter effect induced by large offsets and seismic trace lengths, and sources that typically cannot provide both a high level of emission and fine vertical resolution. We considered a test case, the imagery of the seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. New oceanographic data acquired in this area allowed simulation of the seismic acquisition. Sea trials of a specifically designed system were performed during the ASPEX survey, conducted in early summer 2012. The seismic device featured: (i) four seismic streamers, each consisting of six traces of 1.80 m; (ii) a 1000 J SIG sparker source, providing a 400 Hz signal with a level of emission of 205 dB re 1 ?Pa @ 1 m. This survey captured the 15 m thick, 30 m deep seasonal thermocline in unprecedented detail, showing images of vertical displacements most probably induced by internal waves.

PiéTé, Helen; Marié, Louis; Marsset, Bruno; Thomas, Yannick; Gutscher, Marc-André

2013-05-01

247

A high-speed transmission method for large-scale marine seismic prospecting systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A marine seismic prospecting system is a kind of data acquisition and transmission system with large-scale coverage and synchronous multi-node acquisition. In this kind of system, data transmission is a fundamental and difficult technique. In this paper, a high-speed data-transmission method is proposed, its implications and limitations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The method we propose has obvious advantages over traditional techniques with respect to long-distance operation, high speed, and real-time transmission. A marine seismic system with four streamers, each 6000 m long and capable of supporting up to 1920 channels, was designed and built based on this method. The effective transmission baud rate of this system was found to reach up to 240 Mbps, while the minimum sampling interval time was as short as 0.25 ms. This system was found to achieve a good synchronization: 83 ns. Laboratory and in situ experiments showed that this marine-prospecting system could work correctly and robustly, which verifies the feasibility and validity of the method proposed in this paper. In addition to the marine seismic applications, this method can also be used in land seismic applications and certain other transmission applications such as environmental or engineering monitoring systems.

KeZhu, Song; Ping, Cao; JunFeng, Yang; FuMing, Ruan

2012-12-01

248

Flutter Stability Verified for the Trailing Edge Blowing Fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TURBO-AE aeroelastic code has been used to verify the flutter stability of the trailing edge blowing (TEB) fan, which is a unique technology demonstrator being designed and fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center for testing in Glenn s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Air can be blown out of slots near the trailing edges of the TEB fan blades to fill in the wakes downstream of the rotating blades, which reduces the rotor-stator interaction (tone) noise caused by the interaction of wakes with the downstream stators. The TEB fan will demonstrate a 1.6-EPNdB reduction in tone noise through wake filling. Furthermore, the reduced blade-row interaction will decrease the possibility of forced-response vibrations and enable closer spacing of blade rows, thus reducing engine length and weight. The detailed aeroelastic analysis capability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes TURBO-AE code was used to check the TEB fan rotor blades for flutter stability. Flutter calculations were first performed with no TEB flow; then select calculations were repeated with TEB flow turned on.

Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh

2005-01-01

249

Simple method to verify OPC data based on exposure condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a world where Sub100nm lithography tool is an everyday household item for device makers, shrinkage of the device is at a rate that no one ever have imagined. With the shrinkage of device at such a high rate, demand placed on Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) is like never before. To meet this demand with respect to shrinkage rate of the device, more aggressive OPC tactic is involved. Aggressive OPC tactics is a must for sub 100nm lithography tech but this tactic eventually results in greater room for OPC error and complexity of the OPC data. Until now, Optical Rule Check (ORC) or Design Rule Check (DRC) was used to verify this complex OPC error. But each of these methods has its pros and cons. ORC verification of OPC data is rather accurate "process" wise but inspection of full chip device requires a lot of money (Computer , software,..) and patience (run time). DRC however has no such disadvantage, but accuracy of the verification is a total downfall "process" wise. In this study, we were able to create a new method for OPC data verification that combines the best of both ORC and DRC verification method. We created a method that inspects the biasing of the OPC data with respect to the illumination condition of the process that's involved. This new method for verification was applied to 80nm tech ISOLATION and GATE layer of the 512M DRAM device and showed accuracy equivalent to ORC inspection with run time that of DRC verification.

Moon, James; Ahn, Young-Bae; Oh, Sey-Young; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yim, Dong Gyu

2006-04-01

250

VISION - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that - if implemented - would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deployment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential "exit" or "off ramp" approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. It is based on the current AFCI system analysis tool "DYMOND-US" functionalities in addition to economics, isotopic decay, and other new functionalities. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI and Generation IV reactor development studies.

Steven J. Piet; A. M. Yacout; J. J. Jacobson; C. Laws; G. E. Matthern; D. E. Shropshire

2006-02-01

251

Draft Guidelines for Quality Control Testing of Elastomeric Seismic Isolation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seismic isolation systems designed according to the 1991 Uniform Building Code, or the 1991 AASHTO Guide Specification for Seismic Isolation Design are required to undergo a series of prototype and quality control tests before being installed in the struc...

H. W. Shenton

1994-01-01

252

Seismic Performance Requirements for WETF  

SciTech Connect

This report develops recommendations for requirements on the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) performance during seismic events. These recommendations are based on fragility estimates of WETF structures, systems, and components that were developed by LANL experts during facility walkdowns. They follow DOE guidance as set forth in standards DOE-STD-1021-93, ''Natural Phenomena Hazards Performance Categorization Guidelines for Structures, Systems, and Components'' and DOE-STD-1020-94, ''Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities''. Major recommendations are that WETF institute a stringent combustible loading control program and that additional seismic bracing and anchoring be provided for gloveboxes and heavy equipment.

Hans Jordan

2001-01-01

253

The ENAM Explosive Seismic Source Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the pilot study conducted as part of the eastern North American margin (ENAM) community seismic experiment (CSE) to test an innovative design of land explosive seismic source for crustal-scale seismic surveys. The ENAM CSE is a community based onshore-offshore controlled- and passive-source seismic experiment spanning a 400 km-wide section of the mid-Atlantic East Coast margin around Cape Hatteras. The experiment was designed to address prominent research questions such as the role of the pre-existing lithospheric grain on the structure and evolution of the ENAM margin, the distribution of magmatism, and the along-strike segmentation of the margin. In addition to a broadband OBS deployment, the CSE will acquire multichannel marine seismic data and two major onshore-offshore controlled-source seismic profiles recording both marine sources (airguns) and land explosions. The data acquired as part of the ENAM CSE will be available to the community immediately upon completion of QC procedures required for archiving purposes. The ENAM CSE provides an opportunity to test a radically new and more economical design for land explosive seismic sources used for crustal-scale seismic surveys. Over the years we have incrementally improved the performance and reduced the cost of shooting crustal seismic shots. These improvements have come from better explosives and more efficient configuration of those explosives. These improvements are largely intuitive, using higher velocity explosives and shorter, but larger diameter explosive configurations. However, recently theoretical advances now allow us to model not only these incremental improvements, but to move to more radical shot designs, which further enhance performance and reduce costs. Because some of these designs are so radical, they need experimental verification. To better engineer the shots for the ENAM experiment we are conducting an explosives test in the region of the ENAM CSE. The results of this test will guide engineering for the main ENAM experiment as well as other experiments in the future.

Harder, S. H.; Magnani, M. B.

2013-12-01

254

Seismic sources  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

Green, Michael A. (Oakland, CA); Cook, Neville G. W. (Lafayette, CA); McEvilly, Thomas V. (Berkeley, CA); Majer, Ernest L. (El Cirrito, CA); Witherspoon, Paul A. (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01

255

Regional Seismic Methods of Identifying Explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lesson from the 2006, 2009 and 2013 DPRK declared nuclear explosion Ms:mb observations is that our historic collection of data may not be representative of future nuclear test signatures (e.g. Selby et al., 2012). To have confidence in identifying future explosions amongst the background of other seismic signals, we need to put our empirical methods on a firmer physical footing. Here we review the two of the main identification methods: 1) P/S ratios and 2) Moment Tensor techniques, which can be applied at the regional distance (200-1600 km) to very small events, improving nuclear explosion monitoring and confidence in verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Amplitude ratios of seismic P-to-S waves at sufficiently high frequencies (~>2 Hz) can identify explosions among a background of natural earthquakes (e.g. Walter et al., 1995). However the physical basis for the generation of explosion S-waves, and therefore the predictability of this P/S technique as a function of event properties such as size, depth, geology and path, remains incompletely understood. Calculated intermediate period (10-100s) waveforms from regional 1-D models can match data and provide moment tensor results that separate explosions from earthquakes and cavity collapses (e.g. Ford et al. 2009). However it has long been observed that some nuclear tests produce large Love waves and reversed Rayleigh waves that complicate moment tensor modeling. Again the physical basis for the generation of these effects from explosions remains incompletely understood. We are re-examining regional seismic data from a variety of nuclear test sites including the DPRK and the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)). Newer relative amplitude techniques can be employed to better quantify differences between explosions and used to understand those differences in term of depth, media and other properties. We are also making use of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at NNSS. The SPE chemical explosions are explicitly designed to improve our understanding of emplacement and source material effects on the generation of shear and surface waves (e.g. Snelson et al., 2013). Our goal is to improve our explosion models and our ability to understand and predict where P/S and moment tensor methods of identifying explosions work, and any circumstances where they may not. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pasyanos, M.; Pyle, M. L.; Hauk, T. F.

2013-12-01

256

Seismic texture classification. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume...

R. Vinther

1997-01-01

257

Broadband seismology and small regional seismic networks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

Herrmann, R. B.

1995-01-01

258

New Objective Technique for Verifying Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ongoing challenge in mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) is to determine the best method for verifying the performance of high-resolution, detailed forecasts. Traditional objective techniques that evaluate N W P model performance based on poin...

2003-01-01

259

VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R&D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating “what if” scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., “reactor types” not individual reactors and “separation types” not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft Excel input files, a Powersim Studio core, and several Microsoft Excel output files. All must be co-located in the same folder on a PC to function. We use Microsoft Excel 2003 and have not tested VISION with Microsoft Excel 2007. The VISION team uses both Powersim Studio 2005 and 2009 and it should work with either.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert F. Jeffers; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; Benjamin A. Baker; Joseph Grimm

2009-08-01

260

"Foreign material" to verify root fusion in welded joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foil or thin wire at weld root is used to verify weld penetration. When weld is adequate, material mixes with weld and traces of it diffuse to weld crown. Spectroscopic analysis of samples identifies foreign material and verifies root has fused. Weld roots are usually inaccessible to visual inspection, and X-ray and ultrasonic inspection techniques are not always reliable. Good results are obtained with use of gold/nickel alloy.

Kleint, R. E.

1980-01-01

261

Verifying C++ with STL containers via predicate abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a flexible and easily extensible predi- cate abstraction-based approach to the verification of STL usage, and observes the advantages of verifying programs in terms of high-level data structures rather than low-level pointer manipulations. We formalize the semantics of the STL by means of a Hoare-style axiomatization. The verifi- cation requires an operational model conservatively approx- imating the

Nicolas Blanc; Alex Groce; Daniel Kroening

2007-01-01

262

Seismic qualification of unanchored equipment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes procedures used to design and qualify unanchored equipment to survive Seismic events to the PC = 4 level in a moderate seismic area. The need for flexibility to move experimental equipment together with the requirements for remote handling in a highly-radioactive non-reactor nuclear facility precluded normal equipment anchorage. Instead equipment was designed to remain stable under anticipated DBE floor motions with sufficient margin to achieve the performance goal. The equipment was also designed to accommodate anticipated sliding motions with sufficient. The simplified design criteria used to achieve these goals were based on extensive time-history simulations of sliding, rocking, and overturning of generic equipment models. The entire process was subject to independent peer review and accepted in a Safety Evaluation Report. The process provides a model suitable for adaptation to similar applications and for assessment of the potential for seismic damage of existing, unanchored equipment In particular, the paper describes: (1) Two dimensional sliding studies of deformable equipment subject to 3-D floor excitation as the basis for simplified sliding radius and sliding velocity design criteria. (2) Two dimensional rocking and overturning simulations of rigid equipment used to establish design criteria for minimum base dimensions and equipment rigidity to prevent overturning. (3) Assumed mode rocking analyses of deformable equipment models used to establish uplift magnitudes and subsequent impacts during stable rocking motions. The model used for these dynamic impact studies is reported elsewhere.

Moran, T.J.

1995-12-01

263

Design of an UML conceptual model and implementation of a GIS with metadata information for a seismic hazard assessment cooperative project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work illustrates the advantages of using a Geographic Information System in a cooperative project with researchers of different countries, such as the RESIS II project (financed by the Norwegian Government and managed by CEPREDENAC) for seismic hazard assessment of Central America. As input data present different formats, cover distinct geographical areas and are subjected to different interpretations, data inconsistencies

Y. Torres; M. P. Escalante

2009-01-01

264

A Very High Resolution, Deep-Towed Multichannel Seismic Survey in the Yaquina Basin off Peru ? Technical Design of the new Deep-Tow Streamer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the project INGGAS a new deep towed acoustic profiling instrument consisting of a side scan sonar fish and a 26 channel seismic streamer has been developed for operation in full ocean depth. The digital channels are build by single hydrophones and three engineering nodes (EN) which are connected either by 1 m or 6.5 m long cable segments. Together

J. Bialas; M. Breitzke

2002-01-01

265

The effect of joint ductility on the seismic fragility of a regular moment resisting steel frame designed to EC8 provisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the seismic reliability of moment resisting frames at performance levels associated with highly nonlinear structural responses, structural modelling of the rotational capacity of the joints needs to address potential failure modes. This paper begins by reviewing European experimental studies on the cyclic behaviour of steel joints. A linear regression equation, which relates the joint plastic rotation

A. K. Kazantzi; T. D. Righiniotis; M. K. Chryssanthopoulos

2008-01-01

266

Verifying the Performance of the PCI Local Bus using Symbolic Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Symbolic model checking is a successful technique for checking properties of large finite-state systems. This method has been used to verify a number of real-world hardware designs. This methodology, however, is not able to determine timing or performance...

S. Campos E. Clarke W. Marrero M. Minea

1996-01-01

267

Seismic data acquisition method  

SciTech Connect

The field locations of seismic shot points are chosen to produce partial multifold data, the static correction equations of which are at least partially coupled. The seismic cross sections resulting therefrom are substantially improved.

Johnson, P.W.

1984-08-21

268

Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate  

SciTech Connect

We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

Amos Nur

2009-01-08

269

Seismic targets Minnelusa, Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Picking up seismic radio signals is difficult in the Powder River Basin because of radio interference from the many seismic crews working in the area. However, the basin continues to be a hotbed of geophysical activity. As many as 17 seismic crews were known to be working in the area in the summer of 1984. Geophysical surveying activities in the area are discussed.

Savage, D.

1984-08-01

270

Seismic targets Minnelusa, Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picking up seismic radio signals is difficult in the Powder River Basin because of radio interference from the many seismic crews working in the area. However, the basin continues to be a hotbed of geophysical activity. As many as 17 seismic crews were known to be working in the area in the summer of 1984. Geophysical surveying activities in the

1984-01-01

271

Local seismic attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local seismic attributes measure seismic signal character- istics not instantaneously, at each signal point, and not glo- bally, across a data window, but locally in the neighborhood ofeachpoint.Idefinelocalattributeswiththehelpofregular- ized inversion and demonstrate their usefulness for measur- ing local frequencies of seismic signals and local similarity between different data sets. I use shaping regularization for controlling the locality and smoothness of

Sergey Fomel

2007-01-01

272

Tarim underthrust beneath western Kunlun: evidence from wide-angle seismic sounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a wide-angle seismic profile, over 700km long, across the southern margin of the Tarim Basin. A crustal structure that best fits the observed data, that tests and verifies the earlier discovery that the crystalline basement dips southward from the area of the petroleum industry seismic reflection profiling and geological investigation is presented. The profile

L. Qiusheng; Gao Rui; Lu Deyuan; Li Jingwei; Fan Jingyi; Zhang Zhiying; Liu Wen; Li Yingkang; Yan Quanren; Li Dexing

2002-01-01

273

Integration of onshore and offshore seismological data to study the seismicity of the Calabrian Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pollino Massif marks the transition from the Southern Appenninic to the Calabrian Arc. On the western side it is characterized by a moderately sized seismicity (about 9 M > 4 events in the last 50 years), well documented in the last 400 years. The moment tensor solutions available in this area yields, mainly, normal faults with coherent Southern Appeninic trend. This remains true also for the events that are localized on the calabrian side of Pollino, South of the massif. In most of the Sibari plane, seismic activity is very scarce, while it is again rather marked on its southeastern corner, both onshore and offshore. The above observations point to the perspective that the stress field of a vast portion of Northern Calabria still resembles that of the Southern Appenines. In this frame, it becomes important to investigate the offshore seismicity of the Sibari Gulf and the deformation pattern within the Sibari Plane. The latter might function as a hinge to transfer the deformation of the extensional fault system in the Pollino area to a different offshore fault system. Since return times of larger events might be very long, we need to investigate the true seismic potential of the offshore faults and to verify whether they are truly strike slip or if they could involve relevant thrust or normal components, that would add to the risk that of potentially associated tsunamis. Despite their importance in the understanding of the seismotectonic processes taking place in the Southern Appenninic - Calabrian Arc border and surrounding areas, the seismicity and the seismogenic volumes of the Sibari Gulf until now has not been well characterized due to the lack of offshore seismic stations. The seismicity of the Calabrian is monitored by the Italian National Seismic Network (INSN) managed by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and by the Calabrian Regional Seismic Network (CRSN) managed by the University of Calabria. Both the network comprise only on-land seismic stations. The lack of offshore stations prevents accurate determination of the hypocentral parameters also for moderate-strong earthquakes that occur in the Calabria offshore. With the aim of investigate the near shore seismicity in the Sibari Gulf and its eventual relationship with the Pollino activity, in the early 2014 will start a project for the improvement of the Calabrian Seismic Network in monitoring the Sibari Gulf area by deploying several Ocean Bottom Seismometers with Hydrophone (OBS/H). For this experiment, each OBS/H is equipped with a broad-band seismometer housed in a glass sphere designed to operate at a depth of up to 6000 m and with an autolevelling sensor system. The OBS/Hs are also equipped with an hydrophone. Analogical signals are recorded with a sampling frequency of 200 Hz by a four-channel 21 bits datalogger. In this work, we plan to present the preliminary results of the monitoring campaign showing the largest improvement in hypocenter locations derived from the integration of the onshore and offshore seismic stations.

