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1

Strategies to eliminate HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Chronic HBV infection is a major public health concern affecting over 240 million people worldwide. Although suppression of HBV replication is achieved in the majority of patients with currently available newer antivirals, discontinuation of therapy prior to hepatitis B surface antigen loss or seroconversion is associated with relapse of HBV in the majority of cases. Thus, new therapeutic modalities are needed to achieve eradication of the virus from chronically infected patients in the absence of therapy. The basis of HBV persistence includes viral and host factors. Here, we review novel strategies to achieve sustained cure or elimination of HBV. The novel approaches include targeting the viral and or host factors required for viral persistence, and novel immune-based therapies, including therapeutic vaccines. PMID:25309617

Kapoor, Rama; Kottilil, Shyam

2014-01-01

2

Coevolution and HBV drug resistance.  

PubMed

A high rate of mutation sets a strong foundation for the development of resistance to antiviral drugs. However, the ubiquitous presence of drug resistance mutations in the HBV population does not explain variations in the rate and specific types of drug resistance among patients. These variations can be explained by consideration of coevolution among individual sites in the HBV genome, viral variants and subpopulations, as well as coevolution between the entire intrahost HBV population and the host. The concept of coevolution offers a more complete framework for understanding drug resistance. PMID:20516572

Khudyakov, Yury

2010-01-01

3

Relationship between HBV cccDNA expression in the human ovary and vertical transmission of HBV.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the ovary and vertical transmission of HBV. HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA were assayed in the ovaries of 33 pregnant women who were positive for HBV DNA. The HBVM (HBV markers, including HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb) level and the HBV DNA content in peripheral blood of infants were measured. The overall positive rate of HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA in samples was 51·52% (17/33). The intrauterine infection rate of the infants was 12·12% (4/33). When HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA were both positive, the intrauterine infection rate of infants was significantly higher than when they were both negative (P<0·05). Levels of HBV cccDNA and the rate of positive samples were significantly higher in mothers with infants with intrauterine infection than in those without (P<0·01 and P<0·05, respectively). HBV can infect the human ovary and may transmit to the filial generation via the ovum. PMID:22000033

Yu, M M; Gu, X J; Xia, Y; Wang, G J; Kan, N Y; Jiang, H X; Wu, K H; Ji, Y; Ju, L L

2012-08-01

4

Treatment of HBV-related cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The goal of antiviral therapy in HBV cirrhotic patients is to prevent progression of the disease to decompensated cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. This goal can be achieved if HBV replication can be suppressed, leading to biochemical remission, histological improvement and prevention of complications. If finite treatment with pegylated interferon is not contraindicated in compensated cirrhosis, long-term treatment with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues is recommended in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis, especially in decompensated cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis require careful monitoring to detect resistance and prevent flares, and also to screen for hepatocellular carcinoma, portal hypertension and liver failure. PMID:19485793

Vallet-Pichard, Anais; Mallet, Vincent; Costentin, Charlotte E; Pol, Stanislas

2009-06-01

5

Epirubicin directly promotes hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in stable HBV-expressing cell lines: a novel mechanism of HBV reactivation following anticancer chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide problem and HBV reactivation following anticancer chemotherapy has become an emerging clinical challenge. However, the mechanisms of HBV reactivation following chemotherapy remain unclear. Epirubicin is an anthracycline drug used in chemotherapy to treat numerous types of malignancy, including breast cancer, acute leukemia, malignant lymphoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and stomach cancer. Epirubicin acts by intercalating DNA strands and inhibiting DNA and RNA synthesis. In this study, it was demonstrated that epirubicin directly upregulated the levels of in vitro HBV replication in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to epirubicin for 24 h induced >11- and 6-fold increases in the levels of intracellular and secreted HBV DNA, respectively. In concordance with the elevated levels of HBV DNA, the expression levels of HBV pregenomic RNA, intracellular HBV surface and HBV core antigens, and secreted HBV e antigen were significantly increased by treatment with 0.5 µM epirubicin. Notably, epirubicin promoted cellular excretion of HBV nucleocapsids, which are closely associated with the pathological effects of HBV, including acute liver failure. In conclusion, epirubicin exhibited a direct stimulatory effect on HBV replication and this may be a novel mechanism of HBV reactivation following cytotoxic anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:24566498

Xu, Lei; Tu, Zeng; Xu, Ge; Wang, Yuwei; Pan, Wanlong; Zhan, Xingxing; Luo, Qiang; Huang, Yuan; Chen, Juan; Huang, Ailong

2014-04-01

6

Prospective comparison of Abbott RealTime HBV DNA and Versant HBV DNA 3.0 assays for hepatitis B DNA quantitation: impact on HBV genotype monitoring.  

PubMed

The quantitation of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the serum of infected patients is recommended to characterize the course of chronic HBV infection. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the performance of the Abbott RealTime PCR assay for HBV DNA quantitation by comparison with the standard Versant HBV DNA 3.0 assay. The better sensitivity and broader dynamic range of HBV DNA quantitation using the Abbott RealTime PCR assay was confirmed by the study of 362 serum samples from 311 patients. In addition, data analysis revealed the concordance of HBV DNA quantitations between the two assays. When this evaluation was assessed as a function of HBV genotype, there was discordance for HBV genotype C samples. Thus, we performed an in-house PCR to confirm the discrepancy observed regarding the HBV genotypes. The in-house PCR results agreed better with the Abbott RealTime PCR method when compared with the standard hybridization assay. In conclusion, the wide dynamic range of HBV DNA quantitation achieved with the Abbott RealTime PCR assay makes it appropriate for the clinical monitoring of HBV infected patients. However, a change of HBV DNA quantitation method could influence results on the follow-up of HBV genotype C infected patients. PMID:18929599

Pol, Jonathan; Le Pendeven, Catherine; Beby-Defaux, Agnes; Rabut, Elodie; Jais, Jean Philippe; Pilloux, Marilyse; Osada, Catherine; Zatla, Fadila; Assami, Hichem; Grange, Jean Didier; Kremsdorf, Dina; Nicolas, Jean Claude; Soussan, Patrick

2008-12-01

7

HBV cccDNA in patients' sera as an indicator for HBV reactivation and an early signal of liver damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the covalently closed circle DNA (cccDNA) level of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients' liver and sera. METHODS: HBV DNA was isolated from patients' liver biopsies and sera. A sensitive real-time PCR method, which is capable of differentiation of HBV viral genomic DNA and cccDNA, was used to quantify the total HBV cccDNA. The total HBV viral

Ying Chen; Johnny Sze; Ming-Liang He

2004-01-01

8

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

The etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have long been an enigmatic subject that have involved genetic and environmental factors. Recent intriguing data has contributed to the mechanisms involved, including the relationship of infectious agents and loss of tolerance. This loss of tolerance is illustrated by the data on the immune response to Hepatitis B virus such as the molecular mimicry between HBV antigens and self proteins, the generation of immune complexes between HBV antigens and antibodies, and apoptosis/tissue damage resulting in the exposure of intracellular antigens to the immune system. In this paper, we review the current database related to HBV infection and a variety of autoimmune conditions, including autoimmune hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, aplastic anemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, thyroid disease and uveitis. PMID:18270862

Maya, Ram; Gershwin, M Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2008-02-01

9

The clinical significance of occult HBV infection  

PubMed Central

The presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative individuals is defined as occult HBV infection (OBI). OBI is related in some cases to infection with variant viruses (S-escape mutants) undetectable by HBsAg commercial kits. More frequently, however, it is due to infection with wild-type viruses that are strongly suppressed in their replication activity. OBI may be involved in different clinical contexts, including the transmission of the infection by blood transfusion or liver transplantation and its acute reactivation when an immunosuppressive status occurs. Moreover, much evidence suggests that it may contribute to the development of cirrhosis and may have an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24714731

Squadrito, Giovanni; Spinella, Rosaria; Raimondo, Giovanni

2014-01-01

10

Molecular evaluation of HBV core gene mutations in asymptomatic HBV infected blood donors in iran.  

PubMed

Mutations in the core promoter and precore regions of HBV cause down-regulation of HBeAg. These mutations are associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and Hepato Cellular Carcinoma (HCC). This study was carried out to sequence analysis of HBV core gene in HBsAg- positive blood donors in Iran. A total of 50 HBsAg- positive blood donor samples were examined in this study. Serological markers of hepatitis B including: HBsAg, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb were measured by ELISA method. HBV-DNA was extracted from the sera, and then PCR was performed on extracted HBV-DNA  using specific primer of gene C. After direct sequencing, the nucleotide sequences from 50 blood donors were analyzed using a reference sequences and then phylogenetic analysis was performed. Also, the line probe assay was used to detect mutations. The majority of donors (62.5%) were in the age group of 29 - 40 years old. Among all the HBV DNA positive cases, 87.8% were HBeAg negative. The prevalence of PC and BCP mutants were 12% and 55% respectively, among asymptomatic HBV infected blood donors by direct sequencing method. The results of this study showed that some of HBV infected blood donors had mutation in core gene of HBV and amino acid changes in B cell, T helper and CTL epitopes that can cause reducing HBe and HBc antigenicity in asymptomatic HBV infected blood donors and the development of escape mutants from host immune. PMID:25365616

Ghabeshi, Soad; Baktashi, Ruhollah; Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Sharifi, Zohreh

2014-11-01

11

A Stochastic Model and Monte-Carlo Simulation of HBV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world health organization has estimated that around 300 million persons world wide suer from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection 25-30 % of whom eventually will die from chronic sequel (4). Interest in HBV epidemiology has increased due to the HIV (AIDS) epidemic. Transmission routs and clinical features show many similarities for these infections, and better understanding of HBV

I. A. Moneim; G. A. Mosa

12

Risk stratification of HBV infection in Asia-Pacific region  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major etiology of chronic liver disease worldwide and thus a global health problem, especially in Asia-Pacific region. The long-term outcomes of Asian HBV carriers vary widely; however, a significant proportion of them will finally develop end-stage liver disease. Over the past decade, several host and HBV factors predictive of clinical outcomes in Asian HBV carriers have been identified. The community-based REVEAL-HBV study illustrated the strong association between HBV-DNA level at study entry and risk of HCC over time, and male gender, older age, high serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, positive HBeAg, higher HBV-DNA level, HBV genotype C infection and core promoter mutation are independently associated with a higher hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk. Another hospital-based ERADICATE-B cohort further validated the HCC risk started to increase when HBV-DNA level was higher than 2,000 IU/mL. Of particular note, in patients with low viral load (HBV-DNA level <2,000 IU/mL), HBsAg level ?1,000 IU/mL was a new independent risk factor for HCC. With the results from REVEAL-HBV study, a risk calculator for predicting HCC in adult non-cirrhotic patients has been developed and validated by independent international cohorts (REACH-B). With the combination of HBV-DNA, HBsAg, and ALT levels, ERADICATE-B study proposed an algorithm to predict disease progression and categorize risk levels of HCC as well as corresponding management in Asian HBV carriers. The introduction of transient elastography may further enhance the predictive power. In conclusion, HBsAg level can complement HBV-DNA level for the risk stratification of disease progression in Asian adult patients with chronic HBV infection.

2014-01-01

13

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Egyptian pediatric cancer patients with acute and chronic active HBV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (A-H) and subgenotypes are recognized. Genotyping can be accomplished based on a partial sequence of HBV genome such as the pre-S or S gene. Several methods have been developed and used for HBV genotyping. This study was undertaken to determine the HBV genotypes in Egyptian pediatric cancer patients with acute and

Abdel-Rahman N Zekri; Mohamed M Hafez; Nahed I Mohamed; Zeinab K Hassan; Manal H El-Sayed; Mohsen M Khaled; Tarek Mansour

2007-01-01

14

Dynamic changes of HBV markers and HBV DNA load in infants born to HBsAg(+) mothers: can positivity of HBsAg or HBV DNA at birth be an indicator for HBV infection of infants?  

PubMed Central

Background Neither HBV DNA nor HBsAg positivity at birth is an accurate marker for HBV infection of infants. No data is available for continuous changes of HBV markers in newborns to HBsAg(+) mothers. This prospective, multi-centers study aims at observing the dynamic changes of HBV markers and exploring an early diagnostic marker for mother-infant infection. Methods One hundred forty-eight HBsAg(+) mothers and their newborns were enrolled after mothers signed the informed consent forms. Those infants were received combination immunoprophylaxis (hepatitis B immunoglobulin [HBIG] and hepatitis B vaccine) at birth, and then followed up to 12 months. Venous blood of the infants (0, 1, 7, and 12 months of age) was collected to test for HBV DNA and HBV markers. Results Of the 148 infants enrolled in our study, 41 and 24 infants were detected as HBsAg(+) and HBV DNA(+) at birth, respectively. Nine were diagnosed with HBV infection after 7 mo follow-up. Dynamic observation of the HBV markers showed that HBV DNA and HBsAg decreased gradually and eventually sero-converted to negativity in the non-infected infants, whereas in the infected infants, HBV DNA and HBsAg were persistently positive, or higher at the end of follow-up. At 1 mo, the infants with anti-HBs(+), despite positivity for HBsAg or HBV DNA at birth, were resolved after 12 mo follow-up, whereas all the nine infants with anti-HBs(?) were diagnosed with HBV infection. Anti-HBs(?) at 1 mo showed a higher positive likelihood ratio for HBV mother-infant infection than HBV DNA and/or HBsAg at birth. Conclusions Negativity for anti-HBs at 1 mo can be considered as a sensitive and early diagnostic indictor for HBV infection in the infants with positive HBV DNA and HBsAg at birth, especially for those infants with low levels of HBV DNA load and HBsAg titer. PMID:24195671

2013-01-01

15

MicroRNAs Associated With HBV Infection And HBV-related HCC  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global problem and a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a group of small noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression at the posttranslational level, thereby participating in fundamental biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the roles of miRNAs in HBV infection, the recently identified mechanism underlying dysregulation of miRNAs in HBV-associated HCC, and their association with hepatocarcinogenesis. Moreover, we discuss the recent advances in the use of circulating miRNAs in the early diagnosis of HCC as well as therapies based on these aberrantly expressed miRNAs.

Xie, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Yan-Ge; Liu, Jun; Zeng, Yong; Wu, Hong

2014-01-01

16

What college students should know about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)  

E-print Network

What college students should know about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) University Health Services | (608 caused by a virus that attacks the liver. About half the people who get hepatitis B infection develop is the hepatitis B virus spread? A. HBV is spread by direct contact with the blood or bodily fluids of an infected

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

17

Influence of chronic HBV infection on superimposed acute hepatitis E  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the influence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection [based on the status of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, and cirrhosis] on superimposed acute hepatitis E. METHODS: A total of 294 patients were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, from January 2003 to January 2012. The patients were classified into two groups: an HBV + hepatitis E virus (HEV) group (a group with chronic HBV infection that was superinfected with acute hepatitis E, n = 118) and an HEV group (a group with acute hepatitis E, n = 176). We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical features of the two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the ?2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and the Student’s t test for continuous variables. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The peak values of prothrombin time, serum total bilirubin, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were significantly higher in the HBV + HEV group. More patients in the HBV + HEV group had complications (39.8% vs 16.5%, P = 0.000) and developed liver failure (35.6% vs 8.5%, P = 0.000). Additionally, the mortality of the HBV + HEV group was significantly higher (20.3% vs 7.4%, P = 0.002). Further analysis of the HBV + HEV group showed that there were no significant differences in complication occurrence, liver failure incidence, or mortality between patients with different HBeAg and HBV DNA statuses. However, in patients with underlying cirrhosis, complication occurrence and liver failure incidence significantly increased. In total, 12.7% of the patients in the HBV + HEV group received anti-HBV treatment, but this therapy failed to reduce mortality in patients who developed liver failure. CONCLUSION: The presence of underlying cirrhosis in chronic HBV infection results in more severe clinical outcomes with superimposed acute hepatitis E. Anti-HBV treatment cannot improve the prognosis of liver failure caused by HBV-HEV superinfection. PMID:24124337

Cheng, Si-Hong; Mai, Li; Zhu, Feng-Qin; Pan, Xing-Fei; Sun, Hai-Xia; Cao, Hong; Shu, Xin; Ke, Wei-Min; Li, Gang; Xu, Qi-Huan

2013-01-01

18

Pharmacoeconomic analysis of HBV liver transplant therapies.  

PubMed

The outcome of liver transplantation for patients infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has greatly improved over the last several years. The rate of allograft infection has decreased from 85 to 25%, while the post-transplant mortality rate due to HBV has decreased from 50% at 18 months to nearly nonexistent. For the most part, this result has been due to the increased dose and extended use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Current lack of knowledge of the amount of HBIg monotherapy that is necessary to suppress residual virus has led to an expensive therapy. In our early experience, no alternative existed at the time of transplant for this group of recipients. Administration of HBIg was directed toward patient safety and optimal outcome rather than cost containment. The significance of the economic impact of this decision is discussed in this article. Analysis of institutional expenses revealed that the cost of HBIg to establish viral control was fairly consistent over time, despite the increased purchase price of the drug. Individualized dosing of HBIg was more expensive in the first year after transplantation compared to typical monthly administration protocols, but was substantially less expensive after 12 months due to decreased dosage needs. In addition to HBIg acquisition price, factors that affect expenditure for HBIg maintenance include time intervals between doses, purchase contracts, overhead of drug administration, and methods employed in determining charge structures. Combination therapies with nucleoside analogues may have a beneficial effect on future costs. Controlled trials to identify the optimum and most cost-effective therapy need to be performed. PMID:10965962

McGory, R

2000-01-01

19

Frequency of hepatic HBV-DNA in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma: relation to serum HBV markers.  

PubMed Central

As part of a larger study designed to investigate the interaction of factors such as cirrhosis and hepatitis B virus infection as aetiological agents in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, we investigated the status of hepatic HBV-DNA sequences in 156 cirrhotic patients. Forty-one were HBsAg seropositive and 18 (44%) of these had HBV-DNA sequences detectable in their livers. There are also 26 subjects who showed markers of a previous HBV infection (anti-HBs/anti-HBc), only one (4%) of whom had demonstrable hepatic HBV-DNA sequences. No sequences were found in any of the remaining 89 patients who were seronegative for all markers. Thus, liver HBV-DNA was only detected in the presence of a serum marker, usually HBsAg. Images Figure 1 PMID:2164837

White, Y. S.; Johnson, P. J.; Davison, F.; Williams, R.

1990-01-01

20

Analysis of residual perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and of genetic variants in human immunodeficiency virus and HBV co-infected women and their offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Despite implementation of universal infant hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) still occurs. Limited data are available on the residual MTCT of HBV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HBV co-infected women. Objectives We assessed the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-infected pregnant women and the rate of residual MTCT of HBV from HIV-HBV co-infected women and analyzed the viral determinants in mothers and their HBV-infected children. Study design HIV-1 infected pregnant women enrolled in two nationwide perinatal HIV prevention trials in Thailand were screened for HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and tested for HBeAg and HBV DNA load. Infants born to HBsAg-positive women had HBsAg and HBV DNA tested at 4–6 months. HBV diversity within each HBV-infected mother-infant pair was analyzed by direct sequencing of amplified HBsAg-encoding gene and cloning of amplified products. Results Among 3,312 HIV-1 infected pregnant women, 245 (7.4%) were HBsAg-positive, of whom 125 were HBeAg-positive. Of 230 evaluable infants born to HBsAg-positive women, 11 (4.8%) were found HBsAg and HBV DNA positive at 4–6 months; 8 were born to HBeAg-positive mothers. HBV genetic analysis was performed in 9 mother-infant pairs and showed that 5 infants were infected with maternal HBV variants harboring mutations within the HBsAg “a” determinant, and four were infected with wild-type HBV present in highly viremic mothers. Conclusions HBV-MTCT still occurs when women have high HBV DNA load and/or are infected with HBV variants. Additional interventions targeting highly viremic women are thus needed to reduce further HBV-MTCT. PMID:23916828

Khamduang, Woottichai; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Jourdain, Gonzague; Moreau, Alain; Borkird, Thitiporn; Layangool, Prapaisri; Kamonpakorn, Nareerat; Jitphiankha, Weerachai; Kwanchaipanich, Ratchanee; Potchalongsin, Sathit; Lallemant, Marc; Sirirungsi, Wasna; Goudeau, Alain

2013-01-01

21

Immunotherapy of chronic hepatitis B by anti HBV vaccine.  

PubMed

Vaccine therapy is now used in various infectious diseases. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) leads to chronic infection in around 5% of patients with a high risk of chronic active hepatitis which may result in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The partial efficacy of antiviral therapies (40% of sustained inhibition of HBV replication), their cost, their possible side effects and the immune-mediated pathology of HBV infection explain the need of new immune therapies in treating HBV infection. Experimental and clinical evidences suggest the usefulness of vaccine therapy in HBV chronic infection. In a pilot and opened study, forty-six consecutive chronic HBsAg carriers with chronic hepatitis and detectable serum HBV DNA were given 3 standard injections of the GenHevac B vaccine at one month interval. Six months after the first injection, 12 patients (26.1%) had undetectable HBV DNA while 8 others showed significant decrease (more than 50%) in HBV DNA titers. Six of these 12 responders received a standard course of alpha-Interferon (5 MU thrice weekly subcutaneously for 4 months) and all six had still undetectable HBV replication at the end of follow-up. Among the 34 non responders to vaccine, 20 were given alpha-interferon and 2 the monophosphate derivate of Vidarabine: 12 of these 22 patients stopped HBV replication and in all 12, vaccine therapy had induced a significant decrease of HBV replication before the antiviral treatment with a decrease of mean serum HBV DNA from 392 pg/ml before to 217 pg/ml after vaccine therapy. In an ongoing controlled study, using the same vaccine schedule, serum HBV DNA disappeared more frequently after 6 months, in patients who were given a preS2/S vaccine (7/35) than in patients who received a S vaccine (1/21) or no vaccine (1/32). In responders to vaccine, an induction of specific proliferative responses was observed and this may contribute to the potential efficacy of anti-HBV vaccine therapy. No side-effect or vaccine-induced escape-mutants occurred during the follow-up. In summary, serum HBV DNA disappeared in 28 of the 46 patients (60.9%) who were given vaccine therapy, with (64.2%) or without (55.6%) Interferon. These results are not different at 6 months and at the end of follow-up from those of 43 HBsAg chronic carriers who were given only an antiviral treatment. Active immune therapy against HBV appears efficient and less expensive than antiviral therapies in stopping HBV replication. Such results need to be confirmed by the completed results of our controlled, randomized trial which is now conducted in our unit. PMID:9658616

Pol, S; Couillin, I; Michel, M L; Driss, F; Nalpas, B; Carnot, F; Berthelot, P; Bréchot, C

1998-01-01

22

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Egyptian pediatric cancer patients with acute and chronic active HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Background There are eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (A-H) and subgenotypes are recognized. Genotyping can be accomplished based on a partial sequence of HBV genome such as the pre-S or S gene. Several methods have been developed and used for HBV genotyping. This study was undertaken to determine the HBV genotypes in Egyptian pediatric cancer patients with acute and chronic liver disease. Methods HBV genotypes were determined in 22 patients who had acute forms of liver disease (AH) and in 48 patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). A type-specific primer based the nested-PCR method was employed in the HBV genotyping. Results This study showed that HBV infections in pediatric cancer patients are attributed predominantly to viral genotypes D and B that constituted 37.1% and 25.7%, respectively of the total infections. In addition, there was a relatively high prevalence of mixed infections of 15.7% among the studied group especially mixed A/D genotype infections. Genotype D was found significantly more often in patients with CAH than in patients with AH [23/48(47.9%) v 3/22 (13.6%)]. Conclusion These findings show the distribution of HBV A-D genotypes in pediatric cancer Egyptian patients. Furthermore, our results indicate a markedly high prevalence of mixed A/D genotype infections in subjects with CAH and a possible association of mixed infections with the severity of liver diseases. PMID:17631684

Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Hafez, Mohamed M; Mohamed, Nahed I; Hassan, Zeinab K; El-Sayed, Manal H; Khaled, Mohsen M; Mansour, Tarek

2007-01-01

23

Evaluation of a new assay for HBV DNA quantitation in patients with chronic hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Amplicor™ HBV Monitor Test for quantitative determination of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA has recently been introduced. This assay is based on PCR and a non-radioactive hybridization and detection system on microwell plates.Objective: The performance of the Amplicor™ HBV Monitor Test was evaluated in a routine diagnostic laboratory. The Amplicor™ HBV Monoitor assay was compared to the

Harald H Kessler; Karen Pierer; Elizabeth Dragon; Herwig Lackner; Brigitte Santner; Doris Stünzner; Evelyn Stelzl; Brigitte Waitzl; Egon Marth

1998-01-01

24

An overview of molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major global public health problems. In India, HBsAg prevalence among general population ranges from 2% to 8%, placing India in intermediate HBV endemicity zone and the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be 50 million, forming the second largest global pool of chronic HBV infections. India is a vast country, comprised

Sibnarayan Datta

2008-01-01

25

Identification of a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype from Brazil that expresses HBV surface antigen subtype adw4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) from Brazil that expressed the subtype adw4 of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was cloned and sequenced. The genome, termed w4B, consists of 3215 bp. The overall genetic organization of typical hepadnaviruses with four open reading frames including the preC region was found to be conserved. When comparing the w4B sequence with

Heike Naumann; Stephan Schaefer; C. F. T. Yoshida; A. M. C. Gaspar; R. Repp; W. H. Gerlich

1993-01-01

26

An aptamer targets HBV core protein and suppresses HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis is a major health concern worldwide. As current anti-HBV therapies are limited, it is essential to develop new strategies. Aptamer, a newly developed adaptive molecule (single-strand DNA or RNA also known as nucleotide antibody), is a new strategy for clinical diagnosis and therapy due to its high affinity and specificity. In the present study, by systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX), aptamers were screened against the core protein of HBV (HBc) from a random ssDNA library. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that the binding proportions of the SELEX-enriched aptamer pools were increased with the SELEX rounds, until round seven. Thus, the pool of round seven was cloned. Following the sequence analysis of a total of 90 clones by Macaw software, five aptamer candidates were selected and their affinity to HBc was tested by dot blot. Apt.No.28, which had sequence replicates in the clones, was shown to have a high affinity. Furthermore, by agarose gel electrophoresis-capillary transfer-blotting and qPCR, Apt.No.28 was shown to inhibit the assembly of the nucleocapsid, reducing extracellular HBV DNA whose synthesis relied on the formation of the nucleocapsid, indicating its role in suppressing HBV replication. The results provided a new ideal targeting molecule and may facilitate the strategy for targeted therapy as well as drug development of HBV-related diseases. PMID:25174447

Zhang, Zuowei; Zhang, Jun; Pei, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Liu, Jie

2014-11-01

27

HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfe...

D. S. Lee

1998-01-01

28

Anti-HBV active flavone glucosides from Euphorbia humifusa Willd.  

PubMed

Thirteen flavone glucosides from the herb of Euphorbia humifusa were isolated and elucidated. Among them, five compounds including apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), apigenin-7-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), luteolin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7), luteolin-7-O-(6''-O-trans-feruloyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (8) and luteolin-7-O-(6''-O-coumaroyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside (9) showed anti-HBV activity in vitro. The structure-activity relationship showed that the parent structure was closely relevant to the anti-HBV activity of these compounds (agigenin>luteolin>quercetin). It was found that the number of glucoside in the structure may significantly influence their activities (flavone monoglucoside>flavone diglucoside) and cytotoxicity (flavone>flavone monoglucoside>flavone diglucoside). In addition, the substitution of acyl group on glucoside may be important to keep the anti-HBV activities of these compounds (galloyl>feruloyl>coumaroyl). PMID:20450964

Tian, Ying; Sun, Li-Min; Liu, Xi-Qiao; Li, Bin; Wang, Qiong; Dong, Jun-Xing

2010-10-01

29

Immunosuppressive Drugs Modulate the Replication of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in a Hydrodynamic Injection Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and recurrence are common in patients under immunosuppression and can be controlled by hepatitis B immunoglobulin, antivirals, and hepatitis B vaccine. However, the detailed analysis of HBV infection under immunosuppression is essential for the prophylaxis and therapy for HBV reactivation and recurrence. In this study, HBV replication and T cell responses were analyzed in a HBV-transfected mouse model under immunosuppressive therapy. During the treatment, HBV replication was at a high level in mice treated with dexamethasone, cyclosporine, and cyclophosphamide, whereas was terminated in mice treated with mycophenolate mofetil. After the withdrawal, HBV replication was at low or high levels in the dexamethasone-treated mice or in both cyclosporine- and cyclophosphamide-treated mice. The early withdrawal of cyclosporine allowed the recovery of suppressed T cell responses and led to subsequent HBV clearance, while the adoptive immune transfer to the mice with HBV persistence led to HBV suppression. Taken together, long-term HBV persistence under immunosuppression depends on the immunosuppressive drugs used and on the treatment duration and is mediated by the suppressed intrahepatic CD8 T cell response. These data may be helpful for individualized immunosuppressive therapy in patients with high risk of HBV reactivation and recurrence, and the mouse system is suitable for studying HBV reactivation and recurrence under immunosuppression. PMID:24465734

Huang, Shunmei; Song, Zhitao; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Ejuan; Zhu, Zhenni; Zhu, Bin; Yin, Ying; Lin, Yong; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xin; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang

2014-01-01

30

Low Prevalence of Liver Disease but Regional Differences in HBV Treatment Characteristics Mark HIV/HBV Co-Infection in a South African HIV Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in South Africa however, there is limited data on the degree of liver disease and geographic variation in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. In this study, we analysed data from the CIPRA-SA ‘Safeguard the household study’ in order to assess baseline HBV characteristics in HIV/HBV co-infection participants prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Methods 812 participants from two South African townships Soweto and Masiphumelele were enrolled in a randomized trial of ART (CIPRA-SA). Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV DNA. FIB-4 scores were calculated at baseline. Results Forty-eight (5.9%) were HBsAg positive, of whom 28 (58.3%) were HBeAg positive. Of those with HBV, 29.8% had an HBV DNA<2000 IU/ml and ALT<40 IU/ml ; 83.0% had a FIB-4 score <1.45, consistent with absent or minimal liver disease. HBV prevalence was 8.5% in Masiphumelele compared to 3.8% in Soweto (relative risk 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3–4.0). More participants in Masiphumelele had HBeAg-negative disease (58% vs. 12%, p?=?0.002) and HBV DNA levels ?2000 IU/ml, (43% vs. 6% p<0.007). Conclusion One third of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects had low HBV DNA levels and ALT while the majority had indicators of only mild liver disease. There were substantial regional differences in HBsAg and HbeAg prevalence in HIV/HBV co-infection between two regions in South Africa. This study highlights the absence of severe liver disease and the marked regional differences in HIV/HBV co-infection in South Africa and will inform treatment decisions in these populations. PMID:24324573

Ive, Prudence; MacLeod, William; Mkumla, Nompumelelo; Orrell, Catherine; Jentsch, Ute; Wallis, Carole L.; Stevens, Wendy; Wood, Robin; Sanne, Ian; Bhattacharya, Debika

2013-01-01

31

Lichen planus as a Side Effect of HBV Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferrando et al. [1]in this tissue of Dermatology report a further case of lichen planus (LP) occurring after vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV). We are aware of 18 cases [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11], including 2 observed by us and still unpublished (table 1). What could have been a coincidence in 1990 [2], should

A. Rebora; F. Rongioletti; F. Drago; A. Parodi

1999-01-01

32

The application of geographic information system in HBV genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic information system is an application engineering technology of the management and the analysis spatial data, with gathering, management, processing, and analysis of the spatial data. The geographic information system can be use to solve the complex plan and the management question. Molecular biology rapidly expands causes thorough understanding about HBV. But the research concerning the geographic distribution of

ShuQin Zhu; MiaoHeng Wang

2011-01-01

33

Genetic Editing of HBV DNA by Monodomain Human APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases and the Recombinant  

E-print Network

Genetic Editing of HBV DNA by Monodomain Human APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases and the Recombinant Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is vulnerable to editing by human cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 (A3A-H) family albeit to much lower levels than HIV cDNA. We have analyzed and compared HBV editing by all seven

Boyer, Edmond

34

Mutation spectra of the surface-protein-coding region of the HBV genome in HBV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a major effect on health care systems, with about one-third of the world’s population\\u000a currently infected with the virus. There is an effective vaccine against HBV, which contains a recombinant “surface antigen”\\u000a produced in an expression vector. Vaccination has proved to be successful in Hungary: the number of acute HBV cases has decreased\\u000a in

Katalin N. Szomor; Ágnes Dencs; Eszter Garai; Erzsébet Rusvai; György Berencsi; Mária Takács

2008-01-01

35

Knowledge of HBV and HCV and individuals' attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues: a national cross-sectional study among a working population in Japan.  

PubMed

Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005). This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. PMID:24086765

Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji

2013-01-01

36

SOCS3 expression correlates with severity of inflammation in mouse hepatitis virus strain 3-induced acute liver failure and HBV-ACLF.  

PubMed

Recently, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) has been shown to be an inducible endogenous negative regulator of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway which is relevant in inflammatory response, while its functions in acute liver failure and HBV-induced acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the role of SOCS3 in the development of mouse hepatitis virus strain 3 (MHV-3)-induced acute liver failure and its expression in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with HBV-ACLF. Inflammation-related gene expression was detected by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The correlation between SOCS3 level and liver injury was studied. Our results showed that the SOCS3 expression was significantly elevated in both the liver tissue and PBMCs from patients with HBV-ACLF compared to mild chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Moreover, a time course study showed that SOCS3 level was increased remarkably in the liver of BALB/cJ mice at 72 h post-infection. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, were also increased significantly at 72 h post-infection. There was a close correlation between hepatic SOCS3 level and IL-6, and the severity of liver injury defined by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, respectively. These data suggested that SOCS3 may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MHV-3-induced acute liver failure and HBV-ACLF. PMID:24939297

Li, Yong; Han, Mei-fang; Li, Wei-na; Shi, Ai-chao; Zhang, Yuan-ya; Wang, Hong-yan; Wang, Fa-xi; Li, Lan; Wu, Ting; Ding, Lin; Chen, Tao; Yan, Wei-ming; Luo, Xiao-ping; Ning, Qin

2014-06-01

37

The CRISPR/Cas9 System Facilitates Clearance of the Intrahepatic HBV Templates In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) under current antiviral therapy is a major barrier to eradication of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Curing CHB will require novel strategies for specific disruption of cccDNA. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is a newly developed tool for site-specific cleavage of DNA targets directed by a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) base-paired to the target DNA sequence. To examine whether this system can cleave HBV genomes, we designed eight gRNAs against HBV of genotype A. With the HBV-specific gRNAs, the CRISPR/Cas9 system significantly reduced the production of HBV core and surface proteins in Huh-7 cells transfected with an HBV-expression vector. Among eight screened gRNAs, two effective ones were identified. Interestingly, one gRNA targeting the conserved HBV sequence acted against different genotypes. Using a hydrodynamics-HBV persistence mouse model, we further demonstrated that this system could cleave the intrahepatic HBV genome-containing plasmid and facilitate its clearance in vivo, resulting in reduction of serum surface antigen levels. These data suggest that the CRISPR/Cas9 system could disrupt the HBV-expressing templates both in vitro and in vivo, indicating its potential in eradicating persistent HBV infection. PMID:25137139

Lin, Su-Ru; Yang, Hung-Chih; Kuo, Yi-Ting; Liu, Chun-Jen; Yang, Ta-Yu; Sung, Ku-Chun; Lin, You-Yu; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Yueh-Chi; Wu, Fang-Yi; Kao, Jia-Horng; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer

2014-01-01

38

The CRISPR/Cas9 System Facilitates Clearance of the Intrahepatic HBV Templates In Vivo.  

PubMed

Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) under current antiviral therapy is a major barrier to eradication of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Curing CHB will require novel strategies for specific disruption of cccDNA. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is a newly developed tool for site-specific cleavage of DNA targets directed by a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) base-paired to the target DNA sequence. To examine whether this system can cleave HBV genomes, we designed eight gRNAs against HBV of genotype A. With the HBV-specific gRNAs, the CRISPR/Cas9 system significantly reduced the production of HBV core and surface proteins in Huh-7 cells transfected with an HBV-expression vector. Among eight screened gRNAs, two effective ones were identified. Interestingly, one gRNA targeting the conserved HBV sequence acted against different genotypes. Using a hydrodynamics-HBV persistence mouse model, we further demonstrated that this system could cleave the intrahepatic HBV genome-containing plasmid and facilitate its clearance in vivo, resulting in reduction of serum surface antigen levels. These data suggest that the CRISPR/Cas9 system could disrupt the HBV-expressing templates both in vitro and in vivo, indicating its potential in eradicating persistent HBV infection. PMID:25137139

Lin, Su-Ru; Yang, Hung-Chih; Kuo, Yi-Ting; Liu, Chun-Jen; Yang, Ta-Yu; Sung, Ku-Chun; Lin, You-Yu; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Yueh-Chi; Wu, Fang-Yi; Kao, Jia-Horng; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer

2014-01-01

39

HBV life cycle is restricted in mouse hepatocytes expressing human NTCP  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed that human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1 or NTCP) is a functional cellular receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether human NTCP can support HBV infection in mouse hepatocyte cell lines has not been clarified. Because an HBV-permissible mouse model would be helpful for the study of HBV pathogenesis, it is necessary to investigate whether human NTCP supports the susceptibility of mouse hepatocyte cell lines to HBV. The results show that exogenous human NTCP expression can render non-susceptible HepG2 (human), Huh7 (human), Hepa1–6 (mouse), AML-12 (mouse) cell lines and primary mouse hepatocyte (PMH) cells susceptible to hepatitis D virus (HDV) which employs HBV envelope proteins. However, human NTCP could only introduce HBV susceptibility in human-derived HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not in mouse-derived Hepa1–6, AML-12 or PMH cells. These data suggest that although human NTCP is a functional receptor that mediates HBV infection in human cells, it cannot support HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Our study indicated that the restriction of HBV in mouse hepatocytes likely occurs after viral entry but prior to viral transcription. We have excluded the role of mouse hepatocyte nuclear factors in the restriction of the HBV life cycle and showed that knockdown or inhibition of Sting, TBK1, IRF3 or IRF7, the components of the anti-viral signaling pathways, had no effect on HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Therefore, murine restriction factors that limit HBV infection need to be identified before a HBV-permissible mouse line can be created. PMID:24509445

Li, Hanjie; Zhuang, Qiuyu; Wang, Yuze; Zhang, Tianying; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Junfang; Lin, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ningshao; Han, Jiahuai

2014-01-01

40

Modeling the adaptive immune response in HBV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate a new mathematical model that describes the interactions between Hepatitis B virus\\u000a (HBV), liver cells (hepatocytes), and the adaptive immune response. The qualitative analysis of this as cytotoxic T lymphocytes\\u000a (CTL) cells and the antibodies. These outcomes are (1) a disease free steady state, which its local stability is characterized\\u000a as usual

Noura Yousfi; Khalid Hattaf; Abdessamad Tridane

41

HBV vaccine and dermatomyositis: is there an association?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of dermatomyositis is unknown, but immune mechanisms play an important role. Several dermatological manifestations\\u000a have been reported among carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen, and after vaccination with the HBV vaccine. Almost all the\\u000a skin reactions described were peculiar skin eruptions suggestive of an immune complex reaction. Some authors described the\\u000a occurrence of dermatomyositis after BCG and influenza

Arie Altman; Martine Szyper-Kravitz; Yehuda Shoenfeld

2008-01-01

42

Pro/ENGINEER Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Graphics Communications Program at North Carolina State University provides Pro/ENGINEER Tutorials. Pro/ENGINEER is a mechanical design automation program "based on a parametric, feature-based, fully associative architecture that delivers a comprehensive suite of solutions for all areas of the development process, from a product's conceptual design and simulation through manufacturing." Eight illustrated tutorials take users step-by-step through the basics of using Pro/ENGINEER. Other sections of the site are Pro/E v20 Icon Guide, Changing Feature Specification, Creating Relation, and Creating Assemblies.

43

Pro/ENGINEER Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Graphics Communications Program at North Carolina State University provides Pro/ENGINEER Tutorials. Pro/ENGINEER is a mechanical design automation program "based on a parametric, feature-based, fully associative architecture that delivers a comprehensive suite of solutions for all areas of the development process, from a product's conceptual design and simulation through manufacturing." Eight illustrated tutorials take users step-by-step through the basics of using Pro/ENGINEER. Other sections of the site are Pro/E v20 Icon Guide, Changing Feature Specification, Creating Relation, and Creating Assemblies.

2005-11-07

44

Occult HBV Infection: A Faceless Enemy in Liver Cancer Development  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents a worldwide public health problem; the virus is present in one third of the global population. However, this rate may in fact be higher due to occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI). This condition is characterized by the presence of the viral genome in the liver of individuals sero-negative for the virus surface antigen (HBsAg). The causes of the absence of HBsAg in serum are unknown, however, mutations have been identified that produce variants not recognized by current immunoassays. Epigenetic and immunological host mechanisms also appear to be involved in HBsAg suppression. Current evidence suggests that OBI maintains its carcinogenic potential, favoring the progression of fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. In common with open HBV infection, OBI can contribute to the establishment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Epidemiological data regarding the global prevalence of OBI vary due to the use of detection methods of different sensitivity and specificity. In Latin America, which is considered an area of low prevalence for HBV, diagnostic screening methods using gene amplification tests for confirmation of OBI are not conducted. This prevents determination of the actual prevalence of OBI, highlighting the need for the implementation of cutting edge technology in epidemiological surveillance systems. PMID:24717680

Morales-Romero, Jaime; Vargas, Gustavo; Garcia-Roman, Rebeca

2014-01-01

45

Long-Term Protection against HBV Chronic Carriage of Gambian Adolescents Vaccinated in Infancy and Immune Response in HBV Booster Trial in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) arising in childhood is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in adult life. Between 1986 and 1990, approximately 120,000 Gambian newborns were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of infant HBV vaccination on the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in adulthood. These children are now in adolescence and approaching adulthood, when the

Marianne A. B. van der Sande; Pauline A. Waight; Maimuna Mendy; Syed Zaman; Steve Kaye; Omar Sam; Abi Kahn; David Jeffries; Aveika A. Akum; Andrew J. Hall; Ebrima Bah; Samuel J. McConkey; Pierre Hainaut; Hilton C. Whittle; Paul Griffiths

2007-01-01

46

An overview of molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major global public health problems. In India, HBsAg prevalence among general population ranges from 2% to 8%, placing India in intermediate HBV endemicity zone and the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be 50 million, forming the second largest global pool of chronic HBV infections. India is a vast country, comprised of multiracial communities with wide variations in ethnicity and cultural patterns, which is attributable to its geographical location, gene influx due to invasion and/or anthropological migrations in the past. Moreover, recent increase in trade, trafficking and use of illicit drugs has also considerably influenced the epidemiology of HBV, specifically in the eastern and north eastern parts of India. However, data on the molecular epidemiology of HBV in India is scanty. HBV genotypes A and D have been well documented from different parts of mainland India. Interestingly, in addition to genotypes A and D, genotype C having high nucleotide similarity with south East Asian subgenotype Cs/C1 strain, have been detected exclusively from eastern Indian HBV carriers, suggesting a recent introduction. Thus, compared to other parts of India, the molecular epidemiology of HBV is naturally distinct in eastern India. Very recently, taking the advantage of circulation of three distinct HBV genotypes within the population of eastern India, different aspects of HBV molecular epidemiology was studied that revealed very interesting results. In this study, the clinical significance of HBV genotypes, core promoter and precore mutations, possible routes of introduction of HBV genotype C in eastern India, the clinical implications of x gene variability, prevalence of the AFB1 induced p53 gene codon 249 mutation, the transmission potentiality of HBV among asymptomatic/inactive or occult HBV carriers and the genetic variability of HBV persisting in the PBL was investigated. In this manuscript, the information available on the molecular epidemiology of HBV in India has been reviewed and the results of studies among the eastern Indian population have been summarised. PMID:19099581

Datta, Sibnarayan

2008-01-01

47

Virologic and clinical characteristics of HBV genotypes/subgenotypes in 487 Chinese pediatric patients with CHB  

PubMed Central

Background The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/subgenotypes with clinical characteristics is increasingly recognized. However, the virologic and clinical features of HBV genotypes/subgenotypes in pediatric patients remain largely unknown. Methods Four hundred and eighty-seven pediatric inpatients with CHB were investigated, including 217 nucleos(t)ide analog-experienced patients. HBV genotypes/subgenotypes and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations were determined by direct sequencing. The stage of fibrosis and degree of inflammatory activity were evaluated by the Metavir score system. Results Among 487 enrolled pediatric patients, HBV genotype C2 and B2 were the most two prevalent (73.7% and 21.1%). Comparing with HBV/B2 infected patients, no significant difference was observed in the incidence rate and mutant patterns of lamivudine- or adefovir-resistant mutations in HBV/C2 infected patients (P > 0.05). Importantly, we found that the degree of hepatic inflammation degree, fibrosis stage and ALT level were significantly higher in HBV/C2-infected HBeAg positive patients than it was in HBV/B2-infected ones. Conclusions The pediatric patients with HBV/C2 infection might be more susceptible to develop severe liver pathogenesis. PMID:21961963

2011-01-01

48

Mother-to-child transmission of HBV: review of current clinical management and prevention strategies.  

