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1

Strategies to eliminate HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Chronic HBV infection is a major public health concern affecting over 240 million people worldwide. Although suppression of HBV replication is achieved in the majority of patients with currently available newer antivirals, discontinuation of therapy prior to hepatitis B surface antigen loss or seroconversion is associated with relapse of HBV in the majority of cases. Thus, new therapeutic modalities are needed to achieve eradication of the virus from chronically infected patients in the absence of therapy. The basis of HBV persistence includes viral and host factors. Here, we review novel strategies to achieve sustained cure or elimination of HBV. The novel approaches include targeting the viral and or host factors required for viral persistence, and novel immune-based therapies, including therapeutic vaccines. PMID:25309617

Kapoor, Rama; Kottilil, Shyam

2014-01-01

2

Postexposure Prophylactic Effect of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Active Antiretroviral Therapy against HBV Infection.  

PubMed

Retrospective study indicates that hepatitis B virus (HBV)-active nucleoside (nucleotide) analogues (NAs) used for antiretroviral therapy reduce the incidence of acute HBV infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Learning from HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), we explored the possibility of using NAs in PEP following HBV exposure, if preexposure prophylaxis is feasible clinically. Using freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes cultured in vitro, we analyzed the effect of HBV-active tenofovir and lamivudine in primary HBV infection and also the effect of treatment with these NAs after HBV infection. HBV-active NAs applied from 24 h before inoculation could not prevent the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen into the culture medium, and cessation of the NAs after inoculation allowed the cells to establish an apparent HBV infection. In contrast, hepatitis B immune globulin was able to prevent HBV infection completely. NA treatment before infection, however, can control the spread of HBV infection, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Practically, starting NA treatment within 2 days of primary HBV infection inhibited viral spread effectively, as well as preexposure treatment. We demonstrated that preexposure NA treatment was not able to prevent the acquisition of HBV infection but prevented viral spread by suppressing the production of mature progeny HBV virions. The effect of postexposure treatment within 2 days was similar to the effect of preexposure treatment, suggesting the possibility of HBV PEP using HBV-active NAs in HIV- and HBV-susceptible high-risk groups. PMID:25512419

Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Hamada-Tsutsumi, Susumu; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Junji; Sugiura, Wataru; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2015-02-01

3

HBV and the immune response.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection acquired in adult life is generally self-limited while chronic persistence of the virus is the prevalent outcome when infection is acquired perinatally. Both control of infection and liver cell injury are strictly dependent upon protective immune responses, because hepatocyte damage is the price that the host must pay to get rid of intracellular virus. Resolution of acute hepatitis B is associated with functionally efficient, multispecific antiviral T-cell responses which are preceded by a poor induction of intracellular innate responses at the early stages of infection. Persistent control of infection is provided by long-lasting protective memory, which is probably sustained by continuous stimulation of the immune system by trace amounts of virus which are never totally eliminated, persisting in an occult episomic form in the nucleus of liver cells even after recovery from acute infection. Chronic virus persistence is instead characterized by a lack of protective T-cell memory maturation and by an exhaustion of HBV-specific T-cell responses. Persistent exposure of T cells to high antigen loads is a key determinant of functional T-cell impairment but also other mechanisms can contribute to T-cell inhibition, including the tolerogenic effect of the liver environment. The degree of T-cell impairment is variable and its severity is related to the level of virus replication and antigen load. The antiviral T-cell function is more efficient in patients who can control infection either partially, such as inactive HBsAg carriers with low levels of virus replication, or completely, such as patients who achieve HBsAg loss either spontaneously or after antiviral therapy. Thus, understanding the features of the immune responses associated with control of infection is needed for the successful design of novel immune modulatory therapies based on the reconstitution of efficient antiviral responses in chronic HBV patients. PMID:25529097

Ferrari, Carlo

2015-01-01

4

Pro Fortran Pro Fortran  

E-print Network

User Guide Mac OS X Pro Fortran #12;Pro Fortran User Guide Mac OS X 2781 Bond Street Rochester), product liability or otherwise), will be limited to $50. Absoft, the Absoft logo, Fx, and MacFortran of Contents i Fortran User Guide Fortran User Guide Contents CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................

Bittner, Eric R.

5

Epidemiology of HBV subgenotypes D.  

PubMed

The natural history of hepatitis B virus infection is not uniform and affected from several factors including, HBV genotype. Genotype D is a widely distributed genotype. Among genotype D, several subgenotypes differentiate epidemiologically and probably clinically. D1 is predominant in Middle East and North Africa, and characterized by early HBeAg seroconversion and low viral load. D2 is seen in Albania, Turkey, Brazil, western India, Lebanon, and Serbia. D3 was reported from Serbia, western India, and Indonesia. It is a predominant subgenotype in injection drug use-related acute HBV infections in Europe and Canada. D4 is relatively rare and reported from Haiti, Russia and Baltic region, Brazil, Kenya, Morocco and Rwanda. Subgenotype D5 seems to be common in Eastern India. D6 has been reported as a rare subgenotype from Indonesia, Kenya, Russia and Baltic region. D7 is the main genotype in Morocco and Tunisia. D8 and D9 are recently described subgenotypes and reported from Niger and India, respectively. Subgenotypes of genotype D may have clinical and/or viral differences. More subgenotype studies are required to conclude on subgenotype and its clinical/viral characteristics. PMID:25037178

Ozaras, Resat; Inanc Balkan, Ilker; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tabak, Fehmi

2015-02-01

6

HBV genotypes and antiviral-resistant variants in HBV infected subjects in Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

HBV genotypes were investigated in sera\\/plasma from 97 HBV positive subjects. Genotype D was revealed in 80.4% followed by E in 6.2%. Genotypes A, B, and C were also found, as well as for the first time a new combination of HBV D and G genotypes. In a cohort of subjects of this population, the relationship with lamivudine and\\/or fam-

Maria Cristina Medici; Annalisa Aloisi; Monica Martinelli; Laura Anna Abelli; Francesca Casula; Pierpaolo Valcavi; Giuseppe Dettori; Carlo Chezzi

2006-01-01

7

Inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) by LNA-mediated nuclear interference with HBV DNA transcription  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} LNA-modified oligonucleotides can pass through the plasma membrane of cultured cells even without using transfection machinery. {yields} LNA-modified oligonucleotides passed efficiently across the cell membrane, and lipid-coating facilitated translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. {yields} LNA-oligonucleotide designed to target nuclear HBV DNA efficiently suppresses HBV replication and transcription in cultured hepatic cells. -- Abstract: Silencing target genes with small regulatory RNAs is widely used to investigate gene function and therapeutic drug development. Recently, triplex-based approaches have provided another attractive means to achieve targeted gene regulation and gene manipulation at the molecular and cellular levels. Nuclear entry of oligonucleotides and enhancement of their affinity to the DNA targets are key points of such approaches. In this study, we developed lipid-based transport of a locked-nucleic-acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA interference in human hepatocytes expressing HBV genomic DNA. In these cells, the LNA-modified oligonucleotides passed efficiently across the cell membrane, and lipid-coating facilitated translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The oligonucleotide specifically targeting HBV DNA clearly interfered with HBV DNA transcription as shown by a block in pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) production. The HBV DNA-targeted oligonucleotide suppressed HBV DNA replication and HBV protein production more efficiently than small interfering RNAs directed to the pgRNA. These results demonstrate that fusion with lipid can carry LNA-modified oligonucleotides to the nucleus where they regulate gene expression. Interfering with HBV DNA transcription by LNA-modified oligonucleotides has strong potential as a new strategy for HBV inhibition.

Sun, Zhen [The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and The MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) [The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and The MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Xiang, Wenqing; Guo, Yajuan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Chen, Zhi [The State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease, Institute of Infectious Disease, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China)] [The State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease, Institute of Infectious Disease, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuwei666@zju.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Lu, Daru, E-mail: drlu@fudan.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and The MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and The MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2011-06-10

8

Reconstitution of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cell responses with treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/HBV coinfection.  

PubMed

Liver-related mortality is an increasing problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In HIV-negative patients, HBV chronicity is associated with a reduction in specific T cell responses that can be partially restored by treatment with lamivudine. We studied 5 HIV/HBV-coinfected patients treated with HAART, either with or without addition of a drug with specific anti-HBV activity. Our data show that reconstitution of some HBV-specific T cell responses can also occur in HIV-positive patients after a reduction in HBV load. This potential to recover T cell responses, which has been thought to be critical for HBV control, provides support for the addition of anti-HBV therapy in the treatment of HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. PMID:14673759

Lascar, R Monica; Gilson, Richard J; Lopes, A Ross; Bertoletti, Antonio; Maini, Mala K

2003-12-15

9

Molecular evaluation of HBV core gene mutations in asymptomatic HBV infected blood donors in Iran.  

PubMed

Mutations in the core promoter and precore regions of HBV cause down-regulation of HBeAg. These mutations are associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and Hepato Cellular Carcinoma (HCC). This study was carried out to sequence analysis of HBV core gene in HBsAg- positive blood donors in Iran. A total of 50 HBsAg- positive blood donor samples were examined in this study. Serological markers of hepatitis B including: HBsAg, HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb were measured by ELISA method. HBV-DNA was extracted from the sera, and then PCR was performed on extracted HBV-DNA  using specific primer of gene C. After direct sequencing, the nucleotide sequences from 50 blood donors were analyzed using a reference sequences and then phylogenetic analysis was performed. Also, the line probe assay was used to detect mutations. The majority of donors (62.5%) were in the age group of 29 - 40 years old. Among all the HBV DNA positive cases, 87.8% were HBeAg negative. The prevalence of PC and BCP mutants were 12% and 55% respectively, among asymptomatic HBV infected blood donors by direct sequencing method. The results of this study showed that some of HBV infected blood donors had mutation in core gene of HBV and amino acid changes in B cell, T helper and CTL epitopes that can cause reducing HBe and HBc antigenicity in asymptomatic HBV infected blood donors and the development of escape mutants from host immune. PMID:25365616

Ghabeshi, Soad; Baktashi, Ruhollah; Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Sharifi, Zohreh

2014-11-01

10

Spontaneous reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with resolved or occult HBV infection.  

PubMed

Reactivation of a former hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can be triggered by immunosuppressive therapy, diseases associated with an immunocompromised state, organ transplantation or the withdrawal of antiviral drugs. Despite the absence of such risk factors, a spontaneous reactivation of HBV replication occurred in two elderly patients with resolved or occult HBV infection. A 73-year-old male underwent coronary artery bypass grafting in October 2008, and was negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBs. In July 2009, his serum became positive for HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA (6.4 log copies/ml; genotype C), but negative for anti-HBc IgM, with abrupt elevation of the liver enzymes. The entire genomic sequence of HBV recovered from this patient revealed no mutations in the core promoter and precore regions that interfere with HBeAg production. A 76-year-old male with a history of endoscopic mucosal resection for esophageal cancer in 2002 and an initial diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in 2009, at which time he was negative for HBsAg. He was found to be positive for HBsAg in September 2012 during a laboratory examination performed prior to the resection of recurrent esophageal cancer, despite a low HBV load (2.1 log copies/ml). Three months later, without the administration of any anticancer drugs, the HBV DNA (genotype B) level increased to 5.1 log copies/ml. A precore G1896A variant with high quasispecies diversity was recovered from the patient. Aging, surgical stress and complication of disease(s) associated with compromised immunity, such as cancer, arteriosclerosis and diabetes mellitus may trigger spontaneous HBV reactivation. J. Med. Virol. 87:589-600, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25612181

Kamitsukasa, Hiroshi; Iri, Masanobu; Tanaka, Akihisa; Nagashima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Masaharu; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

2015-04-01

11

Management of HBV Infection During Immunosuppressive Treatment  

PubMed Central

The literature on hepatitis B virus (HBV) in immunocompromised patients is heterogeneous and refers mainly to the pre-antivirals era. Currently, a rational approach to the problem of hepatitis B in these patients provides for: a) the evaluation of HBV markers and of liver condition in all subjects starting immunosuppressive therapies (baseline), b) the treatment with antivirals (therapy) of active carriers, c) the pre-emptive use of antivirals (prophylaxis) in inactive carriers, especially if they are undergoing immunosuppressive therapies judged to be at high risk, d) the biochemical and HBsAg monitoring (or universal prophylaxis in case of high risk immunosuppression, as in onco-haematologic patients and bone marrow transplantation) in subjects with markers of previous contact with HBV (HBsAg-negative and antiHBc-positive), in order to prevent reverse seroconversion. Moreover in solid organ transplants it is suggested a strict adherence to the criteria of allocation based on the virological characteristics of both recipients and donors and the universal prophylaxis or therapy with nucleos(t)ides analogs PMID:21415959

Marzano, Alfredo

2009-01-01

12

Circulating Tregs correlate with viral load reduction in chronic HBV-treated patients with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.  