D'Alessandro, Antonino; Guerra, Ignazio; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Gervasi, Anna; Harabaglia, Paolo; Luzio, Dario; Stellato, Gilda

2014-05-01

274

Seismic requalification advancements for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

In the past, seismic qualification was achieved through testing and direct quantitative analysis methods. Based on the experience gained in the past, industry is directing its efforts at establishing criteria, procedures, and methods that redirects the engineering effort to a more realistic way of demonstrating when nuclear power plant equipment, components, and structures are seismically qualified to the established seismic design requirements. Specifically, new advancements are being made in the following areas: qualification of equipment based on experience data, equipment qualification, and improved reliability of piping systems via snubber reductions and increased flexibility.

Lapay, W.; Bohm, G.

1986-04-01

275

Salvo: Seismic imaging software for complex geologies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Salvo, a three-dimensional seismic-imaging software for complex geologies. Regions of complex geology, such as overthrusts and salt structures, can cause difficulties for many seismic-imaging algorithms used in production today. The paraxial wave equation and finite-difference methods used within Salvo can produce high-quality seismic images in these difficult regions. However this approach comes with higher computational costs which have been too expensive for standard production. Salvo uses improved numerical algorithms and methods, along with parallel computing, to produce high-quality images and to reduce the computational and the data input/output (I/O) costs. This report documents the numerical algorithms implemented for the paraxial wave equation, including absorbing boundary conditions, phase corrections, imaging conditions, phase encoding, and reduced-source migration. This report also describes I/O algorithms for large seismic data sets and images and parallelization methods used to obtain high efficiencies for both the computations and the I/O of seismic data sets. Finally, this report describes the required steps to compile, port and optimize the Salvo software, and describes the validation data sets used to help verify a working copy of Salvo.

OBER,CURTIS C.; GJERTSEN,ROB; WOMBLE,DAVID E.

2000-03-01

276

Overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the Department of Energy (DOE). The overview describes the original design, the seismic evaluations performed for the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) issued in 1985, and current evaluations and designs to address revised DOE requirements. Future

R. J. Hunt; W. C. Stoddart; W. A. Burnett; J. E. Beavers

1992-01-01

277

Seismic Overstrength in Braced Frames of Modular Steel Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic behavior factor, R, is a critical parameter in contemporary seismic design. In the 2005 edition of the National Building Code of Canada, the R factor consists of ductility related force modification factor, Rd, and overstrength-related force modification factor, Ro. The choice of these factors for design depends on the structural system type. In this investigation, typical braced frames

C. D. Annan; M. A. Youssef; M. H. El Naggar

2008-01-01

278

Revolutionary seismic vessel sees first action in North Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the design of a new seismic surveying vessel which was developed in response to the increased need for 3D seismic data acquisition. To help in the distribution of the seismic equipment in tow, this ship was developed to have a wide, continuous beam to allow uniform distribution of a large number of seismic streamers. This width to length ratio also provides better stability of the ship as it moves through the water increasing the quality of the seismic data. The propulsion systems have also been constructed to better drag the arrays through the water. Specifications and cost benefit analysis of this new seismic vessel are reviewed and compared to conventional seismic survey methods and vessels.

Greenway, J. [PGS Exploration AS, Oslo (Norway)

1995-08-28

279

Basis for seismic provisions of DOE-STD-1020  

SciTech Connect

DOE-STD-1020 provides for a graded approach for the seismic design and evaluation of DOE structures, systems, and components (SSC). Each SSC is assigned to a Performance Category (PC) with a performance description and an approximate annual probability of seismic-induced unacceptable performance, P{sub F}. The seismic annual probability performance goals for PC 1 through 4 for which specific seismic design and evaluation criteria are presented. DOE-STD-1020 also provides a seismic design and evaluation procedure applicable to achieve any seismic performance goal annual probability of unacceptable performance specified by the user. The desired seismic performance goal is achieved by defining the seismic hazard in terms of a site-specified design/evaluation response spectrum (called herein, the Design/Evaluation Basis Earthquake, DBE). Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates are used to establish the DBE. The resulting seismic hazard curves define the amplitude of the ground motion as a function of the annual probability of exceedance P{sub H} of the specified seismic hazard. Once the DBE is defined, the SSC is designed or evaluated for this DBE using adequately conservative deterministic acceptance criteria. To be adequately conservative, the acceptance criteria must introduce an additional reduction in the risk of unacceptable performance below the annual risk of exceeding the DBE. The ratio of the seismic hazard exceedance probability P{sub H} to the performance goal probability P{sub F} is defined herein as the risk reduction ratio. The required degree of conservatism in the deterministic acceptance criteria is a function of the specified risk reduction ratio.

Kennedy, R.C. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States); Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

280

The SCALE Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data - VALID  

SciTech Connect

The Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) at ORNL contains high quality, independently reviewed models and results that improve confidence in analysis. VALID is developed and maintained according to a procedure of the SCALE quality assurance (QA) plan. This paper reviews the origins of the procedure and its intended purpose, the philosophy of the procedure, some highlights of its implementation, and the future of the procedure and associated VALID library. The original focus of the procedure was the generation of high-quality models that could be archived at ORNL and applied to many studies. The review process associated with model generation minimized the chances of errors in these archived models. Subsequently, the scope of the library and procedure was expanded to provide high quality, reviewed sensitivity data files for deployment through the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE). Sensitivity data files for approximately 400 such models are currently available. The VALID procedure and library continue fulfilling these multiple roles. The VALID procedure is based on the quality assurance principles of ISO 9001 and nuclear safety analysis. Some of these key concepts include: independent generation and review of information, generation and review by qualified individuals, use of appropriate references for design data and documentation, and retrievability of the models, results, and documentation associated with entries in the library. Some highlights of the detailed procedure are discussed to provide background on its implementation and to indicate limitations of data extracted from VALID for use by the broader community. Specifically, external users of data generated within VALID must take responsibility for ensuring that the files are used within the QA framework of their organization and that use is appropriate. The future plans for the VALID library include expansion to include additional experiments from the IHECSBE, to include experiments from areas beyond criticality safety, such as reactor physics and shielding, and to include application models. In the future, external SCALE users may also obtain qualification under the VALID procedure and be involved in expanding the library. The VALID library provides a pathway for the criticality safety community to leverage modeling and analysis expertise at ORNL.

Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL

2013-01-01

281

Fuel storage basin seismic analysis  

SciTech Connect

The 105-KE and 105-KW Fuel Storage Basins were constructed more than 35 years ago as repositories for irradiated fuel from the K East and K West Reactors. Currently, the basins contain irradiated fuel from the N Reactor. To continue to use the basins as desired, seismic adequacy in accordance with current US Department of Energy facility requirements must be demonstrated. The 105-KE and 105-KW Basins are reinforced concrete, belowground reservoirs with a 16-ft water depth. The entire water retention boundary, which currently includes a portion of the adjacent reactor buildings, must be qualified for the Hanford Site design basis earthquake. The reactor building interface joints are sealed against leakage with rubber water stops. Demonstration of the seismic adequacy of these interface joints was initially identified as a key issue in the seismic qualification effort. The issue of water leakage through seismicly induced cracks was also investigated. This issue, coupled with the relatively complex geometry of the basins, dictated a need for three-dimensional modeling. A three-dimensional soil/structure interaction model was developed with the SASSI computer code. The development of three-dimensional models of the interfacing structures using the ANSYS code was also found to be necessary. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Kanjilal, S.K.; Winkel, B.V.

1991-08-01

282

Seismic exploration with disposable seismic detectors  

SciTech Connect

Seismic sources and detectors are each positioned in a series of shotholes along a course to be explored. The sources in the shotholes are activated in a sequence along the course and caused to emit seismic waves. The detectors remaining along the course sense or detect the seismic waves which are then recorded. Since the detector at each shothole has performed its function, that of sensing signals from earlier shots in the sequence, its disposal by destruction when the source in the shothole with it is activated does not impair further surveying efforts.

Burnett, R.E.; Denham, L.R.; Reeves, H.N.; Shields, G.E.

1981-10-20

283

A Trustworthy Internet Auction Model with Verifiable Fairness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an Internet auction model achieving verifiable fairness, a requirement aimed at enhancing the trust of bidders in auctioneers. Analysis results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies various requirements regarding fairness and privacy. Moreover, in the proposed model, the losing bids remain sealed. (Author/AEF)

Liao, Gen-Yih; Hwang, Jing-Jang

2001-01-01

284

Verifying event-driven programs using ramified frame properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive programs, such as GUIs or spreadsheets, often maintain dependency information over dynamically-created networks of ob- jects. That is, each imperative object tracks not only the objects its own invariant depends on, but also all of the objects which depend upon it, in order to notify them when it changes. These bidirectional linkages pose a serious challenge to verifi- cation,

Neelakantan R. Krishnaswami; Lars Birkedal; Jonathan Aldrich

2010-01-01

285

An Efficient Cryptographic Protocol Verifier Based on Prolog Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new automatic cryptographic protocol veri- fier based on a simple representation of the protocol by Pro- log rules, and on a new efficient algorithm that determines whether a fact can be proved from these rules or not. This verifier proves secrecy properties of the protocols. Thanks to its use of unification, it avoids the problem of the

Bruno Blanchet; Domaine de Voluceau

2001-01-01

286

Nuclear archaeology: Verifying declarations of fissile?material production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling the production of fissile material is an essential element of nonproliferation policy. Similarly, accounting for the past production of fissile material should be an important component of nuclear disarmament. This paper describes two promising techniques that make use of physical evidence at reactors and enrichment facilities to verify the past production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. In the

Steve Fetter

1993-01-01

287

Verifiable distributed oblivious transfer and mobile agent security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile agent is a fundamental building block of the mobile computing paradigm. In mobile agent security, oblivious transfer (OT) from a trusted party can be used to protect the agent's privacy and the hosts' privacy. In this paper, we introduce a new cryptographic primitive called Verifiable Distributed Oblivious Transfer (VDOT), which allows us to replace a single trusted party

Sheng Zhong; Yang Richard Yang

2003-01-01

288

Unreliable Channels Are Easier to Verify Than Perfect Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of verifying correctness of finite state machines that communicate with each other over unbounded FIFO channels that are unreliable. Various problems of interest in verification of FIFO channels that can lose messages have been considered by Finkel and by Abdulla and Jonsson. We consider, in this paper, other possible unreliable behaviors of communication channels, viz., (a)

Gérard Cécé; Alain Finkel; S. Purushothaman Iyer

1996-01-01

289

Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events. (ACR)

Hannon, W.J.

1987-03-06

290

A Formal Framework for the Java Bytecode Language and Verifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a sound type system for a large subset of the Java bytecode language including classes, interfaces, constructors, methods, exceptions, and byte- code subroutines. This work serves as the foundation for developing a formal specification of the bytecode lan- guage and the Java Virtual Machine's bytecode verifier. We also describe a prototype implementation of a type checker for

Stephen N. Freund; John C. Mitchell

1999-01-01

291

A Type System for the Java Bytecode Language and Verifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Java Virtual Machine executes bytecode programs that may have been sent from other, possibly untrusted, locations on the network. Since the transmitted code may be written by a mali- cious party or corrupted during network transmission, the Java Virtual Machine contains a bytecode verifier to check the code for type errors before it is run. As illustrated by reported

Stephen N. Freund; John C. Mitchell

2003-01-01

292

The verifying compiler: A grand challenge for computing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution proposes a set of criteria that distinguish a grand challenge in science or engineering from the many other kinds of short-term or long-term research problems that engage the interest of scientists and engineers. As an example drawn from Computer Science, it revives an old challenge: the construction and application of a verifying compiler that guarantees correctness of a

Tony Hoare

2003-01-01

293

Verifying cell loss requirements in high-speed communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-speed communication networks it is common to have requirements of very small cell lossprobabilities due to buffer overflow. Losses are measured to verify that the cell loss requirementsare being met, but it is not clear how to interpret such measurements. We propose methods fordetermining whether or not cell loss requirements are being met. A key idea is to look

Kerry W. Fendick; Ward Whitt

1998-01-01

294

Secret-Ballot Receipts: True Voter-Verifiable Elections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of receipt sets a far higher standard of security by letting voters verify the election outcome—even if all election computers and records were compromised. The system preserves ballot secrecy, while improving access, robustness, and adjucation, all at lower cost.

David Chaum

2004-01-01

295

Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

2005-11-01

296

Eddy-Current Testing of Welded Stainless Steel Storage Containers to Verify Integrity and Identity  

SciTech Connect

An eddy-current scanning system is being developed to allow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify the integrity of nuclear material storage containers. Such a system is necessary to detect attempts to remove material from the containers in facilities where continuous surveillance of the containers is not practical. Initial tests have shown that the eddy-current system is also capable of verifying the identity of each container using the electromagnetic signature of its welds. The DOE-3013 containers proposed for use in some US facilities are made of an austenitic stainless steel alloy, which is nonmagnetic in its normal condition. When the material is cold worked by forming or by local stresses experienced in welding, it loses its austenitic grain structure and its magnetic permeability increases. This change in magnetic permeability can be measured using an eddy-current probe specifically designed for this purpose. Initial tests have shown that variations of magnetic permeability and material conductivity in and around welds can be detected, and form a pattern unique to the container. The changes in conductivity that are present around a mechanically inserted plug can also be detected. Further development of the system is currently underway to adapt the system to verifying the integrity and identity of sealable, tamper-indicating enclosures designed to prevent unauthorized access to measurement equipment used to verify international agreements.

Tolk, Keith M.; Stoker, Gerald C.

1999-07-20

297

Seismic margins and calibration of piping systems  

SciTech Connect

The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-funded, multiyear program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Its objective is to develop a complete, fully coupled analysis procedure for estimating the risk of earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant and to determine major contributors to the state-of-the-art seismic and systems analysis process and explicitly includes the uncertainties in such a process. The results will be used to improve seismic licensing requirements for nuclear power plants. In Phase I of SSMRP, the overall seismic risk assessment methodology was developed and assembled. The application of this methodology to the seismic PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) at the Zion Nuclear Power Plant has been documented. This report documents the method deriving response factors. The response factors, which relate design calculated responses to best estimate values, were used in the seismic response determination of piping systems for a simplified seismic probablistic risk assessment. 13 references, 31 figures, 25 tables.

Shieh, L.C.; Tsai, N.C.; Yang, M.S.; Wong, W.L.

1985-01-01

298

Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2002  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the earthquake activity on Hanford for FY 2002. Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the Hanford Seismic Network, there were 1,177 triggers during fiscal year 2002. Of these triggers, 553 were earthquakes. Two earthquakes were located in the Hanford Seismic Network area. Stratigraphically 13 occurred in the Columbia River basalt, 12 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 17 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 13 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was associated with major structures, and 28 were random events. There were no earthquake triggers of the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during fiscal year 2002.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.