PubMed

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV is responsible for approximately half of the HBV transmission routes and continues to be a challenging problem worldwide. Even after the development of effective vaccines and clear World Health Organization guidelines toward HBV several decades ago, 1-9% newborns of HBV-carrying mothers still acquire HBV in early life as a result of in utero infection. The prevention of MTCT is of high importance, because chronically infected individuals function as a reserve for sustained HBV transmission, and 25% of them can develop asymptomatic liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this article, we review the canonical and novel HBV infection routes/mechanisms, influencing factors, diagnostic criteria, and interruption strategies for HBV MTCT. The preventative strategy of HBV MTCT has evolved from routine postpartum HB immune globulin (HBIG) plus HB vaccine schedules to administration of HBIG or nucleoside analogs during pregnancy and minimizing the exposure of maternal body fluids to the newborn during delivery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24956038

Ma, Lin; Alla, Nageswara R; Li, Xiaomao; Mynbaev, Ospan A; Shi, Zhongjie

2014-11-01

49

CRTC2 enhances HBV transcription and replication by inducing PGC1? expression  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription and replication are essentially restricted to hepatocytes. Based on the HBV enhancer and promoter complex that links hepatic glucose metabolism to its transcription and replication, HBV adopts a regulatory system that is unique to the hepatic gluconeogenic genes. CRTC2, the CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2, is a critical switch modulating the gluconeogenic program in response to both hormonal and intracellular signals. However, the relationship between CRTC2 and HBV transcription and replication remains unclear. Methods To analyze the influence of CRTC2 on HBV transcription and replication, CRTC2 expression construct or siRNA was cotransfected with plasmids containing enhancer II/core promoter complex-controlled luciferase or 1.3× wtHBV genome in Huh-7 cells. Luciferase activity, HBV core protein expression, HBV transcripts, and DNA replication intermediates were measured by luciferase assays, western blots, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blots, respectively. Forskolin (FSK) or phosphorylation-defective CRTC2 mutants were further utilized to elucidate the potential mechanism. siRNA against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (PGC1?) was also used to examine the mediator involved in CRTC2-regulated HBV biosynthesis in Huh-7 cells. Results CRTC2 overexpression increased HBV transcription and replication in Huh-7 cells, including levels of core protein expression, mRNA, and DNA replication intermediates. Correspondingly, CRTC2 knock down by siRNA reduced HBV biosynthesis. FSK treatment strongly enhanced the effect of CRTC2 through triggering the dephosphorylation and nuclear entry of CRTC2. The phosphorylation-defective mutant (S171A/S275A) of CRTC2 localized in the nucleus and was constitutively active, which dramatically promoted HBV transcription and replication similar to FSK-treated wild-type CRTC2. Knock down of PGC1?, whose expression was induced by CRTC2, greatly compromised the enhancing effect of CRTC2 on HBV transcription and replication. Conclusions Our results clearly indicate that non-phosphorylated CRTC2 strongly enhances HBV biosynthesis through inducing PGC1? expression. Further study of the mechanisms will elucidate the importance of metabolic signals on HBV transcription and replication, and offer insight into potential targets for developing anti-HBV agents. PMID:24529027

2014-01-01

50

A Fusion DNA Vaccine Encoding Middle Version of HBV Envelope Protein Fused to Interleukin-21 Did Not Enhance HBV-Specific Immune Response in Mice.  

PubMed

Abstract DNA vaccination can generate both humoral and cellular immunity, resulting in potential prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines in variety of conditions, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Fusion of cytokine gene is one of the ways to increase the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine. Interleukin (IL)-21 has been demonstrated to play an immunomodulatory role in HBV infection. Thus, we aimed to investigate the ability of IL-21 in the regulation of middle version of HBV envelop protein (MS) DNA vaccine. Fusion plasmid encoding IL-21 linked with MS was constructed. Normal and HBV transgenic mice were immunized by plasmid. pcDNA-IL-21/S2S induced a comparable level of anti-HBs antibody and HBsAg-specific CD8+ T-cell response with pcDNA-S2S. Furthermore, the level of circulating HBsAg was decreased by induction of anti-HBs antibody and HBsAg-specific CD8+ T-cell response to both pcDNA-IL-21/S2S and pcDNA-S2S vaccination in HBV transgenic mice. Thus, immunization with DNA vaccine encoding HBV MS protein induced both T- and B-cell response by targeting the specific antigen. Furthermore, it was also revealed that MS DNA vaccination could break immune tolerance in HBV transgenic mice. But IL-21 did not strengthen immune response induced by HBV DNA immunization. Our study suggested that MS-expressing plasmid may be useful for both preventive and therapeutic methods in HBV infection. However, IL-21 does not improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of MS DNA vaccination, and thus may not be used as a therapeutic marker for chronic hepatitis B. PMID:25211639

Zhang, Ye; Su, Wen-Jing; Wang, Jue; Bai, Xue-Fan; Huang, Chang-Xing; Lian, Jian-Qi

2014-11-01

51

C-Terminal Substitution of HBV Core Proteins with Those from DHBV Reveals That Arginine-Rich 167RRRSQSPRR175 Domain Is Critical for HBV Replication  

PubMed Central

To investigate the contributions of carboxyl-terminal nucleic acid binding domain of HBV core (C) protein for hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, chimeric HBV C proteins were generated by substituting varying lengths of the carboxyl-terminus of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) C protein for the corresponding regions of HBV C protein. All chimeric C proteins formed core particles. A chimeric C protein with 221–262 amino acids of DHBV C protein, in place of 146–185 amino acids of the HBV C protein, supported HBV pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) encapsidation and DNA synthesis: 40% amino acid sequence identity or 45% homology in the nucleic-acid binding domain of HBV C protein was sufficient for pgRNA encapsidation and DNA synthesis, although we predominantly detected spliced DNA. A chimeric C protein with 221–241 and 251–262 amino acids of DHBV C, in place of HBV C 146–166 and 176–185 amino acids, respectively, could rescue full-length DNA synthesis. However, a reciprocal C chimera with 242–250 of DHBV C (242RAGSPLPRS250) introduced in place of 167–175 of HBV C (167RRRSQSPRR175) significantly decreased pgRNA encapsidation and DNA synthesis, and full-length DNA was not detected, demonstrating that the arginine-rich 167RRRSQSPRR175 domain may be critical for efficient viral replication. Five amino acids differing between viral species (underlined above) were tested for replication rescue; R169 and R175 were found to be important. PMID:22911745

Kim, Taeyeung; Shin, Bo-Hye; Park, Gil-Soon; Park, Sun; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin

2012-01-01

52

Effectiveness of HBV Vaccination in Infants and Prediction of HBV Prevalence Trend under New Vaccination Plan: Findings of a Large-Scale Investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a severe public health problem. Investigating its prevalence and trends is essential to prevention. Methods To evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination under the 1992 Intervention Program for infants and predicted HBV prevalence trends under the 2011 Program for all ages. We conducted a community-based investigation of 761,544 residents of 12 counties in Zhejiang Province selected according to their location, population density, and economic development. The HBV prevalence trends were predicted by a time-shifting approach. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) were determined. Results Of the 761,544 persons screened for HBsAg, 54,132 were positive (adjusted carrier rate 6.13%); 9,455 had both elevated ALT and a positive HBsAg test (standardized rate 1.18%). The standardized HBsAg carrier rate for persons aged ?20 years was 1.51%. Key factors influencing HBV infection were sex, age, family history, drinking, smoking, employment as a migrant worker, and occupation. With the vaccination program implemented in 2011, we predict that by 2020, the HBsAg carrier rate will be 5.27% and that for individuals aged ?34 years will reach the 2% upper limit of low prevalence according to the WHO criteria, with a standardized rate of 1.86%. Conclusions The national HBV vaccination program for infants implemented in 1992 has greatly reduced the prevalence of HBV infection. The 2011 program is likely to reduce HBV infection in Zhejiang Province to a low moderate prevalence, and perinatal transmission is expected to be controlled by 2020. PMID:23094094

Yang, Shi-gui; Wang, Bing; Chen, Ping; Yu, Cheng-bo; Deng, Min; Yao, Jun; Zhu, Chun-xia; Ren, Jing-jing; Wu, Wei; Ju, Bin; Shen, Jian-feng; Chen, Yu; Li, Ming D.; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

2012-01-01

53

Reporting PRO Findings  

Cancer.gov

Best Practices for Integrating Patient Reported Outcomes in Oncology Clinical Trials This webinar series is a collaboration of the International Society for Quality of Life Research and the National Cancer Institute. Session 6: How to report PRO study

54

ProSound News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ProSound News is an online source for news and information in all facets of the recording industry. News articles are added frequently throughout each business day. In addition to providing appropriate news coverage, the site also features classifieds and an industry calendar. The archives of their news section contains news dating back to 2003. ProSound News is a service of United Entertainment Media.

2006-11-27

55

Changing epidemiology of HBV infection in Danish children.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B continues to be a worldwide threat to human health, especially if infection occurs in childhood. Universal vaccination is recommended by WHO, but has not been implemented in the Scandinavian countries, Holland and UK, because of a low incidence rate. However, clinically overt infections are rare in childhood. We therefore performed a nation wide serosurvey for HBV markers in 2428 children aged primarily 6-16 years from 16 primary schools in Denmark. Anti-HBc was found in altogether 20 children (0.8%), 12 of whom were among 144 immigrant children (8.3%) compared to 8 (0.4%) in those born in Denmark. Three of the children, all immigrants, were HBsAg positive indicating chronic infection. At school level no relation of anti-HBc in Danish born children was found to schools with high number of immigrant children or schools with HBsAg positive children indicating a low risk of Hepatitis B transmission in this setting. The results do not support implementation of general vaccination, but stress the need for HBV screening in immigrants as it provides a mean for immunization of close contacts at risk and information on prevention. PMID:12963385

Gjørup, I E; Skinhøj, P; Böttiger, B; Plesner, A-M

2003-10-01

56

Lipopolysaccharide, immune activation, and liver abnormalities in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected individuals receiving HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between microbial translocation, immune activation, and liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14, CXCL10, and CCL-2 levels were elevated in patients with HIV/HBV coinfection. Levels of LPS, soluble CD14, and CCL-2 declined following receipt of HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the CXCL10 level remained elevated. No markers were associated with liver disease severity on liver biopsy (n = 96), but CXCL10, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor ?, and interferon ? (IFN-?) were all associated with elevated liver enzyme levels during receipt of HBV-active cART. Stimulation of hepatocyte cell lines in vitro with IFN-? and LPS induced a profound synergistic increase in the production of CXCL10. LPS may contribute to liver disease via stimulating persistent production of CXCL10. PMID:24585898

Crane, Megan; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Rajasuriar, Reena; Velayudham, Pushparaj; Iser, David; Solomon, Ajantha; Sebolao, Baotuti; Tran, Andrew; Spelman, Tim; Matthews, Gail; Cameron, Paul; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Dore, Gregory J; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Lewin, Sharon R

2014-09-01

57

Efficacy of Lamivudine or Entecavir against Virological Rebound after Achieving HBV DNA Negativity in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients  

PubMed Central

Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) lead to viral suppression and undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in some individuals infected with HBV, but the rate of virological rebound has been unknown in such patients. We examined the prevalence of virological rebound of HBV DNA among NA-treated patients with undetectable HBV DNA. We retrospectively analyzed 303 consecutive patients [158 entecavir (ETV)- and 145 lamivudine (LAM)-treated] who achieved HBV DNA negativity, defined as HBV DNA < 3.7 log IU/mL for at least 3 months. They were followed up and their features, including their rates of viral breakthrough, were determined. Viral rebound after HBV DNA negativity was not observed in the ETV-group. Viral rebound after HBV DNA negativity occurred in 38.7% of 62 HBe antigen-positive patients in the LAM-group. On multivariate analysis, age was an independent factor for viral breakthrough among these patients (P = 0.035). Viral rebound after HBV DNA negativity occurred in 29.1% of 79 HBe antigen-negative patients in the LAM-group. Differently from LAM, ETV could inhibit HBV replication once HBV DNA negativity was achieved. In contrast, LAM could not inhibit HBV replication even if HBV negativity was achieved in the early phase. Attention should be paid to these features in clinical practice. PMID:23569428

Miyauchi, Tomoo; Kanda, Tatsuo; Shinozaki, Masami; Kamezaki, Hidehiro; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Kato, Kazuki; Arai, Makoto; Mikami, Shigeru; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Michio; Goto, Nobuaki; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

2013-01-01

58

College of Dentistry PRO Prosthodontics  

E-print Network

for these patients. Clinic, 110 hours. Prereq: PRO 821; coreq: PRO 830. PRO 834 PRECLINICAL RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY III using manikins. Knowledge gained in previous restorative dentistry courses are applied to more extensiveCollege of Dentistry PRO Prosthodontics KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

MacAdam, Keith

59

Adherence to the screening program for HBV infection in pregnant women delivering in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection (HBV) is a major Public Health Problem. Perinatal transmission can be prevented with the identification of HBsAg(+) women and administration of immunoprophylaxis to their newborns. A national prevention programme for HBV with universal screening of pregnant women and vaccination of infants is in effect since 1998 in Greece. METHODS: To evaluate adherence to the national guidelines,

Vassiliki Papaevangelou; Christos Hadjichristodoulou; Dimitrios Cassimos; Maria Theodoridou

2006-01-01

60

Assessment of the COBAS Amplicor HBV Monitor Test for Quantitation of Serum Hepatitis B Virus DNA Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with potent antiviral therapy often results in dramatic reductions in the levels of viremia to very low levels. Monitoring of serum HBV DNA levels is a consistent method for the assessment of antiviral potency; however, widely used hybridization assays for the monitoring of HBV DNA levels have limited sensitivities and

Vincent A. Lopez; Eric J. Bourne; Michael W. Lutz; Lynn D. Condreay

61

A new and sensitive method for the quantification of HBV cccDNA by real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The persistence of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in liver cells is believed to be the major reason for relapse after completion of HBV antiviral therapy. Up to now, there is no sensitive method to quantify cccDNA in infected liver cells. We designed a set of primers to specifically amplify DNA fragments from HBV cccDNA

Ming-Liang He; Jun Wu; Ying Chen; Marie C Lin; George K. K Lau; Hsiang-fu Kung

2002-01-01

62

Comodo Firewall Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are wary of Trojan viruses and marauding hackers, then this version of Comodo Pro Firewall is worth checking out. The application includes tabs that allow users to customize some of its main features, and while the user interface isn't too fancy, it's still fairly easy to use. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP or Vista.

2008-01-01

63

The Intracellular HBV DNAs as Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers for the Clinical Diagnosis of Occult HBV Infection in HBeAg Negative Hepatocellular Carcinoma in China.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the virological status in liver (both tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissue), the clinical features and the contribution of occult HBV infection (OBI) to postoperative prognosis in HBeAg-negative(-) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in China. Using quantitative TaqMan fluorescent real-time PCR assays, HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and total DNA (tDNA) were both quantified in 11 (HBsAg(-)) and 57 (HBsAg-positive(+)) pairs of tumor tissue (TT) and adjacent non-tumor tissue (ANTT) obtained from HBeAg(-) HCC patients who received no antiviral treatment and were negative for anti-HCV before surgical treatment. Of 11 HBsAg(-) patients, 36% were with HBsAb(+) HBeAb(+) HBcAb(+). However, only 9% of the HBsAg(-) patients were HBsAb(-) HBeAb(+) HBcAb(+), which accounted for the majority (93%) in the HBsAg(+) group. TT and ANTT HBV tDNAs in 11 HCC patients with HBsAg (-) and HBeAg (-) were all detectable. HBV cccDNA and tDNA were all lower in the HBsAg(-) group than those in the HBsAg(+) group. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with OBI were associated with a lower risk of cirrhosis and better overall survival (OS). The intracellular HBV DNAs, such as HBV cccDNA and tDNA are valuable biological markers for the diagnosis of occult HBV infection in HCC patients. This would assist the clinical implementation of a more personalized therapy for viral re-activation control and improve the survival rate of OBI patients. PMID:25229710

Wang, Hui; Fang, Meng; Gu, Xing; Ji, Qiang; Li, Dongdi; Cheng, Shu-Qun; Shen, Feng; Gao, Chun-Fang

2014-01-01

64

Exploring the Therapeutic Potentials of iNKT Cells for Anti-HBV Treatment  

PubMed Central

CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a group of innate-like regulatory T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Both mouse modeling experiments and human clinical studies have suggested a key role for iNKT cells in anti-HBV immunity and these potent T cells can be explored as a novel therapeutic target for anti-HBV treatment. We aim to humanize mice in the CD1d/iNKT cell lipid presentation system and provide new research tools for identifying novel anti-HBV agents.

Lawrenczyk, Agnieszka; Kim, Seil; Wen, Xiangshu; Xiong, Ran; Yuan, Weiming

2014-01-01

65

Share My Screen Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you work with people all over the country or the world, it can be hard to share information and visuals quickly. Share My Screen Pro allows users to do just that, complete with two way audio and instant messaging. Visitors can watch a short video here to get oriented and after that, it's rather easy to get started with the program. This version is compatible with all computers running Windows 2000 and newer as well as iOS and Android phones.

2013-07-18

66

Pro-Poor Tourism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), an independent, UK-based, think tank, this site contains a selection of resources related to pro-poor tourism (PPT). Different than "sustainable tourism" and related initiatives, PPT is defined simply as "tourism that generates net benefits for the poor." At this site, visitors can learn more about PPT and read case studies, a report, a policy briefing, working papers, and other publications.

67

Inducible expression of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in stably transfected hepatoblastoma cells: a novel system for screening potential inhibitors of HBV replication.  

PubMed Central

We report the development and isolation of a cell line, termed HepAD38, that replicates human hepatitis B virus (HBV) under conditions that can be regulated with tetracycline. In the presence of the antibiotic, this cell line is free of virus due to the repression of pregenomic (pg) RNA synthesis. Upon removal of tetracycline from the culture medium, the cells express viral pg RNA, accumulate subviral particles in the cytoplasm that contain DNA intermediates characteristic of viral replication, and secrete virus-like particles into the supernatant. Since the HepAD38 cell line can produce high levels of HBV DNA, it should be useful for analyses of the viral replication cycle that depend upon viral DNA synthesis in a synchronized fashion. In addition, this cell line has been formatted into a high-throughput, cell-based assay that permits the large-scale screening of diverse compound libraries for new classes of inhibitors of HBV replication. PMID:9257747

Ladner, S K; Otto, M J; Barker, C S; Zaifert, K; Wang, G H; Guo, J T; Seeger, C; King, R W

1997-01-01

68

[Nosocomial transfer of HBV and HCV by public health workers].  

PubMed

Transmission of HBV and HCV from people who work in medical professions to their patients is still an unsolved hygienic and legal problem. In Germany, cases of nosocomial hepatitis virus infection in health care units have received great public interest. Medical examinations of the employees according to occupational safety regulations aim at the employees only. Legal regulations including regulations of the European Union limit the purpose of these examinations on safety and health of the employees. These examinations do not serve the safety of patients. Protection against infections is regulated by the relevant German public health law, however regulations--especially those that concern the protection of the public--are incomplete. In Germany it is mandatory to inform the public health departments only in cases of acute hepatitis. Doctors do not need to give information about chronic liver infections. This may lead to the situation that a health care worker is unaware of a chronic, potentially infectious condition and his immunological status may remain unknown for a long period. Examinations in occupational medicine cannot solve this problem. In order to improve the protection of the public, there is a need to extend the regulations concerning the notification of chronic hepatitis and to implement solutions for this difficult and sensible problem in Germany. PMID:12751011

Fischer, F; Nauert, T

2003-04-01

69

Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific Islander Should Know About Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Pacific Islander should know about hepatitis B and liver cancer Unite against HBV. Jade represents good health ... with chronic hepatitis B and liver cancer. Asian Liver Center at Stanford University 780 Welch Road, CJ ...

70

Sorafenib Combined With Transarterial Chemoembolization in Treating HBV-infected Patients With Intermediate Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

PHENYTOIN/SORAFENIB [VA Drug Interaction]; Liver Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Liver Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; DOXORUBICIN/TRASTUZUMAB [VA Drug Interaction]; HBV

2012-04-24

71

Characterization of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in patients from Rondônia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be classified into nine genotypes (A-I) defined by sequence divergence of more than 8% based on the complete genome. This study aims to identify the genotypic distribution of HBV in 40 HBsAg-positive patients from Rondônia, Brazil. A fragment of 1306 bp partially comprising surface and polymerase overlapping genes was amplified by PCR. Amplified DNA

Alcione O Santos; Mónica V Alvarado-Mora; Lívia Botelho; Deusilene S Vieira; João R Rebello Pinho; Flair J Carrilho; Eduardo R Honda; Juan M Salcedo

2010-01-01

72

New anti-HBV caryophyllane-type sesquiterpenoids from Euphorbia humifusa Willd.  

PubMed

Activity-guided fractionation of Euphorbia humifusa for anti-HBV activity led to the isolation of two novel sesquiterpenoids, named humifusane A (1) and humifusane B (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectral data to show that they have a caryophyllane-type precursor structure. The two new sesquiterpenoids showed anti-HBV activities through specifically inhibiting the secretion of HBsAg in HepG2.2.15. PMID:20940034

Tian, Ying; Sun, Li-Min; Li, Bin; Liu, Xi-Qiao; Dong, Jun-Xing

2011-03-01

73

Pre-, pro- and synbiotics.  

PubMed

Approximately 70% of the immune system is localized in the gastrointestinal tract. The saliva and gastrointestinal secretions, as well as flora (probiotics) and supplied fibres (prebiotics), are important for optimal function. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to influence the immune system through several molecular mechanisms. Pre-, pro- and synbiotics (products produced by fermentation) offer both protection against and cure of a variety of endemic and acute diseases. This review summarizes the present experience in various forms of diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease, and Helicobacter infections, in intensive care patients and in connection with extensive surgery. PMID:11706296

Bengmark, S

2001-11-01

74

ProVoc  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning a new language can be daunting, but this handy application can make this process a bit friendlier. With ProVoc, users can download existing vocabulary sets for English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Danish, and dozens of other languages. After that, they can run through these words at their leisure on their computer or their iPod for convenience. Finally, the site also includes a FAQ section that answers any number of topical questions about the application. This version is compatible with computers running Mac OS X 10.3 and newer.

2007-01-01

75

Comparison of Abbott and Da-an real-time PCR for quantitating serum HBV DNA  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare the performance of the Da-an real-time hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA assay and Abbott RealTime HBV assay. METHODS: HBV DNA standards as well as a total of 180 clinical serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B were measured using the Abbott and Da-an real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Correlation and Bland-Altman plot analysis was used to compare the performance of the Abbott and Da-an assays. The HBV DNA levels were logarithmically transformed for analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0. The correlation between the two assays was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and linear regression. The Bland-Altman plots were used for the analysis of agreement between the two assays. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The HBV DNA values measured by the Abbott or Da-an assay were significantly correlated with the expected values of HBV DNA standards (r = 0.999, for Abbott; r = 0.987, for Da-an, P < 0.001). A Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between these two assays in detecting HBV DNA standards. Among the 180 clinical serum samples, 126 were quantifiable by both assays. Fifty-two samples were detectable by the Abbott assay but below the detection limit of the Da-an assay. Moreover, HBV DNA levels measured by the Abbott assay were significantly higher than those of the Da-an assay (6.23 ± 1.76 log IU/mL vs 5.46 ± 1.55 log IU/mL, P < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between HBV DNA concentrations determined by the two assays in 126 paired samples (r = 0.648, P < 0.001). One hundred and fifteen of 126 (91.3%) specimens tested with both assays were within mean difference ± 1.96 SD of HBV DNA levels. CONCLUSION: The Da-an assay presented lower sensitivity and a narrower linear range as compared to the Abbott assay, suggesting the need to be improved. PMID:25206280

Qiu, Ning; Li, Rui; Yu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Wei; An, Yong; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

2014-01-01

76

Quantitation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the liver of HBV-infected patients by LightCycler™ real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antivirals for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reduce viral load and improve liver histology, however, their effect on covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the HBV transcriptional template, has not been extensively examined. This study evaluated a newly designed LightCycler™-based quantitative cccDNA PCR assay. A linear range of 2.5×101 to 1×109 copies\\/assay using primers specific for HBV cccDNA and 2.5×101 to 2×109

Madhu Singh; Annie Dicaire; Adil E Wakil; Carolyn Luscombe; Stephen L Sacks

2004-01-01

77

Liver type I regulatory T cells suppress germinal center formation in HBV-tolerant mice  

PubMed Central

The liver plays a critical role in inducing systemic immune tolerance, for example, during limiting hypersensitivity to food allergy and in rendering acceptance of allotransplant or even hepatotropic pathogens. We investigated the unknown mechanisms of liver tolerance by using an established hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse model, and found that these mice exhibited an antigen-specific tolerance toward peripheral HBsAg vaccination, showing unenlarged draining lymph node (DLN), lower number of germinal centers (GC), and inactivation of GC B cells and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Both in vivo and in vitro immune responses toward HBsAg were suppressed by mononuclear cells from HBV-carrier mice, which were CD4+ Foxp3? type 1 regulatory T (Tr1)-like cells producing IL-10. Using recipient Rag1?/? mice, hepatic Tr1-like cells from day 7 of HBV-persistent mice acquired the ability to inhibit anti-HBV immunity 3 d earlier than splenic Tr1-like cells, implying that hepatic Tr1-like cells were generated before those in spleen. Kupffer cell depletion or IL-10 deficiency led to impairment of Tr1-like cell generation, along with breaking HBV persistence. The purified EGFP+CD4+ T cells (containing Tr1-like cells) from HBV-carrier mice trafficked in higher numbers to DLN in recipient mice after HBsAg vaccination, and subsequently inactivated both Tfh cells and GC B cells via secreting IL-10, resulting in impaired GC formation and anti-HB antibody production. Thus, our results indicate Tr1-like cells migrate from the liver to the DLN and inhibit peripheral anti-HBV immunity by negatively regulating GC B cells and Tfh cells. PMID:24089450

Xu, Long; Yin, Wenwei; Sun, Rui; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

2013-01-01

78

Effectiveness of a Culturally Integrated Liver Cancer Education in Improving HBV Knowledge Among Asian Americans  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effectiveness of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) educational program in increasing HBV knowledge. Methods Using a cluster randomized control trial to recruit participants from the community-based organization in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area; a total of 877 Asian American participants completed a self-administered pretest. HBV knowledge was the outcome measure. The intervention group received a 30-minute educational program. After the educational program, the intervention group completed post-education survey. Six months after the education, all participants were followed by phone. Results The intervention group showed significantly higher knowledge scores than the control group at the 6-months follow-up (between-group difference was 1.44 for knowledge of transmission modes and 0.59 for sequelae, p < 0.01). For the intervention group, the increase in knowledge of HBV transmission modes in post-education was much higher than that at the 6-month follow-up (4.18 vs. 2.07), p < 0.01) compared to baseline. Age was also an important factor on the educational effect: Those older than 60 years reported the lowest scores in all three points. Conclusions Findings suggest that this culturally integrated liver cancer educational program increased HBV knowledge. Differential strategies are needed to target age groups, separately educating those younger and those older. PMID:23159302

Juon, Hee-Soon; Park, Byung Joon

2012-01-01

79

128 Cure of HBV infection: can APOBEC3 deaminases mediate it?  

PubMed Central

Current antivirals cannot efficiently control but not eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the 300 million carriers at risk to develop liver diseases and cancer, because HBV establishes a stable nuclear cccDNA in infected hepatocytes. Interferon can clear HBV but therapeutic dosing is limited by side effects. We found a mechanism by which nuclear viral DNA can specifically be degraded. In HBV-infected cells and primary human hepatocytes, human liver-needle biopsies and in vivo mouse models, interferon and even at much lower doses lymphotoxin—receptor activation up-regulated nuclear APOBEC3 family deaminases. Cytidine-deamination resulted in apurinic/apyrimidinic site formation and finally cccDNA degradation. No deamination was detected in genomic DNA since HBV-core protein targeted the APOBEC3 protein to cccDNA. Inducing nuclear APOBEC3 deaminases eg, by triggering the lymphotoxin—receptor pathway will be of high interest for the development of new therapeutics. The combination with existing antivirals shows great promise to eliminate the virus in chronic hepatitis B.

Protzer, Ulrike

2014-01-01

80

Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains ?cta1, ?gsh1 and ?oye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in ?sod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

Ignea, Codru?a; Doroban?u, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

2013-12-15

81

Age-Dependent Immune Events during HBV Infection from Birth to Adulthood: An Alternative Interpretation  

PubMed Central

Immune responses change during the life of an individual. While this concept has been well accepted for adaptive immunity, only recently it is becoming clear that the innate immune responses also acquire distinct features in different phases of life. We believe that this concept can offer a different interpretation of the pathological manifestations that can be observed in HBV-infected subjects during the patient’s life. Here, we will review the age-related immunopathological features of HBV infection and discuss how the different virological and clinical manifestations might be linked to the developmental pathway of the immune system from newborns to adults. We will discuss how the age of patients can affect the degree of inflammatory responses, but not the levels of antiviral specific immunity. We then propose that the different clinical manifestations occurring during the natural history of HBV infection are related to the host ability to trigger an inflammatory immune response. PMID:25295036

Bertoletti, Antonio; Hong, Michelle

2014-01-01

82

A Rare HBV Subgenotype D4 with Unique Genomic Signatures Identified in North-Eastern India -An Emerging Clinical Challenge?  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims HBV has been classified into ten genotypes (A–J) and multiple subgenotypes, some of which strongly influence disease outcome and their distribution also correlate with human migration. HBV infection is highly prevalent in India and its diverse population provides an excellent opportunity to study the distinctiveness of HBV, its evolution and disease biology in variegated ethnic groups. The North-East India, having international frontiers on three sides, is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse region of the country. Given the paucity of information on molecular epidemiology of HBV in this region, the study aimed to carry out an in-depth genetic characterization of HBV prevailing in North-East state of Tripura. Methods From sera of chronically HBV infected patients biochemical/serological tests, HBV DNA quantification, PCR-amplification, sequencing of PreS/S or full-length HBV genomes were done. HBV genotype/subgenotype determination and sequence variability were assessed by MEGA5-software. The evolutionary divergence times of different HBV subgenotypes were estimated by DNAMLK/PHYLIP program while jpHMM method was used to detect any recombination event in HBV genomes. Results HBV genotypes D (89.5%), C (6.6%) and A (3.9%) were detected among chronic carriers. While all HBV/A and HBV/C isolates belonged to subgenotype-A1 and C1 respectively, five subgenotypes of HBV/D (D1–D5) were identified including the first detection of rare D4. These non-recombinant Indian D4 (IndD4) formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, had 2.7% nucleotide divergence and recent evolutionary radiation than other global D4. Ten unique amino acids and 9 novel nucleotide substitutions were identified as IndD4 signatures. All IndD4 carried T120 and R129 in ORF-S that may cause immune/vaccine/diagnostic escape and N128 in ORF-P, implicated as compensatory Lamivudine resistance mutation. Conclusions IndD4 has potential to undermine vaccination programs or anti-viral therapy and its introduction to North-East India is believed to be linked with the settlement of ancient Tibeto-Burman migrants from East-Asia. PMID:25295865

Banerjee, Priyanka; Mondal, Rajiv Kumar; Nandi, Madhuparna; Ghosh, Sumantra; Khatun, Mousumi; Chakraborty, Nabendu; Bhattacharya, Swatilekha; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Banerjee, Soma; Santra, Amal; Sil, Samir; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Bhaumik, Pradip; Datta, Simanti

2014-01-01

83

Association between HCV and HBV infection in hepatocellular carcinoma and alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective study in 229 patients to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) according to the type of liver disease and also the serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) status. There were 55 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 78 cases of alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) and 96 cases of non-cirrhotic alcohol liver disease (NCA). Half the AC and NCA groups were constituted of patients with or without serum HBV markers. The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies in HCC (58.2%) was significantly higher than in the other groups (AC, 35.9%; NCA, 17.7%). Combining the two AC and NCA groups gave a 25.8% anti-HCV prevalence in the alcoholics. Altogether anti-HCV antibodies were more frequently present in HBV-positive than in HBV-negative patients (42.2 vs. 26.1%, p less than 0.01), although the difference was not significant when the HCC group was separately analysed. The S/N ratio of anti-HCV-positive samples varied according to the type of the disease (tumorous vs. non-tumorous) and to the serum HBV status. Indeed, 65.6% of HCC had a S/N greater than 4 compared to only 32.2 and 23.5% in AC and NCA, respectively (p less than 0.01). On the other hand more than half of the AC and NCA had a S/N less than 2, indicating possible artefacts in certain cases. The 15 HBsAg and anti-HCV-positive patients had a significantly lower mean S/N than patients displaying only antibodies against HBV, even in the HCC group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1848875

Nalpas, B; Driss, F; Pol, S; Hamelin, B; Housset, C; Brechot, C; Berthelot, P

1991-01-01

84

Evolutionary analysis of HBV "S" antigen genetic diversity in Iranian blood donors: a nationwide study.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of the HBV S gene has a significant impact on the prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B infection. The effect of selective pressure on this genetic alteration has not yet been studied in Iranian blood donors. To explore HBV evolution and to analyze the effects and patterns of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutations on blood screening assays, 358 Iranian blood donors diagnosed as asymptomatic HBV carriers were enrolled in this nationwide study. Large S and partial S genes were amplified and sequenced. HBV (sub) genotypes and synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations were investigated. The impact of naturally occurring mutations on HBsAg ELISA results was explored. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that isolated strains were of genotype D. The dominant subgenotype/subtype was D1/ayw2. Deletions and naturally occurring stop codons in the pre-S1 and major hydrophilic region (MHR) were identified. In total, 32.8% of the studied strains harbored 195 single or multiple mutations in the MHR, the majority of which were located at the first loop of the "a determinant" domain. The ayw2 subtype showed a significant effect on the ELISA signal/cut-off value and carried fewer mutations in the MHR. Nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution value indicated that negative selection was the dominant evolutionary force in the HBV S gene. This nationwide study revealed that mutation frequency of HBsAg among Iranian blood donors was much higher than previous reports from the different local regions. These findings regarding the significant differences in reactivity of ELISA among different subtypes of HBV and its correlation with the number of mutations at the MHR will be valuable to public health authorities. PMID:24150816

Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Sharifi, Zohre; Soleimani, Ali; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Sijmons, Steven; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Karimi, Gharib; Lemey, Philippe; Maes, Piet; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Van Ranst, Marc

2014-01-01

85

Effect of fibronectin on HBV infection in primary human fetal hepatocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fibronectin (FN) on primary cultured human fetal hepatocytes infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro. Human fetal hepatocytes infected by HBV were cultured on culture dishes coated with FN in vitro. HBsAg and HBeAg in supernatants were detected by ELISA, HBcAg in nuclei by immunohistochemistry, HBV DNA by fluorescent quantitative PCR and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) by nested PCR. The results were compared with cells cultured on dishes that were not coated with FN. Positivity for HBsAg and HBeAg in supernatants appeared from day 5 on the non-coated dishes, while positivity for HBsAg and HBeAg appeared from day 1 on the coated dishes. Positivity for HBcAg in the nuclei on the non?coated dishes was displayed from day 2 with a positive rate of 15%, while positivity for HBcAg on the coated dishes was displayed from day 1 with a positive rate of >90%. HBV DNA in cells on the non-coated dishes was detected from day 4, while that on the coated dishes was detected from day 1. The non-coated dishes were positive for cccDNA from day 8, while the coated dishes were positive from day 2. FN coating is capable of accelerating HBV infection in primary cultured fetal hepatocytes in vitro, increasing the duration of HBV infection and the number of infected cells. PMID:22895745

Wang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jing; Hui, Ling; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Xiaohong

2012-11-01

86

HBV Induced HCC: Major Risk Factors from Genetic to Molecular Level  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly and emerging disease leading to death in Asian countries. High hepatitis B virus (HBV) load and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection increase the risk of developing HCC. HBV is a DNA virus that can integrate DNA into host genome thereby increase the yield of transactivator protein HBxAg that may deregulate many pathways involving in metabolism of cells. Several monogenic and polygenic risk factors are also involved in HCC development. This review summarizes the mechanism involved in HCC development and discusses some promising therapies to make HCC curative. PMID:23991421

Ayub, Ambreen; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Haque, Asma

2013-01-01

87

MHC Class I Presented T Cell Epitopes as Potential Antigens for Therapeutic Vaccine against HBV Chronic Infection.  

PubMed

Approximately 370 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite the success of the prophylactic HBV vaccine, no therapeutic vaccine or other immunotherapy modality is available for treatment of chronically infected individuals. Clearance of HBV depends on robust, sustained CD8(+) T activity; however, the limited numbers of therapeutic vaccines tested have not induced such a response. Most of these vaccines have relied on peptide prediction algorithms to identify MHC-I epitopes or characterization of T cell responses during acute infection. Here, we took an immunoproteomic approach to characterize MHC-I restricted epitopes from cells chronically infected with HBV and therefore more likely to represent the true targets of CD8(+) T cells during chronic infection. In this study, we identified eight novel MHC-I restricted epitopes derived from a broad range of HBV proteins that were capable of activating CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, five of the eight epitopes were able to bind HLA-A2 and A24 alleles and activated HBV specific T cell responses. These epitopes also have potential as new tools to characterize T cell immunity in chronic HBV infection and may serve as candidate antigens for a therapeutic vaccine against HBV infection. PMID:24971174

Comber, Joseph D; Karabudak, Aykan; Shetty, Vivekananda; Testa, James S; Huang, Xiaofang; Philip, Ramila

2014-01-01

88

Management of the HBV reactivation in isolated HBcAb positive patients affected with Non Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Occult HBV infection (OBI) is defined by the persistence of HBV in the liver without serum HBsAg and HBVDNA. It represents a life-threatening event during immunosuppressive chemotherapies. An OBI occurs in approximately 18% of HBcAb?+?patients. International guidelines suggest surveillance for HBV markers in immunosuppressed patients. In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), the prevalence of OBI reactivation remains to be established. Methods In order to determine the prevalence of occult HBV reactivation in a large cohort of patients during chemotherapy for NHL, we analysed 498 NHL patients in a centre of Southern Italy. We evaluated HBV markers, NHL type, treatment type and occurrence of HBV reactivation. Results Forty % of patients were treated with monoclonal antibodies and 60.3% without. Ninety-six patients were HBcAb+, HBsAg-. HBV reactivation occurred in ten subjects of this subgroup. All of them were successfully treated with Lamivudine. None of the patients experienced liver-related death. The prevalence of OBI reactivation was of 10.42% in HBcAb?+?HBsAb- patients. This event occurred in 50% of patients treated with mild immunosuppressive therapies. Each reactivation was treated with Lamivudine. Discussion This report suggests that a strict surveillance is important and cost-effective in HBcAb?+?HBsAg- NHL patients treated with mild immunosuppressive therapies, in order to detect an occult HBV reactivation. PMID:24533834

2014-01-01

89

The detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HB s Ag negative individuals with primary liver cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the development of primary liver cancer has been established by epidemiological studies. However, the evidence for a direct role of the virus in liver carcinogenesis is still tentative. In addition, the findings of HBV DNA sequences in HBsAg-negative subjects with liver cancer has been reported, although it is controversial. Here

P. Paterlini; C. Bréchot

1991-01-01

90

Prevalence of Low-Level Hepatitis B Viremia in Patients with HBV Surface Antigen-Negative Hepatocellular Carcinoma with and without Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Japan: Analysis by COBAS TaqMan Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The effect of circulating low-level hepatitis B virus (HBV), defined as one of the states of ‘occult HBV infection’, on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients is controversial. In addition, the prevalence of occult HBV infection strongly depends on the sensitivity of the HBV detection method. We investigated the prevalence of low-level HBV

Hidenori Toyoda; Takashi Kumada; Seiki Kiriyama; Yasuhiro Sone; Makoto Tanikawa; Yasuhiro Hisanaga; Akira Kanamori

2007-01-01

91

Identification of Enolase 1 and Thrombospondin-1 as serum biomarkers in HBV hepatic fibrosis by proteomics  

PubMed Central

Hepatic fibrosis is an inevitable process in the progression of chronic HBV infection to hepatic cirrhosis, but its detailed mechanism is still unknown. Clinic serum biomarkers of HBV hepatic cirrhosis were scanned by proteomic methods. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to separate and identify the proteins which were differentially expressed in the serum of patients with hepatic fibrosis compared to HBV carriers. We identified 27 differentially expressed proteins, of which 19 proteins were up-regulated and 8 proteins were down-regulated in the serum of patients with hepatic fibrosis compared to HBV carriers. The expression level of enolase-1 (?-enolase) was decreased while the level of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) increased in the serum of patients with hepatic fibrosis by western blot. Enolase-1 and TSP-1 may be useful as biomarkers for the clinic diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis, but further study is necessary. PMID:23845056

2013-01-01

92

The Role of Proliferating Infected Hepatocytes on the Dynamics of an HBV-infected Liver  

E-print Network

The Role of Proliferating Infected Hepatocytes on the Dynamics of an HBV-infected Liver Sarah Hews, sometimes with liver failure. A global stability result of the liver failure state is included. It infects hepatocytes, the main cells found in the liver, and can lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis

Kuang, Yang

93

Antiviral Activity of Cardiospermum Halicacabum L. Extract against Coinfecting Agents HIV and HBV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current inadequate and inefficient market drugs used for the control and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with hepatitis viruses (HBV) poses serious threats to public health. The medicinal plant Cardiospermum halicacabum, having known anticancer and immunostimulatory activity was explored for their control in this study. The plant active principles extracted using five solvents were identified, and tested for

Kasi Murugan; Rengasami Venkatesh Prabu; Shanmugasamy Sangeetha; Saleh Al-Sohaibani

2011-01-01

94

PRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes_041612  

E-print Network

." However, we determined that "Spaces" would require too much training. The PRO team will use Word to writePRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes change the average turnaround time on work requests from six days to four or less. A work request

95

Insulin resistance and steatosis in HBV-HCV co-infected patients: Role of PNPLA3 polymorphisms and impact on liver fibrosis progression  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate steatosis, insulin resistance (IR) and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) and their relation to disease progression in hepatitis B and C viruses (HCV-HBV) co-infected patients. METHODS: Three hundred and thirty patients with biopsy proven chronic hepatitis were enrolled: 66 had HBV-HCV, 66 HBV and 198 HCV infection. Prevalence of steatosis, IR and PNPLA3 polymorphisms and their relation to anthropometric, biochemical, virological and histological parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Prevalence of steatosis in group HBV-HCV was similar to that in HCV (47.0% vs 49.5%, respectively); group HBV showed the lowest steatosis (33.3%). Group HBV-HCV had a lesser degree of steatosis than HCV (P = 0.016), lower HCV RNA levels (P = 0.025) and lower prevalence and degree of IR (P = 0.01). PNPLA3 polymorphisms were associated with steatosis. Group HBV-HCV showed higher levels of liver fibrosis than group HCV (P = 0.001), but similar to that observed in HBV group. In HBV-HCV group, liver fibrosis was not associated with steatosis, IR or PNPLA3. HBV infection was the independent predictor of advanced liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: HBV-HCV co-infected patients have lower degree of hepatic steatosis, IR and HCV RNA than HCV mono-infected; co-infected patients showed a more rapid liver fibrosis progression that seems to be due to the double infection and/or HBV dominance. PMID:25276284

Zampino, Rosa; Coppola, Nicola; Cirillo, Grazia; Boemio, Adriana; Minichini, Carmine; Marrone, Aldo; Stanzione, Maria; Starace, Mario; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Restivo, Luciano; Salzillo, Giovanna; Fascione, Maria Chiara; Nevola, Riccardo; del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio

2014-01-01

96

Leukocyte Telomere Length-Related rs621559 and rs398652 Genetic Variants Influence Risk of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified eleven leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Since LTL has been associated with risk of many malignancies, LTL-related SNPs may contribute to cancer susceptibility. To test this hypothesis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we genotyped these eleven LTL-related SNPs in a case-control set including 1186 HBV-related HCC cases, 508 chronic HBV carriers and 1308 healthy controls at the discovery stage. The associations of HCC risk with these SNPs were further confirmed in an independent case-control set. We found that 1p34.2 rs621559 and 14q21 rs398652 were significantly associated with HBV-related HCC risk (both P<0.005 after Bonferroni corrections). There was no significant difference of either rs621559 or rs398652 genotypes between chronic HBV carriers and healthy controls, demonstrating that the association was not due to predisposition to HBV infection. In the pooled analyses (1806 HBV-related HCC cases and 1954 controls), we observed a decreased HCC risk, 0.72-times, associated with the 1p34.2 rs621559 AA genotype compared to the GG genotype (P?=?1.6×10?6). Additionally, there was an increased HCC risk, 1.27-fold, associated with the rs398652 GG genotype (P?=?3.3×10?6). A statistical joint effect between the rs621559 GG and rs398652 GG genotypes may exist in elevating risk of HBV-related HCC. We show, for the first time, that rs398652 and rs621559 might be marker genetic variants for risk of HBV-related HCC in the Chinese population. PMID:25365256

Shi, Juan; Lu, Chao; Wei, Jinyu; Li, Lichao; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Zhou, Liqing; Yang, Ming

2014-01-01

97

Association of HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 Polymorphisms with HBV Infection Outcomes and a Mini Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Though HLA-DP/DQ is regarded to associate with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is obscure. And the role of STAT4 in HBV susceptibility and clearance as well as HCC development is still contentious. Therefore, we conducted this study, aiming to clarify these obscure relationships. Methods We recruited 1312 Chinese Han subjects including healthy controls, HBV carriers and HCC patients in the experiment stage. The meta-analysis included 3467 HCC patients and 5821 HBV carriers to appraise the association with HCC development. Results Consistent with previous studies, HLA-DP/DQ associated with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance (p<0.05). However, the experiment showed that HLA-DP rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7453920 did not associate with HCC development (dominant model, rs3077, OR?=?0.86, 95%CI?=?0.62–1.18; rs9277535, OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.68–1.30; rs7453920, OR?=?0.75, 95%CI?=?0.44–1.27). Meta-analysis again consolidated this conclusion (allele model, rs3077, OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.87–1.02; rs9277535, OR?=?1.04, 95%CI?=?0.97–1.11; rs7453920, OR?=?0.89, 95%CI?=?0.76–1.02). As for STAT4 rs7574865, we did not find any significant association with HBV susceptibility (OR?=?0.91, 95%CI?=?0.66–1.26) or HBV natural clearance (OR?=?1.13, 95%CI?=?0.86–1.49). Moreover, current data failed to acquire positive connection of rs7574865 with HCC development (experiment, OR?=?0.86, 95%CI?=?0.62–1.19; meta-analysis, OR?=?0.87, 95%CI?=?0.74–1.03), which may be due to the small sample size. Conclusions HLA-DP/DQ polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920) did not associate with HCC development, but did correlate with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance. STAT4 rs7574865 seemed not to correlate with HBV susceptibility or natural clearance. And it seemed rather ambiguous in its role on HCC development at present. PMID:25365208

Li, Yi; Chen, Jie; Tao, Chuanmin; Huang, Hengjian; Wang, Lanlan

2014-01-01

98

Role of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms in HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is best known as an important mediator and modulator of immune and inflammatory responses. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer, and genetic variations in the IL-4 gene may be associated with the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. However, few studies have been conducted on their association. Objectives To clarify the effects of IL-4 gene polymorphisms on the risk of HBV-related HCC, two common variants, ?590C/T (rs2243250) and ?33C/T (rs2070874), and their relationship with HBV-related disease risk were investigated in a Chinese population. Methods IL-4 ?590C/T and ?33C/T polymorphisms were examined in 154 patients with HBV-related HCC, 62 patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (LC), 129 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 94 healthy controls, using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and DNA sequencing. Results Overall, no significant differences were observed regarding the IL-4 ?590C/T and ?33C/T polymorphism genotypes, alleles, or haplotypes between the patient groups and the healthy controls. However, the CC genotypes of IL-4 ?590C/T and ?33C/T polymorphisms were observed to be significantly associated with CHB in subgroup analysis in males [CC versus TT (OR: 4.193, 95% CI: 1.094–16.071, P?=?0.037; and OR: 3.438, 95% CI: 1.032–11.458, P?=?0.044) and CC versus TT+CT (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.08–15.49, P?=?0.038; and OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.04–11.28, P?=?0.042)]. Conclusions These findings suggest that genetic variants in IL-4 ?590C/T and ?33C/T polymorphisms may be a risk factor for CHB in Chinese males but not for HBV-related LC or HCC. PMID:25295591

Peng, Qiliu; Ma, Liping; Zhang, Xiaolian; Zhao, Jiangyang; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

2014-01-01

99

Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleoside analogues than contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of acyclovir (ACV) as novel inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV).  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes major public health problems worldwide. Acyclovir (ACV) is mainly used to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) rather than HBV. In this study, we used the combination principle to design and synthesize nucleoside analogues that contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of ACV. We found that the compounds were effective inhibitors of HBV, both in vitro and in vivo. All of the compounds showed suppressive activity on the expression of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 cell line with low cytotoxicity. One of compounds was studied in HBV transgenic mice model, and the test results showed its ability to reduce the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA by ELASE and qPCR. Furthermore, significant improvement of T lymphocyte was observed after treatment, as evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). PMID:23369536

Han, Anyue; Li, Lingna; Qing, Kuiyou; Qi, Xiaolu; Hou, Leping; Luo, Xintong; Shi, Shaohua; Ye, Faqing

2013-03-01

100

Access to treatment for HBV infection and its consistency with 2008 European guidelines in a multicentre cross-sectional study of HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background A survey was performed in 2008 to evaluate the profiles of patients with chronic hepatitis B cared for by Italian Infectious Diseases Centers (IDCs). This analysis describes: i) factors associated with access to the anti-HBV treatment in a cohort of HIV/HBV co-infected patients cared for in tertiary centers of a developed country with comprehensive coverage under the National Health System (NHS); ii) consistency of current anti-HBV regimens with specific European guidelines in force at the time of the study and factors associated with the receipt of sub-optimal regimens. Methods The study focuses on 374 (87.6%) treated patients at some point in their life out of the 427 tested HIV/HBV positive. It is multicentre, cross-sectional in the design. To account for missing values, a Multiple Imputation method is used. Results Three hundred and thirty-four (89.3%) patients were currently treated. The most common current regimen was combination therapy of tenofovir (TDF) plus LAM/FTC (lamivudine/emtricitabine) (n?=?235, 70.4%), as part of antiretroviral treatment. In the multivariate analysis, an increased chance of getting treated was independently associated with increasing years since HBV diagnosis (2–10 years, p <0.001; >10 years, p <0.001). Patients consistently treated with European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) 2008 guidelines were 255 (76.6%), of whom 202 (79.2%) with an indication to an anti-HIV treatment, 30 (11.8%)without an indication, and 21 (8.2%) with cirrhosis. Among the 78 not-consistent patients, LAM mono-therapy (n?=?60, 76.9%) was the most common regimen, 34 (56.7%) of them showing HBV DNA load below 1x103 IU/mL. Previous anti-HBV treatment (p = 0.01) and a triple HDV co-infection (p = 0.03) reduced the chance of not-consistent regimens. Conversely, HCV co-infection was independently associated with an increased odds ratio of being inconsistently treated (p = 0.004). Conclusion Our study shows that Italian IDCs treat for HBV infection the vast majority of HIV/HBV co-infected patients with no disparities limiting access to antiviral therapy. In approximately two-thirds of the patients on treatment, anti-HBV regimens are consistent with 2008 EACS guidelines. Finally, our study identifies scenarios in which clinical practice deviates from recommendations, as in case of sub-optimal regimens with effective anti-HBV response. PMID:23594964

2013-01-01

101

Predictors of HAV/HBV vaccination completion among methadone maintenance clients.  