PubMed

Limited response to current hepatitis B virus (HBV) drugs is possibly due to inadequate host cytotoxic cellular responses. Circulating Tregs have been shown to be associated with chronicity of HBV infection, but their profile during antiviral therapy has not been studied. We analyzed the frequency and effect of Tregs on cellular immune responses against HBV in 35 chronic hepatitis B eAg-ve and eAg+ve patients treated with tenofovir 300 mg/day. Frequency of Tregs and their modulatory role in cytokine-secreting cells were determined after stimulation with HBsAg or HBcAg in the absence or presence of Tregs and after blockage of PD-1/PDL-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Prior to therapy, eAg-ve patients had lower HBV DNA levels, reduced CD8 T cells, increased Tregs, and T cells expressing PD1. After 12 weeks of therapy, >2 log HBV viral reduction was observed in both groups, along with an increase frequencies of CD8 T cells in eAg-ve patients and increased expression of chemokine receptors/Toll-like receptors in both groups. PD-1 expression on CD8 cells in PBMCs was decreased in both groups during therapy but not on Tregs. In eAg-ve group, sustained increase of Tregs was observed till week 12, which declined at week 24. In both groups, after 24 weeks, depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs from PBMCs enhanced HBV-specific T cell responses, and blockage of PD-1/PDL1 pathway did enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production in eAg+ve patients but not in eAg-ve. We conclude that Tregs induced by HBV replication in vivo are expanded in eAg-ve patients more. Reduction in HBV DNA by tenofovir partially restored adaptive immune responses and also reduced the Tregs. Blockage of PD-1/PDL1, enhanced cytokine production in eAg+ve patients but not in eAg-ve, suggests that distinctly different immunologic mechanisms are involved in eAg+ve and eAg-ve patients. PMID:21305387

TrehanPati, Nirupma; Kotillil, Shyam; Hissar, Syed S; Shrivastava, Shikha; Khanam, Arshi; Sukriti, Sukriti; Mishra, Siddartha K; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

2011-06-01

13

If You Have Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection  

MedlinePLUS

If you have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection . . . If you have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, you are not alone. Today, approximately one ... Prevention (800) 232-4636 www.cdc.gov/hepatitis Hepatitis B Foundation (215) 489-4900 www.hepb.org ...

14

Bloodborne Pathogens: HIV and HBV Contagion Risks at Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AIDS and hepatitis B are diseases caused by the viruses HIV and HBV, respectively, which are spread in blood and body fluids. HBV is 100 times more contagious than HIV. Diligent implementation of universal precautions, an exposure control plan, use of personal protective equipment, a vaccination program, and ongoing staff and camper education can…

Skaros, Susan

1996-01-01

15

Rapamycin Enhances HBV Production by Inducing Cellular Autophagy  

PubMed Central

Background: Some reports revealed that rapamycin could reactivate HBV infection. However, the mechanism has not been clearly explained. Objectives: In this report, we studied the mechanism by which rapamycin enhances HBV replication and expression by inducing cellular autophagy. Materials and Methods: HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with rapamycin to induce autophagy. Autophagosomes were observed by fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Autophagy marker protein LC3-?/LC3-?was detected by Western blotting. HBV DNA and mRNA were determined by real time PCR and Southern blotting. HBsAg was evaluated by ELISA. Results: In HepG2.2.15 cells, HBV DNA and HBsAg increased when host cells were treated with rapamycin and the effect was reversed by autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Conclusions: These results indicated a potential explanation for reactivation of HBV infection when patients with hepatitis receive rapamycin. PMID:25419217

Huang, Wenjuan; Zhao, Fengrong; Huang, Ying; Li, Xia; Zhu, Sufei; Hu, Qin; Chen, Weixian

2014-01-01

16

Detection of HBsAg, HBcAg, and HBV DNA in ovarian tissues from patients with HBV infection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the presence of HBsAg, HBcAg, and HBV DNA in ovarian tissues from patients with HBV infection. METHODS: HBsAg and HBcAg were examined in ovarian biopsy tissues from 26 patients with HBV infection by immunocytochemistry, and HBV DNA was detected in ovarian tissues by PCR. RESULTS: HBsAg and HBcAg were present with the same positive rate of 34.6% (9/26). The total positive rate was 46.2% (12/26). HBsAg and HBcAg were positive in 6 (23.1%) of the 26 patients. Brown positive particles were diffusely distributed in ovarian cells. The positive rate of HBV DNA was 58.3% (7/12). CONCLUSION: HBsAg, HBcAg, and HBV DNA can be detected in ovarian tissues from patients with HBV infection. The presence of HBsAg and HBcAg in ovarian tissues does not correlate with the HBV markers in serum. PMID:16222757

Chen, Li-Zhang; Fan, Xue-Gong; Gao, Jian-Ming

2005-01-01

17

Analysis of residual perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and of genetic variants in human immunodeficiency virus and HBV co-infected women and their offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Despite implementation of universal infant hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) still occurs. Limited data are available on the residual MTCT of HBV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HBV co-infected women. Objectives We assessed the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-infected pregnant women and the rate of residual MTCT of HBV from HIV-HBV co-infected women and analyzed the viral determinants in mothers and their HBV-infected children. Study design HIV-1 infected pregnant women enrolled in two nationwide perinatal HIV prevention trials in Thailand were screened for HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and tested for HBeAg and HBV DNA load. Infants born to HBsAg-positive women had HBsAg and HBV DNA tested at 4–6 months. HBV diversity within each HBV-infected mother-infant pair was analyzed by direct sequencing of amplified HBsAg-encoding gene and cloning of amplified products. Results Among 3,312 HIV-1 infected pregnant women, 245 (7.4%) were HBsAg-positive, of whom 125 were HBeAg-positive. Of 230 evaluable infants born to HBsAg-positive women, 11 (4.8%) were found HBsAg and HBV DNA positive at 4–6 months; 8 were born to HBeAg-positive mothers. HBV genetic analysis was performed in 9 mother-infant pairs and showed that 5 infants were infected with maternal HBV variants harboring mutations within the HBsAg “a” determinant, and four were infected with wild-type HBV present in highly viremic mothers. Conclusions HBV-MTCT still occurs when women have high HBV DNA load and/or are infected with HBV variants. Additional interventions targeting highly viremic women are thus needed to reduce further HBV-MTCT. PMID:23916828

Khamduang, Woottichai; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Jourdain, Gonzague; Moreau, Alain; Borkird, Thitiporn; Layangool, Prapaisri; Kamonpakorn, Nareerat; Jitphiankha, Weerachai; Kwanchaipanich, Ratchanee; Potchalongsin, Sathit; Lallemant, Marc; Sirirungsi, Wasna; Goudeau, Alain

2013-01-01

18

Therapeutic vaccines in HBV: lessons from HCV.  

PubMed

Currently, millions of people infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are committed to decades of treatment with anti-viral therapy to control viral replication. However, new tools for immunotherapy that include both viral vectors and molecular checkpoint inhibitors are now available. This has led to a resurgence of interest in new strategies to develop immunotherapeutic strategies with the aim of inducing HBeAg seroconversion-an end-point that has been associated with a decrease in the rates of disease progression. Ultimately, a true cure will involve the elimination of covalently closed circular DNA which presents a greater challenge for immunotherapy. In this manuscript, I describe the development of immunotherapeutic strategies for HBV that are approaching or currently in clinical studies, and draw on observations of T cell function in natural infection supported by recent animal studies that may lead to additional rational vaccine strategies using checkpoint inhibitors. I also draw on our recent experience in developing potent vaccines for HCV prophylaxis based on simian adenoviral and MVA vectors used in prime-boost strategies in both healthy volunteers and HCV infected patients. I have shown that the induction of T cell immune responses is markedly attenuated when administered to people with persistent HCV viremia. These studies and recently published animal studies using the woodchuck model suggest that potent vaccines based on DNA or adenoviral vectored vaccination represent a rational way forward. However, combining these with drugs to suppress viral replication, alongside checkpoint inhibitors may be required to induce long-term immune control. PMID:25573348

Barnes, Eleanor

2015-02-01

19

HBV serum and renal biopsy markers are associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of HBV-associated nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Accumulated evidence has shown that hepatitis B virus infection is associated with numerous types of nephropathy but it remains to clarify the different role of HBV markers, either in serum or deposit in kidney, in the pathogenesis of HBV-associated nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HBV markers and HBV-associated nephropathy by using multi-linear regression in Chinese patients with HBV-associated membranous nephropathy (MN). Methods: A total of 196 cases of HBV-associated MN, which were diagnosed based on renal biopsy, were collected during the period of January 2000 to December 2009 from our hospital. Serum and renal biopsy HBV markers included HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBC. HBV-associated nephropathy was characterized by a panel of clinical manifestations and pathological parameters, which included proteinuria, hematuria, serum creatinine, hypertension, and renal damage in glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between the HBV markers in serum and renal biopsy and the clinicopathological characteristics of HBV-associated nephropathy. Results: After analysis of the clinical and pathological data in 196 cases of HBV-associated membranous nephropathy, this study revealed that glomerular lesion was marginally associated with serum HBsAg (P = 0.0528), Anti-HBs (P = 0.0978), but significantly associated with the presence of IgA (P = 0.0242), IgG (P < 0.0001) and C3 (P = 0.0064) in renal biopsy. There was no significant association between glomerular lesion and HBV markers in kidney. The presence of crescent and renal tube impairment was not related to HBV markers. The renal fibrosis was significantly related to gender (P = 0.023), age (P = 0.0211), HBsAg (P = 0.0001) and HBcAg (P = 0.0083) and C3 (P = 0.0299) in renal biopsy. Notably, the renal blood vessel impairment was significantly related to systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0.0002), serum HBsAg (P = 0.0428), serum HBeAg (P = 0.0766), FRA (P = 0.0002), and HBsAg (P = 0.0241) and HBcAg (P = 0.0599) in renal tissues. Also, the renal interstitial infiltration was related to patient age (P = 0.015, SBP (P < 0.0001), DBP (P = 0.0001), C3 (P = 0.0028), FRA (P = 0.0165), HBsAg (P = 0.0016) and HBcAg (P = 0.0203) in kidney biopsy. These results suggest that the major pathological changes in kidneys in HBV patients are related to one or more HBV markers, such as HBsAg, HBeAg, or anti-HBs antibody. Besides, most of the pathological changes in kidneys are related to C3 and FRA in kidney tissues. The clinical markers of nephropathy, such as proteinuria, hematuria and creatine serum levels, were also evaluated for their relationship with HBV markers in serum and kidney tissues. We found proteinuria was marginally related to HBV DNA (P = 0.0537), significantly related to IgA (0.0223). Hematouria was significantly related to IgA (P = 0.0434), IgG (P < 0.0001), and C1q (P = 0.0282). The serum creatine level was related to patient gender (P = 0.0077), SBP (P < 0.0001), DBP (0.0049), IgG (P-0.0006), and C3 (P = 0.0113). These clinical manifestations were not related to HBV markers in either serum or kidney. These results indicate that some of clinical manifestations of nephropathy are related to HBV markers, but the relationship is limited. PMID:25550864

Tan, Zhao; Fang, Jing; Lu, Jian-Hua; Li, Wen-Ge

2014-01-01

20

An overview of molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major global public health problems. In India, HBsAg prevalence among general population ranges from 2% to 8%, placing India in intermediate HBV endemicity zone and the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be 50 million, forming the second largest global pool of chronic HBV infections. India is a vast country, comprised

Sibnarayan Datta

2008-01-01

21

The expression of CD2 in chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

It was previously reported that several kinds of intercellular adhesion molecules are closely related to chronic HBV infection. The complex of CD2 and CD58 plays an important role in enhancing the adhesion of T lymphocytes to target cells, and promoting hyperplasia and activation of T lymphocytes. In this study, we detected the level of CD2 expressed on the surface of PBMC, the expression level of CD2 mRNA in PBMC and the percentage of CD2 positive cells in PBMC of patients with chronic HBV infection and compared them with the expression level of normal controls. We also determined the level of serum HBV DNA from patients with chronic HBV infection and from normal controls. The clinical characteristics of hepatic function were tested as well. The results showed that the expression of CD2 significantly increased with the severity of chronic HBV infection, which suggested that CD2 might contribute to the hepatocyte damage in chronic HBV infection. PMID:18318997

Li, Jie; Qi, Baotai; Chen, Ping; He, Linjing; Wang, Ping; Ji, Yuqiang; Xie, Ming

2008-02-01

22

Identification of a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype from Brazil that expresses HBV surface antigen subtype adw4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) from Brazil that expressed the subtype adw4 of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was cloned and sequenced. The genome, termed w4B, consists of 3215 bp. The overall genetic organization of typical hepadnaviruses with four open reading frames including the preC region was found to be conserved. When comparing the w4B sequence with

Heike Naumann; Stephan Schaefer; C. F. T. Yoshida; A. M. C. Gaspar; R. Repp; W. H. Gerlich