2002-11-15

299

Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging  

SciTech Connect

This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could make SSR surveying considerably more efficient and less expensive, particularly when geophone intervals of 25 cm or less are required. The most recent research analyzed the difference in seismic response of the geophones with variable geophone spike length and geophones attached to various steel media. Experiments investigated the azimuthal dependence of the quality of data relative to the orientation of the rigidly attached geophones. Other experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the data are being amplified in much the same way that an organ pipe amplifies sound have so far proved inconclusive. Taken together, the positive results show that SSR imaging within a few meters of the earth's surface is possible if the geology is suitable, that SSR imaging can complement GPR imaging, and that SSR imaging could be made significantly more cost effective, at least in areas where the topography and the geology are favorable. Increased knowledge of the Earth's shallow subsurface through non-intrusive techniques is of potential benefit to management of DOE facilities. Among the most significant problems facing hydrologists today is the delineation of preferential permeability paths in sufficient detail to make a quantitative analysis possible. Aquifer systems dominated by fracture flow have a reputation of being particularly difficult to characterize and model. At chemically contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and others at Department of Defense (DOD) installations worldwide, establishing the spatial extent of the contamination, along with the fate of the contaminants and their transport-flow directions, is essential to the development of effective cleanup strategies. Detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface is important not only in environmental, groundwater, and geotechnical engineering applications, but also in neotectonics, mining geology, and the analysis of petroleum reservoir analogs. Near-surface seismology is in the vanguard of non-intrusive approaches to increase knowledge of the shallow subsurface; our

Steeples, Don W.

2004-12-09

300

Testing the acceleration spectra given by China and USA seismic codes based on energy supply in near-fault region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For near-fault ground motion, there should be a remarkable impulsive energy supply. Therefore, it is essential to check the validity of actual seismic design codes with energy balance concept. Based on the relationship between the spectrum velocity and the input energy equivalent velocity with 5% damping ratio, the input energy spectra compatible with main China and USA seismic codes were derived, and the accuracy and applicability were verified by using near-fault records. The recommended energy input design spectrum (EIDS) applicable to the distance of 0˜15 km from fault was introduced to check the validity of modern seismic codes. Comparison tests show that the GB50011-2001 Code of China can just match the energy effect of near-fault ground motion to a certain extent only under seldom occurred earthquake with fortification intensity of 9 degree for site soil of III and IV, indicating that the impact of near-fault effect has not been embodied in the current code acceleration spectrum. In order to make the design spectrum be applicable to near-fault region, it is necessary to adjust the spectrum platform parameters. On the contrary, for distinct fault distance and site soil, the UBC97 Code of USA can match well with the energy supply of near-fault ground motion except for the site soil of hard rock ( S A). Accordingly, correctness of the formula derivation in this paper is certified.

Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Xi

2008-09-01

301

Oklahoma seismic network. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States)]|[Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Energy Center

1993-07-01

302

Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

2005-11-01

303

Verifiable Distributed Oblivious Transfer and Mobile Agent Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile agent is a fundamental building block of the mobile computing paradigm. In mobile agent security, oblivious transfer\\u000a (OT) from a trusted party can be used to protect the agent’s privacy and the hosts’ privacy. In this paper, we introduce a\\u000a new cryptographic primitive called Verifiable Distributed Oblivious Transfer (VDOT), which allows us to replace a single trusted party

Sheng Zhong; Yang Richard Yang

2006-01-01

304

Analysis of Fingerprint Image to Verify a Person  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Identification and authentication technologies are increasing day by day to protect people and goods from crime and terrorism.\\u000a This paper is aimed to discuss fingerprint technology in depth and analysis of fingerprint image. Verify a person with a highlight\\u000a on fingerprint matching. Some fingerprint matching algorithms are analysed and compared. The outcomes of the analysis has\\u000a identified some major issues

Hossein Jahankhani; Maktuba Mohid

2010-01-01

305

Real-Time Projection to Verify Plan Success During Execution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission Data System provides a framework for modeling complex systems in terms of system behaviors and goals that express intent. Complex activity plans can be represented as goal networks that express the coordination of goals on different state variables of the system. Real-time projection extends the ability of this system to verify plan achievability (all goals can be satisfied over the entire plan) into the execution domain so that the system is able to continuously re-verify a plan as it is executed, and as the states of the system change in response to goals and the environment. Previous versions were able to detect and respond to goal violations when they actually occur during execution. This new capability enables the prediction of future goal failures; specifically, goals that were previously found to be achievable but are no longer achievable due to unanticipated faults or environmental conditions. Early detection of such situations enables operators or an autonomous fault response capability to deal with the problem at a point that maximizes the available options. For example, this system has been applied to the problem of managing battery energy on a lunar rover as it is used to explore the Moon. Astronauts drive the rover to waypoints and conduct science observations according to a plan that is scheduled and verified to be achievable with the energy resources available. As the astronauts execute this plan, the system uses this new capability to continuously re-verify the plan as energy is consumed to ensure that the battery will never be depleted below safe levels across the entire plan.

Wagner, David A.; Dvorak, Daniel L.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Knight, Russell L.; Morris, John R.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Ingham, Michel D.

2012-01-01

306

Methods for verifying the accuracy of wind profiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons of radar-measured winds have been made with several types of measurements not only to verify radar data but also to seek a satisfactory comparison method. Three of the comparisons that have been made with Colorado Profiler radars are summarized. Radar measurements were compared with radiosonde measurements. Infrared lidar and 915 MHz radar were compared with radiosondes. A brief radar/radar comparison was made using the 50-MHz radar and a 3-cm wavelength meteorological Doppler radar during precipitation.

Strauch, R. C.

1986-01-01

307

Seismic Imaging and Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-09

308

Statistical classification methods applied to seismic discrimination  

SciTech Connect

To verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), low energy seismic activity must be detected and discriminated. Monitoring small-scale activity will require regional (within {approx}2000 km) monitoring capabilities. This report provides background information on various statistical classification methods and discusses the relevance of each method in the CTBT seismic discrimination setting. Criteria for classification method selection are explained and examples are given to illustrate several key issues. This report describes in more detail the issues and analyses that were initially outlined in a poster presentation at a recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting. Section 2 of this report describes both the CTBT seismic discrimination setting and the general statistical classification approach to this setting. Seismic data examples illustrate the importance of synergistically using multivariate data as well as the difficulties due to missing observations. Classification method selection criteria are presented and discussed in Section 3. These criteria are grouped into the broad classes of simplicity, robustness, applicability, and performance. Section 4 follows with a description of several statistical classification methods: linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, variably regularized discriminant analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, logistic discriminant analysis, K-th Nearest Neighbor discrimination, kernel discrimination, and classification and regression tree discrimination. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized in Section 5.

Ryan, F.M. [ed.; Anderson, D.N.; Anderson, K.K.; Hagedorn, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.

1996-06-11

309

Verified and potential pathogens of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae).  

PubMed

Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and/or as model organisms for the study of predator-prey interactions. Pathogen-free phytoseiid mites are important to obtain high efficacy in biological pest control and to get reliable data in mite research, as pathogens may affect the performance of their host or alter their reproduction and behaviour. Potential and verified pathogens have been reported for phytoseiid mites during the past 25 years. The present review provides an overview, including potential pathogens with unknown host effects (17 reports), endosymbiotic Wolbachia (seven reports), other bacteria (including Cardinium and Spiroplasma) (four reports), cases of unidentified diseases (three reports) and cases of verified pathogens (six reports). From the latter group four reports refer to Microsporidia, one to a fungus and one to a bacterium. Only five entities have been studied in detail, including Wolbachia infecting seven predatory mite species, other endosymbiotic bacteria infecting Metaseiulus (Galendromus, Typhlodromus) occidentalis (Nesbitt), the bacterium Acaricomes phytoseiuli infecting Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the microsporidium Microsporidium phytoseiuli infecting P. persimilis and the microsporidium Oligosproridium occidentalis infecting M. occidentalis. In four cases (Wolbachia, A. phytoseiuli, M. phytoseiuli and O. occidentalis) an infection may be connected with fitness costs of the host. Moreover, infection is not always readily visible as no obvious gross symptoms are present. Monitoring of these entities on a routine and continuous basis should therefore get more attention, especially in commercial mass-production. Special attention should be paid to field-collected mites before introduction into the laboratory or mass rearing, and to mites that are exchanged among rearing facilities. However, at present general pathogen monitoring is not yet practical as effects of many entities are unknown. More research effort is needed concerning verified and potential pathogens of commercially reared arthropods and those used as model organisms in research. PMID:18763041

Schütte, Conny; Dicke, Marcel

2008-12-01

310

Seismic Waves and the Slinky: A Guide For Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teaching guide is designed to introduce the concepts of waves and seismic waves that propagate within the Earth, and to provide ideas and suggestions for how to teach about seismic waves. The guide provides information on the types and properties of seismic waves and instructions for using some simple materials, especially the slinky, to effectively demonstrate seismic wave characteristics and wave propagation. Most of the activities described in the guide are useful both as demonstrations for the teacher and as exploratory activities for students.

Braile, Lawrence

311

Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol  

SciTech Connect

The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

2013-07-01

312

A verified case of recovered memories of sexual abuse.  

PubMed

A case is presented that shows verifiable evidence of repression at work. Rachel, a 40-year-old woman with no history of mental illness and ten years of exemplary professional work, recovers memories of childhood sexual abuse by her father through a call from her youth pastor in whom she had confided as an adolescent. This reminder triggered a severe depression, suicidal action, and the need for hospitalization. Rachel's older sister, herself an abuse victim, had witnessed the abuse, yet Rachel had no memory of the events. No apparent causes of false memories are present, so a different mechanism than forgetting must have been at work. PMID:10415991

Bull, D L

1999-01-01

313

Permeameter data verify new turbulence process for MODFLOW  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sample of Key Largo Limestone from southern Florida exhibited turbulent flow behavior along three orthogonal axes as reported in recently published permeameter experiments. The limestone sample was a cube measuring 0.2 m on edge. The published nonlinear relation between hydraulic gradient and discharge was simulated using the turbulent flow approximation applied in the Conduit Flow Process (CFP) for MODFLOW-2005 mode 2, CFPM2. The good agreement between the experimental data and the simulated results verifies the utility of the approach used to simulate the effects of turbulent flow on head distributions and flux in the CFPM2 module of MODFLOW-2005.

Kuniansky, E. L.; Halford, K. J.; Shoemaker, W. B.

2008-01-01

314

Seismic isolation of an electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

A unique two-stage dynamic-isolation problem is presented by the conflicting design requirements for the foundations of an electron microscope in a seismic region. Under normal operational conditions the microscope must be isolated from ambient ground noise; this creates a system extremely vulnerable to seismic ground motions. Under earthquake loading the internal equipment forces must be limited to prevent damage or collapse. An analysis of the proposed design solution is presented. This study was motivated by the 1.5 MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) to be installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) located near the Hayward Fault in California.

Godden, W.G.; Aslam, M.; Scalise, D.T.

1980-01-01

315

Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

Lee, R. D.

1982-01-01

316

Virtual seismic interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of the virtual reality paradigm to scientific visualization. We describe how the seismic interpretation task performed in oil and gas companies can be facilitated by using immersion techniques inherent to virtual reality. The feeling of immersion allows an easier and better understanding and manipulation of the three-dimensional data associated with seismic interpretation. Volume rendering is

L. A. Lima; R. Bastos

1998-01-01

317

Seismic IPEEE industry insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated a formal review of the seismic margin of all operating nuclear power plants in the US with the issuance in 1991 of Generic Letter 88-20, Supplement 4 (‘Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) for Severe Accident Vulnerabilities’). Virtually all of the US nuclear utilities have submitted their responses for seismic IPEEE and

Robert P. Kassawara; Greg S. Hardy; Wen H. Tong

1999-01-01

318

Borehole seismic unit  

SciTech Connect

Fracture orientation can be measured by using a triaxial geophone package located at the fracture interval within the wellbore. Seismic signals produced by the fracture can be recorded and measured to determine the direction of the fracture. Reported herein is a description of a borehole seismic unit and procedures to accomplish this task.

Seavey, R.W.

1982-05-01

319

Separation method for multi-source blended seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-source seismic technology is an efficient seismic acquisition method that requires a group of blended seismic data to be separated into single-source seismic data for subsequent processing. The separation of blended seismic data is a linear inverse problem. According to the relationship between the shooting number and the simultaneous source number of the acquisition system, this separation of blended seismic data is divided into an easily determined or overdetermined linear inverse problem and an underdetermined linear inverse problem that is difficult to solve. For the latter, this paper presents an optimization method that imposes the sparsity constraint on wavefields to construct the object function of inversion, and the problem is solved by using the iterative thresholding method. For the most extremely underdetermined separation problem with single-shooting and multiple sources, this paper presents a method of pseudo-deblending with random noise filtering. In this method, approximate common shot gathers are received through the pseudo-deblending process, and the random noises that appear when the approximate common shot gathers are sorted into common receiver gathers are eliminated through filtering methods. The separation methods proposed in this paper are applied to three types of numerical simulation data, including pure data without noise, data with random noise, and data with linear regular noise to obtain satisfactory results. The noise suppression effects of these methods are sufficient, particularly with single-shooting blended seismic data, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Wang, Han-Chuang; Chen, Sheng-Chang; Zhang, Bo; She, De-Ping

2013-06-01

320

Long-term study of the seismic environment at LIGO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIGO experiment aims to detect and study gravitational waves using ground-based laser interferometry. A critical factor to the performance of the interferometers, and a major consideration in the design of possible future upgrades, is isolation of the interferometer optics from seismic noise. We present the results of a detailed programme of measurements of the seismic environment surrounding the LIGO

E. J. Daw; J. A. Giaime; D. Lormand; M Lubinski; J. Zweizig

2004-01-01

321

Measurement of the seismic attenuation performance of the VIRGO Superattenuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gravitational wave detector VIRGO aims at extending the detection band down to a few Hertz by isolating the mirrors of the interferometer from seismic noise. This result is achieved by hanging each mirror through an elastic suspension (Superattenuator), designed to filter mechanical vibrations in all the degrees of freedom. An experimental upper limit of the mirror residual seismic noise

S. Braccini; L. Barsotti; C. Bradaschia; G. Cella; A. Di Virgilio; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; I. Fiori; F. Frasconi; A. Gennai; A. Giazotto; F. Paoletti; R. Passaquieti; D. Passuello; R. Poggiani; E. Campagna; G. Guidi; G. Losurdo; F. Martelli; M. Mazzoni; B. Perniola; F. Piergiovanni; R. Stanga; F. Vetrano; A. Viceré; L. Brocco; S. Frasca; E. Majorana; A. Pai; C. Palomba; P. Puppo; P. Rapagnani; F. Ricci; G. Ballardin; R. Barillé; R. Cavalieri; E. Cuoco; V. Dattilo; D. Enard; R. Flaminio; A. Freise; S. Hebri; L. Holloway; P. La Penna; M. Loupias; J. Marque; C. Moins; A. Pasqualetti; P. Ruggi; R. Taddei; Z. Zhang; F. Acernese; S. Avino; F. Barone; E. Calloni; R. De Rosa; L. Di Fiore; A. Eleuteri; L. Giordano; L. Milano; S. Pardi; K. Qipiani; I. Ricciardi; G. Russo; S. Solimeno; D. Babusci; G. Giordano; P. Amico; L. Bosi; L. Gammaitoni; F. Marchesoni; M. Punturo; F. Travasso; H. Vocca; C. Boccara; J. Moreau; V. Loriette; V. Reita; J. M. Mackowski; N. Morgado; L. Pinard; A. Remillieux; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Bizouard; V. Brisson; F. Cavalier; A. C. Clapson; M. Davier; P. Hello; S. Krecklbergh; F. Beauville; D. Buskulic; R. Gouaty; D. Grosjean; F. Marion; A. Masserot; B. Mours; E. Tournefier; D. Tombolato; D. Verkindt; M. Yvert; S. Aoudia; F. Bondu; A. Brillet; E. Chassande-Mottin; F. Cleva; J. P. Coulon; B. Dujardin; J. D. Fournier; H. Heitmann; C. N. Man; A. Spallicci; J. Y. Vinet

2005-01-01

322

A methodology for assessment of nuclear power plant seismic margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPRI's seismic margin methodology enables utility engineers to quantify a nuclear power plant's ability to withstand an earthquake greater than design and still safety shut down for a least 72 hours. This cost-effective, practical methodology used generic screening of systems and component seismic reggedness and does not require probabilistic calculations. The revision adds depth, detail, and more complete procedures to

J. W. Reed; R. P. Kennedy; D. R. Buttemer; I. M. Idriss; D. P. Moore; T. Barr; K. D. Wooten; J. E. Smith

1991-01-01

323

The California Integrated Seismic Network:status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is a consortium of federal, state and academic institutions engaged in earthquake monitoring in California. The CISN represents California as a designated region of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). The CISN is governed by a Steering Committee representing institutions actively involved in earthquake monitoring in California (currently USGS, CDMG, UCB and Caltech) and

2001-01-01

324

A verified minimal YAC contig for human chromosome 21  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is the construction of a verified YAC contig of the complete long arm of human chromosome 21 utilizing YACs from the CEPH and St. Louis libraries. The YACs in this contig have been analyzed for size by PFGE, tested for chimerism by FISH or end-cloning, and verified for STS content by PCR. This last analysis has revealed a number of cases of conflict with the published STS order. To establish correct order, we have utilized STS content analysis of somatic cell hybrids containing portions of chromosome 21. Additional problems being addressed include completeness of coverage and possible deletions or gaps. Questions of completeness of the CEPH 810 YAC set arose after screening with 57 independently derived probes failed to identify clones for 11 (19%). Ten of the 11, however, do detect chromosome 21 cosmids when used to screen Lawrence Livermore library LL21NC02`G,` a cosmid library constructed from flow-sorted chromosomes 21. Remaining gaps in the contig are being closed by several methods. These include YAC fingerprinting and conversion of YACs to cosmids. In addition, we are establishing the overlap between the physical NotI map and the YAC contig by testing YACs for NotI sites and screening the YACs in the contig for the presence of NotI-linking clones.