PubMed

This randomized, controlled study (N = 256) was conducted to compare three interventions designed to promote hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination completion among clients undergoing methadone maintenance (MM) treatment. Participants were recruited from five MM treatment sites in Southern California and randomized into three groups: Motivational Interviewing-Single (MI-Single), Motivational Interviewing-Group (MI-Group); and Nurse-Led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP). All were offered the three-series HAV/HBV vaccine. A total of 148 participants completed the vaccine. Groups did not differ in rate of vaccination completion (73.6%, HHP group, vs. 65% and 69% for the MI-Single and MI-Group, respectively). The equivalence of findings across groups suggests the value of including nurses with a comprehensive health focus in promoting vaccination completion. PMID:20143328

Nyamathi, Adeline; Sinha, Karabi; Greengold, Barbara; Cohen, Allan; Marfisee, Mary

2010-04-01

102

Predictors of HAV/HBV Vaccination Completion among Methadone Maintenance Clients  

PubMed Central

This randomized, controlled study (N = 256) was conducted to compare three interventions designed to promote hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination completion among clients undergoing methadone maintenance (MM) treatment. Participants were recruited from five MM treatment sites in Southern California and randomized into three groups: Motivational Interviewing-Single (MI-Single), Motivational Interviewing-Group (MI-Group); and Nurse-Led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP). All were offered the 3-series HAV/HBV vaccine. A total of 148 participants completed the vaccine. Groups did not differ in rate of vaccination completion (73.6%, HHP group, versus 65% and 69% for the MI-Single, and MI-Group, respectively). The equivalence of findings across groups suggests the value of including nurses with a comprehensive health focus in promoting vaccination completion. PMID:20143328

Nyamathi, Adeline; Sinha, Karabi; Greengold, Barbara; Cohen, Allan; Marfisee, Mary

2011-01-01

103

Modeling the effects of covalently closed circular DNA and dendritic cells in chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

The contribution of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and dendritic cells (DCs) to the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains largely unknown. A dynamic model with seven cell types was proposed based on the biological mechanisms of viral replication and the host immune response. The cccDNA self-amplification rate was found to be closely related to both the basic reproduction number of the virus and the immune response. The combination of the cccDNA self-amplification rate and the initial activated DC count induces rich dynamics. Applying our model to the clinical data of untreated patients, we found that chronic patients have a high cccDNA self-amplification rate. For antiviral treatment, an overall drug effectiveness was introduced and the critical drug effectiveness was obtained. The model predicts that timely long-term therapy is needed to reduce the symptoms of HBV and to maintain the benefits of treatment. PMID:24816182

Li, Qiang; Lu, Furong; Deng, Guohong; Wang, Kaifa

2014-09-21

104

Histologic Disease in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B, High HBV DNA, and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have presented new options as well as challenges. Serum\\u000a alanine aminotransferase (ALT) continues to be one of the three principal parameters used by all existing treatment guidelines\\u000a to identify candidates for antiviral therapy. Although there is little controversy that inactive carriers and young immune\\u000a tolerant patients can be monitored

Joseph K. Lim; Walid S. Ayoub; Mindie H. Nguyen

2010-01-01

105

Idiopathic portal hypertension in an "inactive" HBV carrier: a case report.  

PubMed

Idiopathic portal hypertension belongs to the group of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, its etiology is still unknown but its prognosis is excellent. We report a case of 45 year old female with inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier status and persistently elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), presented with features of portal hypertension and without evidence of cirrhosis or fibrosis on liver biopsy. PMID:18842148

Vassiliadis, Themistoklis G; Gatopoulou, Anthia; Patsiaoura, Kaliopi; Giouleme, Olga; Soufleris, Konstantinos; Boubonaris, Alexandros; Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Eugenidis, Nikolaos

2008-01-01

106

Treatment options beyond IFN? and NUCs for chronic HBV infection: expectations for tomorrow.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and end-stage liver failure with time. Interruption of this process can only be achieved through effective antiviral treatment. This approach has so far involved the use of immunomodulators such as pegylated interferon alpha (Peg-IFN?) for a finite period of up to a year and nucleos-(t)ide analogues (NUCs) for treatment over much longer periods of time. The latter act by suppressing HBV replication at the level of DNA synthesis by inhibiting the viral reverse transcriptase/DNA polymerase and causing premature termination of DNA synthesis. The ideal treatment end point is loss of HBsAg in both HBeAg+ve and HBeAg-ve patients following monotherapy. This, however, is only achievable in a minority of patients. Secondary outcomes are durable HBeAg loss and seroconversion to anti-HBe, which occur in about 18-30% of HBeAg+ve patients depending on the antiviral used, and sustained suppression of HBV-DNA accompanied by biochemical normalization and histological improvement in non-HBeAg+ve seroconverting and HBeAg-ve patients. There is therefore a need for additional direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting different stages of the life cycle of the virus, as well as immunotherapeutic approaches. Such developments may pave the way for their use either alone or more likely in combination in the fight against chronic HBV infection. Such drugs or approaches, which are currently undergoing preclinical or clinical testing, are the subject of this review. PMID:25271858

Baltayiannis, G; Karayiannis, P

2014-11-01

107

Distinct patterns of hepcidin and iron regulation during HIV-1, HBV, and HCV infections.  

PubMed

During HIV type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, altered iron balance correlates with morbidity. The liver-produced hormone hepcidin dictates systemic iron homeostasis. We measured hepcidin, iron parameters, cytokines, and inflammatory markers in three cohorts: plasma donors who developed acute HIV-1, HBV, or HCV viremia during the course of donations; HIV-1-positive individuals progressing from early to chronic infection; and chronically HIV-1-infected individuals (receiving antiretroviral therapy or untreated). Hepcidin increased and plasma iron decreased during acute HIV-1 infection, as viremia was initially detected. In patients transitioning from early to chronic HIV-1 infection, hepcidin in the first 60 d of infection positively correlated with the later plasma viral load set-point. Hepcidin remained elevated in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection and in subjects on ART. In contrast to HIV-1, there was no evidence of hepcidin up-regulation or hypoferremia during the primary viremic phases of HCV or HBV infection; serum iron marginally increased during acute HBV infection. In conclusion, hepcidin induction is part of the pathogenically important systemic inflammatory cascade triggered during HIV-1 infection and may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of viral set-point, which is a strong predictor of progression to AIDS and death. However, distinct patterns of hepcidin and iron regulation occur during different viral infections that have particular tissue tropisms and elicit different systemic inflammatory responses. The hypoferremia of acute infection is therefore a pathogen-specific, not universal, phenomenon. PMID:25092293

Armitage, Andrew E; Stacey, Andrea R; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Marshall, Elizabeth; Sturges, Pamela; Chatha, Kamaljit; Smith, Nicola M G; Huang, XiaoJie; Xu, XiaoNing; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Li, Ning; Wu, Hao; Webster, Craig; Prentice, Andrew M; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Norris, Phillip J; Drakesmith, Hal; Borrow, Persephone

2014-08-19

108

Assembly-directed antivirals differentially bind quasi-equivalent pockets to modify HBV capsid tertiary and quaternary structure  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver disease. Assembly of the HBV capsid is a critical step in virus production and an attractive target for new antiviral therapies. We determined the structure of HBV capsid in complex with AT-130, a member of the phenylpropenamide family of assembly effectors. AT-130 causes tertiary and quaternary structural changes, but does not disrupt capsid structure. AT-130 binds a hydrophobic pocket that also accommodates the previously characterized HAP compounds, but favors a unique quasi-equivalent location on the capsid surface. Thus, this pocket is a promiscuous drug binding site and a likely target for different assembly effectors with a broad range of mechanisms of activity. That AT-130 successfully decreases virus production by increasing capsid assembly rate without disrupting capsid structure delineates a new paradigm in antiviral design, that disrupting reaction timing is a viable strategy for assembly effectors of HBV and other viruses. PMID:23871485

Katen, Sarah P.; Tan, Zhenning; Chirapu, Srinivas Reddy; Finn, MG; Zlotnick, Adam

2013-01-01

109

QUID PRO QUO FOREIGN INVESTMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the phenomenon of industry-specific direct foreign investment (DFI) which occurs with the view to defusing the threat of future protection by the host country (quid pro quo), under alternative imperfectly competitive market structures. It is established that, even in the absence of government intervention, firms in imperfectly competitive markets change the level of trade and DFI in

Elias Dinopoulos

1989-01-01

110

Dealing with Pro Se Patrons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of the "pro se" patrons (people who are representing themselves in a legal dispute or transaction) has received significant attention in the legal information literature, and many excellent suggestions have been offered to aid law librarians in dealing with this population group. However, these suggestions can be usefully applied in…

Pettinato, Tammy R.

2008-01-01

111

The HBV HBX gene expressed in E. coli is recognised by sera from hepatitis patients.  

PubMed

We have cloned the X gene (HBx) and the HBc antigen (HBc Ag) gene of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Escherichia coli as fusion products with beta-galactosidase. Both HBV genes are expressed in E. coli strain CSR 603. Expression is detected by u.v. irradiation of the bacteria, metabolic labelling and electrophoresis of the labelled extracts on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The HBc Ag protein produced in bacteria can be recognised by anti-HBc sera and peptides derived from the protein are also recognised by anti-HBe sera. The HBx protein is recognised by some, but not all, sera which are anti-HBe positive. HBx Ag is also recognised by a woodchuck antibody similar to anti-HBe (anti-WHe). These results constitute the first proof that the open reading frame X is a true viral gene and is expressed during HBV (and WHV) infection and that an HBx/anti-HBx system, which may have important biological implications, can exist in parallel with the classic HBe/anti-HBe system. PMID:3891326

Kay, A; Mandart, E; Trepo, C; Galibert, F

1985-05-01

112

Torrential rainfall event in Genoa: Coupled WRF-NMM and HBV model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 4 th, 2011, the city of Genoa was affected by a torrential convective rainfall episode. The finger-shape mesoscale system remained stationary for a significant number of hours on the same area of few square kilometers. About 500 millimeters of rain, one third of the average annual precipitation amount, fell in approximately six hours. A flash flood occurred in the Bisagno river and Fereggiano creek, causing six causalities and the inundation of the Brignole area. For the catchments, where flood events usually occur in a few hours time and peak discharge generally last only a few minutes, it is necessary to use high resolution meteorological data as an input to hydrological model. The effectiveness of flood warning is dependent on the forecast accuracy of certain physical parameters, such as the peak magnitude of the flood, its timing, location and duration. The conceptual HBV rainfall - runoff models enable the estimation of these parameters and provide useful operational forecasts. This paper presents the results of coupled meteorological WRF-NMM and hydrological HBV model. Hourly quantitative precipitation forecasts, for three days ahead, were used as input to the conceptual hydrological model. HBV model was able to predict significant increase of water level with exceedance of regular defence level and exact time of the flood peak on the observed hydrological profile even weather forecast model wasn't successful in the predicition of the hourly amount of precipitation.

Ivkovic, Marija; Dekic, Ljiljana; Mihalovic, Ana

2013-04-01

113

Differential expression of haptoglobin isoforms in chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC related to HBV infection  

PubMed Central

The three main complications of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are chronic active hepatitis (CAH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed serum proteins among the three liver complications in patients with HBV infection. Differentially expressed proteins have been shown to be potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy guidance. Two-dimensional polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (2DE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on sera from CAH, cirrhosis and HCC patients with HBV infection, as well as those obtained from healthy individuals. Of 54 differentially expressed (?1.5-fold and p<0.05) protein spots, 35 spots were identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified spots correlated to 13 proteins. The proteins included haptoglobolin ?-2 and ? isoforms, haptoglobin cleaved ? isoforms, retinol-binding protein, transthyretin, ficolin, leucine-rich-?-2-glycoprotein, ?-1-antitrypsin and clusterin. Of particular interest is the significant increase of haptoglobin ?-2 isoforms in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis ones. In contrast, a significant decrease of the isoforms was noted among cirrhosis patients. PMID:22866143

Sarvari, Jamal; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed-Ali; Shamsi Shahrabadi, Mahmoud; Ghaderi, Abbas; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

2011-01-01

114

An epidemiological study of HBV, HCV and HTLV-I in Sherpas of Nepal.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study of hepatitis viruses type B (HBV) and type C (HCV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was carried out among 103 residents (male:female=61:42) regarded as Sherpas, at Lukla (Solukhumbu district), Nepal in 2004. Blood was drawn from apparently healthy volunteers at ages of 28.8+12.3 (range 15-66) years. HBsAg, HBsAb, HBcAb, and HCV Ab were measured by microparticle enzyme-immunoassay, and HTLV-I Ab was measured by particle agglutination. Prevalence of HBsAg(+), HBsAb(+), HBcAb(+), and HBsAb(+) or HBcAb(+) were 1.9% 22.3%, 24.3%, and 28.2%, respectively. For HCV Ab, only a borderline reaction was observed in one sample, and for HTLV-I Ab all samples were negative. Nucleotide sequencing of the PreS1, PreS2, and S genes revealed that HBV among Sherpas to be of the A' (or Aa) genotype, which is prevalent among Nepalese but rare in native Tibetans, suggesting transmission within Nepal rather than association with ancestors' migration from Tibet as the origin. This is the first report of Himalayan Sherpas' state of infection with HBV, HCV, and HTLV-I. PMID:15546239

Chiba, Hitoshi; Takezaki, Toshiro; Neupani, Dhanapati; Kim, Jinbo; Yoshida, Shigeru; Mizoguchi, Emi; Takeuchi, Jun; Suzuki, Junko; Tanaka, Yuuki; Ito, Keiko; Kitamura, Tadashiro; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Wakai, Kenji; Samejima, Kunihiko; Sonoda, Shunro; Tajima, Kazuo

2004-01-01

115

A quantitative method to detect HBV cccDNA by chimeric primer and real-time polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), is a continuous double chain ring, while other DNA forms contain a gap on each chain at the position of direct repeat 1 sequence (DR1) and direct repeat 2 sequence (DR2), respectively. At present it is still difficult to detect with high sensitivity and specificity and quantify the HBV cccDNA pool

Shao Jun-Bin; Chen Zhi; Ni Wei-Qin; Fan Jun

2003-01-01

116

Characterization of Treatment-Naive HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients Attending ART Clinic of a Tertiary Healthcare Centre in Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Objective The study was designed to assess the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection scenario among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients attending a tertiary healthcare unit in eastern India. Additionally, clinical and virological characterization of these viruses, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was also done for better understanding of the disease profile. Methods Pool of ART-naive HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients, participating in two different studies, were included in this study. HBV DNA was detected by nested-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) region amplification and direct sequencing for detecting drug resistance. Results The prevalence of HBsAg (11.3%) was higher compared to anti-HCV (1.9%) among the HIV infected ART-naive patients. Moreover, majority of the HBeAg positive HIV/HBV co-infected patients (87.7%) had HBV DNA ?20,000 IU/ml with median HBV DNA significantly higher than that of HBeAg negative subjects (5.7 log10 IU/ml vs. 4.2 log10 IU/ml; p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis also showed that HBeAg-positive status was independently associated with higher HBV DNA level (p?=?<0.001). Notably, 60.9% of the HBeAg negative co-infected subjects had HBV DNA ?2,000 IU/ml of which 37.0% had HBV DNA ?20,000 IU/ml. Genotype HBV/D (68.2%) was the predominant genotype followed by HBV/A (24.3%) and HBV/C (7.5%). Anti-HBV drug resistant mutations were detected in two (3.8%) of the ART-naive patients. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection was relatively higher in our study subjects. HBeAg testing might provide clue for early treatment initiation. Furthermore, HBeAg negative patients are also associated with high HBV DNA levels and therefore require appropriate medical attention. Pre-treatment screening for anti-HBV drug resistant mutations is not necessary before ART initiation. PMID:24023688

Biswas, Avik; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Sarkar, Neelakshi; Sarkar, Jayeeta; Pal, Manisha; Guha, Subhasish Kamal; Saha, Bibhuti; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Chakravarty, Runu

2013-01-01

117

IFN-? inhibits HBV transcription and replication in cell culture and in humanized mice by targeting the epigenetic regulation of the nuclear cccDNA minichromosome.  

PubMed

HBV infection remains a leading cause of death worldwide. IFN-? inhibits viral replication in vitro and in vivo, and pegylated IFN-? is a commonly administered treatment for individuals infected with HBV. The HBV genome contains a typical IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE), but the molecular mechanisms by which IFN-? suppresses HBV replication have not been established in relevant experimental systems. Here, we show that IFN-? inhibits HBV replication by decreasing the transcription of pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and subgenomic RNA from the HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) minichromosome, both in cultured cells in which HBV is replicating and in mice whose livers have been repopulated with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Administration of IFN-? resulted in cccDNA-bound histone hypoacetylation as well as active recruitment to the cccDNA of transcriptional corepressors. IFN-? treatment also reduced binding of the STAT1 and STAT2 transcription factors to active cccDNA. The inhibitory activity of IFN-? was linked to the IRSE, as IRSE-mutant HBV transcribed less pgRNA and could not be repressed by IFN-? treatment. Our results identify a molecular mechanism whereby IFN-? mediates epigenetic repression of HBV cccDNA transcriptional activity, which may assist in the development of novel effective therapeutics. PMID:22251702

Belloni, Laura; Allweiss, Lena; Guerrieri, Francesca; Pediconi, Natalia; Volz, Tassilo; Pollicino, Teresa; Petersen, Joerg; Raimondo, Giovanni; Dandri, Maura; Levrero, Massimo

2012-02-01

118

Antihepatitis B Virus Activity of a Protein-Enriched Fraction from Housefly (Musca domestica) in a Stable HBV-Producing Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health problem. Although several vaccines and therapeutic strategies are currently being implemented to combat HBV virus, effective antiviral therapy against HBV infection has not been fully developed. Alternative strategies and new drugs to combat this disease are urged. Insects and insect derivatives are a large and unexploited source of potentially useful compounds for modern medicine. In the present study, we investigated the first anti-HBV activity of a protein-enriched fraction (PE) from the larvae of the housefly (Musca domestica) in a stable HBV-producing cell line. HBsAg and HBeAg in the culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HBV-DNA was quantified by fluorescent quantification PCR. HBV core protein was assayed by immunofluorescent staining. Results indicate PE treatment inhibited both HBsAg, HBeAg secretion, and HBV-DNA replication. Furthermore, PE could also suppress HBV core protein expression. PE could be a potential candidate for the development of a novel and effective drug for the treatment of HBV infection. PMID:25050391

Chu, Fujiang; Zhu, Jiayong

2014-01-01

119

Occurrence of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme–Inhibiting Tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro in Different Cheese Varieties of Swiss Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of the 2 antihypertensive peptides Val- Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) were determined in 101 samples from 10 different Swiss cheese varieties using HPLC with subsequent triple mass spectrome- try. In the category of extra hard and hard cheeses, the Protected Denomination of Origin cheeses Berner Alpkase and Berner Hobelkase, L'Etivaz arebibes, Le Gruyere, Sbrinz, Emmentaler (organic and

U. Bütikofer; J. Meyer; R. Sieber; B. Walther; D. Wechsler

2008-01-01

120

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell  

E-print Network

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P920 0-Watt proGREEN Fujitsu ESPRIMO P920 PCs x 4 GB, DDR3, 1600 MHz Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit.2013 fujitsu.com/de/aktionsmodelle Für Unternehmen entwickelt, im Alltag stark. Windows 8 Pro ­ Schön, schnell

Ott, Albrecht

121

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell  

E-print Network

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P920 0-Watt proGREEN Fujitsu ESPRIMO P920 PCs x 4 GB, DDR3, 1600 MHz Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit.2014 fujitsu.com/de/aktionsmodelle Für Unternehmen entwickelt, im Alltag stark. Windows 8 Pro ­ Schön, schnell

Ott, Albrecht

122

Julie Berry From: PRO-DAIRY  

E-print Network

1 Julie Berry From: PRO-DAIRY Sent: Monday, August 19, 2013 4:46 PM To: Julie Berry Subject: PRO-DAIRY e-Alert DAP Announced PRO-DAIRY e-Alert: Dairy Acceleration Program Announced of Agriculture and Markets and the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, has announced the Dairy

Walter, M.Todd

123

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell  

E-print Network

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P920 E90+ premium selection Fujitsu ESPRIMO P 2 GB, DDR3, 1600 MHz Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz.2014 fujitsu.com/de/aktionsmodelle Für Unternehmen entwickelt, im Alltag stark. Windows 8 Pro ­ Schön, schnell

Ott, Albrecht

124

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell  

E-print Network

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P920 E90+ premium selection Fujitsu ESPRIMO P 2 GB, DDR3, 1600 MHz Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz.2013 fujitsu.com/de/aktionsmodelle Für Unternehmen entwickelt, im Alltag stark. Windows 8 Pro ­ Schön, schnell

Ott, Albrecht

125

Variations in the core promoter/pre-core region in HBV genotype C in Japanese and Northern Vietnamese patients.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotypes Cs (C1) and Ce (C2) are common in East Asia. To investigate the genomic difference of HBV genotype C between two separated regions, 50 subgenotype Cs-infected Vietnamese and 70 subgenotype Ce-infected Japanese patients were enrolled for analysis. The patients were categorized to either a hepatocellular carcinoma group (HCC) or a non-HCC group including liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and asymptomatic carriers. HBV serology, HBV-DNA level, and variations in core promoter/pre-core region were examined. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full genome sequences and nucleotide sequences partly in the S gene and in the P gene revealed that all Japanese strains (70/70) were subgenotype Ce, and nearly all of the Vietnamese strains (50/51) were subgenotype Cs, excluding one subgenotype C5. C1858 and G1775 were common in the Vietnamese (64% and 40%) but not in the Japanese (0%). The prevalence of C/A1753 in Vietnamese was higher than that in the Japanese (32% vs. 17.1%), however the frequency of A1896 in the Japanese was significantly higher (32.9% vs. 12%, P < 0.05). Most of the Vietnamese patients with HCC had a high level of HBV-DNA, the Japanese HCC had a relatively low level. In the Vietnamese, C/A1753 and C1858 were associated closely with T1762A1764, higher HBV-DNA levels and higher HCC incidence. The multivariate analysis revealed that male, T1653 and C/A1753 were independent risk factors for HCC. The subgenotypes and unique mutations of HBV genotype C in the Vietnamese and Japanese differed, and C/A1753 and C1858 variants might play a role in the pathogenesis of liver disease in Vietnamese patients. PMID:17607788

Truong, Bui Xuan; Yano, Yoshihiko; Seo, Yasushi; Phuong, Tran Minh; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kato, Hirotaka; Miki, Akira; Utsumi, Takako; Azuma, Takeshi; Trach, Nguyen Khanh; Mizokami, Masashi; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Kasuga, Masato

2007-09-01

126

ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool  

SciTech Connect

Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

2006-04-04

127

Association of T-Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Domain-Containing Molecule 3 (Tim-3) Polymorphisms with Susceptibility and Disease Progression of HBV Infection  

PubMed Central

Purpose T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) plays an important role in regulating T cells in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few researches have reported the association of Tim-3 genetic variants with susceptibility and progression of HBV infection. In this study, we focused on the association of Tim-3 polymorphisms with HBV infection, HBsAg seroclearance and hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods A total of 800 subjects were involved in this study. Four groups were studied here, including HBV, HBsAg seroclearance, HBV-associated HCC and healthy controls. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Tim-3, rs246871, rs25855 and rs31223 were genotyped to analyze the association of Tim-3 polymorphisms with susceptibility and disease progression of HBV infection. Results Our study found that rs31223 and rs246871 were associated with disease progression of HBV infection, while none of the three SNPs was relevant to HBV susceptibility. The minor allele “C” of rs31223 was found to be associated with an increased probability of HBsAg seroclearance (P?=?0.033) and genotype “CC” of rs246871 to be associated with an increased probability of HBV-associated HCC (P?=?0.007). In accordance, haplotypic analysis of the three polymorphisms also showed that the haplotype block CGC* and TGC* were significantly associated with HBsAg seroclearance (P<0.05) while haplotype block CAT*, CGT*, TAC* and TGT* were significantly associated with HBV-associated HCC (all P<0.05). Conclusions Genetic variants of Tim-3 have an important impact on disease progression of HBV infection. With specific Tim-3 polymorphisms, patients infected with HBV could be potential candidates of HCC and HBsAg seroclearance. PMID:24867713

Liao, Jingyu; Zhang, Qi; Liao, Yun; Cai, Bei; Chen, Jie; Li, Lixin; Wang, Lanlan

2014-01-01

128

The HBV spatially distributed flash flood forecasting model - The Slovenia case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HBV distributed flash flood forecasting model which is in operational use in northern Austria is applied to a watershed in northwest Slovenia, a case study for the FP6 project HYDRATE. The selected watershed consists of 6 sub-basins with a total area of 646 Km2. Model setup and calibration was performed in this watershed and three long duration rainfall - runoff periods were simulated in order to examine the efficiency of the model. The selected periods included rainfall events that produced high outflows on the exit of the watershed, such as the September 2007 event that caused a flash flooding and severe damages to the towns of Zali Log and Zelezniki. The model uses 1km grid rainfall and temperature data of fifteen minute time intervals in order to simulate the rainfall - runoff process. Inverse distance weighting interpolation is used in order to generate the spatially distributed rainfall and temperature while the hydrological parameters are defined for each 1km grid cell that correspond to one hydrological response units (HRU - areas with analogous hydrogeological characteristics). The basic calibration of the HBV model is based on hydrological parameters of each HRU, parameters that control the rainfall - runoff process within the basin and non HRU parameters that control the river routing between the basins. The model performance is based on seven efficiency criteria that were selected as appropriate for long simulation periods, e.g. coefficient of determination R2 and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency E. The HBV model produced satisfactory results for the three rainfall periods and could be used as an operational model in Slovenia as well.

Tsanis, I. K.; Grillakis, M. G.; Blöschl, G.; Poga?nik, N.

2009-04-01

129

The influence of HBV model calibration on flood predictions for future climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal variability of HBV rainfall-runoff model parameters was tested to address the influence of climate characteristics on the values of model optimal parameters. HBV is a conceptual model with a physically-based structure that takes into account soil moisture, snow-melt and dynamic runoff components. The model parameters were optimized by the DEGL method (Differential Evolution with Global and Local neighbours) for a set of catchments located in Poland. The methodology consisted of the calibration and cross-validation of the HBV models on a series of five-year periods within a moving window. The optimal parameter values show large temporal variability and dependence on climatic conditions described by the mean and standard deviation of precipitation, air temperature and PET. Derived regressions models between parameters and climatic indices were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. The set of model optimal values was applied to simulate future flows in a changed climate. We used the precipitation and temperature series from 6 RCM/GCM models for 2071-2100 following the A1B climate change scenario. The climatic variables were obtained from the KLIMADA project. The resulting flow series for the future climate scenario were used to derive flow indices, including the flood quantiles. Results indicate a large influence of climatic variability on flow indices. This work was partly supported by the project "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula reach from Zawichost to Warsaw)" carried out by the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences by order of the National Science Centre (contract No. 2011/01/B/ST10/06866). The rainfall and flow data were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland.

Osuch, Marzena; Romanowicz, Renata

2014-05-01

130

Two classifiers based on serum peptide pattern for prediction of HBV-induced liver cirrhosis using MALDI-TOF MS.  

PubMed

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) in China. Although liver biopsy is the reference method for evaluation of cirrhosis, it is an invasive procedure with inherent risk. The aim of this study is to discover novel noninvasive specific serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-induced LC. We performed bead fractionation/MALDI-TOF MS analysis on sera from patients with LC. Thirteen feature peaks which had optimal discriminatory performance were obtained by using support-vector-machine-(SVM-) based strategy. Based on the previous results, five supervised machine learning methods were employed to construct classifiers that discriminated proteomic spectra of patients with HBV-induced LC from those of controls. Here, we describe two novel methods for prediction of HBV-induced LC, termed LC-NB and LC-MLP, respectively. We obtained a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 94.9%, and overall accuracy of 93.8% on an independent test set. Comparisons with the existing methods showed that LC-NB and LC-MLP held better accuracy. Our study suggests that potential serum biomarkers can be determined for discriminating LC and non-LC cohorts by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These two classifiers could be used for clinical practice in HBV-induced LC assessment. PMID:23509784

Cao, Yuan; He, Kun; Cheng, Ming; Si, Hai-Yan; Zhang, He-Lin; Song, Wei; Li, Ai-Ling; Hu, Cheng-Jin; Wang, Na

2013-01-01

131

Baseline HBV DNA level is the most important factor associated with virologic breakthrough in chronic hepatitis B treated with lamivudine  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the factors associated with virologic breakthrough and to select a subgroup of patients who respond well to lamivudine without developing virologic breakthrough (VBT). METHODS: Of 79 patients who had received lamivudine therapy for 9-57 mo, 34 were HBeAg-positive and 45 were HBeAg-negative, 24 developed virologic breakthrough and 55 did not. Clinical and virologic factors were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The median duration of therapy was 25 (9-57) mo. Virologic breakthrough was defined as a > 1 log HBV DNA increase following initial suppression. When several factors, including gender, duration of infection, baseline HBV DNA, and baseline ALT in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis patients were analyzed by logistic regression, the most important predictor of virologic breakthrough was the baseline HBV DNA (r2 = 0.12, P < 0.05). When HBeAg-postitive chronic hepatitis patients were divided into two groups by a point of 6.6 log HBV DNA, the incidence of virologic breakthough between two groups was significantly different. CONCLUSION: Lamivudine may remain an effective first line therapy for those HBeAg-positive patients with a baseline HBV DNA < 6.6 log10 copies/mL. PMID:17696226

Chae, Hee Bok; Hann, Hie-Won

2007-01-01

132

Hepatic Decompensation in Patients With HIV/Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Triple Infection Versus HIV/HCV Coinfection and the Effect of Anti-HBV Nucleos(t)ide Therapy.  

PubMed

The incidence rate of hepatic decompensation was higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) triple infection than in those with HIV/HCV coinfection (24.1 vs 10.8 events per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-3.18). Compared with HIV/HCV-infected patients, the rate of decompensation was increased among HIV/HBV/HCV-infected patients receiving no anti-HBV therapy (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.37-4.49) but not among those who did receive such therapy (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, .40-2.97). PMID:24944235

Lo Re, Vincent; Wang, Li; Devine, Scott; Baser, Onur; Olufade, Temitope

2014-10-01

133

Serum hepatitis B surface antigen is correlated with intrahepatic total HBV DNA and cccDNA in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B but not in patients with HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate correlations between intrahepatic hepatitis B virus total DNA, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), and serum HBsAg in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B and HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver tissues were taken from 42 HBV related HCC and 36 patients with chronic hepatitis B. A fraction of DNA extracted from liver tissue was digested with a plasmid-safe ATP-dependent DNase and used for HBV cccDNA detection. The remaining DNA was used for the detection of HBV total DNA and ?-globin, the latter of which is a housekeeping gene and quantified for normalization by real-time PCR. Quantitation of serum HBsAg was performed by a chemiluminescence assay. Serum HBsAg had positive correlations with serum HBV DNA (r?=?0.636, P?HBV total DNA (r?=?0.519, P?=?0.001) and cccDNA (r?=?0.733, P?HBV cccDNA and total DNA were significantly higher in liver tissue from chronic hepatitis B than in tumor and non-tumor of HCC (P?HBV DNA were also higher in chronic hepatitis B than in HCC (P?

Wang, Meirong; Qiu, Ning; Lu, Shichun; Xiu, Dianrong; Yu, Jianguo; Wang, Xing Tai; Lu, Fengmin; Li, Tong; Liu, Xueen; Zhuang, Hui

2013-02-01

134

A new lignan with anti-HBV activity from the roots of Bombax ceiba.  

PubMed

A new lignan bombasinol A (1), together with three known compounds was obtained from the ethanol (95%) extract of roots of Bombax ceiba L. through its being subjected to silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Their structures were elucidated as 4-(4-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)hexahydrofuro[3,4-c]furan-1-yl)-2-methoxy-phenol (1), 5,6-dihydroxymatairesinol (2), (+)-pinoresinol (3) and matairesinol (4) on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 1-D and 2-D NMR (HSQC and HMBC) experiments and by comparison of the data with those previously reported literatures. All these compounds were the first reported from Bombacaceae. The anti-Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) activity of all compounds isolated from B. ceiba in the research was evaluated. From the results of the HBV assay, these tested compounds showed inhibitory activity against HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines. Compounds 1-4 showed relative differences in their abilities to inhibit HBsAg secretion, with IC50 values of 118.3, 123.7, 118.9 and 218.2 mM, respectively. PMID:23140388

Wang, Guo Kai; Lin, Bin Bin; Rao, Rao; Zhu, Kan; Qin, Xiao Ying; Xie, Guo Yong; Qin, Min Jian

2013-08-01

135

Overexpression of HGF Promotes HBV-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Is an Effective Indicator for Met-Targeting Therapy  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well-known cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the regulators effectively driving virus production and HCC progression remain unclear. By using genetically engineered mouse models, we show that overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) accelerated HCC progression, supporting the genomic analysis that an up-regulated HGF signature is associated with poor prognosis in HBV-positive HCC patients. We show that for both liver regeneration and spontaneous HCC development there is an inclusive requirement for MET expression, and when HGF induces autocrine activation the tumor displays sensitivity to a small-molecule Met inhibitor. Our results demonstrate that HGF is a driver of HBV-induced HCC progression and may serve as an effective biomarker for Met-targeted therapy. MET inhibitors are entering clinical trials against cancer, and our data provide a molecular basis for targeting the Met pathway in hepatitis B–induced HCC. PMID:24167653

Su, Yanli; Dykema, Karl; Johnson, Jennifer; Koeman, Julie; De Giorgi, Valeria; Huang, Alan; Schlegel, Robert; Essenburg, Curt; Kang, Liang; Iwaya, Keiichi; Seki, Shuhji; Khoo, Sok Kean; Zhang, Boheng; Buonaguro, Franco; Marincola, Francesco M.; Furge, Kyle; Vande Woude, George F.

2013-01-01

136

Genotype and variations in core promoter and pre-core regions are related to progression of disease in HBV-infected patients from Northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Vietnam is one of the countries with a high rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but there are only a few reports about relation of HBV genotypes and mutations to clinical course in Northern Vietnam. The characteristics of HBV and its relationship to clinical outcome in patients from Northern Vietnam were analyzed. Serum samples were collected from 183 HBV-infected Vietnamese patients. They were clinically categorized into 4 groups: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cirrhosis (LC), chronic hepatitis (CH), and asymptomatic carriers (ASC). HBV serology, alpha-fetoprotein, HBV genotypes, HBV-DNA level and mutations in the core promoter and pre-core regions of HBV-DNA were examined. The majority of sera contained HBV genotype B (67.8%) and C (27.9%). The median age was matched between genotype B and C (38.2 vs. 42.9 years). The rates of HBeAg seroconversion and G1896A for genotype B were significantly higher than those for genotype C (P<0.05). Genotype C had a higher HBV-DNA level than genotype B. C1858 was frequent, especially in genotype C (62.7%). The most prevalent genotype in ASC and CH was genotype B. The presence of the mutation A1762T/G1764A correlated with disease progression. The triple mutation T1753C/A1762T/ G1764A was quite common and was more prevalent in LC and HCC than in CH and ASC. In Northern Vietnamese, HBV genotypes B and C were prevalent. Genotype C and mutations in the core promoter region were associated with progressive, severe liver diseases. PMID:17203204

Truong, Bui Xuan; Seo, Yasushi; Yano, Yoshihiko; Ho, Pham Thi Thu; Phuong, Tran Minh; Long, Dao Van; Son, Nguyen Truong; Long, Nguyen Cong; Kato, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Trach, Nguyen Khanh; Kasuga, Masato

2007-02-01

137

RNA-Seq Based Transcriptome Analysis of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Replicon Transfected Huh-7 Cells  

PubMed Central

Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is as varied as they appear similar; while HBV causes an acute and/or chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, HEV mostly causes an acute self-limiting disease. In both infections, host responses are crucial in disease establishment and/or virus clearance. In the wake of worsening prognosis described during HEV super-infection over chronic HBV hepatitis, we investigated the host responses by studying alterations in gene expression in liver cells (Huh-7 cell line) by transfection with HEV replicon only (HEV-only), HBV replicon only (HBV-only) and both HBV and HEV replicons (HBV+HEV). Virus replication was validated by strand-specific real-time RT-PCR for HEV and HBsAg ELISA of the culture supernatants for HBV. Indirect immunofluorescence for the respective viral proteins confirmed infection. Transcription profiling was carried out by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of the poly-A enriched RNA from the transfected cells. Averages of 600 million bases within 5.6 million reads were sequenced in each sample and ?15,800 genes were mapped with at least one or more reads. A total of 461 genes in HBV+HEV, 408 in HBV-only and 306 in HEV-only groups were differentially expressed as compared to mock transfection control by two folds (p<0.05) or more. Majority of the significant genes with altered expression clustered into immune-associated, signal transduction, and metabolic process categories. Differential gene expression of functionally important genes in these categories was also validated by real-time RT-PCR based relative gene-expression analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vitro replicon transfected RNA-Seq based transcriptome analysis to understand the host responses against HEV and HBV. PMID:24505321

Thakral, Deepshi; Joshi, Prashant; Durgapal, Hemlata; Panda, Subrat Kumar

2014-01-01

138

People with Multiple Tattoos and/or Piercings Are Not at Increased Risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background Although published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings in the Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in the Netherlands and/or abroad. Methods Tattoo artists, piercers, and people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings were recruited at tattoo conventions, shops (N?=?182), and a biannual survey at our STI-outpatient clinic (N?=?252) in Amsterdam. Participants were interviewed and tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Determinants of HBV and HCV infections were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Results The median number of tattoos and piercings was 5 (IQR 2–10) and 2 (IQR 2–4), respectively. Almost 40% acquired their tattoo of piercing abroad. In total, 18/434 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.64%–6.46%) participants were anti-HBc positive and 1 was anti-HCV positive (0.2%, 95%CI: 0.01%–1.29%). Being anti-HBc positive was independently associated with older age (OR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.03–2.75 per 10 years older) and being born in an HBV-endemic country (OR 7.39, 95%CI: 2.77–19.7). Tattoo- and/or piercing-related variables, like having a tattoo or piercing in an HBV endemic country, surface percentage tattooed, number of tattoos and piercings etc., were not associated with either HBV or HCV. Conclusions We found no evidence for an increased HBV/HCV seroprevalence among persons with multiple tattoos and/or piercings, which might be due to the introduction of hygiene guidelines for tattoo and piercing shops in combination with the low observed prevalence of HBV/HCV in the general population. Tattoos and/or piercings, therefore, should not be considered risk factors for HBV/HCV in the Dutch population. These findings imply the importance of implementation of hygiene guidelines in other countries. PMID:21935447

Urbanus, Anouk T.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Boonstra, Albert; van Houdt, Robin; de Bruijn, Lotte J.; Heijman, Titia; Coutinho, Roel A.; Prins, Maria

2011-01-01

139

Clinton administration shows pro-gas bias  

SciTech Connect

President Bill Clinton's cabinet appointments signify a strong shift to more pro-environmental, proconservation energy policies. Clinton signaled a pro-consumer, pro-conservation tilt for the Energy Department with the nomination of Hazel O'Leary, an executive vice president of Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, to be Secretary of Energy. O'Leary will be responsible for implementing the new National Energy Policy Act, which must resolve a number of energy efficiency and conservation issues.

Patrick, L.