1993-01-01

23

An aptamer targets HBV core protein and suppresses HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis is a major health concern worldwide. As current anti-HBV therapies are limited, it is essential to develop new strategies. Aptamer, a newly developed adaptive molecule (single-strand DNA or RNA also known as nucleotide antibody), is a new strategy for clinical diagnosis and therapy due to its high affinity and specificity. In the present study, by systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX), aptamers were screened against the core protein of HBV (HBc) from a random ssDNA library. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that the binding proportions of the SELEX-enriched aptamer pools were increased with the SELEX rounds, until round seven. Thus, the pool of round seven was cloned. Following the sequence analysis of a total of 90 clones by Macaw software, five aptamer candidates were selected and their affinity to HBc was tested by dot blot. Apt.No.28, which had sequence replicates in the clones, was shown to have a high affinity. Furthermore, by agarose gel electrophoresis-capillary transfer-blotting and qPCR, Apt.No.28 was shown to inhibit the assembly of the nucleocapsid, reducing extracellular HBV DNA whose synthesis relied on the formation of the nucleocapsid, indicating its role in suppressing HBV replication. The results provided a new ideal targeting molecule and may facilitate the strategy for targeted therapy as well as drug development of HBV-related diseases. PMID:25174447

Zhang, Zuowei; Zhang, Jun; Pei, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Liu, Jie

2014-11-01

24

Bayesian Inference of the Evolution of HBV/E  

PubMed Central

Despite its wide spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, hepatitis B virus genotype E (HBV/E) has a surprisingly low genetic diversity, indicating an only recent emergence of this genotype in the general African population. Here, we performed extensive phylogeographic analyses, including Bayesian MCMC modeling. Our results indicate a mutation rate of 1.9×10?4 substitutions per site and year (s/s/y) and confirm a recent emergence of HBV/E, most likely within the last 130 years, and only after the transatlantic slave-trade had come to an end. Our analyses suggest that HBV/E originated from the area of Nigeria, before rapidly spreading throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Interestingly, viral strains found in Haiti seem to be the result of multiple introductions only in the second half of the 20th century, corroborating an absence of a significant number of HBV/E strains in West Africa several centuries ago. Our results confirm that the hyperendemicity of HBV(E) in today's Africa is a recent phenomenon and likely the result of dramatic changes in the routes of viral transmission in a relatively recent past. PMID:24312336

Andernach, Iris E.; Hunewald, Oliver E.; Muller, Claude P.

2013-01-01

25

Hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion after HBV reactivation in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can occur in lymphoma patients infected with HBV when they receive chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Prophylactic administration of lamivudine (LAM) reduces the morbidity and mortality associated with HBV reactivation. However, what defines HBV reactivation and the optimal duration of treatment with LAM have not yet been clearly established. HBV reactivation may occur due to the cessation of prophylactic LAM, although re-treatment with nucleoside analogs may sometimes result in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion, which is a satisfactory endpoint for the management of HBV infection. We report a case of HBV reactivation in a 68-year-old HBsAg-positive patient who received rituximab-based immunochemotherapy for follicular lymphoma. HBV reactivation developed following cessation of prophylactic LAM therapy. The patient subsequently received treatment with entecavir (ETV), which led to a rapid and sustained suppression of HBV replication and HBsAg seroconversion. We also appraised the literature concerning HBV reactivation and the role of ETV in the management of HBV reactivation in lymphoma patients. A total of 28 cases of HBV reactivation have been reported as having been treated with ETV during or after immunosuppressive chemotherapy in lymphoma patients. We conclude that ETV is an efficacious and safe treatment for HBV reactivation following LAM cessation in lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-based immunochemotherapy. PMID:24803836

Liu, Wei-Ping; Zheng, Wen; Song, Yu-Qin; Ping, Ling-Yan; Wang, Gui-Qiang; Zhu, Jun

2014-01-01

26

Low Prevalence of Liver Disease but Regional Differences in HBV Treatment Characteristics Mark HIV/HBV Co-Infection in a South African HIV Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in South Africa however, there is limited data on the degree of liver disease and geographic variation in HIV/HBV coinfected individuals. In this study, we analysed data from the CIPRA-SA ‘Safeguard the household study’ in order to assess baseline HBV characteristics in HIV/HBV co-infection participants prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Methods 812 participants from two South African townships Soweto and Masiphumelele were enrolled in a randomized trial of ART (CIPRA-SA). Participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV DNA. FIB-4 scores were calculated at baseline. Results Forty-eight (5.9%) were HBsAg positive, of whom 28 (58.3%) were HBeAg positive. Of those with HBV, 29.8% had an HBV DNA<2000 IU/ml and ALT<40 IU/ml ; 83.0% had a FIB-4 score <1.45, consistent with absent or minimal liver disease. HBV prevalence was 8.5% in Masiphumelele compared to 3.8% in Soweto (relative risk 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3–4.0). More participants in Masiphumelele had HBeAg-negative disease (58% vs. 12%, p?=?0.002) and HBV DNA levels ?2000 IU/ml, (43% vs. 6% p<0.007). Conclusion One third of HIV/HBV co-infected subjects had low HBV DNA levels and ALT while the majority had indicators of only mild liver disease. There were substantial regional differences in HBsAg and HbeAg prevalence in HIV/HBV co-infection between two regions in South Africa. This study highlights the absence of severe liver disease and the marked regional differences in HIV/HBV co-infection in South Africa and will inform treatment decisions in these populations. PMID:24324573

Ive, Prudence; MacLeod, William; Mkumla, Nompumelelo; Orrell, Catherine; Jentsch, Ute; Wallis, Carole L.; Stevens, Wendy; Wood, Robin; Sanne, Ian; Bhattacharya, Debika

2013-01-01

27

Possible origins and evolution of the hepatitis B virus (HBV).  

PubMed

All members of the family Hepadnaviridae are primarily viruses which contain double-stranded DNA genomes that are replicated via reverse transcription of a pregenomic RNA template. There are two subgroups within this family: mammalian and avian. The avian member's include the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), heron hepatitis B virus, Ross goose hepatitis B virus, stork hepatitis B virus and the recently identified parrot hepatitis B virus. More recently, the detection of endogenous avian hepadnavirus DNA integrated into the genomes of zebra finches has revealed a deep evolutionary origin of hepadnaviruses that was not previously recognised, dating back over 40 million years ago. The non-primate mammalian members of the Hepadnaviridae include the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), the ground squirrel hepatitis virus and arctic squirrel virus, as well as the recently described bat hepatitis virus. The identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in higher primates such as chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbons that cluster with the human genotypes further implies a more complex origin of this virus. By studying the molecular epidemiology of HBV in indigenous and relict populations in Asia-Pacific we propose a model for the origin and evolution of HBV that involves multiple cross-species transmissions and subsequent recombination events on a background of genotype C HBV infection. PMID:24013024

Locarnini, Stephen; Littlejohn, Margaret; Aziz, Muhammad Nazri; Yuen, Lilly

2013-12-01

28

Lichen planus as a Side Effect of HBV Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferrando et al. [1]in this tissue of Dermatology report a further case of lichen planus (LP) occurring after vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV). We are aware of 18 cases [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11], including 2 observed by us and still unpublished (table 1). What could have been a coincidence in 1990 [2], should

A. Rebora; F. Rongioletti; F. Drago; A. Parodi

1999-01-01

29

Construction and Immunological Evaluation of Multivalent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Virus-Like Particles Carrying HBV and HCV Epitopes?  

PubMed Central

A multivalent vaccine candidate against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was constructed on the basis of HBV core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) as carriers. Chimeric VLPs that carried a virus-neutralizing HBV pre-S1 epitope corresponding to amino acids (aa) 20 to 47 in the major immunodominant region (MIR) and a highly conserved N-terminal HCV core epitope corresponding to aa 1 to 60 at the C terminus of the truncated HBc? protein (N-terminal aa 1 to 144 of full-length HBc) were produced in Escherichia coli cells and examined for their antigenicity and immunogenicity. The presence of two different foreign epitopes within the HBc molecule did not interfere with its VLP-forming ability, with the HBV pre-S1 epitope exposed on the surface and the HCV core epitope buried within the VLPs. After immunization of BALB/c mice, specific T-cell activation by both foreign epitopes and a high-titer antibody response against the pre-S1 epitope were found, whereas an antibody response against the HBc carrier was notably suppressed. Both inserted epitopes also induced a specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) response, as shown by the gamma interferon (IFN-?) production profile. PMID:20410327

Sominskaya, Irina; Skrastina, Dace; Dislers, Andris; Vasiljev, Denis; Mihailova, Marija; Ose, Velta; Dreilina, Dzidra; Pumpens, Paul

2010-01-01

30

Serum Sphingolipids Reflect the Severity of Chronic HBV Infection and Predict the Mortality of HBV-Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

Patients with HBV-acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) have high mortality and frequently require liver transplantation; few reliable prognostic markers are available. As a class of functional lipids, sphingolipids are extensively involved in the process of HBV infection. However, their role in chronic HBV infection remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the serum sphingolipid profile in a population of patients with chronic HBV infection, paying special attention to exploring novel prognostic markers in HBV-ACLF. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to examine the levels of 41 sphingolipids in 156 serum samples prospectively collected from two independent cohorts. The training and validation cohorts comprised 20 and 28 healthy controls (CTRL), 29 and 23 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 30 and 26 patients with HBV-ACLF, respectively. Biometric analysis was used to evaluate the association between sphingolipid levels and disease stages. Multivariate analysis revealed difference of sphingolipid profiles between CHB and HBV-ACLF was more drastic than that between CTRL and CHB, which indicated that serum sphingolipid levels were more likely to associate with the progression HBV-ACLF rather than CHB. Furthermore, a 3-month mortality evaluation of HBV-ACLF patients showed that dhCer(d18?0/24?0) was significantly higher in survivors than in non-survivors (including deceased patients and those undergoing liver transplantation, p<0.05), and showed a prognostic performance similar to that of the MELD score. The serum sphingolipid composition varies between CTRL and chronic HBV infection patients. In addition, dhCer(d18?0/24?0) may be a useful prognostic indicator for the early prediction of HBV-ACLF. PMID:25136927

Liu, Shuang; Wu, Cai-Sheng; Duan, Zhong-Ping; Zhang, Jin-Lan

2014-01-01

31

Emergence of HBV resistance to lamivudine (3TC) in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in The Gambia, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Lamivudine (3TC) is a potent inhibitor of both Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) replication and is part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the Gambia. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of 3TC against HBV is limited by the emergence of resistant strains. Aim The aim of this retrospective study was to characterise 3TC-resistant mutations in HBV from co-infected patients receiving HAART, by generating HBV polymerase sequence data and viral loads from HBV genotype E infected patients, both at initiation and during a course of 3TC therapy. Method Samples from 21 HBV chronic carriers co-infected with HIV-1 (n = 18), HIV-2 (n = 2) and HIV-dual (n = 1) receiving HAART for a period of 6-52 months were analysed for the emergence of 3TC-resistance mutations. Findings Sixteen out of 21 HBV/HIV co-infected patients responded well to HAART treatment maintaining suppression of HBV viraemia to low (? 104 copies/mL) (n = 5) or undetectable levels (< 260 copies/ml) (n = 11). Out of the 5 non-responders, 3 had developed 3TC-resistant HBV strains showing mutations in the YMDD motif at position 204 of the RT domain of the HBV polymerase. One patient showed the M204V+ L180M+ V173L+ triple mutation associated with a vaccine escape phenotype, which could be of public health concern in a country with a national HBV vaccination programme. All except one patient was infected with HBV genotype E. Conclusions Our findings confirm the risk of 3TC mutations in HAART patients following monotherapy. This is a novel study on 3TC resistance in HBV genotype E patients and encourage the use of tenofovir (in association with 3TC), which has not shown unequivocally documented HBV resistance to date, as part of first-line therapy in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in West Africa. HBV- hepatitis B infection; HIV- human immunodeficiency virus; HAART- antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22195774

2011-01-01

32

The CRISPR/Cas9 System Facilitates Clearance of the Intrahepatic HBV Templates In Vivo.  