Graw, S.L.; Patterson, D.; Drabkin, H. [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

325

Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes attributable to human activities--``induced seismic events''--have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

Hitzman, Murray

2013-03-01

326

Moving formal methods into practice. Verifying the FTPP Scoreboard: Results, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the Phase 1 results of an effort aimed at formally verifying a key hardware component, called Scoreboard, of a Fault-Tolerant Parallel Processor (FTPP) being built at Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL). The Scoreboard is part of the FTPP virtual bus that guarantees reliable communication between processors in the presence of Byzantine faults in the system. The Scoreboard implements a piece of control logic that approves and validates a message before it can be transmitted. The goal of Phase 1 was to lay the foundation of the Scoreboard verification. A formal specification of the functional requirements and a high-level hardware design for the Scoreboard were developed. The hardware design was based on a preliminary Scoreboard design developed at CSDL. A main correctness theorem, from which the functional requirements can be established as corollaries, was proved for the Scoreboard design. The goal of Phase 2 is to verify the final detailed design of Scoreboard. This task is being conducted as part of a NASA-sponsored effort to explore integration of formal methods in the development cycle of current fault-tolerant architectures being built in the aerospace industry.

Srivas, Mandayam; Bickford, Mark

1992-01-01

327

K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and an area from 23.00° to 39.00°N and 59.00° to 80.00°E. A threshold magnitude of 5.2 is considered for K-means cluster analysis. The current study uses the traditional metrics of cluster quality, in addition to a seismic hazard contextual metric to attempt to constrain the preferred number of clusters found in the data. The spatial distribution of earthquakes from the catalogue was used to define the seismic clusters for Pakistan, which can be used further in the process of defining seismogenic sources and corresponding earthquake recurrence models for estimates of seismic hazard and risk in Pakistan. Consideration of the different approaches to cluster validation in a seismic hazard context suggests that Pakistan may be divided into K = 19 seismic clusters, including some portions of the neighbouring countries of Afghanistan, Tajikistan and India.

Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

2014-07-01

328

Practical model-checking method for verifying correctness of MPI programs.  

SciTech Connect

Formal program verification often requires creating a model of the program and running it through a model-checking tool. However, this model-creation step is itself error prone, tedious, and difficult for someone not familiar with formal verification. In this paper, we describe a tool for verifying correctness of MPI programs that does not require the creation of a model and instead works directly on the MPI program. Our tool uses the MPI profiling interface, PMPI, to trap MPI calls and hand over control of the MPI function execution to a scheduler. The scheduler verifies correctness of the program by executing all 'relevant' interleavings of the program. The scheduler records an initial trace and replays its interleaving variants by using dynamic partial-order reduction. We describe the design and implementation of the tool and compare it with our previous work based on model checking.

Pervez, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Kirby, R. M.; Palmer, R.; Thakur, R.; Gropp, W.; Univ. of Utah

2007-01-01

329

Seismic performance of steel special moment resisting frames with different span arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Span arrangement is a crucial parameter from the designer's perspective, since it directly affects the seismic performance and economy of design. However, previous studies have not paid sufficient attention to the evaluation of its effects. Thus three 10-story steel special moment resisting frames with different span arrangements are designed according to the procedures of Turkish seismic design codes which are

Devrim Özhendekci; Nuri Özhendekci

330

Architecture and critical technologies of seismic information system in CTBT verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic monitoring is one of the most important approaches for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring. In order to improve\\u000a the monitoring capability for low magnitude seismic events, a seismic information system was developed by using the technologies\\u000a of geographic information system and database. This paper describes the designing and critical technologies of the Seismic\\u000a Information System in CTBT Verification developed based

Xue-Feng Zheng; Jun-Yi Shen; Ping Jin; Jiang-Ling Zheng; Peng Sun; Hui-Min Zhang; Tong-Dong Wang

2006-01-01

331

Verifiable quantum ( k, n)-threshold secret sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a conventional quantum ( k, n) threshold scheme, a trusted party shares a quantum secret with n agents such that any k or more agents can cooperate to recover the original secret, while fewer than k agents obtain no information about the secret. Is the reconstructed quantum secret same with the original one? Or is the dishonest agent willing to provide a true share during the secret reconstruction? In this paper we reexamine the security of quantum ( k, n) threshold schemes and show how to construct a verifiable quantum ( k, n) threshold scheme by combining a qubit authentication process. The novelty of ours is that it can provide a mechanism for checking whether the reconstructed quantum secret is same with the original one. This mechanism can also attain the goal of checking whether the dishonest agent provides a false quantum share during the secret reconstruction such that the secret quantum state cannot be recovered correctly.

Yang, Yu-Guang; Jia, Xin; Wang, Hong-Yang; Zhang, Hua

2012-12-01

332

Analysis of Fingerprint Image to Verify a Person  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification and authentication technologies are increasing day by day to protect people and goods from crime and terrorism. This paper is aimed to discuss fingerprint technology in depth and analysis of fingerprint image. Verify a person with a highlight on fingerprint matching. Some fingerprint matching algorithms are analysed and compared. The outcomes of the analysis has identified some major issues or factors of fingerprinting, which are location, rotation, clipping, noise, non-linear distortion sensitiveness/ insensitiveness properties, computational cost and accuracy level of fingerprint matching algorithms. Also a new fingerprint matching algorithm proposed in this research work. The proposed algorithm has used Euclidean distance, angle difference, type as matching parameters instead of specific location parameter (like, x or y coordinates), which makes the algorithm location and rotation insensitive. The matching of local neighbourhoods at each stage makes the algorithm non-linear distortion insensitive.

Jahankhani, Hossein; Mohid, Maktuba

333

Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

2009-01-01

334

Interferometric\\/daylight seismic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claerbout's daylight imaging concept is generalized to a theory of interferometric seismic imaging (II). Interferometric seismic imaging is defined to be any algorithm that inverts correlated seismic data for the reflectivity or source distribution. As examples, we show that II can image reflectivity distributions by migrating ghost reflections in passive seismic data and generalizes the receiver-function imaging method used by

G. T. Schuster; J. Yu; J. Sheng; J. Rickett

2004-01-01

335

Seismic exploration fundamentals. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This book includes discussions of the new techniques in seismic exploration including vertical seismic profiles, shear wave exploration, seismic stratigraphy and interactive interpretation. The book is not about theory, but describes the techniques actually used in seismic exploration, from program planning to recommendations for drilling. Figures are used to illustrate various points throughout the book, and photographs of equipment and field work are included.

Coffeen, J.A.

1986-01-01

336

Towards data fusion in seismic monitoring: Source characterization of mining blasts with acoustic and seismic records  

SciTech Connect

Event identification that combines data from a diverse range of sensor types, such as seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, optical, or acoustic sensors, has been discussed recently as a way to improve treaty monitoring technology, especially for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. In this exploratory study the authors compare features in acoustic and seismic data from ripple-fired mining blasts, in an effort to understand the issues of incorporating data fusion into seismic monitoring. They study the possibility of identifying features such as spectral scalloping at high frequencies using acoustic signals recorded in the near field during mining blasts. Recorded acoustic and seismic data from two mining blasts at Carlin, Nevada, were analyzed. The authors have found that there is a clear presence of the periodic and impulsive nature of the ripple-fire source present in the acoustic recordings at high frequencies. They have discovered that the arrival time and duration of the acoustic recordings are also clearly discernible at high frequencies. This is in contrast to the absence of these features in seismic signals, due to attenuation and scattering at high frequencies. The association of signals from different sensors offers solutions for difficult monitoring problems. Seismic or acoustic signals individually may not be able to detect a nuclear test hidden under a typical mining blast. However, the presence of an underground nuclear test during a mining event could be determined by deriving the mining explosion source from the acoustic recording, modeling a seismic signal from the derived source, and subtracting the modeled seismic signal from the seismic recording for the event. Recommendations in the design of data fusion systems for treaty monitoring are suggested.

Leach, R.R. Jr.; Dowla, F.U.

1995-07-01

337

Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis.

Chen, W. P.; Onesto, A. T.; DeVita, V.

1987-02-01

338

Seismic Wave Propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seismic wave is a mechanical disturbance or energy packet that can propagate from point to point in the Earth. Seismic waves can be generated by a sudden release of energy such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or chemical explosion. There are several types of seismic waves, often classified as body waves, which propagate through the volume of the Earth, and surface waves, which travel along the surface of the Earth. Compressional and shear waves are the two main types of body wave and Rayleigh and Love waves are the most common forms of surface wave.

Wu, Xianyun; Wu, Ru-Shan

339

Induced Seismicity Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by attorney and author Darlene Cypser, contains a bibliography of references dealing with induced seismicity; that is, earthquakes caused by human activities such as mining, nuclear testing or petroleum production. The homepage contains an author's note explaining that most induced seismicity is not damaging, and provides a list of the bibliography's categories. The categories are arranged by source of induced seismicity (e.g., oil and gas, nuclear testing, etc.). Additional sections, such as one on legal implications of induced earthquakes, and another comprised of magazine and newspaper citations, are also included.

340

Seismic isolation analysis of FPS bearings in spatial lattice shell structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model of a friction pendulum system (FPS) is introduced to examine its application for the seismic isolation of spatial lattice shell structures. An equation of motion of the lattice shell with FPS bearings is developed. Then, seismic isolation studies are performed for both double-layer and single-layer lattice shell structures under different seismic input and design parameters of the FPS. The influence of frictional coefficients and radius of the FPS on seismic performance are discussed. Based on the study, some suggestions for seismic isolation design of lattice shells with FPS bearings are given and conclusions are made which could be helpful in the application of FPS.

Yong-Chul, Kim; Xue, Suduo; Zhuang, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Li, Chenghao

2010-03-01

341

SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION  

SciTech Connect

In this report we will show some new Q related seismic attributes on the Burlington-Seitel data set. One example will be called Energy Absorption Attribute (EAA) and is based on a spectral analysis. The EAA algorithm is designed to detect a sudden increase in the rate of exponential decay in the relatively higher frequency portion of the spectrum. In addition we will show results from a hybrid attribute that combines attenuation with relative acoustic impedance to give a better indication of commercial gas saturation.

Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

2003-04-01

342

Realities of verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants  

SciTech Connect

Over a two and one-half year period beginning in 1981, representatives of six countries (United States, United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, Australia, The Netherlands, and Japan) and the inspectorate organizations of the International Atomic Energy Agency and EURATOM developed and agreed to a technically sound approach for verifying the absence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This effort, known as the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), led to the first international concensus on techniques and requirements for effective verification of the absence of weapons-grade nuclear materials production. Since that agreement, research and development has continued on the radiation detection technology-based technique that technically confirms the HSP goal is achievable. However, the realities of achieving the HSP goal of effective technical verification have not yet been fully attained. Issues such as design and operating conditions unique to each gas centrifuge plant, concern about the potential for sensitive technology disclosures, and on-site support requirements have hindered full implementation and operator support of the HSP agreement. In future arms control treaties that may limit or monitor fissile material production, the negotiators must recognize and account for the realities and practicalities in verifying the absence of HEU production. This paper will describe the experiences and realities of trying to achieve the goal of developing and implementing an effective approach for verifying the absence of HEU production. 3 figs.

Swindle, D.W.

1990-03-01

343

A Simple Declustering Method for Seismicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thirumalai-Mountain (TM) metric was initially designed to access effective ergodicity in fluids and glasses, where a large but finite time interval is considered. Tiampo et al. (2007) employed this metric to earthquake systems by dividing the region of interest into boxes and considering the number of events in each box as a proxy for the released seismic energy. In

N. Cho; K. F. Tiampo; W. Klein

2009-01-01

344

Shaking table testing of geofoam seismic buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the experimental design and results of tests used to investigate the use of compressible EPS (geofoam) seismic buffers to attenuate dynamic loads against rigid retaining wall structures. The tests were carried out using 1-m-high models mounted on a large shaking table. Three different geofoam buffer materials retaining a sand soil were tested under idealized dynamic loading conditions.

Richard J. Bathurst; Saman Zarnani; Andrew Gaskin

2007-01-01

345

Experimental Techniques Verified for Determining Yield and Flow Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural components in aircraft engines are subjected to multiaxial loads when in service. For such components, life prediction methodologies are dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive models that determine the elastic and inelastic portions of a loading cycle. A threshold surface (such as a yield surface) is customarily used to differentiate between reversible and irreversible flow. For elastoplastic materials, a yield surface can be used to delimit the elastic region in a given stress space. The concept of a yield surface is central to the mathematical formulation of a classical plasticity theory, but at elevated temperatures, material response can be highly time dependent. Thus, viscoplastic theories have been developed to account for this time dependency. Since the key to many of these theories is experimental validation, the objective of this work (refs. 1 and 2) at the NASA Lewis Research Center was to verify that current laboratory techniques and equipment are sufficient to determine flow surfaces at elevated temperatures. By probing many times in the axial-torsional stress space, we could define the yield and flow surfaces. A small offset definition of yield (10 me) was used to delineate the boundary between reversible and irreversible behavior so that the material state remained essentially unchanged and multiple probes could be done on the same specimen. The strain was measured with an off-the-shelf multiaxial extensometer that could measure the axial and torsional strains over a wide range of temperatures. The accuracy and resolution of this extensometer was verified by comparing its data with strain gauge data at room temperature. The extensometer was found to have sufficient resolution for these experiments. In addition, the amount of crosstalk (i.e., the accumulation of apparent strain in one direction when strain in the other direction is applied) was found to be negligible. Tubular specimens were induction heated to determine the flow surfaces at elevated temperatures. The heating system induced a large amount of noise in the data. By reducing thermal fluctuations and using appropriate data averaging schemes, we could render the noise inconsequential. Thus, accurate and reproducible flow surfaces (see the figure) could be obtained.

Lerch, Brad A.; Ellis, Rod; Lissenden, Cliff J.

1998-01-01

346

Advisability of Seismic Scram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study assesses the value of seismic trip (scram) systems on commercial nuclear power plants. Five topics were specifically addressed: (1) the likelihood that existing instrumentation would trip the plant; (2) the consequences of spurious trips; (3) th...

G. E. Cummings J. E. Wells H. E. Lambert G. S. Leger-Barter

1976-01-01

347

AUTOMATING SHALLOW SEISMIC IMAGING  

SciTech Connect

The current project is a continuation of an effort to develop ultrashallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method potentially applicable to DOE facilities. The objective of the present research is to develop and demonstrate the use of a cost-effective, automated method of conducting shallow seismic surveys, an approach that represents a significant departure from conventional seismic-survey field procedures. Initial testing of a mechanical geophone-planting device suggests that large numbers of geophones can be placed both quickly and automatically. The development of such a device could make the application of SSR considerably more efficient and less expensive. The imaging results obtained using automated seismic methods will be compared with results obtained using classical seismic techniques. Although this research falls primarily into the field of seismology, for comparison and quality-control purposes, some GPR data will be collected as well. In the final year of th e research, demonstration surveys at one or more DOE facilities will be performed. An automated geophone-planting device of the type under development would not necessarily be limited to the use of shallow seismic reflection methods; it also would be capable of collecting data for seismic-refraction and possibly for surface-wave studies. Another element of our research plan involves monitoring the cone of depression of a pumping well that is being used as a proxy site for fluid-flow at a contaminated site. Our next data set will be collected at a well site where drawdown equilibrium has been reached. Noninvasive, in-situ methods such as placing geophones automatically and using near-surface seismic methods to identify and characterize the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies for DOE and others.

Steeples, Don W.