1993-02-01

140

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell  

E-print Network

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P420 E85+ Der Fujitsu PC ESPRIMO P420 bietet Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz 1 x 500 GB, HDD SATA III Unternehmen entwickelt, im Alltag stark. Windows 8 Pro ­ Schön, schnell und flüssig. Alle Vorteile von Windows

Ott, Albrecht

141

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell  

E-print Network

Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P720 E90+ Fujitsu ESPRIMO P720 PCs bieten Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz 1 x 500 GB, HDD SATA III, 7200 U/min, 3 entwickelt, im Alltag stark. Windows 8 Pro ­ Schön, schnell und flüssig. Alle Vorteile von Windows 8, plus

Ott, Albrecht

142

Lower than expected hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among first generation Koreans in the U.S.: results of HBV screening in the Southern California Inland Empire  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care. Methods A community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic. Results A total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p?=?0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p?=?0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects. Conclusions This large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination. PMID:24884673

2014-01-01

143

Is Universal HBV Vaccination of Healthcare Workers a Relevant Strategy in Developing Endemic Countries? The Case of a University Hospital in Niger  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a serious risk to healthcare workers (HCWs) in endemic developing countries owing to the strong prevalence of HBV in the general and hospital populations, and to the high rate of occupational blood exposure. Routine HBV vaccination programs targeted to high-risk groups and especially to HCWs are generally considered as a key element of prevention strategies. However, the high rate of natural immunization among adults in such countries where most infections occur perinatally or during early childhood must be taken into account. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross sectional study in 207 personnel of 4 occupational groups (medical, paramedical, cleaning staff, and administrative) in Niamey’s National Hospital, Niger, in order to assess the prevalence of HBV markers, to evaluate susceptibility to HBV infection, and to identify personnel who might benefit from vaccination. The proportion of those who declared a history of occupational blood exposure ranged from 18.9% in the administrative staff to 46.9% in paramedical staff. Only 7.2% had a history of vaccination against HBV with at least 3 injections. Ninety two percent were anti-HBc positive. When we focused on170 HCWs, only 12 (7.1%) showed no biological HBV contact. Twenty six were HBsAg positive (15,3%; 95% confidence interval: 9.9%–20.7%) of whom 8 (32%) had a viral load >2000 IU/ml. Conclusions/Significance The very small proportion of HCWs susceptible to HBV infection in our study and other studies suggests that in a global approach to prevent occupational infection by bloodborne pathogens, a universal hepatitis B vaccination of HCWs is not priority in these settings. The greatest impact on the risk will most likely be achieved by focusing efforts on primary prevention strategies to reduce occupational blood exposure. HBV screening in HCWs and treatment of those with chronic HBV infection should be however considered. PMID:22970218

Pellissier, Gerard; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Adehossi, Eric; Tosini, William; Madougou, Boubacar; Ibrahima, Kaza; Lolom, Isabelle; Legac, Sylvie; Rouveix, Elisabeth; Champenois, Karen; Rabaud, Christian; Bouvet, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

144

Chronic hepatitis B in Nepal: an Asian country with low prevalence of HBV infection.  

PubMed

Sandwiched between China, a country with high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 30% of the world's HBsAg carriers, and India which has intermediate HBsAg prevalence and 10% of the world's carriers, Nepal has the lowest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Asia, with an HBsAg carrier rate of 0.9%. This treatise discusses the probable causes of this low prevalence based on published literature on the subject. The HBsAg prevalence among pregnant women in Nepal is low (0.5%) and none of those examined were HBeAg positive. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was found in the 6-15 years age group. The low prevalence of this infection in the country was due to an absence of significant vertical transmission and its predominant spread by horizontal transmission among the adolescent age group. PMID:23025054

Shrestha, Santosh Man; Shrestha, Shobhana

2012-01-01

145

Co-incubation with core proteins of HBV and HCV leads to modulation of human dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) are hepatotropic viruses in humans with approximately 350 and 170 million chronic carriers respectively. Since both viruses have similar modes of transmission, many people are co-infected. Co-infection is common in intravenous drug users, HIV-positive individuals, and transplant recipients. Compared to mono-infected patients, co-infected patients exhibit exacerbated liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. Some of the pathogenic effects may be attributed in part to the structural core proteins of both viruses-ones that have displayed immunomodulatory properties. Yet, the effects of their combined interaction on the human immune system remain a mystery. We aimed to elucidate the combined effects of HBV and HCV core proteins on human dendritic cells' (DCs) ability to present antigens and stimulate antigen-specific T-cells. We observed that when DCs, differentiated from human peripheral blood monocytes, were co-incubated with both core proteins, IL-10 production was dramatically enhanced, IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-12 production was significantly reduced, and HLA-DR expression was downregulated. This instant functional and phenotypic modulation of DCs induced by a combination of HBV and HCV core proteins can allow them to behave like tolerizing DCs, inefficiently presenting antigens to CD4+ T-cells and even suppressing induction of the cellular immune response. These results reveal an important mechanism by which HBV and HCV synergistically induce immune tolerance early in infection that may be instrumental in establishing chronic, persistent infections. PMID:25148301

Agrawal, Amogh; Samrat, Subodh K; Agrawal, Babita; Tyrrell, D Lorne J; Kumar, Rakesh

2014-10-01

146

Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of combined versus separately administered DTPw-HBV and Hib vaccines given to healthy infants at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, with a booster at 18 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a combined DTPw-HBV\\/Hib vaccine, in comparison with DTPw-HBV and Hib vaccines given as separate concomitant injections. Methods: In an open, randomized study, healthy infants were injected with either DTPw-HBV\\/Hib vaccine or separate DTPw-HBV and Hib vaccines at 2,4 and 6 months of age, with a booster at 18 months. Results: Both vaccination

Stella Riedemann; Germán Reinhardt; Jaime Jara; Richard Rios; Marfa Soledad Wenzel; Paul Willems; Hans L. Bock

2002-01-01

147

Runoff simulation in the Ferghana Valley (Central Asia) using conceptual hydrological HBV-light model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers and permafrost on the ranges of the Tien Shan mountain system are primary sources of water in the Ferghana Valley. The water artery of the valley is the Syr Darya River that is formed by confluence of the Naryn and Kara Darya rivers, which originate from the mountain glaciers of the Ak-Shyrak and the Ferghana ranges accordingly. The Ferghana Valley is densely populated and main activity of population is agriculture that heavily depends on irrigation especially in such arid region. The runoff reduction is projected in future due to global temperature rise and glacier shrinkage as a consequence. Therefore, it is essential to study climate change impact on water resources in the area both for ecological and economic aspects. The evaluation of comparative contribution of small upper catchments (n=24) with precipitation predominance in discharge and the large Naryn and Karadarya River basins, which are fed by glacial melt water, to the Fergana Valley water balance under current and future climatic conditions is general aim of the study. Appropriate understanding of the hydrological cycle under current climatic conditions is significant for prognosis of water resource availability in the future. Thus, conceptual hydrological HBV-light model was used for analysing of the water balance of the small upper catchments that surround the Ferghana Valley. Three trial catchments (the Kugart River basin, 1010 km²; the Kurshab River basin, 2010 km2; the Akbura River basin, 2260 km²) with relatively good temporal quality data were chosen to setup the model. Due to limitation of daily temperature data the MODAWEC weather generator, which converts monthly temperature data into daily based on correlation with rainfall, was tested and applied for the HBV-light model.

Radchenko, Iuliia; Breuer, Lutz; Forkutsa, Irina; Frede, Hans-Georg

2013-04-01

148

The role of HBsAg levels in the current management of chronic HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can result in liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the natural course of the disease is highly dynamic and not every patient requires therapy. The challenges for optimal management are who to treat, which therapeutic regimen to use, and when to begin or stop treatment. Constant monitoring is mandatory to predict the natural course and guide treatment decisions. Surrogate markers for baseline and on treatment decisions are needed. Besides HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen levels also proved to be useful to help judge the natural course and guide treatment. High levels of HBsAg are suggestive of low fibrosis and immune tolerance in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive patients; whereas low levels of HBsAg indicate a lower risk for HCC and inactive carrier state in HBeAg negative patients. Data also support the possible use of HBsAg levels as an on-treatment response marker. So far, the best evidence exists for treatment with interferon (IFN)-? where lack of HBsAg decline after 12 weeks is associated with non-response. Thus, stopping rules after 12 weeks therapy could be established for HBeAg positive as well as for HBeAg negative patients. However, the positive predictive value for achieving sustained response is still vague. The value of HBsAg monitoring is less clear during treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) but it can be a useful marker for new concepts such as stopping NA or add-on IFN strategies. Currently, several studies are underway to validate HBsAg in these settings. PMID:24733569

Honer zu Siederdissen, Christoph; Cornberg, Markus

2014-01-01

149

Hyperimmune anti-HBs plasma as alternative to commercial immunoglobulins for prevention of HBV recurrence after liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B immune globulins (HBIG) in combination with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) are effectively used for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). However, associated treatment costs for HBIG are exceedingly high. Methods Fresh frozen plasma obtained from blood donors with high anti-HBs levels (hyperimmune plasma, HIP) containing at least 4,500 IU anti-HBs was used as alternative treatment for HBV recurrence prophylaxis post-LT. Results Twenty-one HBV-related LT recipients received HIP starting at transplantation, followed by long-term combination treatment with NA. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 years (range 0.5-12.6) and each patient received on average 8.2 HIP per year (range 5.8-11.4). Anti-HBs terminal elimination kinetic after HIP administration was 20.6 days (range 13.8-30.9), which is comparable to values reported for commercial HBIG products. All 21 patients remained free of HBV recurrence during follow-up and no transfusion-transmitted infection or other serious complication was observed. Seven patients developed reversible mild transfusion reactions. The cost for one HIP unit was US$140; average yearly HBIG treatment cost was US$1,148 per patient, as compared to US$25,000-100,000 for treatment with commercial HBIG. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the use of HIP may be a useful and economical approach for the prevention of HBV recurrence post-LT if used in combination with NA. Additional prospective controlled studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these results. PMID:20598161

2010-01-01

150

Pro-Anorexia and Pro-Recovery Photo Sharing: A Tale of Two Warring Tribes  

PubMed Central

Background There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. Objective To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as “pro-anorexia”) and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. Methods The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Results Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Conclusions Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photo sharing and accentuate the need for clinicians to be aware of such content and its effect on their patients. Our findings suggest that some currently used interventions are not useful in helping pro-anorexia users recover. Thus, future work should focus on new intervention methods, possibly tailored to individual characteristics. PMID:23134671

Yom-Tov, Elad; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

2012-01-01

151

Detection and quantitation of HBV DNA in miniaturized samples: multi centre study to evaluate the performance of the COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® hepatitis B virus (HBV) test v2.0 by the use of plasma or serum specimens.  

PubMed

Laboratory analysis of blood specimens is an increasingly important tool for rapid diagnosis and control of therapy. So, miniaturization of test systems is needed, but reduced specimens might impair test quality. For rapid detection and quantitation of HBV DNA, the COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HBV test has proved a robust instrument in routine diagnostic services. The test system has been modified recently for application of reduced samples of blood plasma and for blood serum, too. The performance of this modified COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HBV v2.0 (HBV v2.0 (this test is currently not available in the USA)) test was evaluated by comparison with the former COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HBV v1.0 (HBV v1.0) test. In this study a platform correlation of both assay versions was done including 275 HBV DNA positive EDTA plasma samples. Comparable results were obtained (R(2)=0.97, mean difference -0.03 log(10)IU/ml). The verification of equivalency of the sample matrix (plasma vs. serum samples tested in HBV v2.0 in the same run) showed comparable results for all 278 samples with a R(2)=0.99 and a mean difference of 0.06 log(10)IU/ml. In conclusion, the new test version HBV v2.0 is highly specific and reproducible and quantifies accurately HBV DNA in EDTA plasma and serum samples from patients with chronic HBV infection. PMID:20728470

Berger, Annemarie; Gohl, Peter; Stürmer, Martin; Rabenau, Holger Felix; Nauck, Markus; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm

2010-11-01

152

PRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes_121112  

E-print Network

annual reports both using PRO and the `old' format. The evaluation committee is comparing old and new are believed to affect our access to resources and greater prestige-- for individuals, departments

153

PRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes_121112  

E-print Network

, English, and Classics. The units next up on the schedule are: History of Art, History, Humanities. Linda did a brief powerpoint presentation of PRO screens showing the changes and updates made to improve

154

New Susceptibility and Resistance HLA-DP Alleles to HBV-Related Diseases Identified by a Trans-Ethnic Association Study in Asia  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have revealed the association between SNPs located on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, including HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, mainly in Asian populations. HLA-DP alleles or haplotypes associated with chronic HBV infection or disease progression have not been fully identified in Asian populations. We performed trans-ethnic association analyses of HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1 alleles and haplotypes with hepatitis B virus infection and disease progression among Asian populations comprising Japanese, Korean, Hong Kong, and Thai subjects. To assess the association between HLA-DP and chronic HBV infection and disease progression, we conducted high-resolution (4-digit) HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 genotyping in a total of 3,167 samples, including HBV patients, HBV-resolved individuals and healthy controls. Trans-ethnic association analyses among Asian populations identified a new risk allele HLA-DPB1*09?01 (P?=?1.36×10?6; OR?=?1.97; 95% CI, 1.50–2.59) and a new protective allele DPB1*02?01 (P?=?5.22×10?6; OR?=?0.68; 95% CI, 0.58–0.81) to chronic HBV infection, in addition to the previously reported alleles. Moreover, DPB1*02?01 was also associated with a decreased risk of disease progression in chronic HBV patients among Asian populations (P?=?1.55×10?7; OR?=?0.50; 95% CI, 0.39–0.65). Trans-ethnic association analyses identified Asian-specific associations of HLA-DP alleles and haplotypes with HBV infection or disease progression. The present findings will serve as a base for future functional studies of HLA-DP molecules in order to understand the pathogenesis of HBV infection and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24520320

Kashiwase, Koichi; Minami, Mutsuhiko; Sugiyama, Masaya; Seto, Wai-Kay; Yuen, Man-Fung; Posuwan, Nawarat; Poovorawan, Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Matsuura, Kentaro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Izumi, Namiki; Kang, Jong-Hon; Hige, Shuhei; Ide, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Sakaida, Isao; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Yoshito; Tamori, Akihiro; Orito, Etsuro; Hiasa, Yoichi; Honda, Masao; Kaneko, Shuichi; Mita, Eiji; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Hino, Keisuke; Tanaka, Eiji; Mochida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Masaki, Naohiko; Murata, Kazumoto; Korenaga, Masaaki; Mawatari, Yoriko; Ohashi, Jun; Kawashima, Minae; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Mizokami, Masashi

2014-01-01

155

An initial assessment of correlations between host- and virus-related factors affecting analogues antiviral therapy in HBV chronically infected patients  

PubMed Central

Background Success in treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with nucleoside analogues drugs is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains upon prolonged therapy. In addition to mutation patterns in the viral polymerase gene, host factors are assumed to contribute to failure of treatment in chronic HBV infections. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between efficacy of antiviral therapy and the prevalence of HBV pretreatment drug-resistant variants. We also analyzed the role of heterogeneity in the promoter region of the IL-10 on the HBV pol/s gene polymorphisms and efficacy of analogues-driven therapy. Material/Methods HBV DNA was extracted from 54 serum samples from chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Drug-resistance mutations were analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry technology (MALDI-TOF MS) and Multi-temperature single-strand conformation polymorphism (MSSCP). IL-10 gene promoter region polymorphisms at positions ?1082, ?819, and ?592 were determined in allele-specific PCR reactions (AS-PCR). Results Drug-resistance mutations were detected in 74% of naïve and 93% of experienced patients, but the effect of pre-existence of drug-resistant HBV variants on antiviral therapy was not statistically significant (p=0.86). The role of polymorphisms at positions ?1082 (p=0.88), ?819 (p=0.26), and ?592 (p=0.26) of IL-10 promoter region polymorphisms was excluded from the response-predicting factors. The main host factors predicting successful response to antiviral therapy were female sex (p=0.007) and young age (p=0.013). Conclusions The presence of drug-resistant HBV variants in baseline is not a viral predictor of good response to nucleoside/nucleotide analogues therapy. Only low HBV viral load predicted positive response to antiviral therapy. The ideal candidate for antiviral therapy is an immunocompetent, young female with low HBV viral load and elevated ALT activity. PMID:24569300

Stalke, Piotr; Rybicka, Magda; Wroblewska, Anna; Dreczewski, Marcin; Stracewska, Ewa; Smiatacz, Tomasz; Bielawski, Krzysztof Piotr

2014-01-01

156

Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Intrahepatic Covalently Closed Circular DNA and Serum Viral Markers in Treatment-Naive Patients with Acute and Chronic HBV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to investigate the relationships of intrahepatic cccDNA with serum HBsAg and with HBV DNA in treatment-naive patients throughout acute and chronic HBV infection. Methods A total of 120 patients who had a liver biopsy were enrolled, including 19 with acute hepatitis B (AHB), and 101 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) of whom were 10 in immune-tolerant (IT) phase, 59 in immune-clearance (IC) phase, 8 in low-replicative (LR) phase, and 24 in HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) phase. Intrahepatic cccDNA, serum HBsAg and serum HBV DNA levels were comparatively analyzed. Results The median intrahepatic cccDNA levels were 0.18 4.80, 3.81, 0.22 and 0.97 copies/cell for patients with AHB, CHB-IT, CHB-IC, CHB-LR, and CHB-ENH, respectively. In AHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg (r?=?0.665, P?=?0.003), as well as serum HBV DNA (r?=?0.536, P?=?0.022). In CHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg in the IC phase (r?=?0.392, P?=?0.005), and with serum HBV DNA in the IC phase (r?=?0.301, P?=?0.036) and ENH phase (r?=?0.588, P?=?0.013). HBV replicative efficiency, defined as the ratio of serum HBV DNA to intrahepatic cccDNA, was obviously lower in AHB and CHB-LR patients than in CHB-IT, CHB-IC and CHB-ENH patients (0.70 and 0.53 vs. 1.12, 1.09 and 0.99, P<0.001, values were logarithmic transformed for analysis). In CHB-IC patients, HBV replicative efficiency was positively correlated with histological activity index of liver inflammation (r?=?0.308, P?=?0.009). Conclusion Serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels may reflect the amount of active intrahepatic cccDNA in treatment-naive AHB and CHB-IC patients. Reduced intrahepatic cccDNA and HBV replicative efficiency may imply effective immune control of HBV infection. PMID:24551214

Zou, Zhengsheng; Liu, Yan; Li, Baosen; Sun, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Shuhong; Cai, Shaoping; Yao, Weimin; Xin, Shaojie; Lu, Fengmin; Xu, Dongping

2014-01-01

157

The emerging role of hepatitis B virus Pre-S2 deletion mutant proteins in HBV tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of HBV tumorigenesis, including inflammation and liver regeneration associated with cytotoxic immune injuries and transcriptional activators of mutant HBV gene products. The mutant viral oncoprotein-driven tumorigenesis is prevailed at the advanced stage or anti-HBe-positive phase of chronic HBV infection. Besides HBx, the pre-S2 (deletion) mutant protein represents a newly recognized oncoprotein that is accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and manifests as type II ground glass hepatocytes (GGH). The retention of pre-S2 mutant protein in ER can induce ER stress and initiate an ER stress-dependent VEGF/Akt/mTOR and NF?B/COX-2 signal pathway. Additionally, the pre-S2 mutant large surface protein can induce an ER stress-independent pathway to transactivate JAB-1/p27/RB/cyclin A,D pathway, leading to growth advantage of type II GGH. The pre-S2 mutant protein-induced ER stress can also cause DNA damage, centrosome overduplication, and genomic instability. In 5-10% of type II GGHs, there is co-expression of pre-S2 mutant protein and HBx antigen which exhibited enhanced oncogenic effects in transgenic mice. The mTOR signal cascade is consistently activated throughout the course of pre-S2 mutant transgenic livers and in human HCC tissues, leading to metabolic disorders and HCC tumorigenesis. Clinically, the presence of pre-S2 deletion mutants in sera frequently develop resistance to nucleoside analogues anti-virals and predict HCC development. The pre-S2 deletion mutants and type II GGHs therefore represent novel biomarkers of HBV-related HCCs. A versatile DNA array chip has been developed to detect pre-S2 mutants in serum. Overall, the presence of pre-S2 mutants in serum has implications for anti-viral treatment and can predict HCC development. Targeting at pre-S2 mutant protein-induced, ER stress-dependent, mTOR signal cascade and metabolic disorders may offer potential strategy for chemoprevention or therapy in high risk chronic HBV carriers. PMID:25316153

Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Han-Chieh; Teng, Chiao-Fang; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Huang, Wenya

2014-01-01

158

Award Recipient PRO-TEC Coating Company  

E-print Network

that inhibit corrosion and help to improve a vehicle's crash performance and fuel economy. ·PRO-dipped galvanized steel to the automotive market. National Institute of Standards and Technology · U.S. Department

Magee, Joseph W.

159

Nutzerpreise Transkriptomanalyselabor Leistungen Pro Probe Komplettservice  

E-print Network

Datenauswertung (pro Experiment) Einfach 500 400 500 600 Komplex 1000 800 1000 1200 6 1,15 Trizol Reagent Qiagen Qiagen miRNA DNase Behandlung Trizol Reagent inclusive Qiagen inclusive Qualitätskontrolle

Gollisch, Tim

160

Estimation of instantaneous peak flow from simulated maximum daily flow using the HBV model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instantaneous peak flow (IPF) data are the foundation of the design of hydraulic structures and flood frequency analysis. However, the long discharge records published by hydrological agencies contain usually only average daily flows which are of little value for design in small catchments. In former research, statistical analysis using observed peak and daily flow data was carried out to explore the link between instantaneous peak flow (IPF) and maximum daily flow (MDF) where the multiple regression model is proved to have the best performance. The objective of this study is to further investigate the acceptability of the multiple regression model for post-processing simulated daily flows from hydrological modeling. The model based flood frequency analysis allows to consider change in the condition of the catchments and in climate for design. Here, the HBV model is calibrated on peak flow distributions and flow duration curves using two approaches. In a two -step approach the simulated MDF are corrected with a priory established regressions. In a one-step procedure the regression coefficients are calibrated together with the parameters of the model. For the analysis data from 18 mesoscale catchments in the Aller-Leine river basin in Northern Germany are used. The results show that: (1) the multiple regression model is capable to predict the peak flows with the simulated MDF data; (2) the calibrated hydrological model reproduces well the magnitude and frequency distribution of peak flows; (3) the one-step procedure outperforms the two-step procedure regarding the estimation of peak flows.

Ding, Jie; Haberlandt, Uwe

2014-05-01

161

Downregulation of transcription factor E4F1 in hepatocarcinoma cells: HBV-dependent effects on autophagy, proliferation and metabolism.  

PubMed

The multifunctional E4F1 protein is a cellular target of the E1A adenoviral oncoprotein. Interaction between E4F1 and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein HBx has been demonstrated in vitro. In this study, RNA interference has been used to downregulate E4F1 in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line HepG2 (HBV negative) and its derivative, HBV expressing HepG2/2.2.15. Reduction of E4F1 levels induced hepatocyte vacuolation (formation of large cytoplasmic vesicles), increased autophagy and caused mitochondrial defects and metabolism changes in HepG2/2.2.15, but not in HepG2. Moreover, downregulation of E4F1 reduced DNA synthesis with partial cell cycle arrest in G1 in both cell types and this effect was more marked in HepG2/2.2.15 than in HepG2. These effects were partially prevented by RNA interference directed to either HBx or to p53. Coprecipitation and western blot experiments detected complexes between E4F1 and HBx in several HCC cell lines. Although a review of mutation and gene expression public databases did not support that E4F1 is specifically altered in liver cancer, our results suggest that E4F1 may neutralize the capacity of HBx to activate a p53-dependent, metabolic and growth arrest phenotype in liver cells, thus possibly contributing to the viability and proliferation of HBV-infected cells. PMID:24163401

Dai, Yayun; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Pontoizeau, Clément; Elena-Hermann, Bénédicte; Bonn, Günther K; Hainaut, Pierre

2014-03-01

162

Genetic Editing of HBV DNA by Monodomain Human APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases and the Recombinant Nature of APOBEC3G  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is vulnerable to editing by human cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 (A3A-H) family albeit to much lower levels than HIV cDNA. We have analyzed and compared HBV editing by all seven enzymes in a quail cell line that does not produce any endogenous DNA cytidine deaminase activity. Using 3DPCR it was possible to show that all but A3DE were able to deaminate HBV DNA at levels from 10?2 to 10?5 in vitro, with A3A proving to be the most efficient editor. The amino terminal domain of A3G alone was completely devoid of deaminase activity to within the sensitivity of 3DPCR (?10?4 to 10?5). Detailed analysis of the dinucleotide editing context showed that only A3G and A3H have strong preferences, notably CpC and TpC. A phylogenic analysis of A3 exons revealed that A3G is in fact a chimera with the first two exons being derived from the A3F gene. This might allow co-expression of the two genes that are able to restrict HIV-1?vif efficiently. PMID:19169351

Henry, Michel; Guétard, Denise; Suspène, Rodolphe; Rusniok, Christophe; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre

2009-01-01

163

Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Resistant to HBV Infection during Differentiation into Hepatocytes in Vitro  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic methods for chronic hepatitis B are limited. The shortage of organ donors and hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection obstruct the clinical application of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). In the present study, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were isolated from chronic hepatitis B patients and characterized for morphology, growth potency, surface phenotype and the differentiation potential. The results showed that both MSCs had adipogenic, osteogenic and neuron differentiation potential, and nearly all MSCs expressed CD105, CD44 and CD29. Compared with AD-MSCs, BM-MSCs of chronic hepatitis B patients proliferated defectively. In addition, the ability of AD-MSCs to differentiate into hepatocyte was evaluated and the susceptibility to HBV infection were assessed. AD-MSCs could differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells. These cells express the hepatic-specific markers and have glycogen production and albumin secretion function. AD-MSCs and hepatic differentiation AD-MSCs were not susceptible to infection by HBV in vitro. Compared with BM-MSCs, AD-MSCs may be alternative stem cells for chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:24727377

Wang, Ying; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hongchang; Zhang, Xiaohe; Chen, Haiying; Zhang, Kaiyu

2014-01-01

164

Bayard et al. Vaccine Page 1 Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived DRB1*0101-restricted CD4 T-cell epitopes3  

E-print Network

Bayard et al. Vaccine Page 1 1 2 Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived DRB1*0101-restricted CD4 T-cell protein (HBx) and in HBV envelope proteins (preS2). To evaluated their help3 in the development of CD8+ T-cell of helper7 activities may meet clinical needs in terms of enhancing the potency of preventive or8

Boyer, Edmond

165

Identification of a natural mutant of HBV X protein truncated 27 amino acids at the COOH terminal and its effect on liver cell proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To identify mutants of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) X (HBx) gene and investigate the effect of the natural mutant on liver cell proliferation.Methods:We identified natural mutants of the HBx gene from 188 sera and 48 tissues of Chinese patients infected with HBV by PCR, respectively. Based on the identification of the mutants of HBx gene, we cloned the fragments

Hang Zhang; Chang-liang Shan; Nan Li; Xuan Zhang; Xue-zhi Zhang; Fu-qing Xu; Shuai Zhang; Li-yan Qiu; Li-hong Ye; Xiao-dong Zhang

2008-01-01

166

Hepatitis B virus variants in an HIV-HBV co-infected patient at different periods of antiretroviral treatment with and without lamivudine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lamivudine inhibits replication of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is commonly used as part of antiretroviral therapy. The main limitation in the use of lamivudine is resistant mutation selection. Most of these mutations affect the YMDD motif of the HBV DNA polymerase. The resistance occurs through M550V or M550I aminoacid replacements. The M550V

Eneida A Santos; Michel VF Sucupira; Juçara Arabe; Selma A Gomes

2004-01-01

167

New Enzyme Immunoassay for Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen (HBcAg) and Relation between Levels of HBcAg and HBV DNA  

PubMed Central

A new enzyme immunoassay specific for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (HBcAg) was developed. In order to detect HBcAg, specimens were pretreated with detergents to release HBcAg from the HBV virion and disassemble it to dimers, and simultaneously, the treatment inactivated anti-HBc antibodies. HBcAg detected by the assay peaked with HBV DNA in density gradient fractions of HBV-positive sera. The assay showed a wide detection range from 2 to 100,000 pg/ml. We observed no interference from anti-HBc antibody or blood components, but the assay was inhibited by very high concentrations (>1 ?g/ml; corresponding to 80 signal/cutoff) of HBeAg. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 4 pg/ml, all healthy control (HBsAg and HBV DNA negative, n = 160) and anti-hepatitis C virus-positive (n = 55) sera were identified as negative. HBcAg concentrations correlated very closely with HBV DNA (r = 0.946, n = 145) in 216 samples from 72 hepatitis B patients. In seroconversion panels, HBcAg concentrations changed in parallel with HBV DNA levels. The assay, therefore, offers a simple method for monitoring hepatitis B patients. With a series of sera during lamivudine therapy, HBV DNA levels fell sharply and the HBcAg concentration also decreased, but the change in HBcAg was smaller and more gradual. The supposed mechanism of these changes and their clinical significance are discussed. PMID:12734224

Kimura, Tatsuji; Rokuhara, Akinori; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Maki, Noboru

2003-01-01

168

Sur gi cal Treat ment for Rec tal Pro lapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Back ground. The prob lem of full-thickness rec tal pro lapse is for mi - da ble, with no clear pre dom i nant treat ment of choice. Sev eral op er a - tions have been pro posed to cor rect rec tal pro lapse which can be di - vided into transabdomianl and per i neal pro ce

Hsi-Hsiung Chiu; Joe-Bin Chen; Hwei-Ming Wang; Chen-Yea Tsai; Te-Hsin Chao

169

Surface Pro User Guide Published: April 29, 2013  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................................ 2 What is Windows 8 Pro .............................................................................................................................15 What moved or changed in Windows 8

Bernstein, Phil

170

Mutations in pre-core and basal-core promoter regions of hepatitis B virus in chronic HBV patients from Golestan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): It has been reported that the mutation of the pre-core (PC) and basal-core promoter (BCP) may play an important role in the development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study the PC and BCP mutations were investigated in chronic HBV patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, 120 chronic HBV patients from Golestan, Northeast of Iran who were not vaccinated against HBV, were recruited from the year 2008 to 2012. HBV-DNA extraction from plasma and PCR were performed and positive PCR products were subjected to automated sequencing. Results: One hundred out of 120 (83.3%) patients were HBeAg negative. Comparison of our nucleotide sequences with reference sequence showed high rate mutation in BCP and PC region (96.66%). Frame shift mutation was found in 78 (65%) of patients in BCP region, among them 8 (6.6%) patients showed mutation in PC region. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated high rate of mutations in BCP and PC regions among HBV chronic patients in Northeast of Iran. PMID:24967066

Moradi, Abdolvahab; Zhand, Sareh; Ghaemi, Amir; Javid, Naeme; Bazouri, Masoud; Tabarraei, Alijan

2014-01-01

171

Correlates of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among prison inmates and officers in Ghana: A national multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Background Prisons are known to be high-risk environments for the spread of bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. Prison officers are considered to have an intermittent exposure potential to bloodborne infectious diseases on the job, however there has been no studies on the prevalence of these infections in prison officers in Ghana. Methods A national multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken on correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis infections in sample of prison inmates and officers from eight of ten regional central prisons in Ghana. A total of 1366 inmates and 445 officers were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects completed personal risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum; and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg). These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Results Almost 18% (1336) of 7652 eligible inmates and 21% (445) of 2139 eligible officers in eight study prisons took part. Median ages of inmates and officers were 36.5 years (range 16–84) and 38.1 years (range 25–59), respectively. Among inmates, HIV seroprevalence was 5.9%, syphilis seroprevalence was 16.5%, and 25.5% had HBsAg. Among officers tested, HIV seroprevalence was 4.9%, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7%, syphilis seroprevalence was 7.9%, and 11.7% had HBsAg. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among inmates were age between 17–46, being unmarried, being illiterate, female gender, being incarcerated for longer than median time served of 36 months, history of homosexuality, history of intravenous drug use, history of sharing syringes and drug paraphernalia, history of participation in paid sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among officers were age between 25–46, fale gender, being unmarried, being employed in prison service for longer than median duration of employment of 10 years, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion The comparably higher prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in prison inmates and officers in Ghana suggests probable occupational related transmission. The implementation of infection control practices and risk reduction programs targeted at prison inmates and officers in Ghana is urgently required to address this substantial exposure risk. PMID:18328097

Adjei, Andrew A; Armah, Henry B; Gbagbo, Foster; Ampofo, William K; Boamah, Isaac; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Asare, Isaac; Hesse, Ian FA; Mensah, George

2008-01-01

172

QuickTime Pro Tutorial 1 How to Edit a Movie in QuickTime Pro  

E-print Network

QuickTime Pro Tutorial 1 How to Edit a Movie in QuickTime Pro 1. How To Extract a Clip: The first step in extracting your clip from a QuickTime movie is to decide which clip you Footage From Your Movie: Editing footage out of your movie is very similar to extracting a clip

Qiu, Weigang

173

Epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in 223 HIV co-infected patients: a French multi-centre collaborative study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a clinical concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals due to substantial prevalence, difficulties to treat, and severe liver disease outcome. A large nationwide cross-sectional multicentre analysis of HIV-HBV co-infected patients was designed to describe and identify parameters associated with virological and clinical outcome of CHB in HIV-infected individuals with detectable HBV viremia. Methods A multicenter collaborative cross-sectional study was launched in 19 French University hospitals distributed through the country. From January to December 2007, HBV load, genotype, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 223 HBV-HIV co-infected patients with an HBV replication over 1000 IU/mL were investigated. Results Patients were mostly male (82%, mean age 42 years). Genotype distribution (A 52%; E 23.3%; D 16.1%) was linked to risk factors, geographic origin, and co-infection with other hepatitis viruses. This genotypic pattern highlights divergent contamination event timelines by HIV and HBV viruses. Most patients (74.7%) under antiretroviral treatment were receiving a drug with anti-HBV activity, including 47% receiving TDF. Genotypic lamivudine-resistance detected in 26% of the patients was linked to duration of lamivudine exposure, age, CD4 count and HIV load. Resistance to adefovir (rtA181T/V) was detected in 2.7% of patients. Advanced liver lesions were observed in 54% of cases and were associated with an older age and lower CD4 counts but not with viral load or genotype. Immune escape HBsAg variants were seldom detected. Conclusions Despite the detection of advanced liver lesions in most patients, few were not receiving anti-HBV drugs and for those treated with the most potent anti-HBV drugs, persistent replication suggested non-optimal adherence. Heterogeneity in HBV strains reflects epidemiological differences that may impact liver disease progression. These findings are strong arguments to further optimize clinical management and to promote vaccination in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23497042

2013-01-01

174

CoursePro 0.7.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No doubt there are students (and teachers) who will find Course Pro 0.7.0 quite a helpful application to have around. The application allows users to keep track of courses, course data, assignments and grades. Within each of these areas, users can define assignment types, assign weights to each assignment, create new assignments, and add indicators to keep abreast of when various assignments are due. The website for the program also features some nice screenshots, a help forum, and contact information. This version of Course Pro 0.7.0 is compatible with all systems running Windows 95 and above, and for the Palm OS as well.

Meehl, Keith

175

Proteolysis of pro-gly-pro-leu in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex in rats after intravenous injection.  

PubMed

We studied the dependence of the levels of Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu peptide and its metabolites (Gly-Pro-Leu, Pro-Gly-Pro, Gly-Pro and Pro-Gly) from the time of administration in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex of rats. After intravenous injection of Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu, the maximum concentration of metabolites in the rat brain was found in 20-min sample (0.026% from the amount of introduced labeled tetrapeptide); it was by 2.6 times higher that after intranasal administration. The calculated ratios of the peptide content (AUC) in brain structures for Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu and its metabolites after intranasal and intravenous injection were in most cases >1; hence, the levels of these peptides in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and brain cortex after intravenous injection were slightly higher than after intranasal administration. From these data, content of Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu and its metabolites per 1 g of the cerebellum, hippocampus and cortex was calculated: the maximum concentrations of Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and cortex were 15.63, 18.48, and 2.95 pmol/g, respectively. PMID:25403393

Shevchenko, K V; V'yunova, T V; Andreeva, L A; Nagaev, I Yu; Shevchenko, V P; Myasoedov, N F

2014-11-01

176

Liver FOXP3 and PD1/PDL1 Expression is Down-Regulated in Chronic HBV Hepatitis on Maintained Remission Related to the Degree of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: T cell expression of PD1 and inhibition of T effector cells by Foxp3+-T regulatory cells are among the most powerful mechanisms for achieving a balanced immune response. Our aim was to investigate, how liver FOXP3 and PD1/PDL1 expression is regulated in chronic HBV hepatitis (CHB) on maintained long-term remission in comparison with active disease, and whether they are correlated to the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis mediators, along with the degree of histological inflammation and markers of T cell effector restoration. Methods: Fifty-three HBeAg-negative CHB patients with both active (30) and completely remitted disease on long-term antiviral treatment (23) and four controls (submitted to liver biopsy due to a mild increase of aminotransferases but without liver necroinflammatory and architecture changes) were enrolled in the study. Liver mRNA levels of immunoregulatory genes (FOXP3, IL10, TGFB1, and those of PD1/PDL1/PDL2 pathway), major apoptosis mediators (FAS, FASL, TNFA, TRAIL), cytokines of effector T cell restoration (IL2, IFNG), and those of IL1B, CD4, and CD8, were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR and were correlated with each other, along with the intensity of liver inflammation and fibrosis staging. The expression and localization of FOXP3, PD1, PDL1, CD4, and CD8 were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: The expression of FOXP3, IL10, TGFB1, PD1, PDL1, FASL, and CD8 was significantly down-regulated in the remission state. In contrast, liver expression of IL2 and IFNG, along with CD4, IL1B, TNFA, and FAS did not change significantly. Moreover, FOXP3, PD1, PDL1, and CD8 transcripts were positively correlated to the intensity of liver inflammation. Conclusion: Our data indicate that in the CHB disease model, the immunosuppressive liver environment is down-regulated in the maintained on-treatment long-term remission state and correlates with the intensity of liver inflammation, but not liver T cell restoration. PMID:23898331

Germanidis, Georgios; Argentou, Nikoletta; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Vassiliadis, Themistoklis; Patsiaoura, Kalliopi; Germenis, Anastasios E.; Speletas, Matthaios

2013-01-01

177

Prevalence and epidemiological traits of HIV infections in populations with high-risk behaviours as revealed by genetic analysis of HBV.  

PubMed

The prevalence and epidemiological traits of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in high-risk populations (HRPs) remained unclarified in Japan. We determined the prevalence of HIV, HBV and Treponema pallidum (TP) and the viral genotypes in HRPs who attended primary sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Osaka province during 2006-2011. Of 7898 specimens, 133 (1·7%) were HIV positive, which was significantly higher than the figures reported by Japanese Red Cross (0·0019%) and public health centres (0·27%) in Japan. The frequency of HIV-1 subtype B was 88·7%, followed by CRF01_AE (2·3%) and C (0·8%), which were almost identical to the national trend. HBV seroprevalence was surprisingly high in the HIV-positive group (63·2%), which was significantly higher than that in the HIV-negative group (25·6%). By contrast, there was no statistical correlation between HIV and TP infection. Interestingly, the distinct HBV genotypes Ae and G were prevalent in the HIV-positive population (60·0% and 20·0%, respectively), although both were rarely detected during nationwide surveillance. The transmission of HIV and HBV appeared to occur largely within a closed community early in life. Of note, about one-quarter of HIV-positive cases would have remained untested if health professionals had not motivated individuals to undergo HIV testing. This is the first evidence-based assessment of HIV positivity and HIV/HBV co-infection in HRPs at primary STIs in Japan and the effect of the involvement of health professionals in the diagnosis of HIV infections in asymptomatic carriers. The genotyping of HBV provided valuable information for understanding HIV epidemical traits. PMID:23347648

Kojima, Y; Kawahata, T; Mori, H; Furubayashi, K; Taniguchi, Y; Iwasa, A; Taniguchi, K; Kimura, H; Komano, J

2013-11-01

178

Communicating Stigma: The Pro-Ana Paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype,

Daphna Yeshua-Katz; Nicole Martins

2012-01-01

179

Public interest PUBLIC INTEREST AND PRO BONO  

E-print Network

Student Profile 11Alumni Profile Pro Bono Numbers (statistics for 2008-09 academic year) 374 students growing caseload, and a new project investigating racial bias in the court system in north Carolina. the second was spurred by the state legislature's recent passage of the Racial Justice act, which allows

180

PRO-DAIRY Program 272 Morrison Hall  

E-print Network

PRO-DAIRY Program 272 Morrison Hall Ithaca, New York 14853 Phone: (607) 255-4478 Fax: (607) 255.edu Karl Czymmek kjc12@cornell.edu OSHA Plans to Target NY Dairy Farms with Random, Unannounced Inspections in 2014 All dairy farmers should know if they fall under OSHA enforcement authority. For those that do not

Walter, M.Todd

181

Efficiency and safety of lamivudine therapy in patients with chronic HBV infection, dialysis or after kidney transplantation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the effectiveness and safety of lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic HBV infection undergoing hemodialysis or after kidney transplantation, and to study the frequency of tyrosine - methionine - aspartate - aspartate (YMDD) mutation occurrence after lamivudine treatment. METHODS: We analyzed 91 patients with chronic hepatitis B, among whom, 16 patients underwent hemodialysis, 7 patients had kidney transplantation and 68 patients had normal function of kidney. The hemodialysis patients were treated by lamivudine 300 mg/wk. Patients after kidney transplantation and patients with normal function of kidney were treated with lamivudine 100 mg/d. Therapy lasted for 12 mo. HBV-DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg and anti-HBe, and anti-HCV antibodies were assessed in sera of patients. The analysis was performed before and 6 mo after the end of lamivudine treatment. Before, during and after the lamivudine therapy, the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets and hemoglobin concentration, ALT and AST activity, as well as bilirubin, urea and creatinine concentrations were analyzed in sera from patients. RESULTS: After the 12-mo lamivudine treatment, elimination of HBV - DNA was observed in 56% patients undergoing hemodialysis and in 53% patients with normal kidney function. Only 1 from 7 (14%) kidney-transplanted patients eliminated HBV-DNA. Furthermore, HBeAg elimination was observed in 36% hemodialysis patients, in 51% patients with normal function of kidneys and in 43% kidney-transplanted patients. Among the patients undergoing dialysis, no YMDD mutation was found after 12 mo of therapy, while it was detected in 9 patients (13%) with normal function of kidney and in 2 kidney-transplanted patients (29%, P<0.006). We did not observe significant side effects of lamivudine treatment in studied patients. CONCLUSION: Effectiveness of lamivudine therapy in dialysis patients is comparable with that in patients with normal function of kidney. Lamivudine treatment is well tolerated and safe in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis and kidney-transplantation. However, in the latter group, high incidence of YMDD mutation after lamivudine treatment was observed. PMID:15637753

Lapinski, Tadeusz Wojciech; Flisiak, Robert; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Michalewicz, Malgorzata; Kowalczuk, Oksana

2005-01-01

182

Differentially Expressed Proteins in Chronic Active Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, and HCC Related to HCV Infection in Comparison With HBV Infection: A proteomics study  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly progressive cancer in the case of late diagnosis which is frequently associated with HBV and HCV viral infections. Objectives To identify differentially expressed serum proteins among three main stages of HCV infection and healthy individuals, and their comparisons with sera from patients with the same stage of HBV infection. Patients and Methods Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed on 47 sera from healthy volunteers, those with chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC patients associated with HBV and HCV infections. Results Among these, 62 spots were differentially expressed (? 1.5 fold; P < 0.05), of which 42 spots that corresponded to 15 proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CD5-like antigen (CD5L) was differentially expressed between cirrhosis and HCC patients with HCV infection. Leucine-rich ?2-glycoprotein (LRG) and haptoglobin (HP) ?2 isoforms differed in the HCC that was associated with either HCV or HBV infections. Conclusions CD5L might be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of HCC in HCV cirrhotic patients. LRG and HP ?2 isoforms could be potential markers for distinguishing viral HCC. Our results also further support the presence of varying molecules involved in hepatocarcinogenesis in HBV when compared with HCV infection. PMID:24066001

Sarvari, Jamal; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Taghavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Shamsi Shahrabadi, Mahmoud; Ghaderi, Abbas; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

183

InterPro, progress and status in 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biolo- gical and functional information. Annotation is pro- vided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping

Nicola J. Mulder; Rolf Apweiler; Teresa K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; David Binns; Paul Bradley; Peer Bork; Phillip Bucher; Lorenzo Cerutti; Richard R. Copley; Emmanuel Courcelle; Ujjwal Das; Richard Durbin; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Julian Gough; Daniel H. Haft; Nicola Harte; Nicolas Hulo; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Maria Krestyaninova; David Lonsdale; Rodrigo Lopez; Ivica Letunic; Martin Madera; John Maslen; Jennifer Mcdowall; Alex Mitchell; Anastasia N. Nikolskaya; Sandra E. Orchard; Marco Pagni; Chris P. Ponting; Emmanuel Quevillon; Jeremy D. Selengut; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Ville Silventoinen; David J. Studholme; Robert Vaughan; Cathy H. Wu

2005-01-01

184

InterPro: the integrative protein signature database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The InterPro database (http:\\/\\/www.ebi.ac.uk\\/inter pro\\/) integrates together predictive models or 'sig- natures' representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source data- bases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total ~58 000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently,

Sarah Hunter; Rolf Apweiler; Teresa K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; David Binns; Peer Bork; Ujjwal Das; Louise Daugherty; Lauranne Duquenne; Robert D. Finn; Julian Gough; Daniel H. Haft; Nicolas Hulo; Daniel Kahn; Elizabeth Kelly; Aurélie Laugraud; Ivica Letunic; David Lonsdale; Rodrigo Lopez; Martin Madera; John Maslen; Craig Mcanulla; Jennifer Mcdowall; Jaina Mistry; Alex Mitchell; Nicola J. Mulder; Darren A. Natale; Christine A. Orengo; Antony F. Quinn; Jeremy D. Selengut; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Manjula Thimma; Paul D. Thomas; Franck Valentin; Derek Wilson; Cathy H. Wu; Corin Yeats

2009-01-01

185

Cryogenic system for BERLinPro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

2014-01-01

186

Pro-Life nurses uniting for service.  