PubMed

Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) under current antiviral therapy is a major barrier to eradication of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Curing CHB will require novel strategies for specific disruption of cccDNA. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is a newly developed tool for site-specific cleavage of DNA targets directed by a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) base-paired to the target DNA sequence. To examine whether this system can cleave HBV genomes, we designed eight gRNAs against HBV of genotype A. With the HBV-specific gRNAs, the CRISPR/Cas9 system significantly reduced the production of HBV core and surface proteins in Huh-7 cells transfected with an HBV-expression vector. Among eight screened gRNAs, two effective ones were identified. Interestingly, one gRNA targeting the conserved HBV sequence acted against different genotypes. Using a hydrodynamics-HBV persistence mouse model, we further demonstrated that this system could cleave the intrahepatic HBV genome-containing plasmid and facilitate its clearance in vivo, resulting in reduction of serum surface antigen levels. These data suggest that the CRISPR/Cas9 system could disrupt the HBV-expressing templates both in vitro and in vivo, indicating its potential in eradicating persistent HBV infection. PMID:25137139

Lin, Su-Ru; Yang, Hung-Chih; Kuo, Yi-Ting; Liu, Chun-Jen; Yang, Ta-Yu; Sung, Ku-Chun; Lin, You-Yu; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Yueh-Chi; Wu, Fang-Yi; Kao, Jia-Horng; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer

2014-01-01

33

HBV Outreach Programs Significantly Increase Knowledge and Vaccination Rates Among Asian Pacific Islanders.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100 % (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75 % (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64 %, p < 0.001). Outreach campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations. PMID:25476035

Zacharias, Tresa; Wang, Winnie; Dao, Doan; Wojciechowski, Helena; Lee, William M; Do, Son; Singal, Amit G

2014-12-01

34

The CRISPR/Cas9 System Facilitates Clearance of the Intrahepatic HBV Templates In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) under current antiviral therapy is a major barrier to eradication of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Curing CHB will require novel strategies for specific disruption of cccDNA. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is a newly developed tool for site-specific cleavage of DNA targets directed by a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) base-paired to the target DNA sequence. To examine whether this system can cleave HBV genomes, we designed eight gRNAs against HBV of genotype A. With the HBV-specific gRNAs, the CRISPR/Cas9 system significantly reduced the production of HBV core and surface proteins in Huh-7 cells transfected with an HBV-expression vector. Among eight screened gRNAs, two effective ones were identified. Interestingly, one gRNA targeting the conserved HBV sequence acted against different genotypes. Using a hydrodynamics-HBV persistence mouse model, we further demonstrated that this system could cleave the intrahepatic HBV genome-containing plasmid and facilitate its clearance in vivo, resulting in reduction of serum surface antigen levels. These data suggest that the CRISPR/Cas9 system could disrupt the HBV-expressing templates both in vitro and in vivo, indicating its potential in eradicating persistent HBV infection. PMID:25137139

Lin, Su-Ru; Yang, Hung-Chih; Kuo, Yi-Ting; Liu, Chun-Jen; Yang, Ta-Yu; Sung, Ku-Chun; Lin, You-Yu; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Yueh-Chi; Wu, Fang-Yi; Kao, Jia-Horng; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Chen, Pei-Jer

2014-01-01

35

HBV life cycle is restricted in mouse hepatocytes expressing human NTCP  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed that human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1 or NTCP) is a functional cellular receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether human NTCP can support HBV infection in mouse hepatocyte cell lines has not been clarified. Because an HBV-permissible mouse model would be helpful for the study of HBV pathogenesis, it is necessary to investigate whether human NTCP supports the susceptibility of mouse hepatocyte cell lines to HBV. The results show that exogenous human NTCP expression can render non-susceptible HepG2 (human), Huh7 (human), Hepa1–6 (mouse), AML-12 (mouse) cell lines and primary mouse hepatocyte (PMH) cells susceptible to hepatitis D virus (HDV) which employs HBV envelope proteins. However, human NTCP could only introduce HBV susceptibility in human-derived HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not in mouse-derived Hepa1–6, AML-12 or PMH cells. These data suggest that although human NTCP is a functional receptor that mediates HBV infection in human cells, it cannot support HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Our study indicated that the restriction of HBV in mouse hepatocytes likely occurs after viral entry but prior to viral transcription. We have excluded the role of mouse hepatocyte nuclear factors in the restriction of the HBV life cycle and showed that knockdown or inhibition of Sting, TBK1, IRF3 or IRF7, the components of the anti-viral signaling pathways, had no effect on HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Therefore, murine restriction factors that limit HBV infection need to be identified before a HBV-permissible mouse line can be created. PMID:24509445

Li, Hanjie; Zhuang, Qiuyu; Wang, Yuze; Zhang, Tianying; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Junfang; Lin, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ningshao; Han, Jiahuai

2014-01-01

36

Chimeric hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) subviral envelope particles induce efficient anti-HCV antibody production in animals pre-immunized with HBV vaccine.  

PubMed

The development of an effective, affordable prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a medical priority. The recently described chimeric HBV-HCV subviral envelope particles could potentially be used for this purpose, as they could be produced by industrial procedures adapted from those established for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine. We show here, in an animal model, that pre-existing immunity acquired through HBV vaccination does not influence the immunogenicity of the HCV E2 protein presented by these chimeric particles. Thus, these chimeric HBV-HCV subviral envelope particles could potentially be used as a booster in individuals previously vaccinated against HBV, to induce protective immunity to HCV. PMID:25596457

Beaumont, Elodie; Roingeard, Philippe

2015-02-18

37

Mother-to-child transmission of HBV: review of current clinical management and prevention strategies.  

PubMed

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV is responsible for approximately half of the HBV transmission routes and continues to be a challenging problem worldwide. Even after the development of effective vaccines and clear World Health Organization guidelines toward HBV several decades ago, 1-9% newborns of HBV-carrying mothers still acquire HBV in early life as a result of in utero infection. The prevention of MTCT is of high importance, because chronically infected individuals function as a reserve for sustained HBV transmission, and 25% of them can develop asymptomatic liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this article, we review the canonical and novel HBV infection routes/mechanisms, influencing factors, diagnostic criteria, and interruption strategies for HBV MTCT. The preventative strategy of HBV MTCT has evolved from routine postpartum HB immune globulin (HBIG) plus HB vaccine schedules to administration of HBIG or nucleoside analogs during pregnancy and minimizing the exposure of maternal body fluids to the newborn during delivery. PMID:24956038

Ma, Lin; Alla, Nageswara R; Li, Xiaomao; Mynbaev, Ospan A; Shi, Zhongjie

2014-11-01

38

Prevalence of HBV genotypes among Egyptian hepatitis patients.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis has led to the classification of hepatitis B virus into eight genotypes, designated A to H. The genotypes have differences in biological properties and show heterogeneity in their global distribution. These attributes of the genotypes may account not only for differences in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus mutants in various geographic regions, but also makes them responsible for differences in the clinical outcome and response to antiviral treatment in different population groups. Africa is one of the highly endemic regions of HBV with five genotypes (A-E) identified. Almost all patients in the Mediterranean area are infected with genotype D. However, there is little information of genotype distribution in Egypt. A total of 140 Egyptian patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive were enrolled in this study. Of the 140 patients, only 100 patients were HBV DNA positive and only these were included in the study. They were classified into 20 patients with acute hepatitis (AH), 75 patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and 5 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV genotypes were determined using INNO-LiPA methodology which is based on the reversed hybridization principle. This study showed that genotype D constituted 87% of the total infections (75 CAH cases, 7 AH cases and 5 HCC cases). The other 13% showed mixed infections of D/F. These findings show that the most prevalent genotype in Egypt is genotype D especially in CAH and HCC patients while the mixed type D/F is only encountered in AH. PMID:21181276

Khaled, Iman A El Aziz; Mahmoud, Ola M; Saleh, Abeya F; Bioumie, Emad E

2011-10-01

39

[Etanercept and chronic infection by HCV and HBV].  

PubMed

Both psoriasis and chronic infections by HBV and HCV have high prevalence. Thus, it is relatively easy for them to coincide in the same patient. If the psoriasis requires systemic treatment, the dermatologist should consider the hepatic comorbidity when selecting an appropriate treatment. Cyclosporine, in addition to other well-known side effects, is an immunosuppressant that may condition worse evolution of the viral hepatitis. On the other hand, retinoids, psoralens and, above all, methotrexate may worsen the liver function. The anti-TNF-|A biological agents are not hepatotoxic and their theoretical contraindication in this context would be because of their action on the immune response and risk of reactivation of the hepatic infection. However, several studies have demonstrated that neither the viral load nor the hepatic inflammation parameters are generally modified negatively when they are used in hepatitis due to HCV. Their use in this context, with correct monitoring, seems, therefore, very reasonable. On the contrary, in chronic hepatitis B virus, there are cases of worsening, even with fatal outcome in some cases, and the use of these biological agents should be reserved for cases having greater need, and always be associated to antiviral treatment and strict monitoring. The review of the recent literature seems to allow the conclusion that the concomitant use of lamivudine would greatly reduce the risk of viral reactivation and, with this condition, the use of etanercept in some HBV+ patients may also be contemplated. PMID:20492886

Bordas, X; Martín-Sala, S

2010-05-01

40

Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains circulating in the northern coast of the Persian Gulf and its comparison with worldwide distribution of HBV subgenotype D1.  

PubMed

Iran is a large country that covers the northern coast of the Persian Gulf. Iranian residents of this coastal region interact closely with people from neighboring countries because of historical and cultural relationships, as well as economic activities. In addition, the inhabitants of this border region have experienced several wars, which have affected public health infrastructures. This study characterized for the first time, the evolution of the full-length genome of HBV strains in asymptomatic carrier patients living in this particular region. In addition, this study was compared and complemented by a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the worldwide geographical distribution of HBV subgenotype D1. Evolutionary analysis demonstrates that patients living in the northern coast of the Persian Gulf are mainly infected with HBV subgenotype D1, subtype ayw2. Specific mutations related to advanced liver disease were found more frequently in these strains compared to other strains isolated from asymptomatic carriers from other regions of Iran. This global comprehensive analysis showed that HBV subgenotype D1 strains have a worldwide distribution and that human mobility and immigration had a large impact on dispersal of HBV subgenotype D1, subtype ayw2 in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran, Syria, and Turkey. In addition to association of subtype ayw2 with subgenotype D1, it was demonstrated that other HBV subtypes like adw2, ayw1, and ayw3 are associated with HBV subgenotype D1 in different regions of the world. This study also revealed a remarkable distribution of subgenotype D1, subtype ayw4 although this particular subtype is associated with subgenotype D4 of HBV in European countries. PMID:24532489

Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Vergote, Valentijn; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Sharifi, Zohre; Sijmons, Steven; Lemey, Philippe; Maes, Piet; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Van Ranst, Marc

2014-05-01

41

Human hepatocytes secrete soluble CD14, a process not directly influenced by HBV and HCV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) patients have elevated plasma levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14). We examined whether human hepatocytes produce sCD14 in vivo, and whether HBV or HCV infections influence this chimeric production.

Philip Meuleman; Sophia Steyaert; Louis Libbrecht; Sibyl Couvent; Freya Van Houtte; Filip Clinckspoor; Bernard de Hemptinne; Tania Roskams; Peter Vanlandschoot; Geert Leroux-Roels

2006-01-01

42

Reactive oxygen species promote heat shock protein 90-mediated HBV capsid assembly.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ROS are also an important factor in HCC because the accumulated ROS leads to abnormal cell proliferation and chromosome mutation. In oxidative stress, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione (GSH) function as part of the defense mechanism. Hsp90 prevents cellular component from oxidative stress, and GSH acts as antioxidants scavenging ROS in the cell. However, it is not known whether molecules regulated by oxidative stress are involved in HBV capsid assembly. Based on the previous study that Hsp90 facilitates HBV capsid assembly, which is an important step for the packing of viral particles, here, we show that ROS enrich Hsp90-driven HBV capsid formation. In cell-free system, HBV capsid assembly was facilitated by ROS with Hsp90, whereas it was decreased without Hsp90. In addition, GSH inhibited the function of Hsp90 to decrease HBV capsid assembly. Consistent with the result of cell-free system, ROS and buthionine sulfoximine (BS), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased HBV capsid formation in HepG2.2.15 cells. Thus, our study uncovers the interplay between ROS and Hsp90 during HBV capsid assembly. PMID:25576869

Kim, Yoon Sik; Seo, Hyun Wook; Jung, Guhung

2015-02-13

43

Chancellor's Memorandum CM-25 LSUHSC Policy on AIDS (HIV) and Hepatitis Virus (HBV)  

E-print Network

Chancellor's Memorandum CM-25 ­ LSUHSC Policy on AIDS (HIV) and Hepatitis Virus (HBV) To: Vice Orleans Chancellor May 15, 2002 Individuals Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) It is a policy of LSUHSC to encourage preventive and early care

44

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen-specific regulatory T cells confer sustained remission to anti-HBV therapy in chronic hepatitis B with acute exacerbation.  