2003-09-14

348

Shallow Seismic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter covers the fundamentals of near-surface seismic techniques, including refraction, reflection, borehole, and surface-wave\\u000a methods. Typical seismic applications to hydrogeology include examining sedimentology and stratigraphy, detecting geologic\\u000a faults, evaluating karst conditions, and mapping the top of bedrock and the base of landslides. Other less common but promising\\u000a applications include mapping hydrogeological features, assessing hydrological characteristics, measuring the depth to

DON W. STEEPLES

349

Climate-Seismicity Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topic of the slow climate changes is rather popular at present. Two important problems are usually discussing in connection with the climate variability: several years quasi-periodicity (El Nino/La Nino effect) and long-term trend in the global temperature (global warming or cooling). Concerning forcing agent on the climate changes several hypotheses have been suggested including changes in solar luminosity, variations in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, cosmic rays, volcanic eruption activity and so on but the most accepted cause is the change in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations due to human activity. We have tried to find a correlation between slow climate changes using variation in sstoi indices (sea surface temperature anomalies in the 3 selected areas of near-equatorial Pacific Ocean, 160E-90W) and seismic activity using USGS catalog on crustal earthquakes (EQs) in about the same areas. We calculate the values that are proportional to seismic energy release as indices of seismic activity and compare the variation of half-year sstoi and seimic indicies during period of 1973-2008. Autocorrelation of both indices smoothed by 1-year window shows the same behavior in the all selected regions with averaged 4.5 year periodicity while the cross-correlation of the indices envisages 1.5-2 years time delay of sstoi indices in relation to seismic indices. Such the mother-daughter delay is checked by comparison of deep and crustal seismic activity using technique that described in the paper [1]. Furthermore there is clear similarity in the trends of sstoi and seismic indices. We conclude that slow climate variations are probably induced by changes in natural seismicity. Energetic estimations of the climate-seismicity coupling are also discussed. [1] O.A. Mochanov and S. Uyeda, Upward migration of earthquake hypocenters in Japan, Kurile-Kamchatka and Sunda subduction zones, Physics and Chemistry, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.pce.2008.09.011.

Molchanov, O.

2009-04-01

350

Tunable marine seismic source  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed device is a marine seismic source which emits a constantly varying FM signal in the 10 to 100 H /SUB z/ range. The seismic source utilizes an adjustable length cantilever spring rotatably attached to stiff acoustic radiators, which create a signal in the water. Varying the length of the cantilever spring as a function of the frequency will permit the device to be continuously tuned for maximum power output.

Mifsud, J. F.

1985-12-10

351

Reflection seismic waveform tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seismic waveform tomography, if using reflection data with limited source-receiver offsets, it is difficult to reconstruct the deep part of the subsurface velocity model. We present two approaches to tackle this problem: layer stripping and weighted updating. In a layer-stripping procedure, we replace the top portion of seismic data with synthetics generated from the previous-layer inversion and make the

Yanghua Wang; Ying Rao

2009-01-01

352

Building a Laboratory-Scale Biogas Plant and Verifying its Functionality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the process of building a laboratory-scale biogas plant and verifying its functionality. The laboratory-scale prototype was constructed in the Department of Safety and Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, of the Slovak University of Technology. The Department has already built a solar laboratory to promote and utilise solar energy, and designed SETUR hydro engine. The laboratory is the next step in the Department's activities in the field of renewable energy sources and biomass. The Department is also involved in the European Union project, where the goal is to upgrade all existed renewable energy sources used in the Department.

Boleman, Tomáš; Fiala, Jozef; Blinová, Lenka; Gerulová, Kristína

2011-01-01

353

WiggleView : Visualizing Large Seismic Datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wiggleview is a tool for visualizing seismic data collected from a worldwide network of seismometers. The visualization consists of overlaying familiar 2D seismic traces recorded for the N-S, E-W and vertical components of the earth's displacement over the topographic map of the affected area. In addition, a 3D particle trace consisting of the integration of these 3 components provides a depiction of how an object placed at a particular seismic recording station would shake at the instant of the event. Data for the seismic events is obtained from repositories maintained by IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) at the Data Management Center, Seattle Washington. Suppose a seismologist wants to examine data gathered when an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale hit Turkey on October 31,1998. Wiggleview displays data at 20 stations for this event. The tool's strength lies in being able to depict as many as 60 channels of waveforms and 20 traces of particle motion on a single display. This allows one to watch the seismic wave field expand about a source and see how it differs from place to place. It can also assist in understanding surface wave multipathing and anisotropy -- this is important for revealing structure and for seismic hazard estimation. Wiggleview was designed for two display platforms: the standard PC-based desktop or laptop with a modern-day game graphics card; and a stereoscopic projection system called the Geowall. The stereoscopic nature of the images enhances depth perception and thus allows better understanding of attenuation due to distance and earth structure, source directivity and seismic hazard estimation. Illustrations are available at the Wiggleview website http://www.evl.uic.edu/atul/wiggleview

Nayak, A. M.; Leigh, J.; Johnson, A.; Russo, R.; Morin, P.; Laughbon, C.; Ahern, T.

2002-12-01

354

Advanced fiber optic seismic sensors (geophone) research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematical research on the fiber optic seismic sensors based on optical Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology is presented in this thesis. Optical fiber sensors using fiber Bragg gratings have a number of advantages such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, lightweight, low power consumption. The FBG sensor is intrinsically sensitive to dynamic strain signals and the strain sensitivity can approach sub micro-strain. Furthermore, FBG sensors are inherently suited for multiplexing, which makes possible networked/arrayed deployment on a large scale. The basic principle of the FBG geophone is that it transforms the acceleration of ground motion into the strain signal of the FBG sensor through mechanical design, and after the optical demodulation generates the analog voltage output proportional to the strain changes. The customized eight-channel FBG seismic sensor prototype is described here which consists of FBG sensor/demodulation grating pairs attached on the spring-mass mechanical system. The sensor performance is evaluated systematically in the laboratory using the conventional accelerometer and geophone as the benchmark, Two major applications of FBG seismic sensor are demonstrated. One is in the battlefield remote monitoring system to detect the presence of personnel, wheeled vehicles, and tracked vehicles. The other application is in the seismic reflection survey of oilfield exploration to collect the seismic waves from the earth. The field tests were carried out in the air force base and the oilfield respectively. It is shown that the FBG geophone has higher frequency response bandwidth and sensitivity than conventional moving-coil electromagnetic geophone and the military Rembass-II S/A sensor. Our objective is to develop a distributed FBG seismic sensor network to recognize and locate the presence of seismic sources with high inherent detection capability and a low false alarm rate in an integrated system.

Zhang, Yan

355

Verifying operator fitness - an imperative not an option  

SciTech Connect

In the early morning hours of April 26, 1986, whatever credence those who operate nuclear power plants around the world could then muster, suffered a jarring reversal. Through an incredible series of personal errors, the operators at what was later to be termed one of the best operated plants in the USSR systematically stripped away the physical and procedural safeguards inherent to their installation and precipitated the worst reactor accident the world has yet seen. This challenge to the adequacy of nuclear operators comes at a time when many companies throughout the world - not only those that involve nuclear power - are grappling with the problem of how to assure the fitness for duty of those in their employ, specifically those users of substances that have an impact on the ability to function safely and productively in the workplace. In actuality, operator fitness for duty is far more than the lack of impairment from substance abuse, which many today consider it. Full fitness for duty implies mental and moral fitness, as well, and physical fitness in a more general sense. If we are to earn the confidence of the public, credible ways to verify total fitness on an operator-by-operator basis must be considered.

Scott, A.B. Jr.

1987-01-01

356

Garbage collection can be made real-time and verifiable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient means of memory reclamation (also known as Garbage Collection) is essential for Machine Intelligence applications where dynamic storage allocation is desired or required. Solutions for real-time systems must introduce very small processing overhead and must also provide for the verification of the software in order to meet the application time budgets and to verify the correctness of the software. Garbage Collection (GC) techniques are proposed for symbolic processing systems which may simultaneously meet both real-time requirements and verification requirements. The proposed memory reclamation technique takes advantage of the strong points of both the earlier Mark and Sweep technique and the more recent Copy Collection approaches. At least one practical implementation of these new GC techniques has already been developed and tested on a very-high performance symbolic computing system. Complete GC processing of all generated garbage has been demonstrated to require as little as a few milliseconds to perform. This speed enables the effective operation of the GC function as either a background task or as an actual part of the application task itself.

Hino, James H.; Ross, Charles L.

1988-01-01

357

Verifying and Validating Proposed Models for FSW Process Optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and the attempts to model the process in order to optimize and improve the process. The studies are ongoing to validate and refine the model of metal flow in the FSW process. There are slides showing the conventional FSW process, a couple of weld tool designs and how the design interacts with the metal flow path. The two basic components of the weld tool are shown, along with geometries of the shoulder design. Modeling of the FSW process is reviewed. Other topics include (1) Microstructure features, (2) Flow Streamlines, (3) Steady-state Nature, and (4) Grain Refinement Mechanisms

Schneider, Judith

2008-01-01

358

Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)  

SciTech Connect

Cultural development of new subpolar areas of Russia is associated with a need for detailed seismic research, including both mapping of regional seismicity and seismic monitoring of specific mining enterprises. Of special interest are the northern territories of European Russia, including shelves of the Kara and Barents Seas, Yamal Peninsula, and the Timan-Pechora region. Continuous seismic studies of these territories are important now because there is insufficient seismological knowledge of the area and an absence of systematic data on the seismicity of the region. Another task of current interest is the necessity to consider the seismic environment in the design, construction, and operation of natural gas extracting enterprises such as the construction of the North European Gas Pipeline. Issues of scientific importance for seismic studies in the region are the complex geodynamical setting, the presence of permafrost, and the complex tectonic structure. In particular, the Uralian Orogene (Fig. 1) strongly affects the propagation of seismic waves. The existing subpolar seismic stations [APA (67,57{sup o}N; 33,40{sup o}E), LVZ (67,90{sup o}N; 34,65{sup o}E), and NRIL (69,50{sup o}N; 88,40{sup o}E)] do not cover the extensive area between the Pechora and Ob Rivers (Fig. 1). Thus seismic observations in the Vorkuta area, which lies within the area of concern, represent a special interest. Continuous recording at a seismic station near the city of Vorkuta (67,50{sup o}N; 64,11{sup o}E) [1] has been conducted since 2005 for the purpose of regional seismic monitoring and, more specifically, detection of seismic signals caused by local mining enterprises. Current surveys of local seismic noise [7,8,9,11], are particularly aimed at a technical survey for the suitability of the site for installation of a small-aperture seismic array, which would include 10-12 recording instruments, with the Vorkuta seismic station as the central element. When constructed, this seismic array will considerably improve the recording capacity of regional and local seismic events. It will allow detection of signatures of seismic waves propagating in submeridional and sublatitudinal directions. The latter is of special interest not only to access the influence of the Urals on propagation patterns of seismic waves, but also to address other questions, such as the structure and dynamic characteristics of the internal dynamo of the Earth [9,13]. Recording seismic waves at low angular distances from seismically active subpolar zones will allow us to collect data on vortical and convective movements in subpolar lithosphere blocks and at the boundary of the inner core of the Earth, possibly giving essential clues to the modeling of the Earth's electromagnetic field [3,13]. The present study considers basic features of seismic noise at the Vorkuta station obtained through the analysis of seismic records from March, 2006 till December, 2007.

Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

2008-05-15

359

Seismic Consequence Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

M. Gross

2004-10-25

360

Seismic exploration for water on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed to soft-land three seismometers in the Utopia-Elysium region and three or more radio controlled explosive charges at nearby sites that can be accurately located by an orbiter. Seismic signatures of timed explosions, to be telemetered to the orbiter, will be used to detect present surface layers, including those saturated by volatiles such as water and/or ice. The Viking Landers included seismometers that showed that at present Mars is seismically quiet, and that the mean crustal thickness at the site is about 14 to 18 km. The new seismic landers must be designed to minimize wind vibration noise, and the landing sites selected so that each is well formed on the regolith, not on rock outcrops or in craters. The explosive charges might be mounted on penetrators aimed at nearby smooth areas. They must be equipped with radio emitters for accurate location and radio receivers for timed detonation.

Page, Thornton

1987-01-01

361

SEISMIC MODELING ENGINES PHASE 1 FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Seismic modeling is a core component of petroleum exploration and production today. Potential applications include modeling the influence of dip on anisotropic migration; source/receiver placement in deviated-well three-dimensional surveys for vertical seismic profiling (VSP); and the generation of realistic data sets for testing contractor-supplied migration algorithms or for interpreting AVO (amplitude variation with offset) responses. This project was designed to extend the use of a finite-difference modeling package, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, to the advanced applications needed by industry. The approach included a realistic, easy-to-use 2-D modeling package for the desktop of the practicing geophysicist. The feasibility of providing a wide-ranging set of seismic modeling engines was fully demonstrated in Phase I. The technical focus was on adding variable gridding in both the horizontal and vertical directions, incorporating attenuation, improving absorbing boundary conditions and adding the optional coefficient finite difference methods.

BRUCE P. MARION

2006-02-09

362

Tornado Detection Based on Seismic Signal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time the only generally accepted method for detecting when a tornado is on the ground is human observation. Based on theoretical considerations combined with eyewitness testimony, there is strong reason to believe that a tornado in contact with the ground transfers a significant amount of energy into the ground. The amount of energy transferred depends upon the intensity of the tornado and the characteristics of the surface. Some portion of this energy takes the form of seismic waves, both body and surface waves. Surface waves (Rayleigh and possibly Love) represent the most likely type of seismic signal to be detected. Based on the existence of such a signal, a seismic tornado detector appears conceptually possible. The major concerns for designing such a detector are range of detection and discrimination between the tornadic signal and other types of surface waves generated by ground transportation equipment, high winds, or other nontornadic sources.

Tatom, Frank B.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Vitton, Stanley J.

1995-02-01

363

Seismic bearing capacity and settlements of foundations  

SciTech Connect

Field and laboratory observations of seismic settlements of shallow foundations on granular soils that are not attributable to changes in density or liquefaction are explained in terms of seismic degradation of bearing capacity. Limit analysis using a Coulomb-type mechanism including inertial forces in the soil and on the footing gives expressions for seismic bearing capacity factors that are directly related to their static counterparts. Comparison of the two depicts clearly the rapid deterioration of the overall foundation capacity with increasing acceleration. Such periodic inertial fluidization causes finite settlements that are possible even in moderate earthquakes. Reduction in foundation capacity is due to both the seismic degradation of soil strength and the lateral inertial forces transmitted by shear to the foundation through the structure and any surcharge. A straightforward sliding-block procedure with examples is also presented for computing these settlements due to loss of bearing capacity for short time periods. The approach also leads to a design procedure for footings based on limiting seismic settlements to a prescribed value.

Richards, R. Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States)); Elms, D.G. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)); Budhu, M. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1993-04-01

364

Dense Seismic Recordings at Hengill Geothermal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temporary array composed of 21 seismic stations was deployed in the Hengill geothermal field in SW Iceland during the months of July and August 2005. The Hengill experiment was designed to closely monitor seismic activity related to cold water injection in two nearby wells (HE-8 and HE-16) within the geothermal area. Nineteen of the seismic stations installed were L-28 4.5-Hz sensors while the remaining two were Guralp CMG-40T broadband seismometers. The seismic array recorded an average of approximately 7 events (microearthquakes) per day at a sampling rate of 500 samples per second. The high sampling rate is critical for shear-wave splitting analysis, which requires accurate measurements of fast shear-wave polarization directions and time delays between the arrivals of the fast and the slow shear-wave. Based on the high-resolution seismic data produced, it is possible to track temporal as well as raypath-dependent variations in polarizations and time delays. Such changes are used to model the response of the geothermal reservoir (in terms of fracture geometry and fracture density) to cold water injection activities. More specifically, we are interested in studying the response of subsurface cracks to fluid pressure changes as injection is started, halted, and then resumed again.

Elkibbi, M.; Lees, J. M.; Rial, J.; Tang, C.; Thordarson, S.

2005-12-01

365

Seismicity in Northern Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR in October 2012. The instrumental analysis like the determination of hypocenters, magnitudes and fault plane solutions whenever possible, is supplemented by macroseismic investigations based on reports by the public.

Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

2013-04-01

366

Software for Verifying Image-Correlation Tie Points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program enables assessment of the quality of tie points in the image-correlation processes of the software described in the immediately preceding article. Tie points are computed in mappings between corresponding pixels in the left and right images of a stereoscopic pair. The mappings are sometimes not perfect because image data can be noisy and parallax can cause some points to appear in one image but not the other. The present computer program relies on the availability of a left- right correlation map in addition to the usual right left correlation map. The additional map must be generated, which doubles the processing time. Such increased time can now be afforded in the data-processing pipeline, since the time for map generation is now reduced from about 60 to 3 minutes by the parallelization discussed in the previous article. Parallel cluster processing time, therefore, enabled this better science result. The first mapping is typically from a point (denoted by coordinates x,y) in the left image to a point (x',y') in the right image. The second mapping is from (x',y') in the right image to some point (x",y") in the left image. If (x,y) and(x",y") are identical, then the mapping is considered perfect. The perfect-match criterion can be relaxed by introducing an error window that admits of round-off error and a small amount of noise. The mapping procedure can be repeated until all points in each image not connected to points in the other image are eliminated, so that what remains are verified correlation data.