PubMed

The Missouri Pro-Life Nurses claim that nurses have lost the ethical basis of their profession. Nurses need to reexamine their attitudes at a time when 1 in 5 physician-members of the American Society of Internal Medicine admits to deliberately helping a patient end his or her life, and when many physicians and nurses favor euthanasia and abortion. Former Georgia nurse Joseph Dewey Akin was sentenced in October 1992 to life imprisonment for injecting Robert Price, a quadriplegic, with a lethal dose of lidocaine. Hospice nurse Darlene Leon of California is on trial for injecting 17 of her patients with lethal doses of morphine. A nurse from Georgia was indicted on one count of aggravated assault for attempting to kill her 87-year-old patient with an injection of potassium. Georgia nurse Jenny Serbes was charged with murder in the death of her husband with a lethal injection of insulin. The fierce argument about abortion and euthanasia now raging in America is this century's civil war. 20 years ago, in an effort to combat this tide, the National Association of Pro-Life Nurses (NAPN) was started, and its 1000 members want to demonstrate positive concern for all human life. NAPN attempts to educate nurses and the health care community on the legal and medical aspects of the ethical issues facing the profession. In October 1993 the first meeting of Illinois Pro-Life Nurses was held in suburban Chicago. The nurse-patient relationship can be viewed as a contract. Implicit in this relationship is the understanding that the nurse will do no harm. If the relationship is broken, the foundation on which nursing and medicine rest is shaken. Pro-life nursing organizations are trying to steer the nursing profession back on the right course. PMID:8006780

Sutherland, K

1994-01-01

187

Some problems with pro-competition reforms.  

PubMed

As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage. PMID:4059946

Agich, G J; Begley, C E

1985-01-01

188

InterPro, progress and status in 2005  

E-print Network

InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biological and functional information. Annotation is provided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping and links to specialized databases. New features of InterPro include extended protein match views, taxonomic range information and protein 3D structure data. One of the new match views is the InterPro

Nicola J. Mulder; Rolf Apweiler; Teresa K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; David Binns; Paul Bradley; Peer Bork; Phillip Bucher; Lorenzo Cerutti; Richard Copley; Emmanuel Courcelle; Ujjwal Das; Richard Durbin; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Julian Gough; Daniel Haft; Nicola Harte; Nicolas Hulo; Daniel Kahn; Er Kanapin; Maria Krestyaninova; David Lonsdale; Rodrigo Lopez; Ivica Letunic; Martin Madera; John Maslen; Jennifer Mcdowall; Alex Mitchell; Anastasia N. Nikolskaya; Ra Orchard; Marco Pagni; Chris P. Ponting; Emmanuel Quevillon; Jeremy Selengut; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Ville Silventoinen; David J. Studholme; Robert Vaughan; Cathy H. Wu

2005-01-01

189

A comparison of SRM and HBV models for real time runoff forecasting in the Upper Euphrates Basin, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting snowmelt runoff in the mountainous eastern part of Turkey at a daily time step is important in water resource management as it constitutes nearly 2/3 in volume of the total yearly runoff during spring and early summer months. Keeping track of snow dynamics as well as forecasting the amount and timing of snowmelt runoff in the headwaters of the trans-boundary Euphrates River, where large dams are located, is a crucial and challenging task concerning the practical importance and great demand for real time forecasting of melt water. In mountainous regions, data limitations prevent detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed relative to snowpack heterogeneity therefore, to supplement ground measurement networks, remotely sensed images of snow covered area (SCA) provide useful information for runoff prediction during the snowmelt season. SCA has been used as a direct input to hydrological models such as Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) or as a means of assimilating hydrologic model snowpack and checking the internal validity as in the case of HBV model. Alternative ways of handling melt water modeling using satellite derived SCA is discussed, with emphasis on the contrasting treatments in two widely used hydrologic models, SRM and HBV. The greatest similarity between the two models is that each uses a temperature index method to predict melt rate whereas the greatest difference lies in the way snow cover is handled. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow cover products with 500 m spatial resolution are used to derive SCA data in this study. Since the cloud obscuring problem degrades the use of satellites with optical sensors, a special combination and filtering methodology is utilized to reduce cloud coverage of the product. Both models are used to simulate runoff for the years 2001-2010 with model efficiency above 0.86 and volume difference less than 2.5%. Finally, operational snowmelt runoff forecasting is carried out for 2011 ablation season using numerical weather prediction (Mesoscale Model 5) data as forcing input variables. Discussion of results are supervised to reflect the general debates in hydrologic modeling in terms of parameters and calibration, internal validation, the value and limitations of using satellite derived and numerical weather prediction data. Key words: snow, SRM, HBV, forecasting, Upper Euphrates Basin

Sorman, A. A.; Sensoy, A.; Yamankurt, E.; Gozel, E.

2012-04-01

190

Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

2006-08-01

191

[Pro and contra discussion about medical education].  

PubMed

Since the end of the last century, medical education is being renewed in many countries. There is a tendency toward integration of clinical and preclinical knowledge, presentation of basic science topics as themes of organ systems in conjunction with clinical cases, emphasis on professional attitude, context-related and small-scale learning and the own responsibility of the student. As a contribution to the discussion, the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal of Medicine) and the Tijdschrift voor Medisch Onderwijs (Dutch Journal of Medical Education) have decided to publish articles in a pro and contra format. PMID:16538847

Borleffs, J C C

2006-02-25

192

Anti-HBV effect of liposome-encapsulated matrine in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the anti-HBV effect of liposome-encapsulated matrine (Lip-M) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: 2.2.15 cell line was cultured in vitro to observe the effect of Lip-M and matrine on the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg. The toxicity of Lip-M and matrine to 2.2.15 cell line was also studied by MTT method. In in vivo study, drug treatment experiment was carried out on the 13th day after ducks were infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). The ducks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 5-6 ducks in each group. Lip-M and matrine were given to DHBV-infected ducks respectively by gastric perfusion. Four groups were observed: group of Lip-M (20 mg/kg), group of Lip-M (10 mg/kg), group of matrine (20 mg/kg) and group of blank model. The drug was given once daily for 20 d continuously, and normal saline was used as control. The blood was drawn from the posterior tibial vein of all ducks before treatment (T0), after the medication for 5 (T5), 10 (T10), 15 (T15), 20 (T20) d and withdrawl of the drug for 3 d (P3). The serum samples were separated and stored at -70 °C, DHBV-DNA was detected by the dot-blot hybridization. RESULTS: After addition of Lip-M and matrine to 2.2.15 cell line for eleven d, the median toxic concentration (TC50) of Lip-M and matrine was 7.29 mg/mL and 1.33 mg/mL respectively. The median concentration (IC50) of Lip-M to inhibit HBsAg and HBeAg expression was 0.078 mg/mL and 3.35 mg/mL respectively. The treatment index (TI) value of Lip-M for HBsAg and HBeAg was 93.46 and 2.17 respectively, better than that of matrine. The DHBV-infected duck model treatment test showed that the duck serum DHBV-DNA levels were markedly reduced in the group of Lip-M (20 mg/kg) after treated by gastric perfusion for 10, 15 and 20 d (0.43±0.22 vs 0.95±0.18, t = 4.70, P = 0.001<0.01.0.40±0.12 vs 0.95±0.18, t = 6.34, P = 0.000<0.01. 0.22±0.10 vs 0.95±0.18, t = 8.30, P = 0.000<0.01), compared to the group of matrine (20 mg/kg) (0.43±0.22 vs 0.79±0.19, t = 3.17, P = 0.01<0.05. 0.40±0.12 vs 0.73±0.24, t = 3.21, P = 0.009<0.05. 0.22±0.10 vs 0.55±0.32, t = 2.27, P = 0.046<0.05.), and the control(0.43±0.22 vs 0.98±0.29, t = 3.68, P = 0.005<0.01. 0.40±0.12 vs 0.97±0.30, t = 4.26, P = 0.002<0.01. 0.22±0.10 vs 0.95±0.27, t = 5.76, P = 0.000<0.01). After the treatment for 20 d and withdrawl of the drug for 3 d, duck serum DHBV-DNA level in the group of Lip-M (10 mg/kg) markedly reduced (0.56±0.26 vs 0.95±0.38, t = 5.26, P = 0.003<0.05. 0.55±0.25 vs 0.95±0.38, t = 5.52, P = 0.003<0.05), and the difference was significant as compared with the control (0.56±0.26 vs 0.95±0.27, t = 2.37, P = 0.042<0.05. 0.55±0.25 vs 0.89±0.18, t = 2.55, P = 0.031<0.05), but not significant as compared with the group of matrine (20 mg/kg). After withdrawl of the drug for 3 d, the levels of DHBV-DNA did not relapse in both groups of Lip-M. PMID:15637760

Li, Chang-Qing; Zhu, Yu-Tong; Zhang, Feng-Xue; Fu, Lin-Chun; Li, Xiao-Hui; Cheng, Yi; Li, Xiang-Yang

2005-01-01

193

HBV, HCV and HIV seroprevalence among blood donors in Istanbul, Turkey: how effective are the changes in the national blood transfusion policies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national blood transfusion policies have been changed significantly in recent years in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in blood donors at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul and to evaluate the effect of changes in the national blood transfusion policies on the prevalence of these infections. The screening

Ali Acar; Sabri Kemahli; Husnu Altunay; Erdogan Kosan; Oral Oncul; Levent Gorenek; Saban Cavuslu

2010-01-01

194

Psychological background of pro-health behavior.  

PubMed

In this study, psychological conditions of pro-health lifestyle behavior have been analyzed. A first research group consisted of 88 healthy people (44 males, 44 females) aged 19-39. Psychological analysis showed a positive correlation between the internal locus of control and adherence to healthy diets; a correlation extending to the knowledge about healthy food. Social exclusion appeared to reduce the possibility of reaping new knowledge about healthy diets and was negatively correlated with the tendency of using healthy diet or dietary supplements. A second group consisted of 70 women aged 20-65. The subjects in this group were oriented towards using a diet which reduces body mass; pro-health both physical and psychological objectives other than body mass reduction were secondary in this study. General self-esteem and physical self-esteem were found to be positively correlated with the involvement in physical activities and satisfaction from dietary intervention. These outcomes were negatively correlated with body mass. The study shows that the efficiency of prevention is related to the locus of control, self-efficacy expectation, faith in the result, and self-esteem. The information about the interconnections among these variables may be useful in building preventive behavioral programs. PMID:22826083

Wilczynska, Agnieszka; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla; Troc, Marta; Niebroj, Leslaw

2013-01-01

195

HBV Reactivation in Patients Treated with Antitumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-?) Agents for Rheumatic and Dermatologic Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Antitumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) agents are widely used for treatment of rheumatic and dermatological diseases. We conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of HBV reactivation among patients treated with anti-TNF-?. Methods and Findings. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. From 21 studies included in the systematic review, 9 included patients with occult chronic HBV infection and 6 included patients with overt infection while 6 addressed both groups. Based on 10 studies eligible for meta-analysis we report pooled estimate of HBV reactivation of 4.2% (95% CI: 1.4–8.2%, I2: 74.7%). The pooled prevalence of reactivation was 3.0% (95% CI: 0.6–7.2, I2: 77.1%) for patients with occult infection, and 15.4% (95% CI: 1.2–41.2%, I2: 79.9%) for overt infection. The prevalence of reactivation was 3.9% (95% CI: 1.1–8.4%, I2: 51.1%) for treatment with etanercept and 4.6% (95% CI: 0.5–12.5%, I2: 28.7%) for adalimumab. For subgroup of patients without any antiviral prophylaxis the pooled reactivation was 4.0% (95% CI: 1.2–8.3%, I2: 75.6%). Conclusion. Although HBV reactivation rate is relatively low in patients treated with anti-TNF-? for rheumatic and dermatological conditions, the antiviral prophylaxis would be recommended in patients with overt chronic HBV infection. PMID:25114684

Cantini, Fabrizio; Boccia, Stefania; Iannone, Florenzo; Leoncini, Emanuele; Prignano, Francesca; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista

2014-01-01

196

ProNGF: a neurotrophic or an apoptotic molecule?  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on various classes of central and peripheral neurons to promote cell survival, stimulate neurite outgrowth and modulate differentiation. NGF is synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, which undergoes processing to generate mature NGF. It has been assumed, based on studies in the mouse submandibular gland, that NGF in vivo is largely mature NGF, and that mature NGF accounts for the molecule's biological activity. However, recently we have shown that proNGF is abundant in central nervous system tissues whereas mature NGF is undetectable, suggesting that proNGF may have a function distinct from its role as a precursor. A recent report that proNGF has apoptotic activity contrasts with other data demonstrating that proNGF has neurotrophic activity. This chapter will review the structure and processing of NGF and what is known about the biological activity of proNGF. Possible reasons for the discrepancies in recent reports are discussed. PMID:14699959

Fahnestock, Margaret; Yu, Guanhua; Coughlin, Michael D

2004-01-01

197

New developments in the InterPro database  

Microsoft Academic Search

InterPro is an integrated resource for protein fami- lies, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, inclu- ding an additional reading

Nicola J. Mulder; Rolf Apweiler; Teresa K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; David Binns; Peer Bork; Virginie Buillard; Lorenzo Cerutti; Richard R. Copley; Emmanuel Courcelle; Ujjwal Das; Louise Daugherty; Mark Dibley; Robert D. Finn; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Julian Gough; Daniel H. Haft; Nicolas Hulo; Sarah Hunter; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Anish Kejariwal; Alberto Labarga; Petra S. Langendijk-genevaux; David Lonsdale; Rodrigo Lopez; Ivica Letunic; Martin Madera; John Maslen; Craig Mcanulla; Jennifer Mcdowall; Jaina Mistry; Alex Mitchell; Anastasia N. Nikolskaya; Sandra E. Orchard; Christine A. Orengo; Robert Petryszak; Jeremy D. Selengut; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Paul D. Thomas; Franck Valentin; Derek Wilson; Cathy H. Wu; Corin Yeats

2007-01-01

198

InterPro, progress and status in 2005  

PubMed Central

InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biological and functional information. Annotation is provided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping and links to specialized databases. New features of InterPro include extended protein match views, taxonomic range information and protein 3D structure data. One of the new match views is the InterPro Domain Architecture view, which shows the domain composition of protein matches. Two new entry types were introduced to better describe InterPro entries: these are active site and binding site. PIRSF and the structure-based SUPERFAMILY are the latest member databases to join InterPro, and CATH and PANTHER are soon to be integrated. InterPro release 8.0 contains 11 007 entries, representing 2573 domains, 8166 families, 201 repeats, 26 active sites, 21 binding sites and 20 post-translational modification sites. InterPro covers over 78% of all proteins in the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL components of UniProt. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). PMID:15608177

Mulder, Nicola J.; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Durbin, Richard; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Harte, Nicola; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McDowall, Jennifer; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N.; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Ponting, Chris P.; Quevillon, Emmanuel; Selengut, Jeremy; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Silventoinen, Ville; Studholme, David J.; Vaughan, Robert; Wu, Cathy H.

2005-01-01

199

Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Pro-Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9) and Their Complex Pro-MMP-9/NGAL in Leukaemias  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have gained attention as cancer biomarkers. The inactive zymogen form of MMP-9 (pro-MMP-9) also exists as a disulphide-linked heterodimer bound to NGAL in humans. Leukaemias represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which vary in their clinical behavior and pathophysiology. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the expression profiles of pro-MMP-9 and NGAL as prognostic factors in leukaemias. We also report the expression of the pro-MMP-9/NGAL complex in these diseases. We discuss the roles of (pro)-MMP-9 (active and latent forms) and NGAL in tumour development, and evaluate the mechanisms by which pro-MMP-9/NGAL may influence the actions of (pro)-MMP-9 and NGAL in cancer. Emerging knowledge about the coexpression and the biology of (pro)-MMP-9, NGAL and their complex in cancer including leukaemia may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:24713998

Bouchet, Sandrine; Bauvois, Brigitte

2014-01-01

200

The impact of HBV or HCV infection in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving a nevirapine-based antiretroviral regimen in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Coinfection with the hepatitis viruses is common in the HIV population in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess, in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections and to determine the impact of these infections on the occurrence of liver toxicity and on the viro-immunological response. Methods Women were screened for HBsAg and HCV-RNA before starting, at week 25 of gestational age, an antiretroviral regimen consisting of lamivudine and nevirapine plus either stavudine or zidovudine. Women with CD4+?HBV (n. 27), or HCV (n. 1). During follow-up 125 women (40.4%) developed a grade???1 ALT elevation, 28 (9.1%) a grade???2 and 6 (1.9%) an elevation defining grade 3 toxicity. In a multivariate model including age, baseline CD4+ count and hemoglobin level, the presence of either HBV or HCV infection was significantly associated with the development of an ALT increase of any grade (P?=?0.035). Moderate or severe liver laboratory toxicity (grade???2) was more frequent among women with baseline CD4+?>?250/mm3 (P?=?0.030). In HBV-infected women a baseline HBV-DNA level above 10,000 IU/ml was significantly associated to the development of liver toxicity of grade???1 (P?=?0.040). Coinfections had no impact on the immunological and virological response to antiretroviral drugs up to 2 years after delivery. Conclusions In this cohort of nevirapine-treated women the presence of HBV or HCV was associated only to the development of mild liver toxicity, while the occurrence of moderate or severe hepatoxicity was correlated to a baseline CD4+ count?>?250/mm3. No statistically significant effect of the coinfections was observed on the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:24708626

2014-01-01

201

Pro-death and pro-survival properties of ouabain in U937 lymphoma derived cells  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies revealed significantly lower mortality rates in cancer patients receiving cardiac glycosides, which turned on interest in the anticancer properties of these drugs. However, cardiac glycosides have also been shown to stimulate cell growth in several cell types. In the present investigation we analyzed the pro-death and pro-survival properties of ouabain in the human lymphoma derived cell line U937. Methods ROS, intracellular Ca++, cell cycle were evaluated by loading the cells with fluorescent probes under cytofluorimetry. Cell counts and evaluation of trypan blue-excluding cells were performed under optic microscope. Protein detection was done by specific antibodies after protein separation from cellular lysates by SDS-PAGE and transfer blot. Results High doses of ouabain cause ROS generation, elevation of [Ca++]i and death of lymphoma derived U937 cells. Lower doses of OUA activate a survival pathway in which plays a role the Na+/Ca++-exchanger (NCX), active in the Ca++ influx mode rather than in the Ca++ efflux mode. Also p38 MAPK plays a pro-survival role. However, the activation of this MAPK does not appear to depend on NCX. Conclusion This investigation shows that the cardiac glycoside OUA is cytotoxic also for the lymphoma derived cell line U937 and that can activate a survival pathway in which are involved NCX and p38 MAPK. These molecules can represent potential targets of combined therapy. PMID:23153195

2012-01-01

202

Crystal structures of peptide enantiomers and racemates: probing conformational diversity in heterochiral Pro-Pro sequences.  

PubMed

Multiple conformational states in heterochiral diproline sequences have been characterized in the solid state by the determination of the crystal structures of seven tripeptides in enantiomeric and racemic forms. The sequences of the type Piv-DPro-LPro-DXxx-NHMe (D-L-D) [DXxx=DVal 1, DLeu 3, and DPhe 5] and their corresponding enatiomeric L-D-L sequences [LXxx=LVal 2, LLeu 4, and LPhe 6] have been investigated. Single crystals have been obtained for the pure enantiomers 1, 2, 3, 4 and for the racemates 1/2, 3/4, and 5/6. For Xxx=Leu, mirror image conformations (type II/II' beta-turns) at Pro-Leu segment are obtained. For Xxx=Val, a LPro-DPro type II beta-turn in 2 and an open/extended structure is obtained in the solvated form of the enantiomer 1. For Xxx=Phe, suitable crystals could not be obtained for enatiomeric peptides. The racemate 5/6 revealed a cis peptide bond between the diproline segment with the absence of any intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Crystal structures of enantiomers and racemates prove useful in characterizing the multiple conformational states that are accessible to Pro-Pro segments. PMID:18335426

Saha, Indranil; Chatterjee, Bhaswati; Shamala, Narayanaswamy; Balaram, Padmanabhan

2008-01-01

203

A comparison of SRM and HBV models for real time runoff forecasting in the Upper Euphrates Basin, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting snowmelt runoff in the mountainous eastern part of Turkey at a daily timescale is important in water resource management as it constitutes nearly 2/3 in volume of the total yearly runoff during spring and early summer months. Keeping track of snow dynamics and forecasting the amount and the timing of snowmelt runoff in the headwaters of the trans-boundary Euphrates River, where large dams are located, is a crucial and challenging task concerning the practical importance and great demand for real time forecasting of meltwater. In mountainous regions, data limitations prevent detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed relative to snowpack heterogeneity therefore to supplement ground measurement networks, remotely derived images of snow covered area (SCA) provides useful information for runoff prediction during the snowmelt season. SCA has been used as a direct input to hydrological models such as Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) or as a means of updating hydrologic model snowpack simulations and checking the internal validity of snowmelt runoff model as in the case of HBV model. Alternative ways of handling meltwater modeling using satellite derived SCA is discussed, with emphasis on the contrasting treatments in two widely used models, HBV and SRM. The greatest similarity between two models is that each uses a temperature index method to predict melt rate and the greatest difference between the models is in the way snow cover is handled. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow cover products with 500 m spatial resolution are used to derive SCA data in this study. Since the cloud obscuring problem degrades the use of satellites with optical sensors, a special combination and filtering methodology is used to reduce cloud coverage of the product. Both models are used to simulate runoff for the years 2003-2010 with model efficiency above 0.85 and volume difference around 2.5% and model parameters are calibrated in these applications. Finally, an operational snowmelt runoff forecasting is carried out for 2011 ablation season using numerical weather prediction Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) data as forcing input variables. Discussion of results are supervised to reflect the general debates in hydrological modeling in terms of parameters and calibration, internal validation, the value and limitations of using satellite derived data.

Sorman, A.; Sensoy, A.; Gozel, E.; Yamankurt, E.; Sorman, U.

2011-12-01

204

[Investigation of the relationship between serum nitric oxide levels, HBV-DNA and ALT levels in chronic hepatitis B patients].  

PubMed

It has been reported that increased nitric oxide (NO) production by the hepatocytes during chronic inflammatory processes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of NOx (nitrite + nitrate) with the viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A total of 93 CHB patients (67 male, 26 female; mean age: 47.3 +/- 10.9 years) and 53 healthy control subjects (17 male, 36 female; mean age: 58.6 +/- 2.1 years) followed-up during 2006-2007 period were included to the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers, viral load and ALT levels were studied by chemiluminescence method (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, USA), by real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) (ABI PRISM 7700, Applied Biosystem, CA), and by Aeroset System (Abbott Laboratories, USA), respectively. NOx levels were determined by a method which was based on the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by cadmium. Mean levels of ALT and HBV-DNA of the patients were found as 98.7 +/- 138.4 IU/I and 1.6 x 10(9) +/- 4.0 x 10(9) copies/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of mean levels of NOx in patient and control groups, the difference was found statistically significant (30.6 +/- 21.7 micromol/l and 23.7 +/- 5.2 micromol/l, respectively; p< 0.05). In view of the relationship between the parameters, a positive correlation was detected between viral load and ALT levels (r= 0.768; p< 0.001), besides the significant correlations between NOx and viral load, and NOx and ALT (r= 0.346, p= 0.001 and r= 0.314, p= 0.002, respectively). As a result, although the NOx levels in chronic hepatitis patients were found higher than those in the control group, and significant correlations were detected between NO, viral load and ALT, the exact role of NO in the disease pathogenesis and outcome needs to be studied further at cellular level. PMID:19334384

Sener, Asli Gamze; Kirdar, Sevin; Serter, Mukadder; Af?ar, Ilhan; Demir, Ece Mine; Ceylan, Cengiz; Aydin, Neriman

2009-01-01

205

26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.  

...of the shareholder's death. (iii) Shareholder...affected shareholder's pro rata share of the S corporation's...section 302; and the death of the shareholder...the corporation under penalties of perjury, except that...Example 1. Shareholder's pro rata share in the...

2014-04-01

206

26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the shareholder's death. (iii) Shareholder...affected shareholder's pro rata share of the S corporation's...section 302; and the death of the shareholder...the corporation under penalties of perjury, except that...Example 1. Shareholder's pro rata share in the...

2012-04-01

207

26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the shareholder's death. (iii) Shareholder...affected shareholder's pro rata share of the S corporation's...section 302; and the death of the shareholder...the corporation under penalties of perjury, except that...Example 1. Shareholder's pro rata share in the...

2011-04-01

208

26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the shareholder's death. (iii) Shareholder...affected shareholder's pro rata share of the S corporation's...section 302; and the death of the shareholder...the corporation under penalties of perjury, except that...Example 1. Shareholder's pro rata share in the...

2010-04-01

209

26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the shareholder's death. (iii) Shareholder...affected shareholder's pro rata share of the S corporation's...section 302; and the death of the shareholder...the corporation under penalties of perjury, except that...Example 1. Shareholder's pro rata share in the...

2013-04-01

210

31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro...

2013-07-01

211

31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro...

2011-07-01

212

31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro...

2010-07-01

213

Foreign Investment and Endogenous Protection with Protectionist Quid Pro Quo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on quid pro quo foreign direct investment describes how unwarranted investment may be undertaken because of the endogeneity of trade policy. The quid pro quo is that foreign producers, who are exporters to the host economy, invest in return for a liberal trade policy. We describe converse circumstances. The nexus between foreign investment and endogeneity of trade policy

Arye L. Hillman; Heinrich W. Ursprung

1999-01-01

214

Quid pro quo revisited: the basis of marital therapy.  

PubMed

This paper proposes that the basis of marriage is the quid pro quo agreement, which must be recognized in any marital therapy. Symmetry and complementarity are reviewed as the two ways in which the three basic marital issues of power, intimacy, and boundaries are worked out in the quid pro quo negotiations. Implications for therapy are discussed. PMID:3740221

Fish, R C; Fish, L S

1986-07-01

215

The Limits of Quid Pro Quo Coupe Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strategy of quid pro quo negotiation as it is applied to couple therapy and taught as a problem solving method to couples with unsatisfactory relationships is examined and the theoretical basis for the clinical application of quid pro quo and its potentials as a therapeutic tool presented. (Author)

Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa

1975-01-01

216

Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

2011-01-01

217

Pro-Poor Tax Reforms, with an Application to Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a methodology for testing for whether tax reforms are pro-poor. This is done by extending stochastic dominance techniques to help identify tax reforms that will necessarily be deemed absolutely or relatively pro-poor by a wide spectrum of poverty analysts. The statistical properties of the various estimators are also derived in order to make the method implementable using

Jean-Yves Duclos; Paul Makdissi; Abdelkrim Araar

2009-01-01

218

Pro-Poor Food Taxation and Subsidy Reforms in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a methodology developed in Makdissi, Araar, Audet and Duclos (2007) to identify pro-poor tax reforms in Mexico using the ENIGH 2004 data set. This method, which is based on stochastic dominance, en- ables us to identify tax reforms that will be deemed as pro-poor by a wide spectrum of poverty analysts.

Mathieu Audet; Paul Makdissi; Abdelkrim Araar; Jean-Yves Duclos

219

Homozygosity for Pro of p53 Arg72Pro as a potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese population  

PubMed Central

AIM: Codon 72 exon 4 polymorphism (Arg72Pro) of the p53 gene has been implicated in cancer risk. Our objective was to investigate the possible association between p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Chinese population. METHODS: The p53 Arg72Pro genotypes were determined by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in 507 HCC cases and 541 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for HCC and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from unconditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate relative risks. Potential risk factors were included in the logistic regression models as covariates in the multivariate analyses on genotype and HCC. RESULTS: The frequencies for Pro and Arg alleles were 44.5%, 55.5% in HCC cases, and 40.3% and 59.7% in controls, respectively. The Pro allele was significantly associated with the presence of HCC (P = 0.05) and had a higher risk for HCC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.41) as compared with the Arg allele. After adjusted for potential risk factors, Arg/Pro heterozygotes had an 1.21-fold increased risk (95% CI 0.82-1.78, P = 0.34) of HCC compared with Arg homozygotes, whereas the risk for Pro homozygotes was 1.79 (95% CI 1.06-3.01, P = 0.03) times higher than that for Arg homozygotes. Pro-allele carriers had a higher relative risk of HCC than the Arg-only carriers (adjusted OR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.92-1.92, P = 0.13), although the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Homozygosity for Pro of p53 Arg72Pro is potentially one of the genetic risk factors for HCC in Chinese population. The p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism may be used as a stratification marker in screening individuals at a high risk of HCC. PMID:15633234

Zhu, Zhong-Zheng; Cong, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shu-Fang; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Guan-Shan; Wu, Meng-Chao

2005-01-01

220

Profiling the "pro-environmental individual": a personality perspective.  

PubMed

There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of 2 studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N?=?778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N?=?115). In Study 2, we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals' environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

Markowitz, Ezra M; Goldberg, Lewis R; Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom

2012-02-01

221

Automating Pro/Engineer Using Trail Files and External Programs  

SciTech Connect

Keyboard macros provide shortcuts to many repetitive command sequences in Pro/Engineer. They map any number of frequently used command sequences to user-selected keyboard keys. They may be nested within each other and may also include user keyboard entry within the macro. Another powerful feature of Pro/Engineer is adding menu options. Menu options may be added to any Pro/Engineer menu and is an effective way to graphically display keyboard macros to make them more accessible. Command sequences are mapped to a single user-defined menu option added to the bottom of any Pro/Engineer window. The '{at}setbutton' command added to the 'menu{_}def.pro' file specifies the commands to associate with added menu options. Menu options may also be used to execute non-Pro/Engineer commands. The associated command is linked to a menu option within Pro/Engineer's Utilities menu (in the Misc menu) and is issued whenever the menu option is selected. Such a feature is useful for adding menu options to start the Pro/Engineer User Guide utility, start a text editor from within Pro/Engineer, or perform system level actions. The '{at}setbutton{_}exec' command is used in the 'menu{_}def.pro' file for non-Pro/Engineer commands. A more detailed description of adding menu options can be found in the Pro/Engineer Fundamentals Guide. Another useful component of Pro/Engineer is the trail file functionality. Trail files are automatically created every time a new working Pro/Engineer session begins. Although they are typically used to reconstruct a previous working session, they can also be used to automate a series of commands. By specifying all the commands in a trail file, a user can issue the commands quickly and repetitively using the command sequence 'Misc-Trail' and specifying the trail file name. All actions, including keyboard entries and mouse click locations, may be included in a trail file. Although adding menu options and using trial files provide powerful functionality in Pro/Engineer, neither the menu options functionality nor trail files allow interaction between the model and the commands to perform. The commands performed by the menu options are static and cannot depend on model features and parameters. Commands cannot query the model and perfonn different actions or calculations based on the query results; the menu options commands cannot interact with Pro/Engineer. As an example, suppose we wish to generate a feature listing for all parts and subassemblies in a model. We can add a menu option or a keyboard macro to make the feature listing command easier to execute, but we would still need to select each part and subassembly individually (either through screen selection, selection by menu, or entering the component name). The task becomes quite tedious if we have an assembly with a large number of subassembly and part components. A versatile and powerful method for automating many Pro/Engineer tasks is to combine the menu options functionality with Trail files and the infonnation files which Pro/Engineer creates during infonnation listings. The combination provides communication between Pro/Engineer and other programs and enables automation of a large variety of commands. The automation scheme is comprised of three components: (1) the infonnation files (usually with extensions 'inf' or '1st'); (2) a menu option to issue a program or command external to Pro/Engineer; and (3) a menu option to run both the external program and its associated trail file.

Chow, K.

1996-05-21

222

Profiling the 'Pro-environmental Individual': A Personality Perspective  

PubMed Central

There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

2011-01-01

223

Freeze-Drying of Plant Tissue Containing HBV Surface Antigen for the Oral Vaccine against Hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-drying protocol facilitating successful processing of plant material containing the small surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (S-HBsAg) while preserving its VLP structure and immunogenicity. Freeze-drying of the antigen in lettuce leaf tissue, without any isolation or purification step, was investigated. Each process step was consecutively evaluated and the best parameters were applied. Several drying profiles and excipients were tested. The profile of 20°C for 20?h for primary and 22°C for 2?h for secondary drying as well as sucrose expressed efficient stabilisation of S-HBsAg during freeze-drying. Freezing rate and postprocess residual moisture were also analysed as important factors affecting S-HBsAg preservation. The process was reproducible and provided a product with VLP content up to 200?µg/g DW. Assays for VLPs and total antigen together with animal immunisation trials confirmed preservation of antigenicity and immunogenicity of S-HBsAg in freeze-dried powder. Long-term stability tests revealed that the stored freeze-dried product was stable at 4°C for one year, but degraded at elevated temperatures. As a result, a basis for an efficient freeze-drying process has been established and a suitable semiproduct for oral plant-derived vaccine against HBV was obtained. PMID:25371900

Milczarek, Magdalena; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elzbieta; Wietrzyk, Joanna

2014-01-01

224

Osteopontin and latent-TGF ? binding-protein 2 as potential diagnostic markers for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Chronic Hepatitis B (HB) is the main risk factor for chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in many low-resource countries, where diagnosis is constrained by lack of clinical, histopathological and biomarker resources. We have used proteomics to detect plasma biomarkers that outperform ?-Fetoprotein (AFP), the most widely used biomarker for HCC diagnosis in low-resource contexts. Deep-plasma proteome analysis was performed in HCC patients, patients with CLD and in HB-carrier controls from Thailand (South-East Asia) and The Gambia (West-Africa). Mass spectrometry profiling identified latent-transforming growth factor ? binding-protein 2 (LTBP2) and Osteopontin (OPN) as being significantly elevated in HCC versus CLD and controls. These two proteins were further analyzed by ELISA in a total of 684 plasma samples, including 183 HCC, 274 CLD and 227 asymptomatic controls. When combined, LTBP2 and OPN showed an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.85 in distinguishing HCC from CLD in subjects with AFP <20 ng/mL. In a prospective cohort of 115 CLD patients from Korea, increased plasma levels of LTBP2 and/or OPN were detected in plasma collected over 2 years prior to diagnosis in 21 subjects who developed HCC. Thus, the combination of LTBP2 and OPN outperformed AFP for diagnosis and prediction of HCC and may therefore improve biomarker-based detection of HBV-related HCC. PMID:24803312

da Costa, Andre Nogueira; Plymoth, Amelie; Santos-Silva, Daniela; Ortiz-Cuaran, Sandra; Camey, Suzy; Guilloreau, Paule; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Mendy, Maimuna; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Duk-Hee; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kirk, Gregory D; Merle, Philippe; Beretta, Laura; Hainaut, Pierre

2015-01-01

225

Pro-angiogenic properties of orosomucoid (ORM)  

SciTech Connect

The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM), also known as alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is found to be increased in infection, inflammation and cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that ORM is produced by endothelial cells and detectable in urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. However, it was not clarified yet whether ORM plays a role in new vessel formation. To this aim we performed overexpression and gene silencing for ORM in human microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). ORM purified from human plasma was used individually or in combination with VEGF-A in endothelial tube formation, migration and proliferation assay. The in vivo effect of ORM in angiogenesis was studied using the chicken chorionallantois membrane (CAM) with subsequent counting of blood vessels on histological sections from the stimulated areas of CAM tissue. Our data show that ORM alone enhances migration but not proliferation of HDMECs. ORM alone does not induce endothelial tubes in vitro but simultaneous application of ORM with VEGF-A increases the number and the network of VEGF-A-induced endothelial tubes. Remarkably, ORM alone induces new vessel formation in vivo using CAM assay and supports the VEGF-A-induced new vessel formation in this assay. Taken together, our results let assume that ORM has pro-angiogenic properties and supports the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. Thus, ORM seems to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

Irmak, Ster [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia [Department of Oncology/Hematology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)] [Department of Oncology/Hematology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Singer, Bernhard B. [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Erguen, Sueleyman, E-mail: sueleyman.erguen@uk-essen.de [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Tilki, Derya [Department of Urology, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Urology, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)

2009-11-01

226

Pro-Inflammatory Mediation of Myoblast Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle satellite cell function is largely dictated by the surrounding environment following injury. Immune cell infiltration dominates the extracellular space in the injured area, resulting in increased cytokine concentrations. While increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression has been previously established in the first 3 days following injury, less is known about the time course of cytokine expression and the specific mechanisms of cytokine induced myoblast function. Therefore, the expression of IL-1? and IL-6 at several time points following injury, and their effects on myoblast proliferation, were examined. In order to do this, skeletal muscle was injured using barium chloride in mice and tissue was collected 1, 5, 10, and 28 days following injury. Mechanisms of cytokine induced proliferation were determined in cell culture using both primary and C2C12 myoblasts. It was found that there is a ?20-fold increase in IL-1? (p?0.05) and IL-6 (p?=?0.06) expression 5 days following injury. IL-1? increased proliferation of both primary and C2C12 cells ?25%. IL-1? stimulation also resulted in increased NF-?B activity, likely contributing to the increased proliferation. These data demonstrate for the first time that IL-1? alone can increase the mitogenic activity of primary skeletal muscle satellite cells and offer insight into the mechanisms dictating satellite cell function following injury. PMID:24647690

Otis, Jeffrey S.; Niccoli, Sarah; Hawdon, Nicole; Sarvas, Jessica L.; Frye, Melinda A.; Chicco, Adam J.; Lees, Simon J.

2014-01-01

227

The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

Davis, Blair J.

2010-01-01

228

[Role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in immunopathology of HBV infection as the chance on the new therapeutic strategy].  

PubMed

Many individuals infected with HBV become chronic carriers and they liver disease may progress to cirrhosis and HCC. The newest data suggests that the interaction between positive and negative costimulatory molecules expressed on T cells are performing the role in the regulation ofT cells immune response. In the last years they were described programmed death-1 (PD-1) [CD279] and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) [CD274] in immunopathology of HBV infections. In acute exacerbation of hepatitis B, high level of PD-1 expression significantly mediated CD8+T cells apoptosis and protecting before damaging the liver. In the period of recovering, activation of the PD-1/PD-L 1 pathway should dynamically decrease, and if it isn't taking place, increased expression of the PD-1 plays a crucial role in inhibiting the function of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in chronic viral infections. The aim of this article was to explore the potential role of (PD-1/PD-L) pathway in antiviral immunity during HBV infection. Blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may open a novel therapeutic strategy for restoring the function of the exhausted CD8+ T cells, and enhancing viral control during chronic viral infections. PMID:21473062

Go?abek, Violetta; Wo?niakowska-Gesicka, Teresa

2010-01-01

229

2-Amino-N-(2,6-dichloropyridin-3-yl)acetamide derivatives as a novel class of HBV capsid assembly inhibitor.  

PubMed

Capsid structure is crucial for the maturation and maintenance of the stable hepatitis B virion. Therefore, chemicals that inhibit capsid assembly might potentially act as potent antiviral compounds. However, only a few chemicals are known to block the capsid assembly process and further viral proliferation. In this study, we present a novel family of capsid assembly inhibitors that act against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Based on X-ray crystallographic data of the HBV core protein (Cp), we built dimer and hexamer structural models to be used in library searches. Several chemicals in the 2-amino-N-(2,6-dichloropyridin-3-yl)acetamide family were predicted to have high affinity for the groove structure in Cp. Using in vitro assembly and the HepG2.2.15 cell culture test, we verified that these chemicals demonstrated inhibitory effects on capsid assembly. Furthermore, we investigated the combinatorial effects of these assembly inhibitor chemicals with lamivudine and revealed that, in combination, they have synergistic inhibitory effects on decreasing viral concentration. We propose that these inhibitors could be utilized as an effective combination treatment against HBV infection. PMID:24372792

Cho, M H; Jeong, H; Kim, Y S; Kim, J-W; Jung, G

2014-12-01

230

Novel biomarkers in acute heart failure: MR-pro-adrenomedullin.  

PubMed

Abstract First isolated from human pheochromocytoma cells, adrenomedullin (ADM) is a peptide hormone with natriuretic, vasodilatory, and hypotensive effects mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), nitric oxide, and renal prostaglandin systems. ADM expression occurs in many tissues and organ systems, including cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, and endocrine tissues where it acts as a circulating hormone and a local autocrine and paracrine hormone. ADM plasma concentrations are increased in hypertension, chronic renal disease, and heart failure. As ADM is unstable in vitro, it is necessary to measure its mid-regional pro-hormone fragment, the levels of which correspond to ADM concentration (MR-proADM). The prognostic potential of MR-proADM was recently demonstrated in the Biomarkers in Acute Heart Failure (BACH) trial. In this trial of 568 acute heart failure patients, MR-proADM was superior to both brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP in predicting mortality within 14 days. MR-proADM also provided significant additive incremental predictive value for 90-day mortality when added to BNP and NT-proBNP. PMID:24756062

Peacock, W Frank

2014-10-01

231

The Pro-Apoptotic and Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Calprotectin on Human Periodontal Ligament Cells  

PubMed Central

Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9) and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9) in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF?, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-?B inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis. PMID:25338166

Peng, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Lingfei; Wang, Xian'e; Wei, Shicheng; Meng, Huanxin

2014-01-01

232

63 FR 5587 - Notice of the Procurement Marketing and Access Network (PRO-Net) Implementation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procurement Marketing and Access Network (PRO-Net) Implementation AGENCY: Small Business...Procurement Marketing and Access Network (PRO-Net...Procurement Marketing and Access Network (PRO-Net) as the primary basis for identifying...

1998-02-03

233

14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. 212.5 Section...DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a...

2014-01-01

234

14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. 212.5 Section...DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a...

2011-01-01

235

14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. 212.5 Section...DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a...

2013-01-01

236

14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. 212.5 Section...DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a...

2012-01-01

237

14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. 212.5 Section...DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a...

2010-01-01

238

The relationship between IL-28B polymorphisms and the response to peginterferon alfa-2a monotherapy in anti-HBe-positive patients with chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

The impact of interleukin 28B (IL-28B) on the results of interferon (IFN)-based therapy in patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between IL-28B markers and the response to IFN monotherapy in Polish patients with anti-hepatitis B e (HBe)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We determined three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-28B (rs12979860, rs12980275, and rs8099917) in 86 patients who were treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for 48 weeks. The effectiveness of the therapy was evaluated based on the virological and biochemical response. The primary efficacy parameters were the HBV DNA viral load below 400 IU/ml and 2,000 IU/ml in combination with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization (<40 IU/l), measured 24 weeks after the treatment. Viral load below 400 IU/ml or 2,000 IU/ml with ALT normalization was achieved by 37 % and 46 % of patients, respectively. It has been shown that the distribution of IL-28B genotypes in the dominant genetic model in patients with different therapeutic success differ significantly only for rs12979860. The IL-28B rs12979860 CC genotype was associated with lower treatment success [odds ratio (OR), 0.31; p?=?0.025 and OR, 0.37; p?=?0.044 for <400 IU/ml HBV DNA with <40 IU/l ALT, and <2,000 IU/ml HBV DNA with <40 IU/l ALT, respectively]. However, in the conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted by factors associated with combined response, rs12979860 was significantly associated only with <400 IU/ml HBV DNA with <40 IU/l ALT (OR, 0.24; p?=?0.026). IL-28B polymorphisms have prognostic significance in assessing the treatment effectiveness based on the virological and biochemical response of patients with anti-HBe-positive CHB. PMID:24924923

Domagalski, K; Paw?owska, M; Zale?na, A; Tyczyno, M; Skorupa-K?aput, M; Tretyn, A; Halota, W

2014-11-01

239

Assessment of the Proliferative Marker Ki-67 and p53 Protein Expression in HBV- and HCV-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cases in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic HBV and HCV infections are the major risk factors for the development of HCC through a multistep pathway that involves viral and non-viral dependent pathophysiological steps. Hepatic expression of the nuclear proliferative marker ki-67 and the p53 oncoprotein were found to be associated with poor outcome. So, the present study was done to evaluate the changes in expression of Ki-67 and p53 oncoprotein, and to determine p53 gene mutation in HBV/HCV-related HCC Egyptian patients. Methods: Eight HBV-and 22 HCV-positive HCC cases have been examined for the presence of p53 mutation by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), followed by direct DNA sequencing. HCV were genotyped by LiPA-II. Results: Our results have shown that the proliferative marker ki-67 LI and p53 were highly expressed and significantly related to tumor grade in the Egyptian HCC cases (p<0.05). Also, p53 mutation was found in 16 HCC cases by IHC and in 14 HCC cases by SSCP, only 11 patients showed p53 mutation by sequencing. The highest mutation rate was scored for exon 7 (7 mutations) at codon 249; 4 out of 8 (50%) of HBV-related HCC cases and 3 out of 22 (13.6%) of HCV-related HCC cases, followed by exon 5 (3 mutations) at codons 133, 146, 176 in HCV-related HCC cases, then exon 8 at codon 275 in HCV-related HCC cases. The concordance between the IHC and sequencing analysis was 69%. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the association between the proliferative marker ki-67 and p53 expression with the tumor grade of Egyptian HBV/HCV-related HCC cases. Our results also support the hypothesis that p53 mutations are rather a late event in the carcinogenesis. Also, they suggest that the final steps of hepatocarcinogenesis are common and independent of the aetiology of the viral infection. PMID:21475468

Mohamed, Waleed S.; Omar, Masoud M.; Khayri, Tarek M.; Fakhr, Ibrahim M.