PubMed

Acute exacerbations (AEs) of chronic hepatitis B (CH-B) are thought to be the result of breakdown of immune tolerance on the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Immune tolerance to HBV maintained in CH-B patients without hepatitis is under the control of the host's forkhead box p3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs). Its breakdown mimics the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Severe AEs may lead to liver decompensation and mortalities. Consequently, AEs are currently the major therapeutic targets in patient treatment. In this study, we employed the SYFPEITHI scoring system to identify epitopes on HBV core antigen (HBcAg) for the construction of human leukocyte antigen class II tetramers to measure HBcAg-specific Treg frequencies (Tregf). Upregulation of Treg gene profiling accompanied by increased HBcAg-specific Tregf was detected in AE patients with sustained remission (SR) to anti-HBV therapy. Depletion of Tregs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced proliferation to HBcAg. HBcAg-specific Treg clones inhibited the killing capacity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones in an antigen-independent manner. A greater posttherapy increase in HBcAg-specific Tregf correlated with a higher SR rate to anti-HBV therapy. These results suggest that HBcAg-specific Tregs function as suppressor effectors and confer SR to anti-HBV therapy. PMID:21215784

Koay, Lok-Beng; Feng, I-Che; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Kuo, Hsing-Tao; Lin, Chin-Yih; Chen, Jyh-Jou; Wang, Shih-Ling; Tang, Ling-Yu; Tsai, Sun-Lung

2011-09-01

45

Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by Rheum palmatum L. ethanol extract in a stable HBV-producing cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is a severe health problem in the world. However, there is still not a satisfactory therapeutic\\u000a strategy for the HBV infection. To search for new anti-HBV agents with higher efficacy and less side-effects, the inhibitory\\u000a activities of traditional Chinese medicine Rheum palmatum L. ethanol extract(RPE) against HBV replication were investigated\\u000a in this study. Quantitative real-time polymerase

Yan Sun; Li-jun Li; Jing Li; Zhi Li

2007-01-01

46

Magnum Pro 2000 user's guide  

E-print Network

Magnum Pro 2000 user's guide #12;CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 INSTALLING THE MAGNUM PRO 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 INTRODUCTION The Magnum Pro 2000 is a high performance micro-controller based smoke machine, which features

Skorobogatiy, Maksim

47

Assessment of the COBAS Amplicor HBV Monitor Test for Quantitation of Serum Hepatitis B Virus DNA Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections with potent antiviral therapy often results in dramatic reductions in the levels of viremia to very low levels. Monitoring of serum HBV DNA levels is a consistent method for the assessment of antiviral potency; however, widely used hybridization assays for the monitoring of HBV DNA levels have limited sensitivities and

Vincent A. Lopez; Eric J. Bourne; Michael W. Lutz; Lynn D. Condreay

48

The Anti-hepatitis B Virus Activity of Boehmeria nivea Extract in HBV-viremia SCID Mice.  

PubMed

Boehmeria nivea extract (BNE) is widely used in southern Taiwan as a folk medicine for hepato-protection and hepatitis treatment. In previous studies, we demonstrated that BNE could reduce the supernatant hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in HBV-producing HepG2 2.2.15 cells. In the present study, we established an animal model of HBV viremia and used it to validate the efficacy of BNE in vivo. In this animal model, serum HBV DNA and HBsAg were elevated in accordance with tumor growth. To evaluate the anti-HBV activity of BNE, HBV-viremia mice were built up after one subcutaneous inoculation of HepG2 2.2.15 tumor cells in severe combined immunodeficiency mice over 13 days. The levels of serum HBV DNA were elevated around 10(5)-10(6) copies per milliliter. Both oral and intraperitoneal administration of BNE were effective at inhibiting the production of HBsAg and HBV DNA, whereas tumor growth was not affected by all test articles. Intraperitoneal administration of BNE appeared to have greater potential to inhibit serum HBV DNA levels compared with oral administration under the same dosage. Notably, reduced natural killer cell activity was also observed after high dosage of BNE administration, and this correlated with reduced serum HBV DNA. In conclusion, BNE exhibited potential anti-HBV activity in an animal model of HBV viremia. PMID:18955304

Chang, Jia-Ming; Huang, Kai-Ling; Yuan, Thomas Ta-Tung; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Hung, Le-Mei

2010-06-01

49

A longitudinal study on the incidence and transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV infection among drug users in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study data on the incidence of HBV and HCV were used to indicate the prevalence of and trends in risk behavior, assuming that drug users (DUs) who become infected with HBV or HCV are also at risk for infection with HIV. In addition, we determined to that extent the transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV differed.

E. J. C. Ameijden; J. A. R. Hoek; G. H. C. Mientjes; R. A. Coutinho

1993-01-01

50

The anti-HBV effect mediated by a novel recombinant eukaryotic expression vector for IFN-?  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic hepatitis B is a primary cause of liver-related death. Interferon alpha (IFN-?) is able to inhibit the replication of hepadnavirus, and the sustained and stable expression of IFN-? at appropriate level may be beneficial to HBV clearance. With the development of molecular cloning technology, gene therapy plays a more and more important role in clinical practice. In light of the findings, an attempt to investigate the anti-HBV effects mediated by a eukaryotic expression plasmid (pSecTagB-IFN-?) in vitro was carried out. Methods HBV positive cell line HepG2.2.15 and its parental cell HepG2 were transfected with pSecTagB-IFN-? or empty plasmid by using Lipofectamine™ 2000 reagent. The expression levels of IFN-? were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ELISA methods. The effects of pSecTagB-IFN-? on HBV mRNA, DNA and antigens were analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA assays. RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and western blot were employed to investigate the influence of pSecTagB-IFN-? on IFN-?-induced signal pathway. Furthermore, through qRT-PCR and ELISA assays, the suppressive effects of endogenously expressed IFN-? and the combination with lamivudine on HBV were also examined. Results pSecTagB-IFN-? could express efficiently in hepatoma cells, and then inhibited HBV replication, characterized by the decrease of HBV S gene (HBs) and HBV C gene (HBc) mRNA, the reduction of HBV DNA load, and the low contents of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Mechanism research showed that the activation of Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signal pathway, the up-regulation of IFN-?-induced antiviral effectors and double-stranded (ds) RNA sensing receptors by delivering pSecTagB-IFN-?, could be responsible for these phenomena. Furthermore, pSecTagB-IFN-? vector revealed effectively anti-HBV effect than exogenously added IFN-?. Moreover, lamivudine combined with endogenously expressed IFN-? exhibited stronger anti-HBV effect than with exogenous IFN-?. Conclusion Our results showed that endogenously expressed IFN-? can effectively and persistently inhibit HBV replication in HBV infected cells. These observations opened a promising way to design new antiviral genetic engineering drugs based on IFN-?. PMID:23984795

2013-01-01

51

Hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic HBV-HCV co-infection is correlated to fibrosis and disease duration.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a development of severe liver disease frequently due to HBV and/or HCV infection. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the development of HCC in patients with HBV-HCV chronic infection compared with patients with single HBV or HCV infection and the viral and host factors correlated to HCC in co-infected patients. We studied 268 patients with histology proven chronic hepatitis: 56 had HBV-HCV co-infection (HBV-HCV group), 46 had HBV infection (HBV group) and 166 had HCV infection (HCV group). Patients were followed up for at least 3 years. Viral and host factors were studied. HCC was more frequent in HBV-HCV group (14%) compared with HBV (2%, p = 0.006) and HCV monoinfected (4%, p = 0.006). The Mantel-Haenszel test used to investigate the relationship between HBV-HCV co-infection and development of HCC indicated an association between development of HCC and HBV-HCV co-infection (p < 0.001). In the HBV-HCV group, patients with HCC were significantly older (p = 0.000), had longer disease duration (p = 0.001), higher blood glucose levels (p = 0.001), lower levels of steatosis (p = 0.02), higher levels of fibrosis (p = 0.000), higher HCV RNA (p = 0.01) than those without HCC. ALT, lipid profile, PNPLA3 variant distribution and HBV viral load did not differ among co-infected patients with or without HCC. In conclusion HCC was more frequent in our patients with HBV-HCV co-infection, than in those with HBV or HCV mono-infection; possible associated risk factors for HCC development seem a long duration of disease, high levels of fibrosis and carbohydrate intolerance. PMID:25536644

Zampino, Rosa; Pisaturo, Maria A; Cirillo, Grazia; Marrone, Aldo; Macera, Margherita; Rinaldi, Luca; Stanzione, Maria; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Gentile, Ivan; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Adinolfi, Luigi E; Coppola, Nicola

2015-01-01

52

Preventing primary liver cancer: the HBV vaccination project in the Gambia (West Africa)  

PubMed Central

The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) consisted in the progressive introduction of HBV plasma-derived vaccine in different zones of this African country during the period 1986-1990. The study was launched and coordinated by IARC and is one of the most effective examples of an intervention project that both substantially contributed to our knowledge and to the health of local populations. Similar intervention studies have been carried out in South-East Asia. The studies indicate that the natural history of HBV infection differs in different populations , having a direct relevance for the implementation of HBV vaccination programmes in various parts of the world. PMID:21489216

2011-01-01

53

Exploring the Therapeutic Potentials of iNKT Cells for Anti-HBV Treatment.  

PubMed

CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a group of innate-like regulatory T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Both mouse modeling experiments and human clinical studies have suggested a key role for iNKT cells in anti-HBV immunity and these potent T cells can be explored as a novel therapeutic target for anti-HBV treatment. We aim to humanize mice in the CD1d/iNKT cell lipid presentation system and provide new research tools for identifying novel anti-HBV agents. PMID:25438012

Lawrenczyk, Agnieszka; Kim, Seil; Wen, Xiangshu; Xiong, Ran; Yuan, Weiming

2014-01-01

54

College of Dentistry PRO Prosthodontics  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry PRO Prosthodontics KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped for these patients. Clinic, 110 hours. Prereq: PRO 821; coreq: PRO 830. PRO 834 PRECLINICAL RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY III using manikins. Knowledge gained in previous restorative dentistry courses are applied to more extensive

MacAdam, Keith

55

Characterization of HIV-HBV co-infection in a multi-national HIV-infected cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) epidemic from a global perspective by clinically and virologically characterizing these viruses at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in a multi-national cohort. Methods and design HIV-infected subjects enrolled in two international studies were classified as HIV-HBV co-infected or HIV monoinfected prior to ART. HIV-HBV co-infected subjects were tested for HBV characteristics, hepatitis D virus (HDV), a novel non-invasive marker of liver disease, and drug-resistant HBV. Comparisons between discrete covariates used chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests (and Jonchkheere-Terpstra for trend tests) while continuous covariates were compared using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. Results Of the 2105 HIV-infected subjects from 11 countries, the median age was 34 years and 63% were Black. The 115 HIV-HBV co-infected subjects had significantly higher ALT and AST values, lower body mass index, and lower CD4+ T-cell counts than HIV monoinfected subjects (median 159 cells/mL and 137 cells/mL, respectively, P=0.04). In the co-infected subjects, 49.6% had HBeAg-negative HBV, 60.2% had genotype A HBV, and 13% were HDV positive. Of the HBeAg-negative subjects, 66% had HBV DNA ?2000 IU/ml compared to 5.2% of the HBeAg-positive subjects. Drug-resistant HBV was not detected. Conclusions Screening for HBV in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings is important since it is associated with lower CD4+ T-cell counts. In settings where HBV DNA is not available, HBeAg may be useful to assess the need for HBV treatment. Screening for drug-resistant HBV is not needed prior to starting ART in settings where this study was conducted. PMID:23032418

THIO, Chloe L.; SMEATON, Laura; SAULYNAS, Melissa; HWANG, Hyon; SARAVAN, Shanmugam; KULKARNI, Smita; HAKIM, James; NYIRENDA, Mulinda; IQBAL, Hussain Syed; LALLOO, Umesh G.; MEHTA, Anand S.; HOLLABAUGH, Kimberly; CAMPBELL, Thomas B.; LOCKMAN, Shahin; CURRIER, Judith S.

2013-01-01

56

Sorafenib Combined With Transarterial Chemoembolization in Treating HBV-infected Patients With Intermediate Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

ClinicalTrials.gov

PHENYTOIN/SORAFENIB [VA Drug Interaction]; Liver Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Liver Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; DOXORUBICIN/TRASTUZUMAB [VA Drug Interaction]; HBV

2012-04-24

57

Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific Islander Should Know About Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Pacific Islander should know about hepatitis B and liver cancer Unite against HBV. Jade represents good health ... with chronic hepatitis B and liver cancer. Asian Liver Center at Stanford University 780 Welch Road, CJ ...

58

HBV infection in HIV-infected subjects in the state of Piauí, Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, the prevalence, genotype frequency, and risk factors for HBV infection in 768 HIV-infected subjects living in Piauí were determined. Forty-six (6.0 %) HIV-positive subjects were reactive for HBsAg and positive for HBV-DNA. Genotypes A (71.8 %), F (23.9 %) and D (4.3 %) were identified. Multivariate analysis revealed an association between HIV-HBV coinfection and male gender, older age groups, unprotected sex, reporting more than ten sexual partners throughout life, STD, and tattooing. This study shows the importance of monitoring sites and professionals who perform tattooing and practice safe sex to prevent the spread of HIV and HBV infections. PMID:24264385

Oliveira, Evaldo H; Lima Verde, Roseane M C; Pinheiro, Luiz Marcelo L; Benchimol, Marcos G; Aragão, Ana Luisa E D; Lemos, José Alexandre R; Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir B; Vallinoto, Antonio C R

2014-05-01

59

Prevalence of Hepatitis B e Antigen in Chronic HBV Carriers in North-central Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important clinical problem due to its worldwide distribution and potential of adverse sequelae, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied the prevalence of hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) among individuals determined to be HBV surface antigen-positive (HBsAg+) and analyzed the gender/age category associated with more active HBV infection. A total of 572 HBsAg+ individuals, as determined by a double antibody sandwich ELISA method, participated in the study. They were tested for HbeAg, using a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay. One hundred and ten individuals were found to be HBeAg-positive giving an overall prevalence of 19.2%. Of these 110 individuals, 20 (18.2%) were females, and 90 (81.8%) were males. Thus, the prevalence of HBeAg appears to be higher in males than in females (p<0.05). Our data also revealed that the prevalence of HBeAg was higher in patients between the age-group of 0-10 years and 11-20 years and appeared to decrease with increase in age. Taken together, our data show that approximately 1/5 of HBV-infected individuals are HBeAg+, suggesting that the virus is actively replicating and infecting liver-cells thereby ensuring an HBV-transmission pool within the Nigerian population. We suggest strengthening of the childhood HBV vaccination programmes, massive intervention activities, and treatment programmes, especially among young people to reverse the possible devastating effect of HBV infection. The success of these efforts will depend on our resolution to make the elimination of HBV infection a top priority on the public-health agenda as we start the second decade of this new century. PMID:23304903

Iperepolu, Odunayo H; Zungwe, Timothy; Agwale, Simon M.