Klimeck, Gerhard; Yagi, Gary

2008-01-01

367

Verifying and Postprocesing the Ensemble Spread-Error Relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increased utilization of ensemble forecasts in weather and hydrologic applications, there is a need to verify their benefit over less expensive deterministic forecasts. One such potential benefit of ensemble systems is their capacity to forecast their own forecast error through the ensemble spread-error relationship. The paper begins by revisiting the limitations of the Pearson correlation alone in assessing this relationship. Next, we introduce two new metrics to consider in assessing the utility an ensemble's varying dispersion. We argue there are two aspects of an ensemble's dispersion that should be assessed. First, and perhaps more fundamentally: is there enough variability in the ensembles dispersion to justify the maintenance of an expensive ensemble prediction system (EPS), irrespective of whether the EPS is well-calibrated or not? To diagnose this, the factor that controls the theoretical upper limit of the spread-error correlation can be useful. Secondly, does the variable dispersion of an ensemble relate to variable expectation of forecast error? Representing the spread-error correlation in relation to its theoretical limit can provide a simple diagnostic of this attribute. A context for these concepts is provided by assessing two operational ensembles: 30-member Western US temperature forecasts for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command and 51-member Brahmaputra River flow forecasts of the Climate Forecast and Applications Project for Bangladesh. Both of these systems utilize a postprocessing technique based on quantile regression (QR) under a step-wise forward selection framework leading to ensemble forecasts with both good reliability and sharpness. In addition, the methodology utilizes the ensemble's ability to self-diagnose forecast instability to produce calibrated forecasts with informative skill-spread relationships. We will describe both ensemble systems briefly, review the steps used to calibrate the ensemble forecast, and present verification statistics using error-spread metrics, along with figures from operational ensemble forecasts before and after calibration.

Hopson, Tom; Knievel, Jason; Liu, Yubao; Roux, Gregory; Wu, Wanli

2013-04-01

368

LLNL`s regional seismic discrimination research  

SciTech Connect

The ability to negotiate and verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve our understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report we discuss our preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize two regions, the Korean Peninsula and the Middle East-North Africa. We show that the remarkable stability of coda allows us to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. We then discuss our progress to date on evaluating and improving our physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. We apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. We find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally we discuss our development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P. [and others

1995-07-01

369

Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1995-10-01

370

Numerical simulation on seismic retrofitting performance of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with fibre reinforced polymer sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the seismic performance of reinforced concrete columns retrofitted with fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets through numerical simulations of the load–deformation response using two-dimensional finite element analysis (2D-FEA). The relatively rational mesh configuration is verified through comparison of analysis results obtained from the different mesh configurations. The seismic performance of three reinforced concrete (RC) columns strengthened with FRP

Zhishen Wu; Dachang Zhang; Vistasp M. Karbhari

2010-01-01

371

Enhancing Seismic Monitoring Capability for Hydraulic Fracturing Induced Seismicity in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of natural gas produced from unconventional sources, such as the shale gas, has increased dramatically since the last decade. One of the key factors in the success of shale gas production is the application of hydraulic fracturing (also known as "fracking") to facilitate the efficient recovery of natural gas from shale matrices. As the fracking operation becomes routine in all major shale gas fields, its potential to induce local earthquakes at some locations has become a public concern. To address this concern, Natural Resources Canada has initiated a research effort to investigate the potential links between fracking operations and induced seismicity in some major shale gas basins of Canada. This federal-provincial collaborative research aims to assess if shale gas fracking can alter regional pattern of background seismicity and if so, what the relationship between how fracking is conducted and the maximum magnitude of induced seismicity would be. Other objectives include the investigation of the time scale of the interaction between fracking events and induced seismicity and the evaluation of induced seismicity potential for shale gas basins under different tectonic/geological conditions. The first phase of this research is to enhance the detection and monitoring capability for seismicity possibly related to shale gas recovery in Canada. Densification of the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN) is currently underway in northeast British Columbia where fracking operations are taking place. Additional seismic stations are planned for major shale gas basins in other regions where fracking might be likely in the future. All newly established CNSN stations are equipped with broadband seismographs with real-time continuous data transmission. The design goal of the enhanced seismic network is to significantly lower the detection threshold such that the anticipated low-magnitude earthquakes that might be related to fracking operations can be identified and located shortly after their occurrence.

Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.; Farahbod, A.; Lamontagne, M.

2012-12-01

372

Seismicity and strain accumulation around Karliova Triple Junction (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS studies in Turkey date back to the early 1990s, but were mostly focused on the seismically active North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS), or on the more populated Western Anatolia. Relatively few studies were made of the seismically less-active East Anatolian Fault System (EAFS), although it has the potential to produce large earthquakes. In this study, we present the results of a combination of geodetic and seismological data around the Karliova Triple Junction (KTJ), which lies at the intersection of the North- and East Anatolian Fault Systems. In particular, the geodetic slip rates obtained through block modeling of GPS velocities were compared with b-values to assess seismicity in the region. Yedisu segment, one of the best-known seismic gaps in Turkey, was specifically analyzed. The relatively low b-values across Yedisu segment verify the accumulation of seismic energy in this segment, and the GPS-derived geodetic slip rates suggest that it has the potential to produce an earthquake of Mw 7.5 across an 80-km rupture zone. Additionally, analysis of earthquake data reveals that the study area has a ductile or rigid-ductile behavior with respect to its surroundings, characterized by varying b-values. Although, seismic events of moderate- to high magnitudes are confined along the major fault zones, there are also low-seismicity zones along the eastern part of the Bitlis Suture Zone and around Yedisu. Since the high seismicity areas within the region may not accumulate sufficient stress for a large earthquake to occur, it is considered that the deformation in such areas occurs in a ductile manner. On the other hand, the areas characterized by low b-values may have the capacity of stress accumulation, which could lead to brittle deformation.

Aktug, Bahadir; Dikmen, Unal; Dogru, Asli; Ozener, Haluk

2013-07-01

373

A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region  

SciTech Connect

The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on data obtained by the first set of safety checks. The strengthening philosophy adopt in the projects will be described in the paper.

Zuccaro, G. [Study Centre PLINIVS-University of Naples 'Federico II', via Toledo, 402 - I 80134 - Naples (Italy); Palmieri, M.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M. [Campania Region-Civil Protection Office-Centro Direzionale, is. C3 - 80 143 - Naples (Italy); Maggio, F. [Campania Region-Public Works Office-via Cesare Battisti, 30 - I 8100, Caserta (Italy)

2008-07-08

374

Community Seismic Network (CSN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSN is a network of low-cost accelerometers deployed in the Pasadena, CA region. It is a prototype network with the goal of demonstrating the importance of dense measurements in determining the rapid lateral variations in ground motion due to earthquakes. The main product of the CSN is a map of peak ground produced within seconds of significant local earthquakes that can be used as a proxy for damage. Examples of this are shown using data from a temporary network in Long Beach, CA. Dense measurements in buildings are also being used to determine the state of health of structures. In addition to fixed sensors, portable sensors such as smart phones are also used in the network. The CSN has necessitated several changes in the standard design of a seismic network. The first is that the data collection and processing is done in the "cloud" (Google cloud in this case) for robustness and the ability to handle large impulsive loads (earthquakes). Second, the database is highly de-normalized (i.e. station locations are part of waveform and event-detection meta data) because of the mobile nature of the sensors. Third, since the sensors are hosted and/or owned by individuals, the privacy of the data is very important. The location of fixed sensors is displayed on maps as sensor counts in block-wide cells, and mobile sensors are shown in a similar way, with the additional requirement to inhibit tracking that at least two must be present in a particular cell before any are shown. The raw waveform data are only released to users outside of the network after a felt earthquake.

Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.

2011-12-01

375

Alternate approaches to verifying the structural adequacy of the Defense High Level Waste Shipping Cask  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1980s, the US Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as one that fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. General Atomics (GA) designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This topical report presents the results of the two analytical approaches and the model testing results. The purpose of this work is to show that there are two viable analytical alternatives to verify the structural adequacy of a Type B package and to obtain an NRC license. It addition, this data will help to support the future acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing.

Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.

1991-12-01

376

Predicate Abstraction and Refinement Techniques for Verifying Verilog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model checking techniques applied to large industrial circuits suffer from the state explosion problem. A major technique to address this problem is abstraction. Predicate abstraction has been applied successfully to large softwar e programs. Applying this technique to hardware designs poses additional challenges. This paper evaluates three techniques to improve the performance of SAT-based predicate abstraction of circuits: 1) We

Edmund Clarke; Himanshu Jain; Daniel Kroening

377

Using Multiple Representations to Make and Verify Conjectures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the results of research, the objective of which was to document and analyze the manner in which students relate different representations when solving problems. A total of 20 students attending their first year of university studies took part in the study. In order to design the problem, the underlying information in each…

Garcia, Martha; Benitez, Alma

2011-01-01

378

Seismic Hazard analysis of Adjaria Region in Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most commonly used approach to determining seismic-design loads for engineering projects is probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis (PSHA). The primary output from a PSHA is a hazard curve showing the variation of a selected ground-motion parameter, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA), against the annual frequency of exceedance (or its reciprocal, return period). The design value is the ground-motion level that corresponds to a preselected design return period. For many engineering projects, such as standard buildings and typical bridges, the seismic loading is taken from the appropriate seismic-design code, the basis of which is usually a PSHA. For more important engineering projects— where the consequences of failure are more serious, such as dams and chemical plants—it is more usual to obtain the seismic-design loads from a site-specific PSHA, in general, using much longer return periods than those governing code based design. Calculation of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard was performed using Software CRISIS2007 by Ordaz, M., Aguilar, A., and Arboleda, J., Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mexico. CRISIS implements a classical probabilistic seismic hazard methodology where seismic sources can be modelled as points, lines and areas. In the case of area sources, the software offers an integration procedure that takes advantage of a triangulation algorithm used for seismic source discretization. This solution improves calculation efficiency while maintaining a reliable description of source geometry and seismicity. Additionally, supplementary filters (e.g. fix a sitesource distance that excludes from calculation sources at great distance) allow the program to balance precision and efficiency during hazard calculation. Earthquake temporal occurrence is assumed to follow a Poisson process, and the code facilitates two types of MFDs: a truncated exponential Gutenberg-Richter [1944] magnitude distribution and a characteristic magnitude distribution [Youngs and Coppersmith, 1985]. Notably, the software can deal with uncertainty in the seismicity input parameters such as maximum magnitude value. CRISIS offers a set of built-in GMPEs, as well as the possibility of defining new ones by providing information in a tabular format. Our study shows that in case of Ajaristkali HPP study area, significant contribution to Seismic Hazard comes from local sources with quite low Mmax values, thus these two attenuation lows give us quite different PGA and SA values.

Jorjiashvili, Nato; Elashvili, Mikheil

2014-05-01

379

Seismic hazard assessment in Grecce: Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greece is the most earthquake prone country in the eastern Mediterranean territory and one of the most active areas globally. Seismic Hazard Assessment (SHA) is a useful procedure to estimate the expected earthquake magnitude and strong ground-motion parameters which are necessary for earthquake resistant design. Several studies on the SHA of Greece are available, constituting the basis of the National Seismic Code. However, the recently available more complete, accurate and homogenous seismological data (the new earthquake catalogue of Makropoulos et al., 2012), the revised seismic zones determined within the framework of the SHARE project (2012), new empirical attenuation formulas extracted for several regions in Greece, as well as new algorithms of SHA, are innovations that motivated the present study. Herewith, the expected earthquake magnitude for Greece is evaluated by applying the zone-free, upper bounded Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values method. The peak ground acceleration (PGA), velocity (PGV) and displacement (PGD) are calculated at the seismic bedrock using two methods: (a) the Gumbel's first asymptotic distribution of extreme values, since it is valid for initial open-end distributions and (b) the Cornell-McGuire approach, using the CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et. al., 2007) software. The latter takes into account seismic source zones for which seismicity parameters are assigned following a Poisson recurrence model. Thus, each source is characterized by a series of seismic parameters, such as the magnitude recurrence and the recurrence rate for threshold magnitude, while different predictive equations can be assigned to different seismic source zones. Recent available attenuation parameters were considered. Moreover, new attenuation parameters for the very seismically active Corinth Gulf deduced during this study, from recordings of the RASMON accelerometric array, were used. The hazard parameters such as the most probable annual maximum earthquake magnitude (mode) and the maximum expected earthquake magnitude with 70% and 90% probability of not been exceeded in 50 and 100 years are determined and compiled into a GIS mapping scheme. The data quality allowed the estimation of strong ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV and PGD) within cells of small dimensions of 0.25° X 0.25°. The results are discussed and compared with the ones obtained by other studies.

Makropoulos, Kostas; Chousianitis, Kostas; Kaviris, George; Kassaras, Ioannis

2013-04-01

380

Seismic source parameters  

SciTech Connect

The use of information contained on seismograms to infer the properties of an explosion source presents an interesting challenge because the seismic waves recorded on the seismograms represent only small indirect, effects of the explosion. The essential physics of the problem includes the process by which these elastic waves are generated by the explosion and also the process involved in propagating the seismic waves from the source region to the sites where the seismic data are collected. Interpretation of the seismic data in terms of source properties requires that the effects of these generation and propagation processes be taken into account. The propagation process involves linear mechanics and a variety of standard seismological methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem. The generation process presents a more difficult problem, as it involves non-linear mechanics, but semi-empirical methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem which appear to yield reasonable results. These basic properties of the seismic method are illustrated with some of the results from the NPE.

Johnson, L.R.

1994-06-01

381

Development of a wireless seismic array for volcano monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcano monitoring is mainly based on three sciences: seismology, geodesy and geochemistry. Seismic arrays are used to locate the seismic source, based on analysis of signals recorded by each seismometer. The most important advantages of arrays over classical seismic networks are: painless deployment, no major infrastructures needed, able to provide an approximate location of a signal that is not feasible by a seismic network. In this paper the design of a low-power wireless array is presented. All sensors transmit acquired data to a central node which is capable to calculate the possible location of the seismic source in real-time. The reliability of those locations depends, among other parameters (number of sensors and geometrical distribution), on precision of time synchronization between the nodes. To achieve the necessary precision, the wireless seismic array implements a time synchronization protocol based on the IEEE1588 protocol, which ensures clock synchronization between nodes better than a microsecond, therefore, signal correlation between sensors is achieved correlating the signals from all the sensors. The ultimate challenge would be that the central node receives data from all the seismometers locating the seismic source, only transmitting the result, which dramatically reduces data traffic. Often, active volcano areas are located far from inhabited areas and data transmission options are limited. In situ calculation is crucial in order to reduce data volume transmission generated by the seismic array.

Moure, David; Toma, Daniel; Lázaro, Antoni Manuel; Del Río, Joaquín; Carreras, Normandino; José Blanco, María

2014-05-01

382

New seismic sensors for footstep detection and other military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of seismic security systems relies on the particular application of the characteristics of seismic sensors. Current seismic sensors do not yield best possible results. In addition to identifying the requirements for optimal seismic sensors, we have developed seismic sensors for defense and security applications. We show two different types of seismic sensors: a miniscule, extremely low cost sensor and a bulk sensor. The miniscule, extremely low cost sensor is an electret-based geophone for both seismic and acoustic detection systems. This geophone detects a small size object-i.e. a walking/running/crawling person or a small underwater vehicle-that moves on the surface, underground, and/or in the water. It can also detect large size objects-i.e. heavy vehicles, trucks, tanks-as well as be used in littoral warfare. The electret-based design significantly improves technical characteristics achieving performance uniqueness: expanded frequency response range in the low frequency area, improved sensitivity threshold and accuracy response, and improved sensor"s protection from electromagnetic interference. The bulk sensor has an extremely large detection surface, a nanocomposite body in special form casing, and a special electronic circuit. These sensors allow detection of footstep signals in high ambient seismic noise levels. However, installation requires significant installation groundwork effort.

Pakhomov, Alex; Goldburt, Tim

2004-09-01

383

Verifying Stability of Dynamic Soft-Computing Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soft computing is a general term for algorithms that learn from human knowledge and mimic human skills. Example of such algorithms are fuzzy inference systems and neural networks. Many applications, especially in control engineering, have demonstrated their appropriateness in building intelligent systems that are flexible and robust. Although recent research have shown that certain class of neuro-fuzzy controllers can be proven bounded and stable, they are implementation dependent and difficult to apply to the design and validation process. Many practitioners adopt the trial and error approach for system validation or resort to exhaustive testing using prototypes. In this paper, we describe our on-going research towards establishing necessary theoretic foundation as well as building practical tools for the verification and validation of soft-computing systems. A unified model for general neuro-fuzzy system is adopted. Classic non-linear system control theory and recent results of its applications to neuro-fuzzy systems are incorporated and applied to the unified model. It is hoped that general tools can be developed to help the designer to visualize and manipulate the regions of stability and boundedness, much the same way Bode plots and Root locus plots have helped conventional control design and validation.