2008-01-01

240

Studies on Viral Disinfection: An Evaluation of Moist Heat Disinfection for HBV by Using A0 Concept Defined in ISO 15883-Washer-Disinfectors.  

PubMed

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15883 for washer-disinfectors has introduced the A(0) concept to allow comparison of the lethality of moist heat processes. The A(0) value is the equivalent disinfection time in seconds at 80 °C calculated on the basis of microbial killing kinetics when the disinfection temperature is over 65 °C. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), transmissible only to humans and chimpanzees, is an important heat-resistant, blood-borne pathogen. Therefore, it is mandatory to disinfect HBV thoroughly in the washer-disinfectors employed for surgical instruments. Additionally, it has become extremely difficult to use chimpanzees as experimental models or to perform human volunteer studies. Therefore, it is considered worthwhile to re-evaluate the reported data on the moist heat disinfection of HBV using the A(0) value. In the voluntary active immunization to humans in 1973, HBV serum (infectivity titer: 10(6.5) CID(50)/mL) underwent moist heat disinfection at 98 °C for 1 min in a flask over an electric burner (conservatively estimated A(0) value: 3786). Then, 0.1 mL was inoculated to each of 29 volunteers. No one revealed evidence of infection clinically or in the laboratory tests available at the time. In 1979, a more sensitive test appeared and revealed three sub-clinically infected volunteers. In the 1980s, there were two chimpanzee experimental models using HBV serum (infectivity titer: 10(5) CID(50)/mL). In one model, the serum underwent moist heat disinfection at 98 °C for 2 min in a thermostat bath (conservatively estimated A(0) value: 7571). One milliliter was inoculated to each of two chimpanzees, and both of them revealed no evidence of infection. In another model, the serum underwent moist heat disinfection using two conditions in a thermostat bath, respectively: at 103 °C for 90 s (A(0) value: 24865) and at 65 °C for 10 h (A(0) value: 1138). Ten milliliters of each sample were mixed. Then, the mixture was inoculated to each of two chimpanzees. Both of them revealed no evidence of infection. In the human volunteer study, the serum infectivity titer was more than 30 times (10(1.5) times) higher than that used in the two chimpanzee experimental models. Moreover, the serum was heated in the flask over an electric burner, which is considered less reliable than the thermostat baths to realize uniform heat distribution. It is assumed that these factors were predisposed to the result that a conservatively estimated A(0) value of 3786 failed to inactivate the HBV serum of 10(6.5) CID(50)/mL. In the two chimpanzee models, it was suggested that A(0) value not less than 1138 was able to inactivate the HBV serum of 10(5) CID(50)/mL. PMID:21502033

Uetera, Yushi; Kawamura, Kunio; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Saito, Yuhei; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Saito, Ryoichi

2010-01-01

241

Non-pro-vitamin A and pro-vitamin A carotenoids in atopy development.  

PubMed

Carotenoids are important derivatives of the human diet and occur in high concentrations in the human organism. Various carotenoids are also present in human breast milk and are transferred to breast-fed children. The alternative to breastfeeding is supplementation with an infant milk formula, but these formulas contain only a limited variety of carotenoids. Our question is: 'What is the function of various carotenoids in human nutrition with a special emphasis on child development and the development of atopy?' In this review, the mechanisms of action of the most important non-pro-vitamin A and pro-vitamin A carotenoids: ?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and retinoids are discussed. In summary, the combination of carotenoids, especially lycopene, seems to be of great importance, and exclusive usage of ?-carotene in infant formula may yield in an increased atopy prevalence mediated in various target organs like the skin, lungs and immune competent cells. We conclude that the determination of novel bioactive metabolites of various carotenoids, at various stages in different organs during atopy development, might be the key to understanding the potential importance of carotenoids on atopy development. PMID:23343622

Rühl, R

2013-01-01

242

Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using ?-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

2014-01-01

243

Thermo2Pro: Knowledge dissemination for deep geothermal exploration  

E-print Network

1/12 Thermo2Pro: Knowledge dissemination for deep geothermal exploration Philippe Calcagno1 territoires, Voreppe, France # now at Kitware, Villeurbanne, France p.calcagno@brgm.fr Keywords: Deep geothermal exploration, information system, Web tool, sedimentary basin, dissemination. Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Regulating ProNGF Action: Multiple targets for therapeutic intervention  

PubMed Central

Neurotrophins are initially synthesized as precursor forms, that are cleaved to release C-terminal mature forms that bind to Trk receptors to initiate survival and differentiative responses. Recent studies suggest that the precursor form of NGF (proNGF) acts as a distinct ligand by binding to a receptor complex of p75 and sortilin to initiate cell death. Induction of proNGF and p75 have been observed in multiple pathological states and injury models in the central nervous system, and blockade of proNGF/p75 interaction are efficacious in limiting neuronal apoptosis. Multiple strategies that may act to limit proNGF action are considered, as potential therapeutic targets for future development. PMID:19526280

Hempstead, Barbara L.

2009-01-01

245

Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Isothermal and Nonisothermal Multiphase Multicomponent Pro-  

E-print Network

Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Isothermal and Nonisothermal Multiphase Multicomponent Pro- cesses Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2.1 General Multiphase Flow Di#11 1: Isothermal and Nonisothermal Multiphase Multicomponent Processes in the Subsurface Rainer Helmig

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

246

19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

2012-04-01

247

19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

2013-04-01

248

19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.  

...for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

2014-04-01

249

19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

2010-04-01

250

19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

2011-04-01

251

Against Civil Gideon (and for Pro Se Court Reform)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article argues that the pursuit of a civil Gideon (a civil guarantee of counsel to match Gideon v. Wainright’s guarantee of appointed criminal counsel) is an error logistically and jurisprudentially and advocates an alternate route for ameliorating the execrable state of pro se litigation for the poor in this country: pro se court reform.\\u000aGideon itself has largely proven

Benjamin H Barton

2010-01-01

252

Secretion of Streptomyces mobaraensis pro-transglutaminase by coryneform bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported on the secretion of Streptomyces mobaraensis transglutaminase by Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 (formerly classified as Brevibacterium lactofermentum). In the present work, we investigated whether any other coryneform bacteria showed higher productivity than C. glutamicum ATCC13869. We found that most coryneform species secreted pro-transglutaminase efficiently. Moreover, we confirmed that Corynebacterium ammoniagenes ATCC6872 produced about 2.5 g\\/l pro-transglutaminase over a 71-h

Hiroshi Itaya; Yoshimi Kikuchi

2008-01-01

253

Myometrial hypoxia and the role of pro-resolution mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionLabour is an inflammatory process, and is likely to be influenced by pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. We have proposed recently a role for FPR2 (the receptor for the anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4)) in regulating inflammatory pathways in the human myometrium during labour.1 With prolonged labour the myometrium becomes relatively hypoxic, which may contribute to ineffective contractions and lack

E Golightly; H N Jabbour; J E Norman

2011-01-01

254

The People's Budget? Politics, Participation and Pro-poor Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent moves towards ‘participatory’ budgeting have raised hopes and expectations that spending and revenue generation can be made more pro-poor if informed citizens and their non-traditional political organizations participate directly in budgeting decisions. This article reviews experiences of participatory budgeting and pro-poor policy-making in Brazil, Ireland, Chile, Mauritius, and Costa Rica. It draws attention to several important issues: Who participates?

Deborah Bräutigam

2004-01-01

255

Development of the flight tether for ProSEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System to deploy a newly designed and developed tether which will provide tether generated

Leslie Curtis; Jason Vaughn; Ken Welzyn; Joe Carroll

2002-01-01

256

Neurotrophic activity of proNGF in vivo.  

PubMed

Ectopic expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in transgenic mice results in the directional growth of sympathetic and/or sensory fibers. For instance, mice that over-express NGF under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter exhibit robust axonal sprouting into the cerebellum, with no apparent loss of neurons in peripheral ganglia. Given the disagreement in the literature over whether pro-NGF exerts neurotrophic or apoptotic effects, we assessed the relative levels of proNGF and mature NGF in the cerebella of these transgenic mice. Blinded western blot analyses revealed that proNGF was the major species in both transgenic and wild type mice, with very low levels of mature NGF expression. While transgenic mice displayed significantly higher levels of cerebellar proNGF protein as compared to wild type mice, both strains possessed comparable levels of mature NGF. These data reveal that the ectopic expression of NGF in the cerebellum results in an increase in proNGF rather than mature NGF levels. Together with the robust axonal growth and lack of neuronal death in the ganglia in these animals, our results are clearly consistent with proNGF exhibiting neurotrophic activity in vivo. PMID:17270174

Buttigieg, Holly; Kawaja, Michael D; Fahnestock, Margaret

2007-04-01

257

Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

1999-01-01

258

InterPro: the integrative protein signature database.  

PubMed

The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or 'signatures' representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total approximately 58,000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein-protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/). PMID:18940856

Hunter, Sarah; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Duquenne, Lauranne; Finn, Robert D; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kelly, Elizabeth; Laugraud, Aurélie; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Mulder, Nicola; Natale, Darren; Orengo, Christine; Quinn, Antony F; Selengut, Jeremy D; Sigrist, Christian J A; Thimma, Manjula; Thomas, Paul D; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H; Yeats, Corin

2009-01-01

259

Pro Sports Interest in Canada #1 CFL and Pro Football on a Roll in Year of 101st  

E-print Network

, the latest poll shows that, since 2005 and the end of hockey lockout, interest in the NHL has jumped from 30" or "Fairly Closely" NHL PRO CFL NFL MLB NBA MLS FOOTBALL 2013 46% 33 26 21 20 8 9 2005 30 24 20 13 13 7: 2013 Follow "Very Closely" or "Fairly Closely" NHL PRO CFL NFL MLB MLS NBA Football NATIONALLY 46% 33

Seldin, Jonathan P.

260

The InterPro BioMart: federated query and web service access to the InterPro Resource  

PubMed Central

The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models (‘signatures’) that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview. PMID:21785143

Binns, David; McMenamin, Conor; McAnulla, Craig; Hunter, Sarah

2011-01-01

261

Pro-arrhythmic and pro-ischaemic effects of inhaled anticholinergic medications.  

PubMed

The majority of deaths in COPD are from cardiovascular causes. Several large randomized controlled trials demonstrate that inhaled anticholinergic agents ipratropium and tiotropium increase the risk of serious cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular mortality. Tiotropium Respimat is associated with a statistically significant increased risk of mortality (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.16) and cardiovascular death (RR 2.05; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.99) compared with placebo in a meta-analysis of clinical trials. In the largest study, the subgroup of patients with COPD in the Respimat group with known rhythm and cardiac disorders at baseline had an especially high risk for cardiac death (RR 8.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 67.2). Although there was no significantly increased risk of mortality (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.02) or myocardial infarction (MI) (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00) with tiotropium handihaler in the Understanding Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) trial, the reported excess of angina (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.91 to 2.26), imbalance in strokes related to ischaemia and rates of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias are consistent with the pro-ischemic and pro-arrhythmic effects. The subjects at greatest risk of cardiovascular death, such as those with a recent history of MI, unstable or life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias or hospitalisation with heart failure, were excluded from the UPLIFT trial. The Prevention of Exacerbations with Tiotropium in COPD trial showed an excess of serious coronary ischaemic events of angina, myocardial ischaemia and MI with the tiotropium Handihaler compared with salmeterol. The authors urge caution in prescribing inhaled anticholinergics for patients with pre-existing arrhythmias or cardiac disorders. PMID:22764216

Singh, Sonal; Loke, Yoon K; Enright, Paul; Furberg, Curt D

2013-01-01

262

Republished: pro-arrhythmic and pro-ischaemic effects of inhaled anticholinergic medications.  

PubMed

The majority of deaths in COPD are from cardiovascular causes. Several large randomized controlled trials demonstrate that inhaled anticholinergic agents ipratropium and tiotropium increase the risk of serious cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular mortality. Tiotropium Respimat is associated with a statistically significant increased risk of mortality (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.16) and cardiovascular death (RR 2.05; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.99) compared with placebo in a meta-analysis of clinical trials. In the largest study, the subgroup of patients with COPD in the Respimat group with known rhythm and cardiac disorders at baseline had an especially high risk for cardiac death (RR 8.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 67.2). Although there was no significantly increased risk of mortality (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.02) or myocardial infarction (MI) (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00) with tiotropium handihaler in the Understanding Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) trial, the reported excess of angina (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.91 to 2.26), imbalance in strokes related to ischaemia and rates of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias are consistent with the pro-ischemic and pro-arrhythmic effects. The subjects at greatest risk of cardiovascular death, such as those with a recent history of MI, unstable or life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias or hospitalisation with heart failure, were excluded from the UPLIFT trial. The Prevention of Exacerbations with Tiotropium in COPD trial showed an excess of serious coronary ischaemic events of angina, myocardial ischaemia and MI with the tiotropium Handihaler compared with salmeterol. The authors urge caution in prescribing inhaled anticholinergics for patients with pre-existing arrhythmias or cardiac disorders. PMID:24643260

Singh, Sonal; Loke, Yoon K; Enright, Paul; Furberg, Curt D

2014-04-01

263

Phylogenetic analysis of torque teno virus genome from Pakistani isolate and incidence of co-infection among HBV/HCV infected patients  

PubMed Central

Background Torque Teno Virus (TTV) was the first single stranded circular DNA virus to be discovered that infects humans. Although there have been numerous reports regarding the prevalence of TTV from other countries of South Asia, there is severe lack of information regarding its prevalence in Pakistan. Thus the present study compiles the first indigenous report to comprehensively illustrate the incidence of the virus in uninfected and hepatitis infected population from Pakistan. Another aim of the study was to present the sequence of full length TTV genome from a local isolate and compare it with the already reported genome sequences from other parts of the world. Methods TTV DNA was screened in the serum of 116, 100 and 40 HBV infected, HCV infected and uninfected individuals respectively. Nearly full length genome of TTV was cloned from a HBV patient. The genome sequence was subjected to in-silico analysis using CLC Workbench, ClustalW, ClustalX and TreeView. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS v17.0. Results Our results report that 89.7%, 90.0% and 92.5% of HBV, HCV patients and healthy control population were positive for TTV infection. TTV genome of 3603 bp was also cloned from a local isolate and given the identity of TPK01. The TTV genome sequence mentioned in this paper is submitted in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under the accession number JN980171. Phylogenetic analysis of TPK01 revealed that the Pakistani isolate has sequence similarities with genotype 23 and 22 (Genogroup 2). Conclusion The results of the current study indicate that the high frequency of TTV viremia in Pakistan conforms to the reports from other areas of the world, wherever screening of TTV DNA was performed against 5?-UTR of the genome. The high sequence diversity among TTV genome sequences and the high frequency of prevalence makes it harder to study this virus in cellular systems. PMID:23270330

2012-01-01

264

HIV-1, HBV, HCV, HTLV, HPV-16/18, and Treponema pallidum Infections in a Sample of Brazilian Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are more vulnerable to blood-borne infections and/or sexually-transmitted infections (STI). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalences of mono and co-infections of HIV-1 and other blood-borne/STIs in a sample of MSM in Campinas, Brazil. Methods Responding Driven Sampling (RDS) was used for recruitment of MSM. Serum samples collected from 558 MSM were analyzed for the presence of serological markers for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, HTLV, HPV-16/18, and T. pallidum infections. Results The highest prevalences of infection in serum samples were found for HPV-16 and 18 (31.9% and 20.3%, respectively). Approximately 8% of the study population showed infection with HIV-1, and within that group, 27.5% had recently become infected with HIV-1. HBV infection and syphilis were detected in 11.4% and 10% of the study population, respectively, and the rates of HTLV and HCV infection were 1.5% and 1%, respectively. With the exception of HTLV, all other studied infections were usually found as co-infections rather then mono-infections. The rates of co-infection for HCV, HPV-18, and HIV-1 were the highest among the studied infections (100%, 83%, and 85%, respectively). Interestingly, HTLV infection was usually found as a mono-infection in the study group, whereas HCV was found only as a co-infection. Conclusions The present findings highlight the need to educate the MSM population concerning their risk for STIs infections and methods of prevention. Campaigns to encourage vaccination against HBV and HPV could decrease the rates of these infections in MSM. PMID:25083768

Soares, Caroline C.; Georg, Ingebourg; Lampe, Elisabeth; Lewis, Lia; Morgado, Mariza G.; Nicol, Alcina F.; Pinho, Adriana A.; Salles, Regina C. S.; Teixeira, Sylvia L. M.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Gomes, Selma A.

2014-01-01

265

Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II expendable launch vehicle (ELV) second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned to fly in 2001, will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5-km bare wire plus 10-km spectra or dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve ~0.4 N drag thrust, ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes a Langmuir probe and differential ion flux probe, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two global positioning system (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upperstage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering, and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the deorbit of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation, it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere. .

Ballance, Judy; Johnson, Les

2001-02-01

266

Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned to fly in 2001, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 10 km spectra or dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDs instrumentation includes a Langmuir probe and Differential Ion Flux Probe, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations, The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the deorbit of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

Ballance, Judy; Johnson, Les; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

267

Development of the Flight Tether for ProSEDS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System to deploy a newly designed and developed tether which will provide tether generated drag thrust of approx. 0.4 N. The development and production of very long tethers with specific properties for performance and survivability will be required to enable future tether missions. The ProSEDS tether design and the development process may provide some lessons learned for these future missions. The ProSEDS system requirements drove the design of the tether to have three different sections of tether each serving a specialized purpose. The tether is a total of 15 kilometers long: 10 kilometers of a non-conductive Dyneema lead tether; 5 km of CCOR conductive coated wire; and 220 meters of insulated wire with a protective Kevlar overbraid. Production and joining of long tether lengths involved many development efforts. Extensive testing of tether materials including ground deployment of the full-length ProSEDS tether was conducted to validate the tether design and performance before flight.

Curtis, Leslie; Vaughn, Jason; Welzyn, Ken; Carroll, Joe; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

268

Development of the flight tether for ProSEDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System to deploy a newly designed and developed tether which will provide tether generated drag thrust of ~0.4 N. The development and production of very long tethers with specific properties for performance and survivability will be required to enable future tether missions. The ProSEDS tether design and the development process may provide some lessons learned for these future missions. The ProSEDS system requirements drove the design of the tether to have three different sections of tether each serving a specialized purpose. The tether is a total of 15 kilometers long: 10 kilometers of a non-conductive Dyneema lead tether; 5 km of CCOR conductive coated wire; and 220 meters of insulated wire with a protective Kevlar overbraid. Production and joining of long tether lengths involved many development efforts. Extensive testing of tether materials including ground deployment of the full-length ProSEDS tether was conducted to validate the tether design and performance before flight. .

Curtis, Leslie; Vaughn, Jason; Welzyn, Ken; Carroll, Joe

2002-01-01

269

[Role of (pro)renin receptor in diabetic retinopathy].  

PubMed

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), or circulating RAS, is a hormone system that regulates systemic blood pressure. Although several types of organ damage are known to result from the activation of the tissue RAS, the precise mechanism of this activation is not fully understood. The recent discovery of the (pro)renin receptor elucidates the pathogenic mechanism whereby prorenin, by binding to its receptor, dually activates the tissue RAS and RAS-independent intracellular signaling via the receptor. We propose a nomenclature receptor-associated prorenin system (RAPS) for these two major pathways, triggered by the (pro)renin receptor. Recently we showed the association of the RAPS with diabetes-induced retinal inflammation, indicating the possibility of the (pro) renin receptor being a novel molecular target for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:22171507

Satofuka, Shingo

2011-11-01

270

Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF  

PubMed Central

Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

2011-01-01

271

Sorafenib overcomes the chemoresistance in HBx-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HBx protein stability and suppresses HBV gene expression.  

PubMed

Previous studies have revealed that HBx expression has anti-apoptotic effects, resulting in increased drug resistance in HCC cells. Thus, we examined if sorafenib efficiently induces apoptosis in HBx-overexpressing HCC cells. Noticeably, sorafenib efficiently induced apoptosis, even in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells, indicating that the HBx protein does not attenuate sorafenib-induced apoptosis. We next investigated if sorafenib modulates autophagy, allowing HCC cells to overcome the chemoresistance conferred by the HBx protein. Although autophagy plays a cytoprotective role against sorafenib-induced lethality, sorafenib was effective irrespective of HBx protein overexpression. We next examined if sorafenib exerts its cytotoxic effect via direct effects on the HBx protein. Importantly, sorafenib decreased HBx protein stability through a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Moreover, sorafenib decreased HBV gene expression and viral promoter activity. Taken together, sorafenib efficiently induces apoptotic cell death in HBx-expressing HCC cells via the downregulation of the HBx protein, a key factor in the anti-cancer drug resistance observed in HBV-induced HCC. PMID:25218348

Kim, Hye Young; Jung, Hye Uk; Yoo, Seung Hee; Yoo, Ki Soo; Cheong, JaeHun; Park, Bong Soo; Yun, Il; Yoo, Young Hyun

2014-12-01

272

Detection of EBV, HBV, HCV, HIV-1, HTLV-I and -II, and SMRV in Human and Other Primate Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of contaminated cell cultures suggests that viral contaminations might be distributed among cultures. We investigated more than 460 primate cell lines for Epstein-Barr (EBV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus I and II (HTLV-I/-II), and squirrel monkey retrovirus (SMRV) infections for risk assessment. None of the cell lines were infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HTLV-I/-II. However, one cell line displayed reverse transcriptase activity. Thirty-nine cell lines harbored EBV DNA sequences. Studies on the lytic phase of EBV revealed that five cell lines produce EBV particles and six further cell lines produced EBV upon stimulation. One cell line contained an integrated HBV genome fragment but showed no virus production. Six cell lines were SMRV-infected. Newly established cell lines should be tested for EBV infections to detect B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL). B-LCLs established with EBV from cell line B95-8 should be tested for SMRV infections. PMID:20454443

Uphoff, Cord C.; Denkmann, Sabine A.; Steube, Klaus G.; Drexler, Hans G.

2010-01-01

273

Immunohistochemical mapping of pro-opiomelanocortin- and pro-dynorphin-derived peptides in the alpaca (Lama pacos) diencephalon.  

PubMed

Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibres containing non-opioid peptides (adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and opioid peptides (beta-endorphin (1-27), alpha-neo-endorphin, leucine-enkephalin) in the alpaca diencephalon. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were found. Perikarya containing the other four peptides were observed exclusively in the hypothalamus and their distribution was restricted. Perikarya containing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin showed a more widespread distribution than those containing leucine-enkephalin or beta-endorphin (1-27). Cell bodies containing pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were observed in the arcuate nucleus, anterior and lateral hypothalamic areas and in the ventromedial and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei, whereas perikarya containing alpha-neo-endorphin (a pro-dynorphin-derived peptide) were found in the arcuate nucleus, dorsal and lateral hypothalamic areas, and in the paraventricular, ventromedial and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei. Immunoreactive cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin were found in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactive fibres expressing pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were more numerous than those expressing pro-dynorphin-derived peptides. A close anatomical relationship was observed: in all the diencephalic nuclei in which beta-endorphin (1-27)-immunoreactive fibres were found, fibres containing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin were also observed. Fibres containing beta-endorphin (1-27), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin were widely distributed throughout the diencephalon, but fibres containing ACTH or leucine-enkephalin showed a moderate distribution. The distribution of the five peptides studied here is also compared with that reported previously in other mammalian species. The widespread distribution observed indicates that both the pro-dynorphin and the pro-opiomelanocortin systems are involved in multiple physiological actions (e.g., food intake, thermoregulation, neuroendocrine and reproductive mechanisms) in the alpaca diencephalon. PMID:24956196

Manso, B; Sánchez, M L; Medina, L E; Aguilar, L A; Díaz-Cabiale, Z; Narváez, J A; Coveñas, R

2014-09-01

274

A hepatitis A, B, C and HIV prevalence and risk factor study in ever injecting and non-injecting drug users in Luxembourg associated with HAV and HBV immunisations  

PubMed Central

Background In Luxembourg, viral hepatitis and HIV infection data in problem drug users (PDUs) are primarily based on self-reporting. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV infections in ever injecting (IDUs) and non-injecting drug users (nIDUs) including inherent risk factors analysis for IDUs. Secondary objectives were immunisation against HAV and HBV, referral to care and treatment facilities as well as reduction in risk behaviour. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional multi-site survey, involving 5 in-, 8 out-treatment and 2 prison centres, included both an assisted questionnaire (n = 368) and serological detection of HIV and Hepatitis A, B, C (n = 334). A response rate of 31% resulted in the participation of 310 IDUs and 58 nIDUs. Risk factors such as drug use, sexual behaviour, imprisonment, protection and health knowledge (HAV, HBV status and immunisations, HCV, HIV), piercing/tattoo and use of social and medical services were studied by means of chi2 and logistic models. Results Seroprevalence results for IDUs were 81.3% (218/268, 95%CI=[76.6; 86.0]) for HCV, 29.1% (74/254, 95%CI=[25.5;34.7 ]) for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection), 2.5% (5/202, 95%CI=[0.3; 4.6]) for HIV-1 and 57.1% (108/189, 95%CI=[50.0; 64.1]) for HAV (cured infections or past vaccinations). Seroprevalence results for nIDUs were 19.1% (9/47, 95%CI=[7.9;30.3]) for HCV, 8.9% (4/45, 95%CI=[0.6;17.2]) for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection), 4.8% (2/42, 95%CI=[-1.7;11.3]) for HIV-1 and 65.9% (27/41, 95%CI=[51.4;80.4]) for HAV. Prisoners showed the highest rates for all infections. Age, imprisonment and setting of recruitment were statistically associated with HCV seropositivity. Age, speedball career and nationality were significantly associated with HBV seropositivity. Only 56% of the participants in outpatient centres collected their serology results and 43 doses of vaccine against HAV and/or HBV were administered. Conclusions Despite the existing national risk-reduction strategies implemented since 1993, high prevalence of HCV and HBV infections in injecting drug users is observed. Our study showed that implementing risk-prevention strategies, including immunisation remains difficult with PDUs. Improvement should be looked for by the provision of field healthcare structures providing tests with immediate results, advice, immunisation or treatment if appropriate. PMID:21595969

2011-01-01

275

Re-defining Pro Bono: Professional Commitment to Public Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the current version of Rule 6.1 of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct has not achieved its objective of fostering universal public and pro bono service among lawyers, and proposes a change to the current rule that hopefully will be more successful in achieving these laudable objectives. From the earliest days of the Anglo-American legal profession,

Gary A. Munneke

2008-01-01

276

Lumen 200/ProTM 1 Table of Contents  

E-print Network

.4 Changing Filters in the Filter Wheel (Pro only) 32 5.5 Routine Maintenance. 34 Advanced Operation Section 6. · Do not expose the product to water or moisture. · Do not expose the product to extreme hot or cold

Gardel, Margaret

277

ProNGF: a neurotrophic or an apoptotic molecule?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on various classes of central and peripheral neurons to promote cell survival, stimulate neurite outgrowth and modulate differentiation. NGF is synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, which undergoes processing to generate mature NGF. It has been assumed, based on studies in the mouse submandibular gland, that NGF in vivo is largely mature NGF, and that mature

Margaret Fahnestock; Guanhua Yu; Michael D. Coughlin

2004-01-01

278

Quantum computing: pro and con BY JOHN PRESKILL  

E-print Network

Quantum computing: pro and con BY JOHN PRESKILL Charles C. Lauritsen Laboratory of High Energy Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA I assess the potential of quantum computation. Broad and important applications must be found to justify construction of a quantum computer; I

Preskill, John

279

Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

2013-01-01

280

PRO-ART: Enabling Requirements Pre-Traceability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Requirements traceability is essential for developing software systems of high quality Whereas the traceability of the refinement, deployment, and use of a requirement is called post - traceability, the traceability of a requirement back to its origin is named pre - traceability In this contribution we present a requirements engineering environment, called PRO - ART , which enables requirements

Klaus Pohl; RWTH Aachen

1996-01-01

281

Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Quick Time movie is of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The tether would be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether connected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

1999-01-01

282

SEED-Pro: Computer-Assisted Architectural Programming in SEED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer assisted architectural programming is in its infancy. What there is in terms of architectural programming theory often differs from practice. In the first half of this paper, we define relevant terms, provide a brief review of the state of the art, and draw attention to the pri- macy of architectural programming in design. SEED-Pro is introduced as an intelligent

Ömer Akin; Rana Sen; Magd Donia; Ye Zhang

1995-01-01

283

Final results of the ReoPro readministration registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its potential for antigenicity, theoretical concerns related to readministration of abciximab have been raised. We conducted the ReoPro Readministration Registry to assess the efficacy and safety of abciximab readministration. A total of 1,342 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and who received abciximab for at least a second time were recruited. Safety end points were hypersensitivity reactions, major

Jean-Pierre Dery; Gregory A Braden; A. Michael Lincoff; Dean J Kereiakes; Kevin Browne; Thomas Little; Barry S George; David C Sane; Douglas B Cines; Mark B Effron; Mary Ann Mascelli; Mary Ann Langrall; Lakshmi Damaraju; Elliot S Barnathan; James E Tcheng

2004-01-01

284

Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sizeable (and growing) proportion of the public in Western democracies deny the existence of anthropogenic climate change. It is commonly assumed that convincing deniers that climate change is real is necessary for them to act pro-environmentally. However, the likelihood of `conversion' using scientific evidence is limited because these attitudes increasingly reflect ideological positions. An alternative approach is to identify outcomes of mitigation efforts that deniers find important. People have strong interests in the welfare of their society, so deniers may act in ways supporting mitigation efforts where they believe these efforts will have positive societal effects. In Study 1, climate change deniers (N=155) intended to act more pro-environmentally where they thought climate change action would create a society where people are more considerate and caring, and where there is greater economic/technological development. Study 2 (N=347) replicated this experimentally, showing that framing climate change action as increasing consideration for others, or improving economic/technological development, led to greater pro-environmental action intentions than a frame emphasizing avoiding the risks of climate change. To motivate deniers' pro-environmental actions, communication should focus on how mitigation efforts can promote a better society, rather than focusing on the reality of climate change and averting its risks.

Bain, Paul G.; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Bongiorno, Renata; Jeffries, Carla

2012-08-01

285

Review of the ProSEDS Electrodynamic Tether Mission Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment was ready to fly as a secondary payload on a Delta-II expendable launch vehicle in late March 2003. Concerns raised in February 2003 by the International Space Station resulted in the delay of the launch of ProSEDS. Issues associated with the delayed launch date and a change in starting altitude resulted in the cancellation of the mission. ProSEDS was intended to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta I1 second stage to achieve adequate drag thrust that would lower the orbit of the system over days as opposed to months due to atmospheric drag. It was also designed to utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. Considerable effort and testing went in to developing the ProSEDS system by a dedicated team. Through this effort, important technological issues were identified and addressed and this presentation will discuss some of the important technical issues and hurdles that had to be addressed to successfully prepare for flight. It is intended that this information will be of use for future tether mission and experiment designers.

Vaughn, Jason A.; Curtis, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Bilen, Sven; Lorenzini, Enrico

2004-01-01

286

PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation  

PubMed Central

Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity. PMID:20512662

Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

2010-01-01

287

Pro-Trade Democrats Go AWOL (NYT) 639 words  

E-print Network

Pro-Trade Democrats Go AWOL (NYT) 639 words Published: June 13, 2005 Back in 1993, Vice President Al Gore went on prime-time television to debate Ross Perot, a foe of free trade, in a clash Mr. Gore is widely believed to have won. The debate helped propel supporters of the North American Free Trade

Lopez-Carr, David

288

Pro-eating disorder websites: facts, fictions and fixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Pro-eating disorder websites are online communities of individuals who do not consider eating disorders to be serious mental illnesses requiring treatment. People visit these websites to meet other like-minded individuals, to share tips and tricks on how to lose weight and how to otherwise maintain the symptomatology of the disorder. This paper aims to review what is actually

Helen Sharpe; Peter Musiat; Olivia Knapton; Ulrike Schmidt

2011-01-01

289

Direct Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Prorenin on Microglia  

PubMed Central

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-system. In addition, we determined whether prorenin, an essential component of the renin-angiotensin-system, exerts direct pro-inflammatory effects on these microglia. Our data indicate that two rodent models which display neurogenic hypertension and over activation of the renin-angiotensin-system in the brain (sRA mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats) exhibit microglial activation, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an area crucial for regulation of sympathetic outflow. Further, the renin-angiotensin-system component prorenin elicits direct activation of hypothalamic microglia in culture and induction of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in these cells, effects that involve prorenin receptor-induced NF?B activation. In addition, the prorenin-elicited increases in cytokine expression were fully abolished by microglial inhibitor minocycline, and were potentiated by pre-treatment of cells with angiotensin II. Taken together with our previous data which indicate that pro-inflammatory processes in the paraventricular nucleus are involved in the hypertensive action of renin-angiotensin-system, the novel discovery that prorenin exerts direct stimulatory effects on microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production provides support for the idea that renin-angiotensin-system -induced neurogenic hypertension is not restricted to actions of angiotensin II alone. PMID:25302502

Shi, Peng; Grobe, Justin L.; Desland, Fiona A.; Zhou, Guannan; Shen, Xiao Z.; Shan, Zhiying; Liu, Meng; Raizada, Mohan K.; Sumners, Colin

2014-01-01

290

Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve ~0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes Langmuir probes and Differential Ion Flux Probes, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the removal of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere. .

Curtis, Leslie; Johnson, Les

2002-01-01

291

Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta 11 second stage to achieve approx. 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes Langmuir probes and Differential Ion Flux Probes, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the removal of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

Curtis, Leslie; Johnson, Les; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

292

Performance and diagnostic usefulness of commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and rapid kits for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV in India  

PubMed Central

Background HIV, HBV and HCV pose a major public health problem throughout the world. Detection of infection markers for these agents is a major challenge for testing laboratories in a resource poor setting. As blood transfusion is an important activity saving millions of live every year, it also carries a risk of transfusion transmissible infections caused by these fatal blood borne pathogens if the quality of testing is compromised. Conventional ELISA is regarded as the mostly used screening technique but due to limitations like high cost, unavailability in many blood banks and testing sites, involvement of costly instruments, time taking nature and requirement of highly skilled personnel for interpretation, rapid tests are gaining more importance and warrants comparison of performance. Results A comparative study between these two techniques has been performed using commercially available diagnostic kits to assess their efficacy for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. Rapid kits were more efficient in specificity with synthetic antigens along with high PPV than ELISA in most cases. Comparison between different ELISA kits revealed that Microlisa HIV and Hepalisa (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.); ERBA LISA HIV1 + 2, ERBA LISA Hepatitis B and ERBA LISA HCV (Transasia Bio-medicals Ltd.) gives uniform result with good performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and efficiency, whereas, Microlisa HCV (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.), Microscreen HBsAg ELISA and INNOVA HCV (Span Diagnostics Ltd.) did not perform well. Rapid kits were also having high degree of sensitivity and specificity (100%) except in HIV Comb and HCV Comb (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.). The kit efficiency didn’t vary significantly among different companies and lots in all the cases except for HCV ELISA showing statistically significant variation (p?HBV and HCV infections. Rapid tests are useful for further detection of false positive samples. ELISA seems the appropriate assay in blood bank. For availability of quality commercial diagnostic assays, evaluation of kit may be helpful. PMID:23181517

2012-01-01

293

Platelet Adhesion and Degranulation Induce Pro-Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Signalling in Ovarian Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:22022533

Smyth, Paul; O'Toole, Sharon; Spillane, Cathy; Martin, Cara; Gallagher, Michael; Canney, Aoife; Norris, Lucy; Conlon, Niamh; McEvoy, Lynda; Ffrench, Brendan; Stordal, Britta; Keegan, Helen; Finn, Stephen; McEneaney, Victoria; Laios, Alex; Ducree, Jens; Dunne, Eimear; Smith, Leila; Berndt, Michael; Sheils, Orla; Kenny, Dermot; O'Leary, John

2011-01-01

294

Safety and immunogenicity of fully liquid DTaP?-IPV-Hib pediatric combination vaccine (Pediacel®) compared to DTaP?-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix® Hexa) when coadministered with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) as a booster at 11-18 months of age: a phase III, modified double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter study.  

PubMed

This study compared the safety and immunogenicity of DTaP?-IPV-Hib vaccine (followed by monovalent hepatitis B vaccine [HBV]) and DTaP?-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines, both coadministered with PCV7, as a fourth-dose booster in toddlers 11-18 months who had a hexavalent vaccine primary series. The fever rate within 4 days of DTaP?-IPV-Hib was noninferior to DTaP?-HBV-IPV/Hib. DTaP?-IPV-Hib induced a marked immune response and had a similar safety and immunogenicity profile compared with DTaP?-HBV-IPV/Hib. Fully liquid DTaP?-IPV-Hib can be used as a booster after a hexavalent vaccine primary series; where required, a fourth dose of monovalent HBV can be administered after DTaP?-IPV-Hib (NCT ID: NCT00355654). PMID:22691430

Berner, Reinhard; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

2012-07-27

295

Systematic Evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Content of Clinical Trial Protocols  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative evidence suggests patient-reported outcome (PRO) information is frequently absent from clinical trial protocols, potentially leading to inconsistent PRO data collection and risking bias. Direct evidence regarding PRO trial protocol content is lacking. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the PRO-specific content of UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme trial protocols. Methods and Findings We conducted an electronic search of the NIHR HTA programme database (inception to August 2013) for protocols describing a randomised controlled trial including a primary/secondary PRO. Two investigators independently reviewed the content of each protocol, using a specially constructed PRO-specific protocol checklist, alongside the ‘Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials’ (SPIRIT) checklist. Disagreements were resolved through discussion with a third investigator. 75 trial protocols were included in the analysis. Protocols included a mean of 32/51 (63%) SPIRIT recommendations (range 16–41, SD 5.62) and 11/33 (33%) PRO-specific items (range 4–18, SD 3.56). Over half (61%) of the PRO items were incomplete. Protocols containing a primary PRO included slightly more PRO checklist items (mean 14/33 (43%)). PRO protocol content was not associated with general protocol completeness; thus, protocols judged as relatively ‘complete’ using SPIRIT were still likely to have omitted a large proportion of PRO checklist items. Conclusions The PRO components of HTA clinical trial protocols require improvement. Information on the PRO rationale/hypothesis, data collection methods, training and management was often absent. This low compliance is unsurprising; evidence shows existing PRO guidance for protocol developers remains difficult to access and lacks consistency. Study findings suggest there are a number of PRO protocol checklist items that are not fully addressed by the current SPIRIT statement. We therefore advocate the development of consensus-based supplementary guidelines, aimed at improving the completeness and quality of PRO content in clinical trial protocols. PMID:25333349

Kyte, Derek; Duffy, Helen; Fletcher, Benjamin; Gheorghe, Adrian; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine; Draper, Heather; Ives, Jonathan; Brundage, Michael; Blazeby, Jane; Calvert, Melanie

2014-01-01

296

The Effects of Super-Flux (High Performance) Dialyzer on Plasma Glycosylated Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (proBNP) and Glycosylated N-Terminal proBNP in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Dialysis  

PubMed Central

Background Plasma BNP levels are predictive of prognosis in hemodialysis patients. However, recent studies showed that the current BNP immunoassay cross-reacts with glycosylated proBNP, and the NT-proBNP assay underestimates glycosylated NT-proBNP. In addition, the recently developed high performance dialyzer removes medium-sized molecular solutes such as ?2-microgloburin. We therefore investigated the effects of high performance dialysis on measured levels of glycosylated proBNP, glycosylated NT-proBNP and other BNP-related peptides in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis. Method The relationships between clinical parameters and BNP-related molecule were also investigated. We used our newly developed immunoassay to measure plasma total BNP and proBNP in 105 normal subjects and 36 ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis. Plasma NT-proBNP was measured using Elecsys II after treatment with or without deglycosylating enzymes. We also measured plasma ANP and cGMP using radioimmunoassays. Results All the measured BNP-related peptides were significantly higher in ESRD patients than healthy subjects. Total BNP (?38.9%), proBNP (?29.7%), glycoNT-proBNP (?45.5%), nonglycoNT-proBNP (?53.4%), ANP (?50.4%) and cGMP (?72.1%) were all significantly reduced after hemodialysis, and the magnitude of the reduction appeared molecular weight- dependent. Both the proBNP/total BNP and glycoNT-proBNP/nonglycoNT-proBNP ratios were increased after hemodialysis. The former correlated positively with hemodialysis vintage and negatively with systolic blood pressure, while the latter correlated positively with parathyroid hormone levels. Conclusion These results suggest that hemodialysis using super-flux dialyzer removes BNP-related peptides in a nearly molecular weight-dependent manner. The ProBNP/total BNP and glycoNT-proBNP/nonglycoNT-proBNP ratios appear to be influenced by hemodialysis-related parameters in ESRD patients on hemodialysis. PMID:24667631

Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Nishikimi, Toshio; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Yasuno, Shinji; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Minami, Takeya; Yamada, Chinatsu; Ueshima, Kenji; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Horii, Kazukiyo; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Minamino, Naoto; Nakao, Kazuwa

2014-01-01

297

The N-Glycosylation Modification of LHBs (Large Surface Proteins of HBV) Effects on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Cell Proliferation and its Secretion  

PubMed Central

Background The mutations of LHBs in pre-S, especially in pre-S2, are definitive in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with HBV. However, the mechanisms of the N-glycosylation modification in LHBs are unclear. The N-glycosylation modification of LHBs affects Endoplasmic Reticulum stress, cell proliferation and its secretion which was further studied. Objectives The objectives of our studies was to indentified that modification of LHBs by N glycosylation modulate their secretion, affect ER stress or expression of cycling, cell cycle and proliferation. Materials and Methods The LHBs was mutated; then expression of proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and EAED path of L02 cells affected by LHBs and its mutations was evaluated. LHBs proteins bound to multiubiquitin chains and its glycosylation motif were studied. The subcellular localization and secretion of LHBs and its mutations were identified. The effect on cell cycle and proliferation by LHBs and its mutations were detected. Results These data demonstrated that the N-glycosylation motifs of LHBs were associated with ER stress. The N15S, N123S, and N177S mutated LHBs proteins could induce overexpression of EDEM in L02 cells. LHBs and its mutated proteins contained p62-derived UBA domain, which could affect expression of cyclins. The subcellular localization of LHBs in endoplasmic reticulum was similar to its mutations. The secretion of LHBs was blocked by N320K mutation, which could induce an increase in G1 phase and inhibition of S phase, and inhibited mitotic entry. Conclusions In conclusion, our studies powerfully demonstrated that modification of LHBs by N glycosylation could modulate their secretion, affect ER stress or expression of cycling, cell cycle and proliferation. The N320K may be the key sites N-linked glycosylation modification of LHBs. It may be a mechanism of HBV-induced HCC. PMID:24282423

Liu, Wenxiang; Cao, Yongmei; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Guoan; Lu, Jiangyang; Zhang, Jinqian; Hou, Peng

2013-01-01

298

Brain Natriuretic Peptide and N-Terminal proBNP in Chronic Haemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) are released into circulation as a result of congestive heart failure (HF). As HF and water overload are frequent complications in haemodialysis (HD) patients, we decided to study the levels of BNP and NT-proBNP and their changes during HD. Methods: BNP and NT-proBNP levels were determined in 94 HD patients before

Jaroslav Racek; Hana Králová; Ladislav Trefil; Daniel Rajdl; Jaromír Eiselt

2006-01-01

299

ProB: an automated analysis toolset for the B method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ProB, a validation toolset for the B method. ProB's automated animation facilities allow users to gain condence in their specications. ProB also contains a model checker and a renement checker, both of which can be used to detect various errors in B specications. We describe the underlying methodology of ProB, and present the important as- pects of the

Michael Leuschel; Michael J. Butler

2008-01-01

300

InterPro-an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: InterPro is a new integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, developed initially as a means of rationalising the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Results: Merged annotations from PRINTS, PROSITE and Pfam form the InterPro core. Each combined Inter- Pro entry includes functional descriptions and literature references, and links are

Rolf Apweiler; Terri K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; Ewan Birney; Margaret Biswas; Philipp Bucher; Lorenzo Cerutti; Florence Corpet; Michael D. R. Croning; Richard Durbin; Laurent Falquet; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Jérôme Gouzy; Henning Hermjakob; Nicolas Hulo; Inge Jonassen; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Youla Karavidopoulou; Rodrigo Lopez; Beate Marx; Nicola J. Mulder; Thomas M. Oinn; Marco Pagni; Florence Servant; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Evgeni M. Zdobnov

2000-01-01

301

Ratio of Pro-Resolving and Pro-Inflammatory Lipid Mediator Precursors as Potential Markers for Aggressive Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a rapidly progressing type of periodontal disease in otherwise healthy individuals which causes destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The disease is initiated by pathogenic bacteria in the dental biofilm, and the severity of inflammation and attachment loss varies with the host response. Recently, there has been an increased interest in determining the role of lipid mediators in inflammatory events and the concept of pro-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators has been brought into focus also in periodontal disease. The present study aimed to determine the profile of omega-3 or n3- as well as omega-6 or n6- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and PUFA-metabolites of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and serum in AgP patients and healthy controls. In total, 60 selected n3- and n6-PUFAs and various PUFA metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Of these, 51 could be quantified in this study. The concentrations of the majority were low in saliva samples compared with serum and GCF, but were mainly higher in AgP patients compared with healthy controls in all three kinds of sample. Ratios of n3- to n6-PUFAs (DHA + EPA)/AA were significantly lower in the GCF of AgP patients than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, various ratios of the direct precursors of the pro-resolution lipid mediators (precursors of resolvins and protectins) were calculated against the precursors of mainly pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. These ratios were mainly lower in GCF and saliva of AgP patients, compared with healthy controls, but only reached significance in GCF (P<0.05). To conclude, the ratios of precursors of pro-resolution/pro-inflammatory lipid mediators seem to be more relevant for describing the disease status of AgP than the concentration of specific lipid mediators. PMID:23951021

Zein Elabdeen, Hager R.; Mustafa, Manal; Szklenar, Monika; Rühl, Ralph; Ali, Raouf; Bolstad, Anne Isine

2013-01-01

302

Nucleotide sequence of the osmoregulatory proU operon of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The sequence of 4,362 nucleotides encompassing the proU operon of Escherichia coli was determined. Three open reading frames were identified whose orientation, order, location, and sizes were in close accord with genetic evidence for three cistrons (proV, proW, and proX) in this operon. Similarities in primary structure were observed between (i) the deduced sequence of ProV with membrane-associated components of other binding-protein-dependent transport systems, in the nucleotide-binding region of each of the latter proteins, and (ii) that of ProW with integral membrane components of the transport systems above. The DNA sequence data also conclusively established that ProX represents the periplasmic glycine betaine-binding protein. Two copies of repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences were identified beyond the 3' end of the proX gene. The primer extension technique was used to identify the 5' ends of proU mRNA species that are present in cells grown at high osmolarity; the results suggest that at least some of the osmotically induced proU transcripts have a long leader region, extending as much as 250 base pairs upstream of the proV gene. Evidence was also obtained for the existence of a sequence-directed bend in DNA in the upstream regulatory region of the proU operon. Images PMID:2649479

Gowrishankar, J

1989-01-01

303

ProTeus: Identifying Signatures in Protein Termini Iris Bahir1  

E-print Network

1 ProTeus: Identifying Signatures in Protein Termini Iris Bahir1 and Michal Linial1,2,3 1 98195, USA 3 Correspondence Author ABSTRACT ProTeus (PROtein TErminUS) is a web-based tool for revealing short signatures in termini of all proteins. The initial step in ProTeus development

Linial, Michal

304

ProTeus: identifying signatures in protein termini Iris Bahir and Michal Linial*  

E-print Network

ProTeus: identifying signatures in protein termini Iris Bahir and Michal Linial* Department 28, 2005; Revised and Accepted March 7, 2005 ABSTRACT ProTeus (PROtein TErminUS) is a web-based tool forrevealingshortsignaturesinterminiofallproteins. The initial step in ProTeus development was to collect all signature groups (SIGs) based

Linial, Michal

305

Searching for thinspiration: the nature of internet searches for pro-eating disorder websites.  