2012-01-01

60

Comodo Firewall Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are wary of Trojan viruses and marauding hackers, then this version of Comodo Pro Firewall is worth checking out. The application includes tabs that allow users to customize some of its main features, and while the user interface isn't too fancy, it's still fairly easy to use. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP or Vista.

2008-01-01

61

An Unusual Cause for a Hepatic Flare in a Chronic HBV Carrier  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hepatitis E is an emerging disease in developed countries with an increasing incidence. In developed countries, HEV genotype 3 prevails as a zoonotic disease carried by wild boars or pigs, which usually causes asymptomatic infection. Case Presentation: An asymptomatic HBsAg carrier was tested regularly at a German university hospital and showed no signs of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) activity. At a routine visit, elevated aminotransferases were detected while HBV DNA remained low and the patient was clinically asymptomatic. The laboratory signs of acute hepatitis resolved spontaneously. When aminotransferases returned to normal limits, the patient showed a flare of HBV-replication, which resolved spontaneously. In follow-up, further investigations revealed a resolved hepatitis E (HEV) superinfection causing an acute hepatitis before the HBV flare. No potential risk factors for HEV infection were identified. Conclusions: Elevated aminotransferases in CHB patients are most commonly caused by exacerbation of CHB. Nevertheless, when HBV DNA is not elevated, other reasons should be excluded. Amongst others, superinfection with another hepatotropic virus can be the reason for decompensation of chronic hepatitis B. This case report describes an asymptomatic HEV superinfection followed by a flare in HBV replication in an HBsAg carrier without signs of HBV replication for eight years. In CHB carriers with signs of acute hepatitis, rare causes should be considered as well. HEV should be a part of routine laboratory evaluation for hepatitis flares given the rising number of infections. PMID:25386198

Schulz, Marten; Schott, Eckart

2014-01-01

62

Phosphatidylcholine alteration identified using MALDI imaging MS in HBV-infected mouse livers and virus-mediated regeneration defects.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes the alteration of lipid metabolism and composition during acute infection and liver regeneration in a mouse model. The liver controls lipid biogenesis and bile acid homeostasis. Infection of HBV causes various liver diseases and impairs liver regeneration. As there are very few reports available in the literature on lipid alterations by HBV infection or HBV-mediated liver injury, we have analyzed phospholipids that have important roles in liver regeneration by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) in the livers of HBV model mice. As a result, we identified different phosphatidylcholines (PCs) showing significant changes in their composition as well as cationized ion adduct formation in HBV-infected mouse livers which are associated with virus-mediated regeneration defects. To find the factor of altered PCs, the expression kinetics of enzymes was also examined that regulate PC biosynthesis during liver regeneration. It is noteworthy that the expression of choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A (PCYT1A) was significantly delayed in wild type HBV-expressing livers. Moreover, the amount of hepatic total PC was also significantly decreased in wt HBV-expressing mice. These results suggest that infection of HBV alters the composition of PCs which may involve in HBV-mediated regeneration defects and liver disease. PMID:25101682

Park, Eun-Sook; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Hong, Ji Hye; Park, Yong Kwang; Lee, Joon Won; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

2014-01-01

63

Phosphatidylcholine Alteration Identified Using MALDI Imaging MS in HBV-Infected Mouse Livers and Virus-Mediated Regeneration Defects  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes the alteration of lipid metabolism and composition during acute infection and liver regeneration in a mouse model. The liver controls lipid biogenesis and bile acid homeostasis. Infection of HBV causes various liver diseases and impairs liver regeneration. As there are very few reports available in the literature on lipid alterations by HBV infection or HBV-mediated liver injury, we have analyzed phospholipids that have important roles in liver regeneration by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) in the livers of HBV model mice. As a result, we identified different phosphatidylcholines (PCs) showing significant changes in their composition as well as cationized ion adduct formation in HBV-infected mouse livers which are associated with virus-mediated regeneration defects. To find the factor of altered PCs, the expression kinetics of enzymes was also examined that regulate PC biosynthesis during liver regeneration. It is noteworthy that the expression of choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A (PCYT1A) was significantly delayed in wild type HBV-expressing livers. Moreover, the amount of hepatic total PC was also significantly decreased in wt HBV-expressing mice. These results suggest that infection of HBV alters the composition of PCs which may involve in HBV-mediated regeneration defects and liver disease. PMID:25101682

Park, Eun-Sook; Lee, Jeong Hwa; Hong, Ji Hye; Park, Yong Kwang; Lee, Joon Won; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Kyun-Hwan

2014-01-01

64

Treatment of hepatitis B with lamivudine and tenofovir in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients: factors associated with response.  

PubMed

As therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection evolves, optimizing hepatitis B virus (HBV) treatment and identifying factors that impact its response in the HIV/HBV-coinfected population is critical. We identified retrospectively 45 HBV/HIV-coinfected patients with detectable HBV DNA by the Bayer VERSANT HBV 3.0 bDNA assay (limit of quantification 2000 copies/mL) at baseline and/or year 1 of therapy. Patients were divided into three groups based on the active HBV agent in their antiretroviral regimen: group 1 (n = 15) received lamivudine; group 2 (n = 10), lamivudine plus tenofovir and group 3 (n = 20), lamivudine followed by lamivudine plus tenofovir. HBV genotypes and resistance profiles were determined by the Bayer Trugene HBV 1.0 assay. More patients in group 2 achieved HBV DNA suppression below 2000 copies/mL (80%), loss of HBe antigen (HBeAg) (40%) and loss of HBeAg and gain of anti-HBe (20%) than did patients in group 1 or 3. More patients with HBV genotype A, achieved HBV DNA suppression <2000 copies/mL than did patients with non-A genotypes [74% (26/35) vs 20% (2/10)], respectively (P = 0.003). Risk for virological nonresponse was significant in those with non-A genotypes [odds ratio (OR) 11.1; 95% CI: 2.0-50], previous HIV therapy (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 1.2-35) and <90% compliance (OR 3.7; 95% CI: 0.99-14.3). Simultaneous therapy with lamivudine/tenofovir suppresses HBV DNA more effectively than lamivudine or tenofovir added to lamivudine. More patients infected with HBV genotype A responded than the non-A patients, regardless of therapeutic regimen, compliance or prior HIV therapy. PMID:17305883

Jain, M K; Comanor, L; White, C; Kipnis, P; Elkin, C; Leung, K; Ocampo, A; Attar, N; Keiser, P; Lee, W M

2007-03-01

65

Effective compounds screening from Rabdosia serra (Maxim) Hara against HBV and tumor in vitro  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to screen and investigate the anti-HBV and anti-tumor activities of separated compounds from Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara to lay the basis for further isolate active entity. Three kinds of extractions from Rabdosia serra using different solvents (petroleum ether, acetidin, butyl alcohol) were prepared and used to analyze their anti-HBV activity in HepG2.2.15 cells for further separation. The cytotoxicity of each extraction was tested by MTT assay, the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in supernatants from HepG2.2.15 cells were detected by ELISA and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, the most effective extraction was further separated, the anti-HBV activities of separated compounds were also tested by MTT and ELISA, and three compounds with highest cytotoxicity were selected to further identify their anti-tumor activities on MCF-7, BGC-823 and HepG2 cells. Acetidin extraction C2 had the most effective anti-HBV activity that was used to be further separated, it led to statistically significant reduction in HBsAg and HBeAg secretion and HBV DNA. The separation of C2 resulted in 14 compounds, A3 and A5 markedly inhibited HBsAg secretion, while A9 inhibited HBeAg secretion in a dose-dependent manner with higher TI comparing with C2. A6, A7, A11 had different anti-tumor activity against different tumor cells. These data showed that the extraction and their separated effective compounds had strong inhibitory effect on HBV replication so as to have anti-HBV activity, and further separation and purification could enhance anti-HBV activity. Meanwhile, some compounds have high cytotoxicities on different tumor cells. Our study could provide a theoretical basis for the next clinical use and the development of potential and efficient drugs for HBV and tumor therapy from Rabdosia serra. PMID:24600493

Chen, Cheng; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Hongyuan; Xiao, Yiyun; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Zhao, Jingfeng; Chen, Yuxiang

2014-01-01

66

A novel hepatitis B virus (HBV) subgenotype D (D8) strain, resulting from recombination between genotypes D and E, is circulating in Niger along with HBV/E strains.  

PubMed

Niger is a west African country that is highly endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The seroprevalence for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) is about 20%; however, there are no reports on the molecular epidemiology of HBV strains spreading in Niger. In the present study, HBV isolates from the sera of 58 consecutive, asymptomatic, HBsAg-positive blood donors were characterized. Genotype affiliation was determined by amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the preS1, polymerase/reverse transcriptase (RT/Pol) and precore (preC)/C regions. The first series of results revealed that different genomic fragments clustered with different genotypes on phylogenetic trees, suggesting recombination events. Twenty-four complete genomic sequences were obtained by amplification and sequencing of seven overlapping regions covering the whole genome, and were studied by extensive phylogenetic analysis. Among them, 20 (83.3%) were classified unequivocally as genotype E (HBV/E). The remaining four (16.7%) clustered on a distinct branch within HBV/D with strong bootstrap and posterior probability values. Complete molecular characterization of these four strains was achieved by the Simplot program, bootscanning analysis and cloning experiments, and enabled us to identify an HBV/D-E recombinant that formed a new HBV/D subgenotype spreading in Niger, tentatively named D8. Moreover, 20 new complete HBV/E nucleotide sequences were determined that exhibited higher genetic variability than is generally described in Africa. One was found to be a recombinant containing HBV/D sequences in the preS2 and RT/Pol regions. Taken together, these data suggest that, in Niger, genetic variability of HBV strains is still evolving, probably reflecting ancient endemic HBV infection. PMID:20147517

Abdou Chekaraou, Mariama; Brichler, Ségolène; Mansour, Waël; Le Gal, Frédéric; Garba, Aminata; Dény, Paul; Gordien, Emmanuel

2010-06-01

67

Pharmacokinetics of Anti-HBV Polyoxometalate in Rats  

PubMed Central

Polyoxometalates are non-nucleoside analogs that have been proven to exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral activity. In particular, Cs2K4Na[SiW9Nb3O40].H2O 1 shows low toxicity and high activity against HBV. The preclinical pharmacokinetics of Compound 1 in rats were characterized by establishing and applying inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method to determine the concentration of W in plasma, urine, feces, bile and organ samples. The quantitative ICP-MS method demonstrated good sensitivity and application in the pharmacokinetics study of polyoxometalates. The pharmacokinetic behavior of Compound 1 after intravenous or oral administration fit a two-compartment model. Tmax ranges from 0.1 h to 3 h and the T1/2 of Compound 1 is between 20 h and 30 h. The absolute bioavailability of Compound 1 at 45, 180 and 720 mg/kg groups were 23.68%, 14.67% and 11.93%, respectively. The rates of plasma protein binding of Compound 1 at 9, 18 and 36 mg/ml of Compound 1 are 62.13±9.41%, 71.20±24.98% and 49.00±25.59%, respectively. Compound 1 was widely distributed throughout the body, and high levels of compound 1 were found in the kidney and liver. The level of Compound 1 in excretion was lower: 30% for urine, 0.28% for feces and 0.42% for bile, respectively. For elaborate pharmacokinetic characteristics to be fully understood, the metabolism of Compound 1 needs to be studied further. PMID:24921932

Qi, Yanfei; Li, Jinhua; Song, Xiuling; Li, Li; Yin, Dehui; Xu, Kun; Li, Juan

2014-01-01

68

HBV DNA and other hepatitis B virus markers in sera from long-term hemodialysis and kidney transplant patients.  