Wen, Wu; Napolitano, Marcello; Callahan, John

1997-01-01

384

Canadian Seismic Agreement  

SciTech Connect

The ECTN network has remained stable over the past year; progress on the new concentrator software has been slow. Major developments have taken place in the Ottawa Data Laboratory including the installation of a new VAX system and further development of the Seismic Analysis Monitor software. A new initiative has been the development of hardware and software for the Sudbury Local Telemetered Network, which can be considered a prototype for a smart outstation. The performance of the ECTN over the past year is described along with a summary of eastern Canadian seismicity during the reporting period and a list of EPB research publications on eastern Canadian seismicity during the past year. 4 figures, 3 tables.

Basham, P.W.; Lyons, J.A.; Drysdale, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Andersen, F.; Hayman, R.B.; Wetmiller, R.J.

1983-11-01

385

Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8  

SciTech Connect

The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

Ivanka, Paskaleva [CLSMEE--BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mihaela, Kouteva [CLSMEE-BAS, 3 Acad G. Bonchev str, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Franco, Vaccari [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Panza, Giuliano F. [DST-University of Trieste, Via E. Weiss 4, 34127 Trieste (Italy); ESP-SAND, ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

2008-07-08

386

Separation of seismic blended data by sparse inversion over dictionary learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent development of blended acquisition calls for the new procedure to process blended seismic measurements. Presently, deblending and reconstructing unblended data followed by conventional processing is the most practical processing workflow. We study seismic deblending by advanced sparse inversion with a learned dictionary in this paper. To make our method more effective, hybrid acquisition and time-dithering sequential shooting are introduced so that clean single-shot records can be used to train the dictionary to favor the sparser representation of data to be recovered. Deblending and dictionary learning with l1-norm based sparsity are combined to construct the corresponding problem with respect to unknown recovery, dictionary, and coefficient sets. A two-step optimization approach is introduced. In the step of dictionary learning, the clean single-shot data are selected as trained data to learn the dictionary. For deblending, we fix the dictionary and employ an alternating scheme to update the recovery and coefficients separately. Synthetic and real field data were used to verify the performance of our method. The outcome can be a significant reference in designing high-efficient and low-cost blended acquisition.

Zhou, Yanhui; Chen, Wenchao; Gao, Jinghuai

2014-07-01

387

Seismic signal detection algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the procedures undertaken and the results obtained during an 18-month program to implement and test an automatic seismic event detection algorithm that is based on the Walsh transform. The algorithm was successfully implemented and tested on a Z80A-based microcomputer, and the system was placed in operation at the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) for on-line evaluation. The results of the system operation and effectiveness is presented. Also included is a report of the performance of the detection algorithm in off-line tests utilizing standard tapes prepared under AFTAC/VSC supervision.

Veith, K. F.

1981-09-01

388

South Carolina Seismic Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of South Carolina offers data from the seismic network that stretches from the Blue Ridge Mountains to the Atlantic coast. Users can view maps of earthquake activity in South Carolina since 1996. The website offers a synopsis of the Charleston Earthquake in 1886, which was the largest historic earthquake in the Southeastern United States. Visitors can find a catalogue of the earthquakes occurring between 1698 and 1998 and a map of the East Coast seismicity from 1973 to 2000 as well as publications, technical reports, and bulletins.

389

Marine seismic sensor  

SciTech Connect

A hydrophone streamer that includes several arrays of optical fiber pressure sensors. Each array consists of at least three sensors symmetrically disposed around the inside of the streamer skin to form a vertically-disposed array. Each sensor modulates a coherent light beam in accordance with the instantaneous ambient water pressure. The output signals of the sensors include an AC component due to seismic waves and a DC component due to hydrostatic pressure difference between the sensors of an array. Means are provided to resolve the AC and DC components to determine the arrival direction of the received seismic waves.

Savit, C. H.

1985-10-15

390

Seismic exploration system improvement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a seismic exploration system having geophone locations along a survey line with at least one geophone connected to separate circuits connected to corresponding terminals of a roll-along common depth point switch. A means is described for identifying a specific one of the geophone locations as the switch changes connections, comprising means for superimposing a signal outside the useful range of seismic energy signals generated by the geophones on the one of the separate circuits connected to the specific geophone location whereby the location may be identified on the changed connection side of the switch.

Bearden, J.M.

1987-01-06

391

Seismic engineering -- 1994: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of this 2-volume set is divided into four main sections: Probability and risk-based seismic engineering analysis methods; New developments in equipment qualification methods; New developments in damping, base isolation, and active control of seismic systems; and Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation. Twenty-five papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

McCabe, S.L.; Liu, T.H.; Ware, A.G.; Geraets, L.H.; Suzuki, K.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Chung, H.H.; Rawls, G.B. (eds.)

1994-01-01

392

Multi-purpose seismic transducer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose seismic transducer includes a first seismic sensor having a first transfer function. A transfer-function shaping filter is coupled to the output of the first seismic sensor. The filter is adjustable to shape the first transfer function to match a plurality of different second transfer functions.

Hall, E.M.

1981-02-24

393

Functional seismic evaluation of hospitals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional collapse of hospitals (FCH) occurs when a medical complex, or part of it, although with neither structural nor nonstructural damage, is unable to provide required services for immediate attention to earthquake victims and for the recovery of the affected community. As it is known, FCH during and after an earthquake, is produced, not only by the damage to nonstructural components, but by an inappropriate or deficient distribution of essential and supporting medical spaces. This paper presents some conclusions on the analysis of the traditional architectural schemes for the design and construction of hospitals in the 20th Century and some recommendations for the establishment of evaluation parameters for the remodeling and seismic upgrade of existing hospitals in seismic zones based on the new concepts of: a) the relative location of each essential service (ES) into the medical complex, b) the capacity of each of these spaces for housing temporary activities required for the attention of a massive emergency (ME); c) the relationship between ES and the supporting services (SS); d) the flexibility of transformation of nonessential services into complementary spaces for the attention of extraordinary number of victims; e) the dimensions and appropriateness of evacuation routes; and d) the appropriate supply and maintenance of water, electricity and vital gases emergency installations.

Guevara, L. T.

2003-04-01

394

The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.  

PubMed

We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters. PMID:18989012

Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

2008-01-01

395

Design of Guaranteeing System of Service Quality through the Verifying Users of Hash Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Now a days, Cloud Computing Technique that can use effective service whenever\\/wherever and get rid of the division of each\\u000a source is soaring. However, in the Cloud Computing environment which all informations are centered, there is no sufficient\\u000a method for users to access data safely when accesses. In this paper, guaranteeing technique of service quality which decides\\u000a to use or

Yoon-Su Jeong; Yong-Tae Kim; Gil-Cheol Park

396

Probabilistic seismic hazard estimation in low-seismicity regions considering non-Poissonian seismic occurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In low-seismicity regions, such as France or Germany, the estimation of probabilistic seismic hazard must cope with the difficult identification of active faults and with the low amount of seismic data available. Since the probabilistic hazard method was initiated, most studies assume a Poissonian occurrence of earthquakes. Here we propose a method that enables the inclusion of time and space

Céline Beauval; Sebastian Hainzl; Frank Scherbaum

2006-01-01

397

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its con-tractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (E WRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 818 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the third quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Thirteen seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46-47{degree} N latitude and 119-120{degree} W longitude; 7 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 1 was an earthquake in the pre-basalt sediments, and 5 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Three earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and 10 earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the third quarter of FY 2000.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

2000-09-01

398

Network Optimization for Induced Seismicity Monitoring in Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the global challenge to satisfy an increasing demand for energy, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas in the past several years. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental design that aims to minimize the error ellipsoid of the linearized location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. In this talk we will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type. We will discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Wiemer, S.

2012-12-01

399

Seismic Resonant Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of

V. A. Korneev

2007-01-01

400

AUTOMATING SHALLOW SEISMIC IMAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

Our current EMSP project continues an effort begun in 1997 to develop ultrashallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method applicable to DOE facilities. The objective of the present research is to refine and demonstrate the use of an automated method of conducting shallow seis...

401

Hanford Seismic Network  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Hanford Seismic Network. The network consists of two instrument arrays: seismometers and strong motion accelerometers. The seismometers determine the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the strong motion accelerometers determine ground motion. Together these instruments arrays comply with the intent of DOE Order 5480.20, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.

Reidel, S.P.; Hartshorn, D.C.

1997-05-01

402

Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines  

SciTech Connect

The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

1993-08-01

403

The Ohio Seismic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1999, the Ohio Seismic Network (OhioSeis) began operations with an initial deployment of 15 sta- tions at colleges, universities, and other institutions in various parts of the state. Funding for the network was provided by the Ohio Emergency Management Agency with Federal Emergency Management Agency Funds for earthquake mitigation. The Ohio Geological Survey as- sumed the responsibility for

Michael C. Hansen; Larry J. Ruff

2003-01-01

404

Seismic Inversion Methods  

SciTech Connect

With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

Jackiewicz, Jason [New Mexico State University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

2009-09-16

405

Seismic microzonation in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1980s seismic microzonation studies have been undertaken in Australia to assess the likely effects of earthquakes on urban centres built on unconsolidated sediments. Presently the Nakamura method is used for processing data. So far parts of Perth, Adelaide, Cairns, Gladstone, Rockhampton, Newcastle, Sydney and Launceston have been zoned. The Launceston, Tasmania, study was the pilot study for many of these as it refined the methodology used and the data obtained were incorporated into a GIS database. Building heights and site factor zoning maps were produced for the Launceston City Council. One of the major activities, of the new initiative by the Australian Geological Survey Organisation (AGSO), popularly known as the 'Cities Project', is coordinating seismic microzonation throughout Australia. Microzonation data have been included in AGSO's geohazards GIS database. This is helping local councils zone land for seismic hazards. State Emergency Services use the information to plan for emergencies resulting from the effects of earthquakes. These practical applications of seismic microzonation data will help mitigate the destructive effects of any future large earthquakes occurring near major urban centres. In the Launceston case it was found that there is a variable risk dependant on epicentral distance and the nature of relatively unconsolidated sediments in various parts of the city. Disastrous amplification could occur at some sites.

Jensen, Vagn H.

2000-02-01

406

New Madrid Seismic Zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Madrid Seismic Zone is one of the most potentially dangerous natural hazards that exists anywhere in the continental United States. Having produced three of the greatest earthquakes known to man over a 60-day period during the winter of 1811-1812,...

J. D. Norwood

1998-01-01

407

Long Period Seismic Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A High-Gain Long-Period seismic station (ZLP) was installed in a tunnel 90m long in the Zongo Valley (16 deg 16 min 10.3 sec S, 68 deg 07 min 05.3 sec, 4397m asl), where daily barographic changes do not exceed 3 mbars, to obtain high quality data both for...

R. Cabre

1976-01-01

408

Automatic Program Verification II: Verifying Programs by Algebraic and Logical Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for verifying programs written in a higher level programming language are devised and implemented. The system can verify programs written in a subset of PASCAL, which may have data structures and control structures such as WHILE, REPEAT, FOR, PROC...

N. Suzuki

1974-01-01

409

77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy AGENCY...Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy.'' DG-1294...encompass preoperational testing of electrical power systems used to meet current...

2012-11-26

410

Study on Application of Seismic Isolation System to ABWR-II Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the result of a study that evaluated the applicability of the seismic isolation system to nuclear power plants. The study focuses on possibilities of a standard design with improved seismic safety of building and equipment for ABWR-II. A base isolation system with laminated lead rubber bearing was applied in the study. Based on the structural design of

Hideaki Saito; Hideo Tanaka; Atsuko Noguchi; Junji Suhara; Yasuaki Fukushima

2004-01-01

411

Plan of Development for Detection Systems for Seismic and Infrasound Arrays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of standard array design and signal processing for teleseismic and regional seismic arrays. The review is extended to F and correlation detection for seismic and infrasound arrays, to array design for infrasound arrays, and to optimal de...

R. R. Blandford

2002-01-01

412

Seismic Proving Test of Eroded Piping (Status of Eroded Piping Component and System Test)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In FY 2000, a 3-year testing program of eroded piping was initiated with the following objectives: 1) to ascertain the seismic safety margins for eroded piping designed under the current seismic design code, 2) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of eroded nuclear piping. A series of tests on eroded piping components and eroded piping systems was planned.

Y. Namita; K. Suzuki; H. Abe; I. Ichihashi; M. Shiratori; K. Iwata; A. Nebu

413

Model base SRAF insertion check with OPC verify tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the critical dimension of IC design decreases dramatically, to meet the yield target of the manufacture process, resolution enhancement technologies become extremely important nowadays. For 90nm technology node and below, sub rule assistant feature (SRAF) are usually employed to enhance the robustness of the micro lithography process. SRAF is really a powerful methodology to push the process limit for given equipment conditions. However, there is also a drawback of the SRAF. It is very hard to check the reasonability of the SRAF location, especially when SRAF is applied on full chips. This work is trying to demonstrate a model-based approach to do full-chip check of the SRAF insertion rule. First, we try to capture the lithography process information through real empirical wafer data. Then we try to check every SRAFs location and to find any hot spot that has the risk of being printed out on the wafer. Based on this approach, we can then not only apply full chip check to reduce the printability of SRAF. Furthermore, combined with DRC tools, we can find SRAFs that are inserted unreasonably and then apply modification on them.

Hung, Chi-Yuan; Deng, Zexi; Gao, Gensheng; Zhang, Liguo; Liu, Qingwei

2006-06-01

414

Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors  

SciTech Connect

A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry`s electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its ``Generic Safety Evaluation Report`` approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology.

Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J. [EQE Engineering, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1989-12-31

415

Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors  

SciTech Connect

A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its Generic Safety Evaluation Report'' approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology.

Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J. (EQE Engineering, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1989-01-01

416

An application of Marquardt's procedure to the seismic inverse problem  

SciTech Connect

The seismic inverse problem is to infer characteristics of the subsurface from measurements of the wave field at the surface. The Marquardt procedure offers one approach to this problem. In applying this procedure, a linear relationship is developed between the wave field and some parameter which describes a physical property of the subsurface. Then a selection criterion is designed to choose the subsurface parameter which provides the best match for the observed seismic data.

Keys, R.G.

1986-03-01

417

A Three-Day Seismic Experiment in an Urban Setting: An Introduction to Seismology for Minority Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer program participants of LSU GAEMP (Geoscience Alliance to Improve Minority Participation) are non-traditional, STEM (science, technology, engineering, or math), underrepresented minorities from 9 Minority-Serving Institutions in the states of Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi. During this summer of 2004, twelve students completed a six-week field and lab program across the lower U.S.A. Because of the urban background of many of the participants one three-day module on earthquakes and earth deformation emphasized the design of a non-conventional seismic experiment, field acquisition and analysis of data in an urban setting. Day one introduced stress, major fault types and their plate tectonic setting based on a case study of active growth faulting, emphasizing its effects on urban planning. Students visited the field to verify the location of faults from prior interpretations using GPS and topographic maps, and to discuss observed faulted buildings, offices and roadways. Later, students were exposed to the principles of active seismology, divided into six working groups and required to design by the next morning a realistic experiment to verify faults in the shallow subsurface. Day two was dedicated to collecting shallow (<300m) shear-wave seismic refraction data from both sides of a suspected growth fault, with the student expectation that a thicker sediment sequence would be observed on the down-thrown block. Day three involved pencil-and-paper analyses of data for reflection and refraction-thickness and velocity estimation, capped with a discussion and formal oral presentations of group results. The student-led design, active field deployment of equipment and formal discussion groups provided the widest range of activities to promote awareness of the relevance of seismology in modern society.

Lorenzo, J. M.; Anderson, L. C.; Bart, P. J.; Ferrell, R. E.; Tomkin, J. H.

2004-12-01

418

Seismicity of west Texas  

SciTech Connect

A four year seismic study has found the Basin and Range province of west Texas and the adjacent area of Mexico to be more seismically active then than heretofore known. A University of Texas five station seismic array around the Marfa Basin has located or detected approximately 800 local and regional earthquakes with S-P times of less than 30 sec. A crustal model for the Basin and Range is derived from natural and artificial sources and contains four layers having velocities of 3.60, 4.93, 6.11, and 6.60 km/sec, respectively, overlying a mantle of 8.37 km/sec. A moderate level of seismic activity has been detected near Van Horn, in the Marfa Basin, and along the Texas-Mexico border between latitudes 30 and 31/sup 0/N. Five earthquake sequences were recorded, two near the Texas-Mexico border and three in the Marfa Basin. Four of these sequences showed quiescent periods in foreshock activity preceding the main shock. On the eastern side of the Marfa Basin a diffuse linear seismic zone may represent an unmapped fault, striking N 50/sup 0/W that coincides with Muehlberger's proposed eastern boundary of Basin and Range faulting. A new epicenter for the Valentine, Texas earthquake of August 16, 1931 has been relocated instrumentally at the northern end of this diffuse zone. Regional and local teleseismic P-wave arrival time anomalies observed for the nearby Gnome underground nuclear explosion of 1961 are used to determine station corrections and thus to locate the new 1931 epicenter at 3.69/sup 0/N, 104.57/sup 0/W. Several estimates of magnitude (m/sub b/) based on intensity data range from 5.6 to 6.4. Fault-plane and composite fault-plane solutions support Muehlberger's hypothesis that the Basin and Range is undergoing extension in a SW-NE direction.