PubMed

Pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) Websites are widespread and easily accessible. The risks associated with these Websites (e.g., reinforcing and encouraging eating disordered behaviors) have received interest from researchers, media, and mental health professionals. However, little is known about how these Websites are found, which may provide insight into prevention and intervention initiatives. Using Google AdWords Keywords in February 2011, a series of search terms (based on previous research) were entered to generate search-related data regarding actual pro-ED terms used in Google, including the corresponding search results, which were coded for degree of potential harm. Results indicated that Pro-ED search terms are sought out more than 13 million times annually, with pro ana receiving the most searches monthly. Overall, different terms are associated with varying numbers of monthly searches and regional interest. Search terms with references to thinspiration and thinspo are associated with the most harmful Website content. To provide those who seek pro-ED content with helpful, research-supported resources, it may be important to intervene before the point of access by targeting the search results corresponding with pro-ED search terms. Efforts may need to pay particular attention to terms such as thinspiration and thinspo. PMID:22335543

Lewis, Stephen P; Arbuthnott, Alexis E

2012-04-01

306

Improving catalytic function by ProSAR-driven enzyme evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a directed evolution approach that should find broad application in generating enzymes that meet predefined process-design criteria. It augments recombination-based directed evolution by incorporating a strategy for statistical analysis of protein sequence activity relationships (ProSAR). This combination facilitates mutation-oriented enzyme optimization by permitting the capture of additional information contained in the sequence-activity data. The method thus enables identification

Richard J Fox; S Christopher Davis; Emily C Mundorff; Lisa M Newman; Vesna Gavrilovic; Steven K Ma; Loleta M Chung; Charlene Ching; Sarena Tam; Sheela Muley; John Grate; John Gruber; John C Whitman; Roger A Sheldon; Gjalt W Huisman

2007-01-01

307

Improving employee dedication and pro-social behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between transformational leadership and employee dedication and the relationship between transformational leadership and pro-social behaviour. This study seeks to extend Gill et al.'s findings regarding the impact of transformational leadership on job stress and the impact of job stress on burnout. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Hospitality industry employees were interviewed

Amarjit S. Gill; Neil Mathur

2007-01-01

308

Phosphate binding pro-tein from E. coli.  

E-print Network

Phosphate binding pro- tein from E. coli. Range for quantificationb R2 (n3) 2.6x10-7 -0.13 1.03 25BP and binding pocket E. coli K12 Synechococcus PO4 3 - Figure E. FLIPPi--5µ specificity assay 520/470nmratio to predict the amino acids involved in binding, the PiBP from Synechococcus was aligned with that of E. coli

309

TA01 Launch Solid Rocket PRoPulSion  

E-print Network

Cycle) � Propellants � FundamentalLiquid PropulsionTechnologies AiR BReAthing PRoPulSion SyStemS � TBCC � RBCCPace Power & energy storage PoweR geneRAtion � EnergyHarvesting � Chemical(FuelCells,HeatEngines) � SolarMaterials � NozzleSystems � HybridRocketPropulsion Systems � FundamentalSolidPropulsion Technologies liquid Rocket

310

Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

2014-01-01

311

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The summary of activity during this reporting period, most of which was covered by a no-cost extension of the grant, is as follows: 1) Participation in remote and in-situ (at MSFC EDAC facility) mission operation simulations; 2) Analysis of the decay rate of ProSEDS when starting the mission at a lower altitude; 3) Analysis of the deployment control law performance when deploying at a lower altitude.

Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Curtis, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

312

Binding of Pro-Gly-Pro at the active site of leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase and development of an epoxide hydrolase selective inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the committed step in the formation of the proinflammatory mediator LTB4. Recently, the chemotactic tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro was identified as an endogenous aminopeptidase substrate for LTA4 hydrolase. Here, we determined the crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in complex with a Pro-Gly-Pro analog at 1.72 Å. From the structure, which includes the catalytic water, and mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis products of Pro-Gly-Pro, it could be inferred that LTA4 hydrolase cleaves at the N terminus of the palindromic tripeptide. Furthermore, we designed a small molecule, 4-(4-benzylphenyl)thiazol-2-amine, denoted ARM1, that inhibits LTB4 synthesis in human neutrophils (IC50 of ?0.5 ?M) and conversion of LTA4 into LTB4 by purified LTA4H with a Ki of 2.3 ?M. In contrast, 50- to 100-fold higher concentrations of ARM1 did not significantly affect hydrolysis of Pro-Gly-Pro. A 1.62-Å crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in a dual complex with ARM1 and the Pro-Gly-Pro analog revealed that ARM1 binds in the hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the ?-end of LTA4, distant from the aminopeptidase active site, thus providing a molecular basis for its inhibitory profile. Hence, ARM1 selectively blocks conversion of LTA4 into LTB4, although sparing the enzyme’s anti-inflammatory aminopeptidase activity (i.e., degradation and inactivation of Pro-Gly-Pro). ARM1 represents a new class of LTA4 hydrolase inhibitor that holds promise for improved anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24591641

Stsiapanava, Alena; Olsson, Ulrika; Wan, Min; Kleinschmidt, Thea; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Haeggstrom, Jesper Z.

2014-01-01

313

PROGRESSION SALARIALE ANNUELLE -SERUM-PRO et ACPUM Au 1er juin de chaque anne, le personnel professionnel reprsent par le SERUM-PRO et le  

E-print Network

PROGRESSION SALARIALE ANNUELLE - SERUM-PRO et ACPUM Au 1er juin de chaque année, le personnel professionnel représenté par le SERUM-PRO et le personnel représenté par l'ACPUM connaissent une progression-dessous, pour chacun des deux groupes, les règles de progression et les impacts salariaux. SERUM-PRO Considérant

Charette, André

314

Coordinated regulation of type I and type III collagen production and mRNA levels of pro ?1(I) and pro ?2(I) collagen in cultured morphea fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast cultures were started from affected and unaffacted skin areas of six patients with localized scleroderma in an active stage. The cell lines were studied for synthesis of procollagens and fibronectin by metabolic labeling with 3H-proline and for their contents of mRNAs for pro a1(I) and pro a2(I) collagen. For this purpose a cDNA clone for human pro a1(I) collagen

T. Vuorio; J. K. Mäkelä; V.-M. Kähäri; E. Vuorio

1987-01-01

315

Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Xilinx Virtex-II Pro is a platform FPGA that embeds multiple microprocessors within the fabric of an SRAM-based reprogrammable FPGA. The variety and quantity of resources provided by this family of devices make them very attractive for spaceflight applications. However, these devices will be susceptible to single event effects (SEE), which must be mitigated. To use the Virtex-II Pro reliably in space applications, these devices must first be tested to determine if they are susceptible to single event latchup (SEL), the degree to which they are susceptible to single event upsets (SEU) and single event transients (SET), and how these effects are manifested in the device. With this information, mitigations schemes can be developed and tested that address the specific susceptiblities of these devices. This initial SEE test uses a commercial off the shelf Virtex-II Pro evaluation board, with a single processor XC2VP7 FPGA. The FPGA on this board is an acid etched device, which can be partially covered with a shield. The shield covers a portion of the logic, routing, and memory resources along with some of the RocketIO transceivers. The processor, along with a large portion of logic, routing, memory, and transceivers are left exposed. This test will be performed at the Cyclotron Laboratories at Texas A&M University and Michigan State University using ions of varying energy levels and fluencies.

Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James

2004-01-01

316

Proteomic characterization of human early pro-angiogenic cells.  

PubMed

Early pro-angiogenic cells (EPCs) have been shown to be involved in neovascularization, angiogenesis and re-endothelialization and cathepsin L inhibition blunted their pro-angiogenic effect. In the present study, we have analysed and mapped the proteome and secretome of human EPCs, utilizing a combination of difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and shotgun proteomics. A population of 206 protein spots were analysed, with 171 being identified in the cellular proteome of EPCs. 82 proteins were identified in their conditioned medium, including the alternative macrophage markers C-C motif chemokine 18 (CCL18) and the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 as well as platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) and platelet basic protein (CXCL7) with "platelet alpha granule" being returned as the top category according to the Gene Ontology Annotation. Apart from cathepsin L, the cathepsin L inhibitor also attenuated the release of a wide range of other cathepsins and lysosomal proteins such as legumain, but stimulated the secretion of members of the S100 protein family. The data presented here are the most comprehensive characterization of protein expression and secretion in human EPCs to date and highlight the potential importance of cysteine proteases in the processing of platelet factors for their pro-angiogenic potential. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited". PMID:21147123

Urbich, Carmen; De Souza, Ayesha I; Rossig, Lothar; Yin, Xiaoke; Xing, Qiuru; Prokopi, Marianna; Drozdov, Ignat; Steiner, Marianne; Breuss, Johannes; Xu, Qingbo; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Mayr, Manuel

2011-02-01

317

Bcl3 regulates pro-survival and pro-inflammatory gene expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

The advanced stages of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) are characterized not only by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in high susceptibility to infections, but also by high constitutive activity of NF?B, which promotes cell survival and resistance to apoptosis. The increased expression of the proto-oncogene Bcl3 belonging to I?B family is associated with the pathogenesis of the different types of human cancer, yet, the function and regulation of Bcl3 in CTCL have not been studied. Here, we show that Bcl3 is highly expressed in CTCL Hut-78 and HH cells. The suppression of Bcl3 levels decreases the expression of the pro-survival genes cIAP1 and cIAP2, reduces cell viability, and increases CTCL apoptosis. Interestingly, Bcl3 suppression concomitantly increases expression and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-17 in CTCL cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that Bcl3 regulates cIAP1, cIAP2, IL-8 and IL-17 gene expression through direct binding to their promoters. Bcl3 expression is regulated by bortezomib (BZ)-mediated proteasome inhibition, and BZ inhibits Bcl3 recruitment to its target promoters, resulting in decreased expression of cIAP1 and cIAP2, but increased expression of IL-8 and IL-17. The Bcl3 expression is regulated through NF?B subunit exchange on Bcl3 promoter. In untreated cells, the Bcl3 promoter is occupied predominantly by p65/p50 heterodimers, inducing Bcl3 expression; however, in BZ-treated cells, the p65/50 heterodimers are replaced by p52 subunits, resulting in Bcl3 transcriptional repression. These data provide the first insights into the function and regulation of Bcl3 in CTCL, and indicate that Bcl3 has an important pro-survival and immunosuppressive role in these cells. PMID:25089799

Chang, Tzu-Pei; Vancurova, Ivana

2014-11-01

318

Aminoterminal Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) Levels for Monitoring Interventions in Paediatric Cardiac Patients with Stenotic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background. Serum concentration of NT-proBNP correlates well with the severity of cardiac disease in adults. Few studies have been performed on the applicability of NT-proBNP for monitoring children with congenital heart disease. Objective. To assess the potential of NT-proBNP for monitoring the success of interventions in children with stenotic cardiac lesions. Methods. NT-proBNP was measured in 42 children aged 1 day to 17 years (y) before and 6 to 12 weeks after surgical or interventional correction of obstructive lesions of the heart. Comparison is made with the clinical status and echocardiographic data of the child. Results. NT-proBNP levels (median 280, range 10–263,000?pg/mL) were above the reference value in all but 6 patients (pts) prior to the intervention. Higher levels were found in more compromised patients. The 35 children with clinical improvement after the procedure showed a decline of their NT-proBNP level in all but 4 patients, whose levels remained unchanged. Five patients with unchanged gradients despite a therapeutic intervention also demonstrated unchanged NT-proBNP levels after the intervention. Thus, the success rate of the procedure correlated well to clinical and echocardiographic findings. Conclusion. NT-proBNP can be used to assess the efficiency of an intervention. PMID:20204063

Welisch, Eva; Kleesiek, Knut; Haas, Nikolaus; Norozi, Kambiz; Rauch, Ralf; Filler, Guido

2009-01-01

319

The miR-545/374a Cluster Encoded in the Ftx lncRNA is Overexpressed in HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Promotes Tumorigenesis and Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have shown several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play various roles in HCC progression, but no research has focused on the expression pattern of microRNA clusters encoded in lncRNAs. The Ftx gene encodes a lncRNA which harbors 2 clusters of microRNAs in its introns, the miR-374b/421 cluster and the miR-545/374a cluster. To date, no research has focused on the role of the miR-545/374a and miR-374b/421 clusters in HBV-related HCC. In this study, 66 pairs of HBV-related HCC tissue and matched non-cancerous liver tissue specimens were analyzed for the expression of the Ftx microRNA clusters. Our results showed that the miR-545/374a cluster was upregulated in HBV-HCC tissue and significantly correlated with prognosis-related clinical features, including histological grade, metastasis and tumor capsule. Transfection studies with microRNA mimics and inhibitors revealed that miR-545/374a expression promoted in vitro cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. The wild-type HBV-genome-containing plasmid or full-length HBx protein encoding plasmid was transfected into the Bel-7402 cell line and observed for their influence on miR-545/374a expression. We found that transfection of the HBV genome or HBx alone resulted in an increase in miR-545/374a expression. Next, by monitoring the expression of sera miR-545/374a before and after surgical tumor excision, we found serum miR-545/374a was tumor-derived and exhibited a sharp decrease 25 days after tumor excision. We also examined the gender-based difference in miR-545/374a expression among HCC patients and utilized microRNA target prediction software to find the targets of miR-545/374a. One of these targets, namely estrogen-related receptor gamma (ESRRG) was inversely correlated with miR-545 expression. In conclusion, the overexpression of miR-545/374a cluster located in the Ftx lncRNA is partially responsible for a poor prognosis, and monitoring sera levels of miR-545/374a may be a useful diagnostic marker for HCC. PMID:25299640

Zhao, Qi; Li, Tao; Qi, Jianni; Liu, Juan; Qin, Chengyong

2014-01-01

320

Bush to Begin with Pro-life Executive Order  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In one of his first official acts as President, George W. Bush announced yesterday his intentions to block funding of international organizations and clinics that offer abortion procedures or counseling. President Clinton had signed an executive order authorizing such funding three days after taking office in 1992. Bush's action will reinstate the ban on such funding that had been in place up to that time under both the Reagan and Bush administrations. The announcement comes on the 28th anniversary of Roe v. Wade and has been accompanied by a formal statement of support from the President to pro-life advocates. The statement will be read by a Bush spokesperson to pro-life demonstrators in the Capitol today. Both actions signal the President's intention to aggressively limit the right to an abortion and are in line with his controversial choice for Attorney General, John Ashcroft, who has publicly stated his opposition to abortion even in cases of rape and incest. The administration also announced its intention to review the release of RU 486, though Tommy Thompson, Bush's nominee for the head of Health and Human Services, stated in his confirmation hearing last week, that any withdrawal of the "abortion pill" should be premised fundamentally on health concerns. The President, however, does not necessarily share this opinion and may instruct Thompson to do otherwise. In a potentially related development, USA Today reported Monday that Sandra Day O'Connor was considering imminent retirement from the court, in part due to her discomfort with the lingering acrimony on the Court over the December decision that effectively ratified the election results for Bush. If O'Connor retires, it will give Bush an early opportunity to consider appointing to the court someone in the mold of the justices he says he most admires -- staunchly pro-life jurists Clarence Thomas and Antonin Scalia.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

321

Infection regulates pro-resolving mediators that lower antibiotic requirements.  

PubMed

Underlying mechanisms for how bacterial infections contribute to active resolution of acute inflammation are unknown. Here, we performed exudate leukocyte trafficking and mediator-metabololipidomics of murine peritoneal Escherichia coli infections with temporal identification of pro-inflammatory (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). In self-resolving E. coli exudates (10(5) colony forming units, c.f.u.), the dominant SPMs identified were resolvin (Rv) D5 and protectin D1 (PD1), which at 12?h were at significantly greater levels than in exudates from higher titre E. coli (10(7) c.f.u.)-challenged mice. Germ-free mice had endogenous RvD1 and PD1 levels higher than in conventional mice. RvD1 and RvD5 (nanograms per mouse) each reduced bacterial titres in blood and exudates, E. coli-induced hypothermia and increased survival, demonstrating the first actions of RvD5. With human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages, RvD1, RvD5 and PD1 each directly enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli, and RvD5 counter-regulated a panel of pro-inflammatory genes, including NF-?B and TNF-?. RvD5 activated the RvD1 receptor, GPR32, to enhance phagocytosis. With self-limited E. coli infections, RvD1 and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin accelerated resolution, each shortening resolution intervals (R(i)). Host-directed RvD1 actions enhanced ciprofloxacin's therapeutic actions. In 10(7) c.f.u. E. coli infections, SPMs (RvD1, RvD5, PD1) together with ciprofloxacin also heightened host antimicrobial responses. In skin infections, SPMs enhanced vancomycin clearance of Staphylococcus aureus. These results demonstrate that specific SPMs are temporally and differentially regulated during infections and that they are anti-phlogistic, enhance containment and lower antibiotic requirements for bacterial clearance. PMID:22538616

Chiang, Nan; Fredman, Gabrielle; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Oh, Sungwhan F; Vickery, Thad; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Serhan, Charles N

2012-04-26

322

Assessment of tennis elbow using the Marcy Wedge-Pro.  

PubMed Central

The Marcy Wedge-Pro (MWP), a device used in training by tennis players, was employed in the assessment of tennis elbow. The MWP was used to measure the ability of patients to perform wrist extension exercises, since pain resulting from this specific activity is a prominent symptom of the condition. The MWP results were compared with clinical measures and found to identify accurately patients who responded to treatment (P < 0.05). This study illustrates the potential of the MWP to assess tennis elbow quantitatively. Images Figure 1 PMID:8130959

Smith, R W; Mani, R; Cawley, M I; Englisch, W; Eckenberger, P

1993-01-01

323

HardCopy Pro 3.0.11  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HardCopyPro is a screen-capture tool, but it has some nice bells and whistles that make it worth a closer look. Visitors can use the tabbed dialog box interface to pick images or even capture images at set time intervals. Also, users can preset the program to capture a certain rectangle, window, full screen, or even the window located under the mouse cursor. This version is free for 30 days, and it is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

324

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

2001-01-01

325

pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API  

E-print Network

pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO

326

The association of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide with mortality in an incident dialysis cohort.  

PubMed

High levels of the plasma peptides mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) are associated with clinical outcomes in the general population. Data in patients with chronic kidney disease are sparse. We therefore investigated the association of MR-proANP and MR-proADM levels with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, CV events and peripheral arterial disease in 201 incident dialysis patients of the INVOR-Study prospectively followed for a period of up to more than 7 years. The overall mortality rate was 43%, thereof 43% due to CV events. Both baseline MR-proANP and MR-proADM were associated with higher risk of all-cause (HR?=?1.44, p?=?0.001 and HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.002, respectively) and CV mortality (HR?=?1.75, p<0.001 and HR?=?1.41, p?=?0.007, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex, previous CV events, diabetes mellitus and time-dependent type of renal replacement therapy. We then stratified patients in high risk (both peptides in the upper tertile), intermediate risk (only one of the two peptides in the upper tertile) and low risk (none in the upper tertile). Although demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were similar among the intermediate and high risk group, to be with both parameters in the upper tertile was associated with a 3-fold higher risk for all-cause (HR?=?2.87, p<0.001) and CV mortality (HR?=?3.58, p?=?0.001). In summary, among incident dialysis patients MR-proANP and MR-proADM were shown to be associated with all-cause and CV mortality, with the highest risk when both parameters were in the upper tertiles. PMID:21408188

Gouya, Ghazaleh; Sturm, Gisela; Lamina, Claudia; Zitt, Emanuel; Freistätter, Otto; Struck, Joachim; Wolzt, Michael; Knoll, Florian; Lins, Friederike; Lhotta, Karl; Neyer, Ulrich; Kronenberg, Florian

2011-01-01

327

NT-proBNP is increased in healthy pregnancies compared to non-pregnant controls.  

PubMed

Serum concentrations of the amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may be used to monitor cardiac function during pregnancy but normal values are not established for this purpose. Therefore, we investigated NT-proBNP in normotensive healthy pregnancies compared to a non-pregnant control group. Serum NT-proBNP was measured in 94 normotensive, healthy pregnant women (32+/-6 years) every five weeks beginning from 12th gestational week (GW) in a longitudinal study and compared to a non-pregnant control group of 521 women (32+/-7 years). Pooled median serum NT-proBNP levels (25th; 75th percentile) were significantly higher in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women (56 (33; 95) pg/ml vs. 38 (22; 62) pg/ml (p<0.001)). NT-proBNP increased during pregnancy to 73 (51; 124) pg/ml in the 11+6 to 15+6 GW (p<0.001). However, NT-proBNP levels from 23+0 GW towards term were comparable to non-pregnant controls. NT-proBNP is significantly elevated in healthy pregnancies until mid-pregnancy. As preeclampsia and gestational hypertension are associated with increased NT-proBNP, our results have to be considered in future diagnostic approaches using NT-proBNP for these pathologic conditions. PMID:19096946

Franz, Maximilian B; Andreas, Martin; Schiessl, Barbara; Zeisler, Harald; Neubauer, Anna; Kastl, Stefan P; Hess, Georg; Rhomberg, Franziska; Zdunek, Dietmar; Maurer, Gerald; Schlembach, Dietmar; Heinze, Georg; Szekeres, Thomas; Gottsauner-Wolf, Michael

2009-01-01

328

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS AS A PRO-FIBROTIC STIUMULUS  

PubMed Central

Current evidence suggests a prominent role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in fibrotic conditions affecting a number of internal organs, including the lungs, liver, GI tract, kidney, and heart. ER stress enhances the susceptibility of structural cells, in most cases the epithelium, to pro-fibrotic stimuli. Studies suggest that ER stress facilitates fibrotic remodeling through activation of pro-apoptotic pathways, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and promotion of inflammatory responses. While genetic mutations that lead to ER stress underlie some cases of fibrosis, including lung fibrosis secondary to mutations in surfactant protein C (SFTPC), a variety of other factors can cause ER stress. These ER stress inducing factors include metabolic abnormalities, oxidative stress, viruses, and environmental exposures. Interestingly, the ability of the ER to maintain homeostasis under stress diminishes with age, potentially contributing to the fact that fibrotic disorders increase in incidence with aging. Taken together, underlying ER stress and UPR pathways are emerging as important determinants of fibrotic remodeling in different forms of tissue fibrosis. Further work is needed to better define the mechanisms by which ER stress facilitates progressive tissue fibrosis. In addition, it remains to be seen whether targeting ER stress and the UPR could have therapeutic benefit. PMID:23201247

Tanjore, Harikrishna; Lawson, William E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

329

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).

Lorenzini, Enrico C.

2002-01-01

330

N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in children with vagus nerve stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) and the N-terminal probrainnatriuretic peptide (NTproBNP)are important cardiacbiomarkers secreted\\u000a by the heart inresponse to increased ventricularwall stress associated with heartfailure. The aim of our case serieswas to\\u000a prospectively evaluate theinfluence of vagus nerve stimulation(VNS) on the release of NTproBNP.Three children with medicallyrefractory\\u000a epilepsy andscheduled for implantation of theVNS device were included. Pre-implantation,NT-proBNP measurementswere taken at\\u000a two differentoccasions

Markus Rauchenzauner; Edda Haberlandt; Martin Ortler; Tobias Tatarczyk; Markus Laimer; Eugen Trinka; Gerhard Luef

2008-01-01

331

IUE observations of proto-planetary and variable planetary nebulae. I - V1016 Cygni, HM Sagittae, and HBV 475. II - A search for variability in IC 4997 and NGC 6905  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IUE satellite has undertaken UV observations of the proto-planetary nebulae V1016 Cyg, HM Sge, and HBV 475, yielding emission line fluxes, line ratios, line profiles, electron densities, and distances from these objects. While levels of increasing excitation and ionization as a function of time are shown by the data for the first two nebulae, the trend for HBV 475 is found to lead in the opposite direction. The formation of a shell is suggested by dramatic changes in the HM Sge UV line profiles over the last four years, including the disappearance of W-R features and the incipient splitting of the semi-forbidden C III 1909 A line. An additional IUE search for UV variability in the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 6905 has yielded emission line fluxes, line ratios and profiles, and central star temperatures, as well as stratification effects data for several ions in NGC 6905

Feibelman, W. A.

1982-01-01

332

Simulation of the water balance in the Elbe River basin using weather forecast data - A comparison of the hydrological models SWIM and HBV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecohydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) is applied to the German part of the Elbe River basin since 2012 on a semi-operational basis. In this context, semi-operational means that soil water balance, plant growth and runoff is simulated continuously on different spatial scales, using measured meteorological data of the previous day. In order to extend the prediction range and to include the Czech part of the river basin, we implement weather forecast data from the Global Forecast System (GFS), which is available for the years 2012-2014. At the same time we conduct simulations with the hydrological model HBV using the same input data. The consistency of the data allows a comparison of the results, which fosters the evaluation of the models and helps to improve their deficits. Initially, the calibration of both models is carried out with weather data of the last decade from the German weather service (DWD). Different parameter sets are tested and compared; uncertainties of the simulations can be shown. The validity of the results indicates the strength and weaknesses of each model and therefore determines its predictive capacity. A successful calibration and validation of the models is the basis for simulations with GFS-data of the previous two years and the prospective use of the model system for short (day)- to medium-term (week) predictions of high- and low water, of the soil water balance and of the agricultural plant growth in the Elbe river basin.

Roers, Michael; Vetter, Tobias; Hoffmann, Peter; Wechsung, Frank

2014-05-01

333

Low-dose tenofovir is more potent than adefovir and is effective in controlling HBV viremia in chronic HBeAg-negative hepatitis B  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) at low dose in a small open trial of chronic hepatitis B patients with advanced stage disease. METHODS: Eleven patients were treated with TDF 75 mg for a median period of 80 (range, 24-576) wk and then 7 cases were shifted to an adefovir 10 mg treatment group. All patients had been pre-treated with lamivudine: 5 had YMDD resistant mutants and 6 wild-type virus. When TDF was started, 4 patients had low-level viremia and 6 were PCR-negative. RESULTS: During TDF treatment, PCR remained negative in 10 patients, transaminase levels were normal and no significant viral breakthrough was observed. The drug was well tolerated in all cases. When TDF 75 mg was substituted with adefovir 10 mg, 3 out of 7 patients had a persistent viral rebound (2700-130?000 copies/mL), in whom lamivudine had to be reintroduced. CONCLUSION: Low-dose TDF monotherapy can control HBV viremia for an extended period of time without the emergence of resistance and is more potent than adefovir at the standard dosage. The use of a reduced dose of TDF could diminish the cost of therapy in low-income countries, but further studies in a larger population and in HBeAg-positive subjects are needed. PMID:17696228

Poggio, Paolo Del; Zaccanelli, Maurizio; Oggionni, Maria; Colombo, Silvia; Jamoletti, Carlo; Puhalo, Vesna

2007-01-01

334

Antihypertensive effect of enzymatic hydrolysate of collagen and Gly-Pro in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Continuous oral feeding of enzymatic hydrolysate of porcine skin collagen showed an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We isolated an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide, Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Pro (IC(50)=91 microM), from the hydrolysate, but the ACE inhibitory activities of the other peptides isolated were weak. Although the ACE inhibitory activity of Gly-Pro (IC(50)=360 microM) was not potent, Gly-Pro exists in collagen as a large number of repeated sequences. We then examined the antihypertensive effect of Gly-Pro. Orally administered Gly-Pro at 500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood pressure of SHRs, and at 50 mg/kg it also showed a tendency to lower the blood pressure. Oral administration of Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Pro (10 or 30 mg/kg) also decreased the blood pressure of SHRs. PMID:19809172

Ichimura, Toshiaki; Yamanaka, Akiko; Otsuka, Tatsuro; Yamashita, Eiichi; Maruyama, Susumu

2009-10-01

335

Synthesis and backbone conformations of cyclic hexapeptides cyclo-(Xxx-Pro-D-Gln)2.  

PubMed

The solution syntheses of cyclo-(Xxx-Pro-D-Gln)2, where Xxx = Gly, Ala, Leu, Phe and Val are described. Several routes were examined, the most successful involving the intermediate Z-Xxx-Pro-D-Gln-O-tBu and proceeding to cyclization of H-Xxx-Pro-D-Gln-Xxx-Pro-D-Gln-OH using diphenylphosphoryl azide. The N--H regions of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of aqueous solutions of these peptides were examined, and in the Xxx = Leu and Val peptides an unsymmetrical backbone, presumably with one cis Xxx-Pro peptide bond, was found to be important. Previous reports of cyclo-(Xxx-Pro-D-Yyy)2 peptides have shown only C2-symmetric forms. PMID:6853028

Kopple, K D; Parameswaran, K N

1983-03-01

336

The pro-migratory and pro-invasive role of the procoagulant tissue factor in malignant gliomas  

PubMed Central

During the infiltration process, glioma cells are known to migrate along preexisting anatomical structures such as blood vessels, axonal fiber tracts and the subependymal space, thereby widely invading surrounding CNS tissue. This phenomenon represents a major obstacle for the clinical treatment of these tumors. Several extracellular key factors and intracellular signaling pathways have been previously linked to the highly aggressive, invasive phenotype observed in malignant gliomas. The glioblastoma (GBM), which is the most malignant form of these tumors, is histologically characterized by areas of tumor necroses and pseudopalisading cells, the latter likely representing tumor cells actively migrating away from the hypoxic- ischemic core of the tumor. It is believed that intravascular thromboses play a major role in the emergence of hypoxia and intratumoral necroses in GBMs. One of the most highly upregulated prothrombotic factor in malignant gliomas is tissue factor (TF), a 47 kDa type I transmembrane protein belonging to the cytokine receptor superfamily. In a recent study, we provided evidence that TF/FVIIa signaling via the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) promotes cell growth, migration and invasion of glioma cells. In this Commentary & View, we outline the key molecular players involved in migration and invasion of gliomas, highlight the potential role of TF for the pro-migratory and pro-invasive phenotype of these tumors and discuss the underlying mechanisms on the cellular level and in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:20595809

Dützmann, Stephan; Gessler, Florian; Harter, Patrick N; Gerlach, Rüdiger; Mittelbronn, Michel; Seifert, Volker

2010-01-01

337

Low Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels Predict Benign Clinical Outcome in Acute Pulmonary Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The role of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) for the prediction of clinical outcome has not been examined in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and Results—ProBNP levels were measured in 73 patients with acute PE within 4 hours of admission. Adverse clinical outcome was defined as in-hospital death or the need for at least 1 of the following: cardiopulmonary

Nils Kucher; Gert Printzen; Tanja Doernhoefer; Stephan Windecker; Bernhard Meier; Otto Martin Hess

2011-01-01

338

ProFunc: a server for predicting protein function from 3D structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProFunc (http:\\/\\/www.ebi.ac.uk\\/thornton-srv\\/data- bases\\/ProFunc) is a web server for predicting the likely function of proteins whose 3D structure is known but whose function is not. Users submit the coordinates of their structure to the server in PDB format. ProFunc makes use of both existing and novel methods to analyse the protein's sequence and structure identifying functional motifs or close relationships to

Roman A. Laskowski; James D. Watson; Janet M. Thornton

2005-01-01

339

The InterPro Database, 2003 brings increased coverage and new features  

Microsoft Academic Search

InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one compre- hensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually inte- grated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in

Nicola J. Mulder; Rolf Apweiler; Terri K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Daniel Barrell; Alex Bateman; David Binns; Margaret Biswas; Paul Bradley; Peer Bork; Philipp Bucher; Richard R. Copley; Emmanuel Courcelle; Ujjwal Das; Richard Durbin; Laurent Falquet; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Sam Griffiths-jones; Daniel H. Haft; Nicola Harte; Nicolas Hulo; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Maria Krestyaninova; Rodrigo Lopez; Ivica Letunic; David Lonsdale; Ville Silventoinen; Sandra E. Orchard; Marco Pagni; David Peyruc; Chris P. Ponting; Jeremy D. Selengut; Florence Servant; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Robert Vaughan; Evgeni M. Zdobnov

2003-01-01

340

The InterPro database, an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signature databases are vital tools for identifying distant relationships in novel sequences and hence for inferring protein function. InterPro is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which amalgamates the efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Each InterPro entry includes a functional description, annotation, literature references and links back to the relevant

Rolf Apweiler; Terri K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; Ewan Birney; Margaret Biswas; Philipp Bucher; Lorenzo Cerutti; Florence Corpet; Michael D. R. Croning; Richard Durbin; Laurent Falquet; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Jérôme Gouzy; Henning Hermjakob; Nicolas Hulo; Inge Jonassen; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Youla Karavidopoulou; Rodrigo Lopez; Beate Marx; Nicola J. Mulder; Thomas M. Oinn; Marco Pagni; Florence Servant; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Evgeni M. Zdobnov

2001-01-01

341

The VolumePro real-time ray-casting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes VolumePro, the world's first single-chip real- time volume rendering system for consumer PCs. VolumePro im- plements ray-casting with parallel slice-by-slice processing. Our discussion of the architecture focuses mainly on the rendering pipeline and the memory organization. VolumePro has hardware for gradient estimation, classification, and per-sample Phong illu- mination. The system does not perform any pre-processing and makes

Hanspeter Pfister; Jan Hardenbergh; Jim Knittel; Hugh C. Lauer; Larry Seiler

1999-01-01

342

Cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase A3 (proPOA3) from Culex pipiens pallens  

PubMed Central

The prophenoloxidase subunit A3 (proPOA3) gene was cloned from Culex pipiens pallens, which had an open reading frame of 2,061 bp encoding a putative 686 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% with proPOA3 from Cx. quinquefasciatus. ProPOA3 is expressed at all developmental stages of Cx. pipiens pallens. Significant negative correlation was observed between proPOA3 expression and deltamethrin resistance in resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. Furthermore, proPOA3 expression levels were significantly lower in deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes collected at four locations in Eastern China. However, we did not find any substantial change in proPOA3 expression in field-collected resistant Anopheles mosquitoes. Moreover, overexpressing proPOA3 in C6/36 cells led to more sensitivity to deltamethrin treatment. In laboratory and field-collected resistant Cx. pipiens pallens, a valine to isoleucine mutation (769G>A) and two synonymous mutations (1116G>C and 1116G>A) were identified in proPOA3. In addition, the mutation frequency of 769G>A and 1116G>C increased gradually, which corresponded with raised deltamethrin resistance levels. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that proPOA3 may play a role in the regulation of deltamethrin-resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens. PMID:22561195

Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Hao, Shunhua; Chen, Lin; Xiong, Chunrong; Ma, Lei; Zhang, Donghui; Hong, Shanchao; Shi, Linna; Gong, Maoqing; Zhou, Huayun; Yu, Xinyou; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

2012-01-01

343

Pro-oxidative, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of uranyl ions.  

PubMed

It is demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide are formed under the action of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions containing no reducing agents. In the presence of uranyl ions, formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA and long-lived protein radicals are observed in vitro. It is shown that the pro-oxidant properties of uranyl at micromolar concentrations mostly result from the physico-chemical nature of the compound rather than its radioactive decay. Uranyl ions lead to damage in DNA and proteins causing death of HEp-2 cells by necrotic pathway. It is revealed that the uranyl ions enhance radiation-induced oxidative stress and significantly increase a death rate of mice exposed to sublethal doses of X-rays. PMID:23312590

Garmash, S A; Smirnova, V S; Karp, O E; Usacheva, A M; Berezhnov, A V; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Bruskov, V I; Gudkov, S V

2014-01-01

344

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Final Report covers the following main topics: 1) Brief Description of ProSEDS; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Dynamics Stability; 5) Deployment Control; 6) Updated System Performance; 7) Updated Mission Analysis; 8) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 9) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 10) Updated Reference Mission; 11) Evaluation of Power Delivered by the Tether; 12) Deployment Control Profile Ref. #78 and Simulations; 13) Kalman Filters for Mission Estimation; 14) Analysis/Estimation of Deployment Flight Data; 15) Comparison of ED Tethers and Electrical Thrusters; 16) Dynamics Analysis for Mission Starting at a Lower Altitude; 17) Deployment Performance at a Lower Altitude; 18) Satellite Orbit after a Tether Cut; 19) Deployment with Shorter Dyneema Tether Length; 20) Interactive Software for ED Tethers.

Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Estes, Robert D.; Sanmartin, Juan; Pelaez, Jesus; Ruiz, Manuel

2003-01-01

345

Aberrant BAF57 Signaling Facilitates Pro-metastatic Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Purpose BAF57, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex conglomerate, modulates androgen receptor (AR) activity to promote prostate cancer (PCa). However, the molecular consequences of tumor-associated BAF57 expression have remained undefined in advanced disease such as castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and/or metastasis. Experimental Design Clinical human specimens of primary and metastatic PCa were immunohistochemically examined for tumor-grade association of BAF57 expression. Global gene expression analyses were performed in models mimicking tumor-associated BAF57 expression. Aberrant BAF57-dependent gene expression changes, bypass of androgen mediated signaling and chromatin specific SWI/SNF complex alterations with respect to cytoskeletal remodelers like integrins were validated. Cell migration assays were used to profile the biological phenotypes conferred under conditions simulating tumor-derived BAF57 expression. Results Immunohistochemical quantitation of primary human specimens revealed that BAF57 was significantly and aberrantly elevated as a function of tumor grade. Critically, gene expression analyses demonstrated that BAF57 deregulation circumvented androgen mediated signaling, elicited ?2 integrin upregulation and altered other SWI/SNF complex components at the ?2 integrin locus. BAF57-dependent ?2 integrin induction conferred a pro-metastatic migratory advantage, which was attenuated by anti-?2 integrin antibody blockade. Furthermore, BAF57 was found to be markedly overexpressed in human PCa metastases of the lung, lymph node and dura. Conclusion The findings herein, identifying tumor-associated BAF57 perturbation as a means to bypass androgen signaling events that facilitate novel pro-metastatic phenotypes, link BAF57 upregulation to tumor dissemination. These data thereby establish BAF57 as a putative marker of metastatic potential that could be leveraged for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23493350

Balasubramaniam, Sucharitha; Comstock, Clay E.S.; Ertel, Adam; Jeong, Kwang Won; Stallcup, Michael R.; Addya, Sankar; McCue, Peter A.; Ostrander, William F.; Augello, Michael A.; Knudsen, Karen E.

2013-01-01

346

Molecular and Structural Insight into proNGF Engagement of p75NTR and Sortilin  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor is initially synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, which is cleaved to release its C-terminal mature form. Recent studies suggest that proNGF is not an inactive precursor, but acts as a signaling ligand distinct from its mature counterpart. Pro- and mature NGF initiate opposing biological responses by utilizing both distinct and shared receptor components. Here, we carry out a structural and biochemical characterization of proNGF interactions with p75NTR and sortilin. We have crystallized proNGF complexed to p75NTR, and present the structure at 3.75 Å resolution. The structure reveals a 2:2 symmetric binding mode, as compared to the asymmetric structure of a previously reported crystal structure of mature NGF complexed to p75NTR, and the 2:2 symmetric complex of Neurotrophin-3 and p75NTR. Here we discuss the possible origins and implications of the different stoichiometries. In the proNGF/p75NTR complex, the pro regions of proNGF are mostly disordered, and two hairpin loops (L2) at the top of NGF dimer have undergone conformational changes in comparison to mature neurotrophin structures, suggesting possible interactions with the pro-peptide. We further explore the binding characteristics of proNGF to sortilin using surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays, and determine that calcium ions promote the formation of a stable ternary complex of proNGF/sortilin/p75NTR. These results, together with previous structural and mechanistic studies of neurotrophin-receptor interactions, suggest the potential for distinct signaling activities through p75NTR mediated by different neurotrophin-induced conformational changes. PMID:20036257

Feng, Dan; Kim, Taeho; Ozkan, Engin; Light, Matthew; Torkin, Risa; Teng, Kenneth K.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

2010-01-01

347

New strategy for specific activation of recombinant microbial pro-transglutaminase by introducing an enterokinase cleavage site.  

PubMed

Recombinant microbial transglutaminase (rMTG) is usually expressed as a soluble zymogen (pro-rMTG) in heterologous expression systems but proteolytic activation of the inactive pro-rMTG is essential. Instead of screening proteases for activating pro-rMTG, we examined an alternative method by introducing a specific cleavage site of enterokinase between the pro-peptide and mature rMTG, generating three pro-rMTG variants (Pro-mrMTG, Pro-m-rMTG and mPro-rMTG). Pro-mrMTG and Pro-m-rMTG were activated by enterokinase without degrading mature rMTG. The activation productivity of Pro-m-rMTG by enterokinase reached 92 % after 22 h activation, while the activation productivity of Pro-rMTG activated by trypsin was 47 %. MALDI-MS analysis revealed that the pro-peptide including the cleavage site was specifically removed from Pro-m-rMTG after activation. This methodology has the potential to be applied in rMTG production by incorporating highly specific cleavage sites of other proteases. PMID:23143177

Wang, Kun; Wang, Bin; Yang, Hui-Lin; Pan, Li

2013-03-01

348

Role of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature BDNF conversion in activity-dependent competition at developing neuromuscular synapses  

PubMed Central

Formation of specific neuronal connections often involves competition between adjacent axons, leading to stabilization of the active terminal, while retraction of the less active ones. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We show that activity-dependent conversion of pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) to mature (m)BDNF mediates synaptic competition. Stimulation of motoneurons triggers proteolytic conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF at nerve terminals. In Xenopus nerve–muscle cocultures, in which two motoneurons innervate one myocyte, proBDNF-p75NTR signaling promotes retraction of the less active terminal, whereas mBDNF–tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor) facilitates stabilization of the active one. Thus, proBDNF and mBDNF may serve as potential “punishment” and “reward” signals for inactive and active terminals, respectively, and activity-dependent conversion of proBDNF to mBDNF may regulate synapse elimination. PMID:23019376

Je, H. Shawn; Yang, Feng; Ji, Yuanyuan; Nagappan, Guhan; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Lu, Bai

2012-01-01

349

Increased proNGF levels in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the regulation, differentiation, and survival of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that degenerate in the late stage of Alzheimer disease (AD). The precursor of NGF (proNGF) is the predominant form of NGF in brain and is increased in end stage AD. To determine whether this increase in proNGF is an early or late change during the progression of cognitive decline, we used Western blotting to measure the relative amounts of proNGF protein in the parietal cortex from subjects clinically classified with no cognitive impairment (NCI; n = 20), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 20), or mild to moderate AD (n = 19). We found that proNGF increased during the prodromal stage of AD. The amount of proNGF protein was 1.4-fold greater in the MCI group as compared to NCI, and was 1.6-fold greater in mild-moderate AD as compared to NCI, similar to our previous findings of a 2-fold increase in end stage AD. There was a negative correlation between proNGF levels and Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, demonstrating that the accumulation of proNGF is correlated with loss of cognitive function. These findings demonstrate that proNGF levels increase during the preclinical stage of AD and may reflect an early biological marker for the onset of AD. PMID:15217092

Peng, Shiyong; Wuu, Joanne; Mufson, Elliott J; Fahnestock, Margaret

2004-06-01

350

Existence of nongeometric pro-p Galois sections of hyperbolic curves  

E-print Network

RIMS-1689 Existence of nongeometric pro-p Galois sections of hyperbolic curves By Yuichiro HOSHI OF NONGEOMETRIC PRO-P GALOIS SECTIONS OF HYPERBOLIC CURVES YUICHIRO HOSHI JANUARY 2010 Abstract. In the present) 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 14H30. 1 #12;2 YUICHIRO HOSHI for the quotient of 1(X, x

351

17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity...Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-9 Use of pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other...