PubMed

Sera from 191 long-term hemodialysis patients and from 115 renal transplant patients were studied for the presence of HBsAg and other HBV markers. In 19.1% of the hemodialysis patients and 28.7% of the transplant patients, the sera were positive for HBeAg.HBV DNA in sera was detected by molecular hybridization. HBV DNA was present in the sera of 15 out of 16 hemodialysis patients positive for HBeAg, and in one hemodialysis patient positive for anti-HBe. All renal transplant patients positive for HBeAg were also positive for HBV DNA. Twelve transplant patients were positive for HBV DNA, but negative for both HBeAg and anti-HBe. Determination of HBV DNA was the most sensitive marker of infectivity in patients with end-stage renal disease, and in renal transplant patients. PMID:3053386

Theilmann, L; Gmelin, K; Rambausek, M; Dreikorn, K; Bommer, J; Kommerell, B; Pfaff, E

1988-08-01

69

Pro-Poor Tourism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), an independent, UK-based, think tank, this site contains a selection of resources related to pro-poor tourism (PPT). Different than "sustainable tourism" and related initiatives, PPT is defined simply as "tourism that generates net benefits for the poor." At this site, visitors can learn more about PPT and read case studies, a report, a policy briefing, working papers, and other publications.

70

Liver type I regulatory T cells suppress germinal center formation in HBV-tolerant mice.  

PubMed

The liver plays a critical role in inducing systemic immune tolerance, for example, during limiting hypersensitivity to food allergy and in rendering acceptance of allotransplant or even hepatotropic pathogens. We investigated the unknown mechanisms of liver tolerance by using an established hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse model, and found that these mice exhibited an antigen-specific tolerance toward peripheral HBsAg vaccination, showing unenlarged draining lymph node (DLN), lower number of germinal centers (GC), and inactivation of GC B cells and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Both in vivo and in vitro immune responses toward HBsAg were suppressed by mononuclear cells from HBV-carrier mice, which were CD4(+) Foxp3(-) type 1 regulatory T (Tr1)-like cells producing IL-10. Using recipient Rag1(-/-) mice, hepatic Tr1-like cells from day 7 of HBV-persistent mice acquired the ability to inhibit anti-HBV immunity 3 d earlier than splenic Tr1-like cells, implying that hepatic Tr1-like cells were generated before those in spleen. Kupffer cell depletion or IL-10 deficiency led to impairment of Tr1-like cell generation, along with breaking HBV persistence. The purified EGFP(+)CD4(+) T cells (containing Tr1-like cells) from HBV-carrier mice trafficked in higher numbers to DLN in recipient mice after HBsAg vaccination, and subsequently inactivated both Tfh cells and GC B cells via secreting IL-10, resulting in impaired GC formation and anti-HB antibody production. Thus, our results indicate Tr1-like cells migrate from the liver to the DLN and inhibit peripheral anti-HBV immunity by negatively regulating GC B cells and Tfh cells. PMID:24089450

Xu, Long; Yin, Wenwei; Sun, Rui; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

2013-10-15

71

Antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses to soluble hepatitis B virus (HBV) S antigen in mice: implication for the pathogenesis of HBV-induced hepatitis.  

PubMed Central

Immune responses to components of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are assumed to play an essential role not only in the elimination of the virus but also in the pathogenesis of HBV-induced hepatitis. Protective humoral immunity to HBV is mediated by immune responses to HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). It is important to know which HBsAg preparations induce which type of cellular and humoral immune responses under which immunization conditions. We studied in BALB/c mice the humoral (antibody) response and the class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to different preparations of HBsAg particles: recombinant, small protein particles; plasma-derived, mixed particles formed by large, medium, and small surface proteins; and different preparations of recombinant, mixed particles formed by large and small surface proteins. Specific antibody levels appeared in the sera of immunized mice 2 to 3 weeks after immunization and were correlated with the antigen dose used for priming. HBsAg-specific antibody levels were enhanced by boost injections or by adsorbing the antigen to aluminum hydroxide. Injected in particulate form without adjuvants in the dose range of 0.1 to 10 micrograms per mouse, all HBsAg preparations tested efficiently primed specific CD8+ CTL of defined restriction and epitope specificity. Specific CTL reactivity was detectable from 5 days to more than 4 months postimmunization. In the dose range tested, it was independent of the antigen dose used for immunization and not enhanced by repeated boost injections. CTL were not elicited by HBsAg adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. We have thus defined conditions under which HBsAg induced preferentially either a cellular immune response or a humoral immune response. These findings may be relevant for the interpretation of HBV-associated immunopathologic phenomena. Images PMID:8107205

Schirmbeck, R; Melber, K; Mertens, T; Reimann, J

1994-01-01

72

HBsAg genetic elements critical for immune escape correlate with HBV-reactivation upon immunosuppression.  

PubMed

HBV-reactivation during immunosuppression can lead to severe acute hepatitis, fulminant liver failure, and death. Here, we investigated HBsAg genetic-features underlying this phenomenon by analyzing 93 patients: 29 developing HBV-reactivation, and 64 consecutive patients with chronic HBV-infection (as control). HBsAg genetic-diversity was analyzed by population-based and ultra-deep sequencing (UDS). Before HBV-reactivation, 51.7% of patients were isolated anti-HBc positive, 31.0% inactive carriers, 6.9% anti-HBc/anti-HBs positive, 6.9% isolated anti-HBs positive, and 3.4% had an overt HBV-infection. 51.7% of HBV-reactivated patients were treated with rituximab, 34.5% with different chemotherapeutics, and 13.8% with corticosteroids only for inflammatory-diseases. 75.9% of HBV-reactivated patients (versus 3.1% of control-patients, P<0.001) carried HBsAg-mutations localized in immune-active HBsAg regions. Of the 13 HBsAg-mutations found in these patients, 8/13 (M103I-L109I-T118K-P120A-Y134H-S143L-D144E-S171F) reside in major hydrophilic-loop (target of neutralizing-antibodies); some of them are already known to hamper HBsAg-recognition by humoral-response. The remaining 5 (C48G-V96A-L175S-G185E-V190A) are localized in Class-I/II-restricted T-cell epitopes, suggesting a role in HBV-escape from T-cell mediated responses. By UDS, these mutations occurred in HBV-reactivated patients with a median intra-patient prevalence of 73.3%(27.6%-100%) supporting their fixation in viral-population as predominant species. In control-patients carrying such mutations, their median intra-patient prevalence was 4.6%(2.5%-11.3%) (P<0.001). Finally, additional N-linked glycosylation-sites within major hydrophilic-loop were found in 24.1% of HBV-reactivated patients (versus 0% of chronic-patients, P<0.001); 5/7 patients carrying these sites remained HBsAg-negative despite HBV-reactivation. N-linked glycosylation can mask immunogenic-epitopes, abrogating HBsAg-recognition by antibodies. In conclusion, HBV-reactivation occurs in a wide variety of clinical-settings requiring immune-suppressive therapy, and correlates with HBsAg-mutations endowed with enhanced-capability to evade immune-response. This highlights the need of a careful patient's monitoring in all immunosuppressive-settings at reactivation-risk, and of establishing a prompt therapy to prevent HBV-related clinical complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25418031

Salpini, Romina; Colagrossi, Luna; Bellocchi, Maria Concetta; Surdo, Matteo; Becker, Christina; Alteri, Claudia; Aragri, Marianna; Ricciardi, Alessandra; Armenia, Daniele; Pollicita, Michela; Di Santo, Fabiola; Carioti, Luca; Louzoun, Yoram; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Lichtner, Miriam; Paoloni, Maurizio; Esposito, Mariarosaria; D'Amore, Chiara; Marrone, Aldo; Marignani, Massimo; Sarrecchia, Cesare; Sarmati, Loredana; Andreoni, Massimo; Angelico, Mario; Verhejen, Jens; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Svicher, Valentina

2014-11-21

73

Quick genotyping detection of HBV by giant magnetoresistive biochip combined with PCR and line probe assay.  

PubMed

Genotyping of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be used to direct clinically effective therapeutic drug-selection. Herein we report that a quick genotyping method for human HBV was established by a specially designed giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biochip combined with magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs), PCR and line probe assay. Magnetic nanoclusters of around 180 nm in diameter were prepared and modified with streptavidin, and resultant streptavidin-modified magnetic nanoclusters were used for capturing biotin-labeled hybrid products on the detection interface of the sensor. The gene fragments of HBV's B and C gene types were obtained by PCR based on a template of B- and C-type plasmids. After gene fragments were hybridized with captured probes, streptavidin-modified magnetic nanoclusters could bind with biotin-conjugated gene fragments, and the resultant hydride products could be quickly detected and distinguished by the GMR sensor, with a detection sensitivity of 200 IU mL(-1) target HBV DNA molecules. The novel method has great potential application in clinical HBV genotyping diagnosis, and can be easily extended to other biomedical applications based on molecular recognition. PMID:22222368

Zhi, Xiao; Liu, Qingsheng; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yixia; Feng, Jie; Cui, Daxiang

2012-02-21

74

ProVoc  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning a new language can be daunting, but this handy application can make this process a bit friendlier. With ProVoc, users can download existing vocabulary sets for English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Danish, and dozens of other languages. After that, they can run through these words at their leisure on their computer or their iPod for convenience. Finally, the site also includes a FAQ section that answers any number of topical questions about the application. This version is compatible with computers running Mac OS X 10.3 and newer.

2007-01-01

75

A Rare HBV Subgenotype D4 with Unique Genomic Signatures Identified in North-Eastern India –An Emerging Clinical Challenge?  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims HBV has been classified into ten genotypes (A–J) and multiple subgenotypes, some of which strongly influence disease outcome and their distribution also correlate with human migration. HBV infection is highly prevalent in India and its diverse population provides an excellent opportunity to study the distinctiveness of HBV, its evolution and disease biology in variegated ethnic groups. The North-East India, having international frontiers on three sides, is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse region of the country. Given the paucity of information on molecular epidemiology of HBV in this region, the study aimed to carry out an in-depth genetic characterization of HBV prevailing in North-East state of Tripura. Methods From sera of chronically HBV infected patients biochemical/serological tests, HBV DNA quantification, PCR-amplification, sequencing of PreS/S or full-length HBV genomes were done. HBV genotype/subgenotype determination and sequence variability were assessed by MEGA5-software. The evolutionary divergence times of different HBV subgenotypes were estimated by DNAMLK/PHYLIP program while jpHMM method was used to detect any recombination event in HBV genomes. Results HBV genotypes D (89.5%), C (6.6%) and A (3.9%) were detected among chronic carriers. While all HBV/A and HBV/C isolates belonged to subgenotype-A1 and C1 respectively, five subgenotypes of HBV/D (D1–D5) were identified including the first detection of rare D4. These non-recombinant Indian D4 (IndD4) formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, had 2.7% nucleotide divergence and recent evolutionary radiation than other global D4. Ten unique amino acids and 9 novel nucleotide substitutions were identified as IndD4 signatures. All IndD4 carried T120 and R129 in ORF-S that may cause immune/vaccine/diagnostic escape and N128 in ORF-P, implicated as compensatory Lamivudine resistance mutation. Conclusions IndD4 has potential to undermine vaccination programs or anti-viral therapy and its introduction to North-East India is believed to be linked with the settlement of ancient Tibeto-Burman migrants from East-Asia. PMID:25295865

Banerjee, Priyanka; Mondal, Rajiv Kumar; Nandi, Madhuparna; Ghosh, Sumantra; Khatun, Mousumi; Chakraborty, Nabendu; Bhattacharya, Swatilekha; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Banerjee, Soma; Santra, Amal; Sil, Samir; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Bhaumik, Pradip; Datta, Simanti

2014-01-01

76

Association of interleukin-10 with hepatitis B virus (HBV) mediated disease progression in Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokine, is one of the key coordinators of the inflammatory responses involved. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of IL-10 (-819/-592) genotypes, haplotypes, mRNA and the protein levels with risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in India. Methods: A total of 390 subjects (145 controls, 62 inactive HBV-carriers, 64 chronic-active HBV patients, 60 HBV related cirrhotics and 59 HBV- HCC subjects) were enrolled in the study. Allele specific (AS)-PCR, ELISA and RT-PCR methods were used for assessing polymorphism, spontaneous blood levels and the mRNA expression, respectively of IL-10. Results: The study revealed that the CC/TA genotype acted as a risk factor for cirrhosis (ORa=2.02; P<0.05) and the subsequent HCC development (ORa=2.20; P<0.05), with controls as reference. However, no significant association was found between the two haplotypes (CC and TA) observed and HCC risk. Moreover, the IL-10 protein and mRNA levels in peripheral blood mono nuclear cells (PBMCs) showed a significant elevation as the disease progressed to cirrhosis. But, no variation was observed in the IL-10 levels in subjects with different IL-10 genotypes. Interpretation & conclusions: These preliminary results suggest a strong association of IL10 (-819/-592) with the HBV infection mediated disease progression, from inactive carrier state to malignancy, in Indian population. PMID:25027084

Saxena, Roli; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Verma, Indu; Kaur, Jyotdeep