Dumas, D.B.

1981-01-01

419

Bolivian Seismic Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest challenges into the Seismic Network of Bolivia, composed of seven stations, is to connect all the differents characteristic of them. The Observatory San Calixto, network operator, is one of the few private seismic observatories in the world and for this reason is working only with agreement support or extern cooperation. This problem needs a promptly solution to obtain data system more convenient, in a real time, more effective and compatible with a future extension network. Now, we have differences in the equipment and transmission too. Two of our network stations, are part of the IMS (International System of Data), the information are transmitted by telemetry way from Primary Station PS6 (LPAZ) to OSC, and then by Vsat to IMS and by optic fiber to AFTAC. The auxiliary seismic station AS08 (SIV) sends information to DASE France by satellite way, and then DASE transmits to the IMS, and to the OSC by Internet. Similar situation is used for another station: MOC. The data of the other four stations are transmitted by telemetry to the OSC center, but here the difference with the other stations is that they are working with analogy system. This network does not cover all the Bolivian territory for a completed monitoring of the seismic activity of the country. For this reason it is very important for Bolivia to extend the network with installation of other stations and a project for the characteristic compatibility (formats specially) of this news stations with the actual stations and temporally stations. Temporally stations are mainly used to support the network and to obtain the evaluation of micro activity in some areas that have a possible seismic threat and because of the actual network distribution where the activity is unknown for us.

Minaya, E.; Rougon, P.; Valero, D.; Fernandez, G.; Lazaro, E.; Cano, W.

2007-05-01

420

Verifiable Adaptive Control with Analytical Stability Margins by Optimal Control Modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a verifiable model-reference adaptive control method based on an optimal control formulation for linear uncertain systems. A predictor model is formulated to enable a parameter estimation of the system parametric uncertainty. The adaptation is based on both the tracking error and predictor error. Using a singular perturbation argument, it can be shown that the closed-loop system tends to a linear time invariant model asymptotically under an assumption of fast adaptation. A stability margin analysis is given to estimate a lower bound of the time delay margin using a matrix measure method. Using this analytical method, the free design parameter n of the optimal control modification adaptive law can be determined to meet a specification of stability margin for verification purposes.

Nguyen, Nhan T.

2010-01-01

421

Workmanship Coupon Verifies and Validates the Remote Inspection System Used to Inspect Dry Shielded Canister Welds  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is operated by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho LLC (BBWI), which recently completed a very successful Three-Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) program for the Department of Energy. This complex and challenging program loaded, welded, and transported an unprecedented 27 dry shielded canisters in seven-months, and did so ahead of schedule. The program moved over 340 canisters of TMI-2 core debris that had been in wet storage into a dry storage facility at the INEEL. Welding flaws with the manually welded purge and vent ports discovered in mid-campaign had to be verified as not effecting previous completed seal welds. A portable workmanship coupon was designed and built to validate remote inspection of completed in-service seal welds. This document outlines the methodology and advantages for building and using workmanship coupons.

Custer, K. E.; Zirker, L. R.; Dowalo, J. A.; Kaylor, J. E.

2002-02-25

422

A case study: Time-lapse seismic monitoring of a thin heavy oil reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a case study on time-lapse seismic monitoring. The target area is located at East Senlac in the vicinity of Alberta and Saskatchewan border, a heavy oil reservoir in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to observe rock property related seismic anomalies, two perpendicular seismic lines have been set up. One seismic line along the N-S direction is subject to Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) while the other seismic line along the W-E direction is not affected. This case study covers the subjects of feasibility study, processing strategy, repeatability evaluation, seismic attribute analysis, and impedance inversion. Systematic feasibility study is conducted by prediction of rock properties based on Gassmann's equation, technical risk assessment, forward modelling and seismic survey design. The first stage simulation of oil substitution by steam indicates that it is feasible to perform time-lapse seismic monitoring project, but great challenge might be encountered. Continuous gas injection barely induces seismic variations. In the aspect of seismic data processing, better seismic quality is obtained by employing the prestack simultaneous processing (PSP) strategy. The three metrics, Pearson correlation, normalized root-mean-squares and predictability are employed to quantify the post-stack seismic repeatability. Higher repeatability along the W-E direction than along the N-S direction shows different local geology environment. The non-uniform CMP stack fold distribution is found the main factor to affect seismic repeatability. The seismic attribute, power spectra calculated from the N-S seismic surveys demonstrate that higher frequency energy tend to increase with time due to the possible decrease in pore pressure and pore temperature. On the other hand, the inverted impedance using the recently proposed hybrid data transformation shows mixed impedance variations. The continuous gas injection and the simultaneous drop in temperature and pressure are possibly the main reason to result in this mixed impedance variations.

Zhang, Yajun

423

Seismic Tomography in Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomography imaging, applied to seismology, requires a new, decentralized approach if high resolution calculations are to be performed in a sensor network configuration. The real-time data retrieval from a network of large-amount wireless seismic stations to a central server is virtually impossible due to the sheer data amount and resource limitations. In this paper, we propose and design a distributed algorithm for processing data and inverting tomography in the network, while avoiding costly data collections and centralized computations. Based on a partition of the tomographic inversion problem, the new algorithms distribute the computational burden to sensor nodes and perform real-time tomographic inversion in the network, so that we can recover a high resolution tomographic model in real-time under the constraints of network resources. Our emulation results indicate that the distributed algorithms successfully reconstruct the synthetic models, while reducing and balancing the communication and computation cost to a large extent.

Shi, L.; Song, W.; Lees, J. M.; Xing, G.

2012-12-01

424

Probabilistic seismic hazard estimation of Manipur, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the estimation of spectral acceleration for Manipur based on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The 500 km region surrounding Manipur is divided into seven tectonic zones and major faults located in these zones are used to estimate seismic hazard. The earthquake recurrence relations for the seven zones have been estimated from past seismicity data. Ground motion prediction equations proposed by Boore and Atkinson (2008 Earthq. Spectra 24 99-138) for shallow active regions and Atkinson and Boore (2003 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93 1703-29) for the Indo-Burma subduction zone are used for estimating ground motion. The uniform hazard response spectra for all the nine constituent districts of Manipur (Senapati, Tamenglong, Churachandpur, Chandel, Imphal east, Imphal west, Ukhrul, Thoubal and Bishnupur) at 100-, 500- and 2500-year return periods have been computed from PSHA. A contour map of peak ground acceleration over Manipur is also presented for 100-, 500-, and 2500-year return periods with variations of 0.075-0.225, 0.18-0.63 and 0.3-0.1.15 g, respectively, throughout the state. These results may be of use to planners and engineers for site selection, designing earthquake resistant structures and, further, may help the state administration in seismic hazard mitigation.

Pallav, Kumar; Raghukanth, S. T. G.; Darunkumar Singh, Konjengbam

2012-10-01

425

Seismic Rotations Observed with Inertial Seismic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interest of the seismological community has arisen for possible rotation effects of the Earth on signals recorded by inertial seismometers. Wiechert and Schluter (1903) and more recently Pancha et al. (2000), Igel et al. (2005, 2006) show that, in the teleseismic range, rotations may be neglected and account for less than 0.1% of the translation waves generated by earthquakes. On the contrary, we may see effects of rotation on seismic traces recorded in the near field of an earthquake. As instruments will deliver unsaturated signals in this near field, rotation detection will be more and more frequent. We may observe rotation effects as well in the noise signal at long period. - In the near field, the three components integrated signal of the accelerograms (i.e; velocity signal) diverge and this drift is the effect of an nearly invisible little jump in acceleration signal. The second integrated step diverges and the co-seismic displacement could not be estimated. - By studying the long period noise, we have found that the two horizontal components of some of GEOSCOPE stations with STS-1 seismometer from Streckeisen, present the same noise both in amplitude and in phase with a coherency greater than 95%. This similarity could occur at some stations and not at others and during some time periods. Therefore, the noise has a quite stable horizontal polarisation at N045 during these periods. We may argue that these two separate effects comes from ground rotations and the way they are recorded by seismic instruments. For example, GEOSCOPE stations equipped by STS-2 which have a quite different mechanical structure do not exhibit the polarisation effect. Mechanical pendulums as vertical LaCoste sensor and horizontal 'garden-gate' sensor present effects of rotations on the different translation motions of the mass. Therefore, for the long period noise, a quite probable explanation is that a rotation around the vertical axis acts similarly on the two horizontal sensors while a translation effect quite similar on both components will require a quite coherent well polarized noise always oriented to N045. Geoscope stations of PPT (Papeete, Tahiti) and NOUC (Nouméa, New Caledonia) present this feature quite systematically. In the near field, tilt effect acts alone at the second order on the vertical component. The two horizontal components are recording linearly the tilt waves (with a great amplification especially at long period) and the rotation around the vertical axis. Therefore, the horizontal trace is the mixture of both the two rotating effects and the translating signal we can do discriminate. We may conclude that a sensor which will record the six degrees of freedom of the ground motion should be a quite important issue in the future if we want to understand correctly near-field ground motions. We may foresee that these new measurements will be information for better understanding the Earth structure and seismic source mechanisms.

Jean, V.

2006-12-01

426

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

1999-05-26

427

Reliability of regional seismic hazard assessment, sources of common uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis has many applications from earthquake engineering design codes to risk mitigation and post disaster risk management and recovery plan. In a simple term, a seismic hazard model estimates probabilistic ground motion by integrating seismotectonic model and attenuation laws using a probabilistic algorithm. Seismotectonic model represents the distribution of potential future earthquakes in time, space and size, taking into account various type of information form historical seismicity to tectonic and fault characteristics. Attenuation relations describe ground motion as a function of earthquake size, source-to-site distance and geological conditions and are mostly derived based on observed ground motion data. Due to the lack proper knowledge and understanding of elements controlling earthquake activity and its effect on built environment, there are always uncertainties associated with all steps involved in developing seismic hazard model. This paper highlights some of the most common sources of uncertainties involved in seismic hazard assessment. This paper in particular points out the sensitivity of regional seismic hazard assessment to seismic source definition, spatial distribution of probabilistic events, event recurrence relationship, characteristic earthquakes, time-dependency behaviour, maximum magnitude, source-to-site distance definition, earthquake focal depth and probabilistic and mathematical approaches used for hazard assessment.

Zolfaghari, M. R.

2003-04-01

428

Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves.

Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1994-01-01

429

Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL`s ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002.

NONE

1995-07-14

430

Study on Application of Seismic Isolation System to ABWR-II Building  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the result of a study that evaluated the applicability of the seismic isolation system to nuclear power plants. The study focuses on possibilities of a standard design with improved seismic safety of building and equipment for ABWR-II. A base isolation system with laminated lead rubber bearing was applied in the study. Based on the structural design of isolated buildings, it was confirmed that the design seismic loads can be largely reduced and that seismic elements of buildings and equipment can be easily designed compared with non-isolated buildings. Improvement in the building construction cost and period was also confirmed. The analytical results of seismic probabilistic safety assessments showed that an isolated building has a much higher degree of the seismic safety than a non-isolated building. The study concludes that the seismic isolation system is well applicable to ABWR-II plants. In addition, with an aim to enhance the earthquake-resistance of future ABWR-II plants, a building concept was developed, in which a lot of important equipment are laid out on a floor directly supported by the base isolation system. On this plant, further improvement of the seismic reliability is expected due to reduction of the seismic responses of important equipment. (authors)

Hideaki Saito; Hideo Tanaka; Atsuko Noguchi [Tokyo Electric Power Company, 4-1, Egsaki-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-8510 (Japan); Junji Suhara [Shimizu Corporation, 2-3, Shibaura 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8007 (Japan); Yasuaki Fukushima [Kajima Corporation, 5-30, Akasaka 6-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-8502 (Japan)

2004-07-01

431

Seismic Adequacy Review of PC012 SCEs that are Potential Seismic Hazards with PC3 SCEs at Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility  

SciTech Connect

This document provides seismic adequacy review of PCO12 Systems, Components L Equipment anchorage that are potential seismic interaction hazards with PC3 SCEs during a Design Basis Earthquake. The PCO12 items are identified in the Safety Equipment List as 3/1 SCEs.

OCOMA, E.C.

1999-08-12

432

Seismic response modification device elements for bridge structures development and verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elements for modeling the behavior of seismic response modification devices were developed for use in analyzing bridge structures. Lead–rubber bearings and friction pendulum bearings (FPBs) with constant and variable friction coefficients were developed and verified against physical test data of structures using similar devices. The lead–rubber bearing element has a nonlinear elastic longitudinal spring, and a biaxial kinematic hardening spring

Eric Abrahamson; Steve Mitchell

2003-01-01

433

Calculating California Seismicity Rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Empirically the rate of earthquakes = magnitude M is well fit by the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, logN=a-bM (1) where N is the number of earthquakes = M over a given time period, a is the number of M = 0 earthquakes over the same period, and b is a parameter that determines the ratio of larger to smaller earthquakes (Ishimoto and Iida 1939; Gutenberg and Richter 1944). Thus to characterize the seismicity rate, N, and risk in a given region we need to solve for the values of a and b. Here we are concerned with solving for the long term average values of these parameters for the state of California. My primary data source is a catalog of 1850-2006 M = 4.0 seismicity compiled with Tianqing Cao (Appendix H). Because earthquakes outside of the state can influence California I consider both earthquakes within the state and within 100 km of the state border (Figure 1).

Felzer, Karen R.

2008-01-01

434

Seismicity, seismology and erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the interface of geomorphology and seismology, patterns of erosion can be used to constrain seismic processes, and seismological instruments to determine geomorphic activity. For example, earthquakes trigger mass wasting in proportion to peak ground velocity or acceleration, modulated by local geologic and topographic conditions. This geomorphic response determines the mass balance and net topographic effect of earthquakes. It can also be used to obtain information about the distribution of seismic slip where instrumental observations are not available. Equally, seismometers can register the signals of geomorphic processes, revealing their location, type and magnitude. The high temporal resolution of such records can help determine the exact meteorological conditions that gave rise to erosion events, and the interactions between individual surface processes during such events. We will illustrate this synergy of disciplines with examples from active mountain belts around the world, including Taiwan, Japan, Papua New Guinea and the Alps.

Hovius, Niels; Meunier, Patrick; Burtin, Arnaud; Marc, Odin

2013-04-01

435

Seismic capacity of switchgear  

SciTech Connect

As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

1989-01-01

436

Albuquerque Basin seismic network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J. B.; Garcia, Alvin

1977-01-01

437

Seismic Eruption Teaching Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents educational modules for teaching about earthquakes, volcano eruptions and related plate tectonic concepts using an interactive computer program for mapping called Seismic/Eruption (also called SeisVolE). The program includes up-to-date earthquake and volcanic eruption catalogs and allows the user to display earthquake and volcanic eruption activity in "speeded up real time" on global, regional or local maps that also show the topography of the area in a shaded relief map image. SeisVolE is an interactive program that includes a number of tools that allow the user to analyze earthquake and volcanic eruption data and produce effective displays to illustrate seismicity and volcano patterns. The program can be used to sort data and provide results for statistical analysis, to generate detailed earthquake and volcano activity maps of specific areas or for specific purposes, to investigate earthquake sequences such as foreshocks and aftershocks, and to produce cross section or 3-D perspective views of earthquake locations. The Seismic/Eruption program can be a powerful and effective tool for teaching about plate tectonics and geologic hazards using earthquake and volcano locations, and for learning (or practicing) fundamental science skills such as statistical analysis, graphing, and map skills. The teaching modules describe and illustrate how to use the Seismic/Eruption program effectively in demonstrations, classroom presentations and interactive presentations, and independent study/research. Because the program has many useful options and can be used to examine earthquake activity and volcanic eruption data, the modules provide instructions and examples of quantitative analysis, graphing of results, creating useful maps and cross section diagrams, and performing in-depth exploration and research. The examples are intended to illustrate the features and capabilities of the program and stimulate interest in using the program for discovery learning in Earth science, especially earthquakes, volcanoes and plate tectonics.

Braile, Lawrence

438

Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Our primary research focus during the current three-year period of funding has been to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2