2010-04-01

352

VERs, Quid Pro Quo DFI and VIEs: Political-Economy-Theoretic Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses three different phenomena: VERs, their causes and consequences; Quid Pro Quo direct foreign investment; and VIEs. Quid Pro Quo direct foreign investment relates to investment that is undertaken in one period to influence the probability of protection being imposed in the next period. VIEs are “voluntary import expansions” which define quantity outcomes in the domestic markets of

Jagdish N. Bhagwati

1987-01-01

353

Technology and Early Braille Literacy: Using the Mountbat­ ten Pro Brailler in Primary-grade Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the Early Braille Readers Project, which pro­ vided a Mountbatten Pro Brailler and peripheral equipment to 20 kindergarteners, first-, and second graders in Texas. The project included training and support in the form of site visits and teacher training for both teachers of students with vi­ sual impairments and classroom teachers, group workshops, and an electronic discussion

Holly L. Cooper; Sharon K. Nichols

354

The versatile GPS Pathfinder Pro XRS receiver is the thoroughbred of GPS  

E-print Network

The versatile GPS Pathfinder® Pro XRS receiver is the thoroughbred of GPS receivers. Offering a full range of accurate real-time correction sources, great performance in all GPS conditions and maintaining GPS data. Built to meet your demands With the Pro XRS receiver, you don't have to worry whether

Gilbes, Fernando

355

Strabismus surgery in a patient with a Boston K-pro keratoprosthesis.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 33-year-old woman with sensory exotropia who developed diplopia following implantation of a Boston K-pro keratoprosthesis. She underwent uneventful, successful strabismus surgery with recovery of stereopsis. To the best of our knowledge, surgical treatment of diplopia related to sensory exotropia in a K-pro patient has not been previously reported. PMID:22981669

Chen, Jessica Low; Shen, Tueng T; Brady, Jennifer; Herlihy, Erin P

2012-10-01

356

Japan turns pro-life: recent change in reproductive health policy and challenges by new technologies  

PubMed Central

Japan, known as a pro-choice country in terms of abortion, is currently facing the increase of “selective abortions” thanks to new prenatal screening. Efforts to restrict proliferation of new technology has not been successful and it is likely that Japan will turn pro-life by strictly enforcing the Maternity Protection Act (MPA), which prohibits abortions due to “fetal cause”. PMID:24639978

Okamoto, Etsuji

2014-01-01

357

Procedure for Electroblotting onto ProBlott Membranes for Sequencing Problott Membrane: Applied Biosystems  

E-print Network

Coomassie brilliant blue or Ponceau S. Procedure for Coomassie Blue Staining 1. Remove ProBlott membrane% MeOH for a few seconds. Stain the ProBlott membrane with 0.1% Coomassie Blue R-250 in 40% MeOH/ 1

Mecham, Robert

358

E2GK-pro: An Evidential Evolving Multimodeling Approach for Systems Behavior Prediction  

E-print Network

E2GK-pro: An Evidential Evolving Multimodeling Approach for Systems Behavior Prediction Lisa Serir and the as- sessment of the global model. In particular, the algorithm called E2GK-pro relies on an online procedure based on the Evidential Evolving Gustafsson-Kessel (E2GK) algo- rithm that ensures an evolving

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

http://itdi.pro/blog/2014/01/31/grammar-issue-adam/ Grammar Issue Adam  

E-print Network

http://itdi.pro/blog/2014/01/31/grammar-issue-adam/ Grammar Issue ­ Adam By Adam Simpson ­ January 31, 2014 You're teaching EAP? Forget most of what you know about grammar (kind of!) ­ Adam Simpson overview: #12;http://itdi.pro/blog/2014/01/31/grammar-issue-adam/ Displaying familiarity with a concept So

Yanikoglu, Berrin

360

Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

Lau, Chui Shan

2011-01-01

361

Time and Energy Pro ling in Production Sensor Networks with Quanto  

E-print Network

Time and Energy Pro ling in Production Sensor Networks with Quanto Basil Crow Department to production sensor networks alike. Introduction Energy is a scarce resource in battery-operated embedded [ ]. To make matters worse, the infrastructure for time and energy pro ling in production sensor networks

Fonseca, Rodrigo

362

Deployment Mechanism Design with Behavioral Modeling Based on Pro/Engineer Motion Skeleton  

E-print Network

Deployment Mechanism Design with Behavioral Modeling Based on Pro/Engineer Motion Skeleton Chao.com.cn Keywords: Deployment mechanism, Motion skeleton, Behavioral modeling, Feasibility analysis Abstract. A novel method using motion skeleton and behavioral modeling in Pro/Engineer to design a motion mechanism

363

Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

2011-01-01

364

8/16/2005 Data Logger Help.ihf 1 Data Logger for Igor Pro  

E-print Network

must make a compromise between size of the data file and chances of recording a transient event://www.umn.edu/~withe012). For Igor Pro 5.03. · Overview Data Logger for Igor Pro is designed to display and record data simple parameters to decide whether data should be recorded. In this way, interesting events are recorded

Chikamoto, Megumi

365

Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

Lackstrom, John Edwin

366

ProNGF Induces p75-Mediated Death of Oligodendrocytes following Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Summary The neurotrophin receptor p75 is induced by various injuries to the nervous system, but its role after injury has remained unclear. Here, we report that p75 is required for the death of oligodendrocytes following spinal cord injury, and its action is mediated mainly by proNGF. Oligodendrocytes undergoing apoptosis expressed p75, and the absence of p75 resulted in a decrease in the number of apoptotic oligodendrocytes and increased survival of oligodendrocytes. ProNGF is likely responsible for activating p75 in vivo, since the proNGF from the injured spinal cord induced apoptosis among p75+/+, but not among p75-/-, oligodendrocytes in culture, and its action was blocked by proNGF-specific antibody. Together, these data suggest that the role of proNGF is to eliminate damaged cells by activating the apoptotic machinery of p75 after injury. PMID:12408842

Beattie, Michael S.; Harrington, Anthony W.; Lee, Ramee; Kim, Ju Young; Boyce, Sheri L.; Longo, Frank M.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Yoon, Sung Ok

2009-01-01

367

Dual-Targeting Pro-apoptotic Peptide for Programmed Cancer Cell Death via Specific Mitochondria Damage  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are vital organelles to eukaryotic cells. Damage to mitochondria will cause irreversible cell death or apoptosis. In this report, we aim at programmed cancer cell death via specific mitochondrial damage. Herein, a functionalized pro-apoptotic peptide demonstrates a dual-targeting capability using folic acid (FA) (targeting agent I) and triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation (targeting agent II). FA is a cancer-targeting agent, which can increase the cellular uptake of the pro-apoptotic peptide via receptor-mediated endocytosis. And the TPP cation is the mitochondrial targeting agent, which specifically delivers the pro-apoptotic peptide to its particular subcellular mitochondria after internalized by cancer cells. Then the pro-apoptotic peptide accumulates in mitochondria and causes its serious damage. This dual-targeting strategy has the potential to effectively transport the pro-apoptotic peptide to targeted cancer cell mitochondria, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and triggering the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis to efficiently eliminate cancer cells. PMID:24336626

Chen, Wei-Hai; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Luo, Guo-Feng; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Lei, Qi; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

2013-01-01

368

Diagnostic Values of Plasma, Fresh and Frozen Urine NT-proBNP in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The plasma N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level is an important diagnostic and prognostic marker of heart failure. Recent studies have suggested urinary NT-proBNP as a new and simple test for diagnosis of heart failure. We aim to compare diagnostic value of plasma, fresh and frozen urine levels of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for detecting heart failure. Methods: Between January 2010 and January 2012, we measured urine and plasma levels of NTproBNP in 98 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Results: There were significant correlations between plasma NT-proBNP and fresh (r=0.45, p<0.001) and frozen (r=0.42, p<0.001) urine NT-proBNP concentrations in CHF patients. Due to receiver operating curve analysis, fresh and frozen urine NT-proBNP could diagnose HF with are aunder curve (AUC) of 0.73±0.04 (p<0.001) and 0.65±0.05 (p=0.01) with sensitivity and specificity of 73.97%, 58.62%, and 65.31%, 62.07%, for a cut-off of 94.2 and 96 pg/mL, respectively. Plasma NT-proBNP had greater AUC (0.94±0.02, p<0.001) and better sensitivity and specificity (94.9%, 89.66% for cut-off of 414.5 pg/mL). There was no significant correlation between LVEF and plasma, fresh and frozen urine NT-proBNP levels in CHF patients. Conclusion: Plasma NT-proBNP is still the best diagnostic marker with high sensitivity and specificity; however, urinary especially fresh urine NT-proBNP may be a surrogate to plasma NTproBNP for diagnosing HF with acceptable accuracy. PMID:25031827

Toufan, Mehrnoush; Namdar, Hossein; Abbasnezhad, Mohsen; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Esmaeili, Heidarali; Yaraghi, Saeid; Samani, Zhila

2014-01-01

369

Pro-Inflammatory and Pro-Oxidant Status of Pancreatic Islet In Vitro Is Controlled by TLR-4 and HO-1 Pathways  

PubMed Central

Since their isolation until implantation, pancreatic islets suffer a major stress leading to the activation of inflammatory reactions. The maintenance of controlled inflammation is essential to preserve survival and function of the graft. Identification and targeting of pathway(s) implicated in post-transplant detrimental inflammatory events, is mandatory to improve islet transplantation success. We sought to characterize the expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediators during islet culture with a focus on Heme oxygenase (HO-1) and Toll-like receptors-4 signaling pathways. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated and pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status were evaluated after 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours of culture through TLR-4, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, CCL-2 and IL-6 secretion, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production (Dihydroethidine staining, DHE) and macrophages migration. To identify the therapeutic target, TLR4 inhibition (CLI-095) and HO-1 activation (cobalt protoporphyrin,CoPP) was performed. Activation of NF?B signaling pathway was also investigated. After isolation and during culture, pancreatic islet exhibited a proinflammatory and prooxidant status (increase levels of TLR-4, COX-2, CCL-2, IL-6, and ROS). Activation of HO-1 or inhibition of TLR-4 decreased inflammatory status and oxidative stress of islets. Moreover, the overexpression of HO-1 induced NF?B phosphorylation while the inhibition of TLR-4 had no effect NF?B activation. Finally, inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathway induced a reduction of macrophages migration. These data demonstrated that the TLR-4 signaling pathway is implicated in early inflammatory events leading to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status of islets in vitro. Moreover, these results provide the mechanism whereby the benefits of HO-1 target in TLR-4 signaling pathway. HO-1 could be then an interesting target to protect islets before transplantation. PMID:25343247

Vivot, Kevin; Langlois, Allan; Bietiger, William; Dal, Stephanie; Seyfritz, Elodie; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard, Elisa; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Sigrist, Severine

2014-01-01

370

Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. Methods. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. Results. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. Conclusions. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries. PMID:21852652

McCandless, Phyra M.; Yerger, Valerie B.

2012-01-01

371

ProSAR: a new methodology for combinatorial library design.  

PubMed

A method is introduced for performing reagent selection for chemical library design based on topological (2D) pharmacophore fingerprints. Optimal reagent selection is achieved by optimizing the Shannon entropy of the 2D pharmacophore distribution for the reagent set. The method, termed ProSAR, is therefore expected to enumerate compounds that could serve as a good starting point for deriving a structure activity relationship (SAR) in combinatorial library design. This methodology is exemplified by library design examples where the active compounds were already known. The results show that most of the pharmacophores on the substituents for the active compounds are covered by the designed library. This strategy is further expanded to include product property profiles for aqueous solubility, hERG risk assessment, etc. in the optimization process so that the reagent pharmacophore diversity and the product property profile are optimized simultaneously via a genetic algorithm. This strategy is applied to a two-dimensional library design example and compared with libraries designed by a diversity based strategy which minimizes the average ensemble Tanimoto similarity. Our results show that by using the PSAR methodology, libraries can be designed with simultaneously good pharmacophore coverage and product property profile. PMID:19434898

Chen, Hongming; Börjesson, Ulf; Engkvist, Ola; Kogej, Thierry; Svensson, Mats A; Blomberg, Niklas; Weigelt, Dirk; Burrows, Jeremy N; Lange, Tim

2009-03-01

372

Grape seed proanthocyanidins induce pro-oxidant toxicity in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a polyphenolic compound with antioxidant properties, may protect against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, its potential toxicity at higher doses is unknown. The authors tested the effects of GSPE on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell survival, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and caspase- 3 activity using chick cardiomyocytes incubated with GSPE at 5, 10, 50, 100, or 500 micrograms/mL in medium for 8 h. Exposure to increasing concentrations of GSPE (100 or 500 micrograms/mL) resulted in an increase in ROS generation and cell death as measured by propidium iodide uptake and LDH release. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased fourfold in cells exposed to GSPE 500 micrograms/ mL compared to controls; this was abolished by the selective caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-Asp-Gln-Thr-Asp-H (50 microM), which also significantly reduced the cell death resulting from GSPE (500 micrograms/mL). The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 100 microM) reduced cell death induced by GSPE (500 micrograms/mL) but failed to attenuate caspase-3 activation. Collectively, the authors conclude that higher doses of GSPE could cause apoptotic cell injury via effector caspase-3 activation and subsequent induction of ROS generation. Consumers may take higher doses of dietary supplements in the belief that natural herbs have no major side effects. This study demonstrates that dosages of GSPE should be optimized to avoid potential harmful pro-oxidant effects. PMID:14734830

Shao, Zuo-Hui; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Xie, Jingtian; Wojcik, Kim; Chan, Kim Chai; Li, Chang-Qing; Hamann, Kimm; Qin, Yimin; Schumacker, Paul T; Becker, Lance B; Yuan, Chun-Su

2003-01-01

373

Pro-apoptotic role of integrin ?3 in glioma cells.  

PubMed

Malignant gliomas are the most destructive type of brain cancer. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of glioma cell death and survival, we previously established an alkylating agent 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU)-resistant variant of C6 rat glioma cells. Proteomic analysis indicated a significant down-regulation of integrin beta 3 (ITGB3) in the BCNU-resistant C6R cells. Re-expression of ITGB3 in C6R cells restored the BCNU sensitivity. In U87MG, U373MG, and T98G human glioma cells, there was a positive correlation between ITGB3 expression and the sensitivity to BCNU and etoposide, suggesting an important role of ITGB3 in glioma cell death. Over-expression of ITGB3 cDNA significantly increased the sensitivity of the human glioma cells to the anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. Nitric oxide showed an additive effect on the anticancer drug-induced glioma cell death by increasing ITGB3 expression. Subsequent dissection of signaling pathways indicated that extracellular signal-regulated kinase and unligated integrin-mediated cell death pathway may be involved in the pro-apoptotic role of ITGB3 in glioma cells. These results implicate ITGB3 in glioma cell death/survival and drug resistance. PMID:21332719

Kim, Jong-Heon; Zheng, Long Tai; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

2011-05-01

374

Your Quick and Easy Guide to the UF Pro3 Series! Effective February 1, 2014 There are three certifications available under the university's Pro3 Series: Fiscal Management, HR/Payroll Management,  

E-print Network

Your Quick and Easy Guide to the UF Pro3 Series! Effective February 1, 2014 There are three in the Workplace PRO307 Problem Solving in the Workplace PRO307 Problem Solving in the Workplace SCS060 Business Communication courses: BCC010 Communication Confidence BCC020 Now Hear This: Listening

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

375

Creating .DXF files from ProE (Wildfire 5.0) for use with ESPRIT CNC Software College of Engineering students and staff should be aware that ProE (Wildfire x.x) is available through the  

E-print Network

1 Creating .DXF files from ProE (Wildfire 5.0) for use with ESPRIT CNC Software College of Engineering students and staff should be aware that ProE (Wildfire x.x) is available through the CITES with older versions of ProE (Wildfire 4.0) are available upon request. Step 1. Verify that you have set

Thomas, Brian G.

376

Longitudinal effects of pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on adolescent smoking susceptibility.  

PubMed

We examined the longitudinal impact of self-reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking, using in-school surveys from a culturally diverse sample. Ethnicity and acculturation also were examined as potential moderators. Middle-school students (N = 2,292) completed self-report questionnaires during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Chi-square analyses were conducted to determine whether reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media varied according to ethnicity, acculturation, and immigration status. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure in 6th grade was associated with susceptibility to smoking by later grades. Recall of people smoking in television programs and pro-tobacco advertisements in stores was associated with adolescent smoking susceptibility. Exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements on television protected against susceptibility. No significant interaction effects between pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure on smoking susceptibility were found. Ethnicity and acculturation did not moderate these associations. Our longitudinal study provides evidence that pro-tobacco media and advertising increases susceptibility to smoking over time. More important, anti-tobacco advertisements are not sufficient to reduce the harmful effects of adolescent exposure to pro-tobacco media. Policy-level interventions such as restrictions in tobacco advertising may be necessary to prevent adolescent smoking. PMID:16801303

Weiss, Jie Wu; Cen, Steven; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson; Mouttapa, Michele; Schreiner, William S; Cruz, Tess Boley

2006-06-01

377

A novel function for proSAAS as an amyloid anti-aggregant in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by an abnormal aggregation of misfolded beta-sheet rich proteins such as ?-amyloid (A?). Various ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperones control the correct folding of cellular proteins and prevent the accumulation of harmful species. We here describe a novel anti-aggregant chaperone function for the neuroendocrine protein proSAAS, an abundant secretory polypeptide that is widely expressed within neural and endocrine tissues and which has previously been associated with neurodegenerative disease in various proteomics studies. In the brains of 12-month-old APdE9 mice, and in the cortex of a human AD-affected brain, proSAAS immunoreactivity was highly colocalized with amyloid pathology. Immunoreactive proSAAS co-immunoprecipitated with A? immunoreactivity in lysates from APdE9 mouse brains. In vitro, proSAAS efficiently prevented the fibrillation of A?(1-42) at molar ratios of 1 : 10, and this anti-aggregation effect was dose dependent. Structure-function studies showed that residues 97-180 were sufficient for the anti-aggregation function against A?. Finally, inclusion of recombinant proSAAS in the medium of Neuro2a cells, as well as lentiviral-mediated proSAAS over-expression, blocked the neurocytotoxic effect of A?(1-42) in Neuro2a cells. Taken together, our results suggest that proSAAS may play a role in Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:24102330

Hoshino, Akina; Helwig, Michael; Rezaei, Sina; Berridge, Casey; Eriksen, Jason L; Lindberg, Iris

2014-02-01

378

Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-?b activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-?B targets and we show that NF-?B is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

Erez, Neta, E-mail: netaerez@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Glanz, Sarah [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Raz, Yael [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel) [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LIS Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Avivi, Camilla [Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)] [Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Barshack, Iris [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel) [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

2013-08-02

379

NT-proBNP changes, oxidative stress, and energy status of hypertrophic myocardium following ischemia\\/reperfusion injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a sensitive functional marker in heart disease, including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to valvular aortic stenosis (AS). We evaluated the association between NT-proBNP changes, oxidative stress, energy status and severity of LVH in patients with AS.Ten patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for AS were studied. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were performed by electroluminescence immunoassay

S. Scolletta; F. Carlucci; B. Biagioli; L. Marchetti; M. Maccherini; G. Carlucci; F. Rosi; M. Salvi; A. Tabucchi

2007-01-01

380

Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary  

SciTech Connect

Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment.

Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1987-08-01

381

Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces  

PubMed Central

Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that existing regulations, dwelling type, households composition and income as well as climate are the major factors determining pro-environmental behaviours. PMID:25013929

Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Belanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

2014-01-01

382

Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Therapy Reduces proNGF and p75 Expression in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Demyelination is prominent in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The receptor p75 and its high affinity ligand proNGF are required for oligodendrocyte death after injury. We hypothesize that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) provide therapeutic benefit in EAE mice by reducing proNGF/p75 expression. PBS or BMSCs (2×10^6) were administered intravenously on the day of EAE onset. Neurological function and demyelination areas were measured. Immunohistochemical staining was used to measure apoptotic oligodendrocytes, expression of proNGF and p75, and the relationship between proNGF and p75 in neural cells. proNGF was used to treat oligodendrocytes in culture with or without BMSCs. EAE mice exhibited neurological function deficit and demyelination, and expression of proNGF and p75 was increased. BMSC treatment improved functional recovery, reduced demyelination area and apoptotic oligodendrocytes, decreased expression of proNGF and p75 compared with PBS treatment. proNGF+ cells colocalized with neural cell markers, while p75 colocalized with an oligodendrocytic marker, and proNGF colocalized with p75. proNGF induced apoptosis of oligodendrocytes in vitro, and p75 antibody blocked this apoptotic activity. BMSCs reduced p75 expression and apoptotic activity in oligodendrocytes with proNGF treatment. BMSC treatment benefits on EAE mice may be fostered by decreasing the cellular expression of proNGF and p75, thereby reducing oligodendrocyte death. PMID:19193386

Zhang, Jing; Brodie, Chaya; Li, Yi; Zheng, Xuguang; Roberts, Cindi; Lu, Mei; Gao, Qi; Borneman, Jade; Savant-Bhonsale, Smita; Elias, Stanton B.; Chopp, Michael

2009-01-01

383

Inhibition of R-Lytic Protease by Pro Region C-Terminal Steric Occlusion of the Active Site  

E-print Network

of the protease. The pro region is also the most potent inhibitor of the protease known with a Ki of 10-10 M the pro region inhibits the mature protease. While proteinaceous protease inhibitors generally function. In vitro experiments show that the RLP pro region has at least two distinct functions: catalyzing protease

Agard, David

384

Salivary testosterone and self-report aggressive and pro-social personality characteristics in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of salivary testosterone and the personality dimensions of aggression and pro- social behavior were obtained in 306 (155 male and 151 female) university students. Each participant provided two samples of saliva and completed ten self-report person- ality scales from multiple inventories. A factor analysis of the personality scales pro- duced two factors, an aggression factor and a pro-social behavior

Julie Aitken Harris; J. Philippe Rushton; Elizabeth Hampson; Douglas N. Jackson

1996-01-01

385

The InterPro database, 2003 brings increased coverage and new features. Nucleic Acids Res  

E-print Network

InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one comprehensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually integrated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in a single format that rationalises the results that would be obtained by searching the member databases individually. The latest release of

Nicola J. Mulder; Rolf Apweiler; Teresa K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Daniel Barrell; Alex Bateman; David Binns; Margaret Biswas; Paul Bradley; Peer Bork; Phillip Bucher; Richard R. Copley; Emmanuel Courcelle; Ujjwal Das; Richard Durbin; Laurent Falquet; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Sam Griffiths-jones; Daniel Haft; Nicola Harte; Nicolas Hulo; Daniel Kahn; Er Kanapin; Maria Krestyaninova; Rodrigo Lopez; Ivica Letunic; David Lonsdale; Ville Silventoinen; Ra E. Orchard; Marco Pagni; David Peyruc; Chris P. Ponting; Jeremy D. Selengut Florence Servant; Evgueni M. Zdobnov

2003-01-01

386

ProMEX - a mass spectral reference database for plant proteomics.  

PubMed

The ProMEX database is one of the main collection of annotated tryptic peptides in plant proteomics. The main objective of the ProMEX database is to provide experimental MS/MS-based information for cell type-specific or sub-cellular proteomes in Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Lotus japonicus, Lotus corniculatus, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Nicotiana tabacum, Glycine max, Zea mays, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Direct links at the protein level to the most relevant databases are present in ProMEX. Furthermore, the spectral sequence information are linked to their respective pathways and can be viewed in pathway maps. PMID:22685450

Wienkoop, Stefanie; Staudinger, Christiana; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Egelhofer, Volker

2012-01-01

387

Paraesophageal hernia repair followed by cardiac tamponade caused by ProTacks.  

PubMed

We describe a case of cardiac tamponade caused by ProTacks Autosuture used for mesh fixation during a laparoscopic Nissen operation with giant paraesophageal hernia repair. Perforations of the posterior descendent artery and epicardial vein of the right ventricle were caused by ProTacks used for Parietex Composite Mesh fixation. Protruding ProTacks were secured from inside the pericardiac sac with a synthetic vascular patch during emergency sternotomy. Quick and multidisciplinary cooperation ended with emergency cardiothoracic procedure saving the patient's life and preventing further damage to the heart muscle and its vessels. PMID:23006720

Makarewicz, Wojciech; Jaworski, ?ukasz; Bobowicz, Maciej; Roszak, Krzysztof; Jaroszewicz, Krzysztof; Rogowski, Jan; Jastrz?bski, Tomasz; Ja?kiewicz, Janusz

2012-10-01

388

Biosynthesis of amidated joining peptide from pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin  

SciTech Connect

Joining peptide is the major alpha-amidated product of pro-ACTH/endorphin (PAE) in AtT-20 corticotropic tumor cells. To study intracellular joining peptide synthesis, affinity purified antibodies directed against gamma-MSH, joining peptide, and ACTH were used to immunoprecipitate extracts from biosynthetically labeled AtT-20 cells. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tryptic peptide mapping on HPLC. In steady labeling experiments, radioactivity in amidated joining peptide (JP) increased roughly linearly with time, in the manner of a final product, whereas radioactivity associated with PAE (1-94)NH2 reached a constant value after 2-4 h, indicating that PAE(1-94)NH2 is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of JP. Radioactivity appeared in ACTH(1-39) well before JP, consistent with a cleavage order in which ACTH is cleaved from PAE(1-95) before JP sequences are cleaved from PAE(1-74). This conclusion was supported by tryptic peptide analyses of immunoprecipitates, which indicated that less than 5% of JP-related material is cleaved from PAE(1-74) before being cleaved from ACTH-related sequences. After a pulse label, radioactivity in PAE(1-94)NH2 reached a peak value after 1 h of chase and declined with a half-life of less than 1 h. Amidated JP increased to a constant level after 2 h of chase. Enough radiolabeled PAE(1-94)NH2 was detected to account for about half of the radioactivity found in amidated JP, indicating that about half of JP-related material is first cleaved from PAE(1-95) before being amidated. This result was corroborated using HPLC purification to determine both amidated and glycine-extended forms of JP.

Cullen, E.I.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1987-09-01

389

Pro-inflammatory activities in elapid snake venoms.  

PubMed Central

1. Snake venoms from the genera Micrurus (M. ibiboboca and M. spixii) and Naja (N. naja, N. melanoleuca and N. nigricollis) were analysed, using biological and immunochemical methods, to detect pro-inflammatory activities, cobra venom factor (COF), proteolytic enzymes, thrombin-like substances, haemorrhagic and oedema-producing substances. 2. The venoms of the five snake species activate the complement system (C) in normal human serum (NHS) in a dose-related fashion, at concentrations ranging from 5 micrograms to 200 micrograms ml-1 serum. Electrophoretic conversion of C3 was observed with all venoms in NHS containing normal concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+, but only by venoms from N. naja and N. melanoleuca when Ca2+ was chelated by adding Mg(2+)-EGTA. 3. Purified human C3 was electrophoretically converted, in the absence of other C components, by the venoms from N. naja, N. nigricollis and M. ibiboboca. However, only the venoms from N. naja and N. melanoleuca contained a 144 kDa protein revealed in Western blot with sera against COF or human C3. 4. All venoms, at minimum concentrations of 30 ng ml-1, were capable of lysing sheep red blood cells, also in a dose-related fashion, when incubated with these cells in presence of egg yolk as a source of lecithin. Although the venoms from M. spixii and N. nigricollis showed detectable thrombin-like activity, these and the other venoms were free of proteolytic activity when fibrin, gelatin and casein, were used as substrates. 5. When tested on mice skin, all five venoms were capable of inducing an increase in vascular permeability and oedema, but were devoid of haemorrhagic producing substances (haemorrhagins).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7921595

Tambourgi, D. V.; dos Santos, M. C.; Furtado, M. de F.; de Freitas, M. C.; da Silva, W. D.; Kipnis, T. L.

1994-01-01

390

[Maillard reaction products in food as pro-inflammatory and pro-arteriosclerotic factors of degenerative diseases].  

PubMed

Heating of food induces the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) caused by the reaction of reducing sugars with proteins or amino acids. Analogous reactions occur in the human body, eventually forming "Advanced Glycation Endproducts" (AGEs). AGEs accumulate in aging tissues accelerating degenerative-inflammatory and proliferative processes. MRPs present in food can also directly cause inflammatory processes in the intestines and, once absorbed, would support and reinforce any inflammatory and degenerative process occurring in the body. The contribution of AGEs (and additional MRPs) in the development of diabetic complications as well as nephropathy, neuropathy, micro- and macroangiopathies is now well established. Which of the MRPs or AGEs in particular induce these cellular processes is currently unknown. Thus the exact knowledge of the chemical structures of the MRPs could help to minimize the formation of "harmful MRPs" that occur due to heating in food processing. Because MRPs play a decisive role in the successful marketing of edibles due to their characteristics as flavor components, it is important to increase the amount of innocuous and palatable MRPs, and minimize signal active pro-inflammatory MRPs by the use of defined preparation methods. It is practicable to use low-priced immunological methods for the quantitative determination of specific MRPs or AGEs. In the medical area, the knowledge of the signal active MRP/AGE structures provides the opportunity to measure their concentrations in body fluids and tissues and thus determine their influence on inflammatory and age-related degenerative processes (e. g., late diabetic complications, arteriosclerosis, degeneration of neurons). From a clinical perspective, the application of RAGE antagonists after an appropriate chemical diagnosis could be effective in supporting the treatment of affected patient groups, especially older diabetic and dialysis patients. PMID:16244820

Webster, J; Wilke, M; Stahl, P; Kientsch-Engel, R; Münch, G

2005-10-01

391

The ProSlavery Argument in the Development of the American Methodist Church  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the evolution of the Methodist church. It specifically focuses on the way that pro-slavery views were eventually supported by many members of the church, using the Bible to support these beliefs.

Kyle Painter

2001-01-01

392

INFRASTRUCTURAL MECHANISMS LEADING TOWARD PRO-ACCOUNTABLE CARE ORGANISATION ORIENTATION: A SURVEY OF HOSPITAL MANAGERS  

PubMed Central

Organisations across the country are transforming the way they deliver care, in ways similar to the accountable care organisation (ACO) model supported by Medicare. ACOs modalities are varying in size, type, and financing structure. Little is known about how specific infrastructural mechanisms influence hospital managers’ pro-ACO orientation. Using an electronic-survey of hospital managers, this study explores how pro-ACO orientation, as a latent construct, is captured from the perceptions of hospital managers; and identify infrastructural mechanisms leading to the formation of pro-ACO orientation. Of the total hospital respondents, 58% are moving toward the establishment of ACOs; 56% are planning to join in the next two years; 48% are considering joining ACOs; while 25% had already participated in ACOs during 2012. Urban hospitals are more likely than rural hospitals to be engaged in ACO development. The health provider network size is one of the strongest indicators in predicting pro-ACO orientation. PMID:25374609

Wan, Thomas T.H.; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Ortiz, Judith

2013-01-01

393

ProPortal: a resource for integrated systems biology of Prochlorococcus and its phage  

E-print Network

ProPortal (http://proportal.mit.edu/) is a database containing genomic, metagenomic, transcriptomic and field data for the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus. Our goal is to provide a source of cross-referenced data ...

Kelly, Libusha

394

Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Activation of Mouse Paneth Cell Pro--defensins  

E-print Network

and Glu positions ((DE/G)-pro-Crp4) was prepared, and it was bactericidal and lysed phospholipid vesicles of small bowel crypts by mouse Paneth cells in response to cholinergic stimulation or exposure to bac

Vanderlick, T. Kyle

395

78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, Florida during...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, Florida....

2013-09-20

396

An Introduction to Pro Bono Opportunities in the Law Firm Setting  

E-print Network

liberal and conservative, and in matters involving civil and human rights, immigration, housing, capital punishment defense, taxes, business development and more. The sheer volume of pro bono hours logged, however

Wolfe, Patrick J.

397

The Effect of Non-Affiliation With Religion on Religiosity and Pro-Social Ties  

E-print Network

2000; Baker and Smith, Social class and education levels arefrom lower social classes and education levels exhibitclass, education, number of children, and geographic mobility. The data also includes measures of pro-social

Suh, Daniel Hyun

2014-01-01

398

Is biogeography emerging from its identity crisis? Biogeography has had an unusually pro-  

E-print Network

COMMENTARY Is biogeography emerging from its identity crisis? Biogeography has had an unusually pro- tracted identity crisis (e.g. Brown & Lomo- lino, 2000; Donoghue & Moore, 2003), although the discipline

Riddle, Brett R.

399

Occupational training to reduce gender segregation: The impacts of ProJoven  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates the process of program evaluation for ProJoven, the Peruvian youth labor training program. The program provides beneficiaries with basic three-month training in lowskill occupations and with internship opportunities. ProJoven’s design promotes gender equality by encouraging female participation in training for traditionally male-dominated occupations and by providing subsidies so mothers with children can participate. Complementing detailed fieldwork in

Hugo Ñopo; Miguel Robles; Jaime Saavedra

2008-01-01

400

The N-Terminal Pro-BNP Investigation of Dyspnea in the Emergency Department (PRIDE) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of aminoterminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing in the emergency department to rule out acute congestive heart failure (CHF) and the optimal cutpoints for this use are not established. We conducted a prospective study of 600 patients who presented in the emergency department with dyspnea. The clinical diag- nosis of acute CHF was determined by study physicians who

James L. Januzzi; Carlos A. Camargo; Saif Anwaruddin; Aaron L. Baggish; Annabel A. Chen; Daniel G. Krauser; Roderick Tung; Renee Cameron; J. Tobias Nagurney; Claudia U. Chae; Donald M. Lloyd-Jones; David F. Brown; Stacy Foran-Melanson; Patrick M. Sluss; Elizabeth Lee-Lewandrowski; Kent B. Lewandrowski

401

“Starving Is the Most Fun a Girl Can Have”: The Pro-Ana Subculture as Edgework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The media have been focusing on websites that are “pro-anorexic” to illustrate the pervasiveness of eating disorders in the\\u000a US. This study focuses on the narratives of women who participate in “pro-ana” sites using Lyng’s (Am J Sociol 95:851–886,\\u000a 1990) concept of edgework. Results indicate that women struggle with feelings of loss of control and through various skills are\\u000a able

Jeannine A. Gailey

2009-01-01

402

MRJP family (from major royal jelly pro-tein). MRJPs contain high amount of essen-  

E-print Network

MRJP family (from major royal jelly pro- tein). MRJPs contain high amount of essen- tial gelée royale (royal jelly = RJ) et de la bouillie larvaire (worker jelly=WJ) varie entre 49 et 87 k désigne comme suit : les protéines entre 60 - 70 kDa - MRJP1 (major royal jelly pro- tein), 55 kDa - MRJP2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

2010-01-01

404

An in vitro model for the pro-fibrotic effects of retinoids: mechanisms of action  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Retinoids, including all-trans retinoic acid (tRA), have dose-dependent pro-fibrotic effects in experimental kidney diseases. To understand and eventually prevent such adverse effects, it is important to establish relevant in vitro models and unravel their mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Fibrogenic effects of retinoids were assessed in NRK-49F renal fibroblasts using picro-Sirius red staining for collagens and quantified by spectrophotometric analysis of the eluted stain. Other methods included RT-qPCR, immunoassays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity assays. KEY RESULTS With or without TGF-?1, tRA was dose-dependently pro-fibrotic, notably increasing collagen accumulation. tRA and TGF-?1 additively suppressed expression of mRNA for MMP2, 3 and 13 and suppressed MMP activity. tRA, in the presence of TGF-?1, induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA and they additively induced PAI-1 protein expression. A PAI-1 inhibitor, a pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist and a pan-retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonist each partially prevented the pro-fibrotic effect of tRA. The dose-dependent pro-fibrotic effects of a pan-RXR agonist were similar to those of tRA. A pan-RAR agonist showed weaker, less dose-dependent pro-fibrotic effects and the pro-fibrotic effects of RAR? and RAR?-selective agonists were even smaller. An RAR?-selective agonist did not affect fibrogenesis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS An in vitro model for the pro-fibrotic effects of retinoids was established in NRK-49F cells. It was associated with reduced MMP activity and increased PAI-1 expression, and was probably mediated by RXR and RAR. To avoid or antagonize the pro-fibrotic activity of tRA, further studies on RAR isotype-selective agonists and PAI-1 inhibitors might be of value. PMID:23992207

Rankin, A C; Hendry, B M; Corcoran, J P; Xu, Q

2013-01-01

405

Does globalisation affect consumers' pro-environmental intentions? A multilevel analysis across 25 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether the process of globalisation, through which countries become increasingly interconnected, is related to pro-environmental intentions. Due to the hierarchical nature of the data, the study uses a multilevel modelling approach to cross-culturally test the impact of globalisation on pro-environmental intentions. Using an updated indicator of globalisation, the results from 25

Mohamed M. Mostafa

2012-01-01

406

Does globalisation affect consumers’ pro-environmental intentions? A multilevel analysis across 25 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether the process of globalisation, through which countries become increasingly interconnected, is related to pro-environmental intentions. Due to the hierarchical nature of the data, the study uses a multilevel modelling approach to cross-culturally test the impact of globalisation on pro-environmental intentions. Using an updated indicator of globalisation, the results from 25

Mohamed M. Mostafa

2011-01-01

407

Evaluation of ProExC as a prognostic marker in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

ProExC expression has been shown to perform similarly to p16 as an aid in the diagnosis of cervical dysplasia but has not been well characterized in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The purpose of this study is to determine whether ProExC performs similarly to p16 as a prognostic marker in oropharyngeal SCC and to evaluate the threshold of ProExC and p16 staining that correlates with survival. ProExC, p16, and human papillomavirus DNA in situ hybridization were performed on tissue microarray (TMA) cores and whole sections from 62 patients with oropharyngeal SCC. Sensitivity and specificity for high-risk HPV and correlation with overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and time to distant metastasis (TDM) were calculated for ProExC and p16 at different thresholds. ProExC did not prove to be a robust marker. It showed strong correlation with OS at a 66% threshold on TMA cores, but correlation with OS was lost on whole sections. It also exhibited low sensitivity (53.7%) on TMA cores and low specificity on whole sections (65%). ProExC at a 33% threshold exhibited unacceptably low specificity and did not correlate with OS, CSS, or TDM. Sensitivity and specificity of p16 varied predictably with threshold: higher sensitivity and lower specificity with lower thresholds and vice versa for higher thresholds. p16 at a 50% threshold offers a balance between sensitivity and specificity, and correlates with OS, CSS, and TDM on whole sections; correlation with TDM is lost on TMA cores. These findings indicate that ProExC does not perform well enough to be used as a prognostic marker in oropharyngeal SCC. p16 should be used and scored as positive when at least half the tumor is strongly stained. PMID:22790856

Mills, Anne M; Beck, Andrew H; Pourmand, Nader; Le, Quynh Thu; Kong, Christina S

2012-08-01

408

Momentary Effects of Exposure to Pro-Smoking Media on College Students' Future Smoking Risk  

PubMed Central

Objective This study used ecological momentary assessment to examine acute changes in college students’ future smoking risk as a function of their exposure to pro-smoking media (e.g., smoking in movies, paid advertising, point-of-sale promotions). Methods A sample of 135 college students (ever and never smokers) carried handheld computers for 21 days, recording their exposures to all forms of pro-smoking media during the assessment period. They also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts during each day of the assessment period (i.e., programmed to occur randomly). After each pro-media smoking exposure and after each random control prompt they answered questions that measured their risk of future smoking. Responses between pro-smoking media encounters were compared to responses made during random control prompts. Results Compliance with the study protocol was high, with participants responding to over 83% of all random prompts. Participants recorded nearly three encounters with pro-smoking media each week. Results of linear mixed modeling indicated that all participants had higher future smoking risk following exposure to pro-smoking media compared with control prompts (p < 0.05); this pattern of response did not differ between ever and never smokers (p = 0.769). Additional modeling of the variances around participants’ risk of future smoking revealed that the response of never smokers to pro-smoking media was significantly more variable than the response of ever smokers. Conclusions Exposure to pro-smoking media is associated with acute changes in future smoking risk, and never smokers and ever smokers respond differently to these exposures. PMID:22353027

Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude; Scharf, Deborah

2012-01-01

409

A Novel Role for Pro-Coagulant Microvesicles in the Early Host Defense against Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that stimulation of whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells with bacterial virulence factors results in the sequestration of pro-coagulant microvesicles (MVs). These particles explore their clotting activity via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of coagulation; however, their pathophysiological role in infectious diseases remains enigmatic. Here we describe that the interaction of pro-coagulant MVs with bacteria of the species Streptococcus pyogenes is part of the early immune response to the invading pathogen. As shown by negative staining electron microscopy and clotting assays, pro-coagulant MVs bind in the presence of plasma to the bacterial surface. Fibrinogen was identified as a linker that, through binding to the M1 protein of S. pyogenes, allows the opsonization of the bacteria by MVs. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a strong interaction between pro-coagulant MVs and fibrinogen with a KD value in the nanomolar range. When performing a mass-spectrometry-based strategy to determine the protein quantity, a significant up-regulation of the fibrinogen-binding integrins CD18 and CD11b on pro-coagulant MVs was recorded. Finally we show that plasma clots induced by pro-coagulant MVs are able to prevent bacterial dissemination and possess antimicrobial activity. These findings were confirmed by in vivo experiments, as local treatment with pro-coagulant MVs dampens bacterial spreading to other organs and improved survival in an invasive streptococcal mouse model of infection. Taken together, our data implicate that pro-coagulant MVs play an important role in the early response of the innate immune system in infectious diseases. PMID:23935504

Oehmcke, Sonja; Westman, Johannes; Malmström, Johan; Mörgelin, Matthias; Olin, Anders I.; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Herwald, Heiko

2013-01-01

410

Contesting Global Norms: Politics of Identity in Japanese Pro-Whaling Countermobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why are anti- and pro-whaling coalitions still engaged in morally heated confrontations over whales tracing back to the 1970s? Revisiting the global whaling controversy, this article applies insights from the political sociology of social movements to highlight the importance of the politics of identity embedded in an elite-driven pro-whaling countermovement in Japan. As is well documented, Japan has proven a

Anders Blok

2008-01-01

411

ProCKSI: a decision support system for Protein (Structure) Comparison, Knowledge, Similarity and Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We introduce the decision support system for Protein (Structure) Comparison, Knowledge, Similarity and Information (ProCKSI). ProCKSI integrates various protein similarity measures through an easy to use interface that allows the comparison of multiple proteins simultaneously. It employs the Universal Similarity Metric (USM), the Maximum Contact Map Overlap (MaxCMO) of protein structures and other external methods such as the DaliLite

Daniel Barthel; Jonathan D. Hirst; Jacek Blazewicz; Edmund K. Burke; Natalio Krasnogor

2007-01-01

412

Starving in cyberspace: a discourse analysis of pro-eating-disorder websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we have seen the emergence of ‘pro-eating-disorder’ websites and Internet communities, providing opportunities for girls and women who practise self-starvation and purging to converse and swap ‘tips’ online. This has generated discussion about the feminist response to this so-called ‘pro-eating-disorder movement’. Although a number of studies have focused on online eating-disorder support groups, they have not examined the material

Katy Day; Tammy Keys

2008-01-01

413

The Caco-2 cell monolayers as an intestinal metabolism model: metabolism of dipeptide Phe-Pro.  

PubMed

The metabolism of Phe-Pro was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers, a model of small intestinal epithelium. The results indicate that the majority of Phe-Pro was hydrolyzed during passage from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) side. The enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis is prolidase, a cytosolic enzyme. Through kinetic studies of a supernatant enzyme preparation, a Km of 30.4 microM and Vmax of 38.9 nmol/min per mg of protein were obtained. The enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis was inhibited by proline (66%), Zn+ (86%), Cu++ (100%), Fe (100%), PCMB (89%), and captopril (66%), but not by leucine. We also studied the transcellular transport of Phe-Pro by measuring the amount of Phe in the receiver media. In the presence of a proton gradient (AP pH6, BL pH7.4), the appearance rate of Phe in the BL media after Phe-Pro was loaded apically was at least 100 times faster than that in the AP media after Phe-Pro was loaded basolaterally. The former is also higher than the appearance rate of Phe without a transepithelial proton gradient (pH 6-pH 6) or against a proton gradient (pH7.4-pH6). The rate of appearance of Phe in the BL media (pH7.4) after Phe-Pro was loaded on the AP side (pH 6) was decreased by the presence in the AP media of proline (42%), leucine (40%), and captopril (17%), but not by Zn++. In conclusion, the transmembrane uptake of Phe-Pro is dependent on a proton gradient, and the intracellular metabolism of Phe-Pro is complete via hydrolysis by prolidase. PMID:8069586

Hu, M; Chen, J; Tran, D; Zhu, Y; Leonardo, G

1994-01-01

414

Membrane Topology of the Bacillus subtilis Pro-sigma K Processing Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of the final sporulation-specific transcription factor, sK, is regulated by a signal emanating from the forespore which interacts with the pro-sK processing complex, comprising SpoIVFA, BofA, and the pro-sK processing protease, SpoIVFB. Mature sK then directs late gene expression in the parental compartment of the developing sporangial cell. The nature of this complex and how it is activated to

DAVID H. GREEN

2000-01-01