2014-01-01

77

[Liver transplantation for patients infected with both HIV and HCV or HIV and HBV].  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) has been considered until recently as a contraindication for liver transplantation. This was due to the poor spontaneous prognosis of HIV infection. The advent of highly active antiretroviral drugs (HAART) was a therapeutic breakthrough, and the prognosis has been dramatically improved. 30 % and 10 % of HIV infected patients are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and with hepatitis B virus (HBV), respectively. The progression of chronic hepatitis B and C seems more rapid in coinfected patients, and a high number of patients will develop life-threatening liver cirrhosis. There are numerous potential problems raised by liver transplantation in HIV infected patients: (1) the potential risk of needlestick injury during this type of hemorrhagic surgery at high risk of bleeding; (2) the timing for liver transplantation; (3) the risk of interference between HAART and calcineurin inhibitors; (4) The risk of HBV and HCV recurrence post-transplant. Since 1999, a program of liver transplantation has been started in patients coinfected with HIV and HBV or HCV with the support of the Agence Nationale de Recherche contre le Sida et les Hépatites virales (ANRS). The first results showed that liver transplantation in HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV infected patients is feasible, achieving 2-year survival of 70 % and 100 %, respectively. There was no acceleration of HIV disease after transplantation. HBV recurrence was well prevented by the combination of anti-HBs immunoglobulins plus nucleoside and nucleotide analogues effective against HBV. The main problem is HCV recurrence, which is more rapid and more severe in HIV coinfected patients than in HCV monoinfected patients. Understanding HCV recurrence mechanisms, and preventing and treating of HCV recurrence are major future challenges. PMID:17875290

Duclos-Vallée, Jean-Charles; Teicher, Elina; Vittecoq, Daniel; Samuel, Didier

2007-01-01

78

The Role of Antiviral Therapy for HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly prevalent and lethal cancer worldwide; despite the curative treatment for HCC, the rate of tumor recurrence after hepatectomy remains high. Tumor recurrence can occur early (<2 years) or late (>2 years) as metastases or de novo tumors. Several tumor factors were associated with HCC recurrence; high hepatitis B virus (HBV) load is the major risk factor for late recurrence of HCC after resection. Preoperative antiviral therapy improves liver function, and postoperative reduce HCC recurrence. In this paper, we focus on antiviral treatment to improve the liver function, prevent recurrence, and lengthen the overall survival for HBV-related HCC. PMID:21994855

Yu, Liang-He; Li, Nan; Cheng, Shu-Qun

2011-01-01

79

The association of complex liver disorders with HBV genotypes prevalent in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Genotyping of HBV is generally used for determining the epidemiological relationship between various virus strains and origin of infection mostly in research studies. The utility of genotyping for clinical applications is only beginning to gain importance. Whether HBV genotyping will constitute part of the clinical evaluation of Hepatitis B patients depends largely on the availability of the relevance of the evidence based information. Since Pakistan has a HBV genotype distribution which has been considered less virulent as investigated by earlier studies from south East Asian countries, a study on correlation between HBV genotypes and risk of progression to further complex hepatic infection was much needed Methods A total of 295 patients with HBsAg positive were selected from the Pakistan Medical Research Council's (PMRC) out patient clinics. Two hundred and twenty six (77%) were males, sixty nine (23%) were females (M to F ratio 3.3:1). Results Out of 295 patients, 156 (53.2%) had Acute(CAH), 71 (24.2%) were HBV Carriers, 54 (18.4%) had Chronic liver disease (CLD) Hepatitis. 14 (4.7%) were Cirrhosis and HCC patients. Genotype D was the most prevalent genotype in all categories of HBV patients, Acute (108), Chronic (39), and Carrier (53). Cirrhosis/HCC (7) were HBV/D positive. Genotype A was the second most prevalent with 28 (13%) in acute cases, 12 (22.2%) in chronics, 14 (19.7%) in carriers and 5 (41.7) in Cirrhosis/HCC patients. Mixed genotype (A/D) was found in 20 (12.8%) of Acute patients, 3 (5.6%) of Chronic and 4 (5.6%) of carriers, none in case of severe liver conditions. Conclusion Mixed HBV genotypes A, D and A/D combination were present in all categories of patients except that no A/D combination was detected in severe conditions. Genotype D was the dominant genotype. However, genotype A was found to be more strongly associated with severe liver disease. Mixed genotype (A/D) did not significantly appear to influence the clinical outcome. PMID:18042293

Baig, Saeeda; Siddiqui, Anwar Ali; Ahmed, Waqaruddin; Qureshi, Huma; Arif, Ambreen

2007-01-01

80

HBV Induced HCC: Major Risk Factors from Genetic to Molecular Level  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly and emerging disease leading to death in Asian countries. High hepatitis B virus (HBV) load and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection increase the risk of developing HCC. HBV is a DNA virus that can integrate DNA into host genome thereby increase the yield of transactivator protein HBxAg that may deregulate many pathways involving in metabolism of cells. Several monogenic and polygenic risk factors are also involved in HCC development. This review summarizes the mechanism involved in HCC development and discusses some promising therapies to make HCC curative. PMID:23991421

Ayub, Ambreen; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Haque, Asma

2013-01-01

81

Clinical evaluation (phase I) of a combination of two human monoclonal antibodies to HBV: Safety and antiviral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with interferon alfa and lamivudine is characterized by lack of viral clearance, loss of response, or emergence of drug-resistant mutants. Thus, new and multiple drug approaches are needed. We have developed two fully human monoclonal antibodies, directed against different epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) that bind to all major HBV

Eithan Galun; Rachel Eren; Rifaat Safadi; Yaffa Ashour; Norah Terrault; Emmet B. Keeffe; Edith Matot; Sara Mizrachi; Dov Terkieltaub; Merav Zohar; Ido Lubin; Judith Gopher; Daniel Shouval; Shlomo Dagan

2002-01-01

82

Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains ?cta1, ?gsh1 and ?oye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in ?sod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

Ignea, Codru?a; Doroban?u, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

2013-12-15

83

Conformational preferences of X-Pro sequences: Ala-Pro and Aib-Pro motifs.  

PubMed

Conformational preferences and prolyl cis-trans isomerizations of the X-Pro motifs (Ac-X-Pro-NHMe, X = Ala and Aib) are explored using the meta-hybrid functional M06-2X and the double-hybrid functional B2PLYP-D with empirical dispersion corrections in the gas phase and in water, where solvation free energies were calculated using the implicit SMD model. Ac-Ala-Pro-NHMe favors the type VI ?-turns in the gas phase and the open conformations in water. The populations of type VI ?-turns decrease from 71% in the gas phase to 21% in water, which is reasonably consistent with IR and NMR experimental results on tBoc-Ala-Pro-NHMe. However, Ac-Aib-Pro-NHMe prefers the type I ?-turns with ?-helical structures for both residues in the gas phase and in water, whose populations are estimated to be 66% in both phases. These calculated results may rationalize why most of the peptaibiotics containing the Aib-Pro sequence have a regular ?-helical conformation at the N- or C-terminus but a kinked ?-helical structure in the middle of the helix. The cis-trans isomerizations of the Ala-Pro and Aib-Pro peptide bonds proceed via the clockwise rotation with the different backbone conformations. The rotational barriers to cis-to-trans isomerization are estimated to be 19.73 kcal/mol for the Ala-Pro tripeptide and 16.64 kcal/mol for the Aib-Pro tripeptide in water, which indicates that the rotational barrier becomes lower by ~3 kcal/mol for the Aib-Pro peptide bond. The calculated rotational barrier for Ac-Ala-Pro-NHMe is consistent with the observed value of 19.3 kcal/mol for Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA from NMR experiments in a buffered solution. PMID:20949964

Byun, Byung Jin; Song, Il Keun; Chung, Yong Je; Ryu, Keun Ho; Kang, Young Kee

2010-11-11

84

Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw)-based combination vaccines are an attractive option to rapidly achieve high coverage and protection against other important pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). To ensure adequate antigen supply, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has introduced a new DTPw antigen source and developed a new DTPw-HBV/Hib combination vaccine containing a reduced amount of Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine with a licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib). Methods This was a randomized, partially-blind, multicenter study in three countries in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua). Healthy children received either the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (1 of 3 lots; n = 439; double-blind) or Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib (n = 146; single-blind) co-administered with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) at 2, 4 and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18-24 months. Results One month after the end of the 3-dose primary vaccination course, the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib in terms of seroprotection/vaccine response rates for all component antigens; ?97.3% and ?93.9% of subjects in the two groups, respectively, had seroprotective levels of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib and a vaccine response to the pertussis component. Persistence of antibodies against all vaccine antigens was comparable between groups, with marked increases in all antibody concentrations after booster administration in both groups. Both vaccines were generally well-tolerated as primary and booster doses. Conclusions Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00332566 PMID:20950456

2010-01-01

85

Insulin resistance and steatosis in HBV-HCV co-infected patients: Role of PNPLA3 polymorphisms and impact on liver fibrosis progression  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate steatosis, insulin resistance (IR) and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) and their relation to disease progression in hepatitis B and C viruses (HCV-HBV) co-infected patients. METHODS: Three hundred and thirty patients with biopsy proven chronic hepatitis were enrolled: 66 had HBV-HCV, 66 HBV and 198 HCV infection. Prevalence of steatosis, IR and PNPLA3 polymorphisms and their relation to anthropometric, biochemical, virological and histological parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Prevalence of steatosis in group HBV-HCV was similar to that in HCV (47.0% vs 49.5%, respectively); group HBV showed the lowest steatosis (33.3%). Group HBV-HCV had a lesser degree of steatosis than HCV (P = 0.016), lower HCV RNA levels (P = 0.025) and lower prevalence and degree of IR (P = 0.01). PNPLA3 polymorphisms were associated with steatosis. Group HBV-HCV showed higher levels of liver fibrosis than group HCV (P = 0.001), but similar to that observed in HBV group. In HBV-HCV group, liver fibrosis was not associated with steatosis, IR or PNPLA3. HBV infection was the independent predictor of advanced liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: HBV-HCV co-infected patients have lower degree of hepatic steatosis, IR and HCV RNA than HCV mono-infected; co-infected patients showed a more rapid liver fibrosis progression that seems to be due to the double infection and/or HBV dominance. PMID:25276284

Zampino, Rosa; Coppola, Nicola; Cirillo, Grazia; Boemio, Adriana; Minichini, Carmine; Marrone, Aldo; Stanzione, Maria; Starace, Mario; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Restivo, Luciano; Salzillo, Giovanna; Fascione, Maria Chiara; Nevola, Riccardo; del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio

2014-01-01

86

Toll-Like Receptors Signaling Contributes to Immunopathogenesis of HBV Infection  

PubMed Central

Innate and adaptive immune systems have important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). These immune responses are mediated through complex interactions between the innate immune response and adaptive immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune-recognition receptors that recognize the molecular patterns associated with microbial pathogens. So far, TLR1 to 13 were found in human or mice and investigated to detect the target molecules and the downstream mechanisms of these unique systems. Stimulation by their ligands initiates the activation of complex networks of intracellular signaling transduction and innate and adaptive immune-related cells (NK, NK-T, monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, and Tregs, etc.). However, reports on such relationships between HBV and TLRs have been relatively rare in comparison to those on HCV and TLRs, but have recently been increasing. Thus, a review of TLRs involved in the pathogenesis of HBV infection may be needed toward better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HBV infection. PMID:22190911

Kondo, Yasuteru; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2011-01-01

87

Short noncoding DNA fragments improve the immune potency of electroporation-mediated HBV DNA vaccination.  

PubMed

Electroporation (EP)-mediated DNA immunization can elicit effective immune responses in a variety of animals, and is widely used in research studies and clinical trials. However, high-pulse voltage, high DNA dose and multiple immunizations are still required to achieve considerable immune responses. To further improve the efficiency of EP-mediated DNA immunization, many parameters have been tried and optimized in recent years. In our early research, we found that the short noncoding DNA fragments (sf-DNA) can significantly enhance EP-mediated transgene expression of reporter genes. In this study, we tested the effect of sf-DNA on the immune potency of EP-mediated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccination in a mouse model. The results show that the use of sf-DNA in EP-mediated HBV DNA vaccination leads to an enhanced expression of the HBV surface antigen, resulting in higher cellular and humoral responses. Furthermore, the immune responses in the sf-DNA-mediated 120?V cm(-1) EP immunization group were higher than that of the 200?V?cm(-1) EP without sf-DNA groups. These data suggest that the sf-DNA can be used as an effective helper molecule to improve the immune response of EP-mediated HBV DNA vaccination, which may make the EP-mediated DNA vaccination more effective and suitable for animal and clinical application. PMID:24830435

Peng, J; Shi, S; Yang, Z; Ding, Q; Hai, W; Tang, H; Yang, Y; Bernstein, J R; Peyda, P; Xu, Y

2014-07-01

88

Design, synthesis, and bioevaluation of paeonol derivatives as potential anti-HBV agents.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a causative reagent that frequently causes progressive liver diseases, leading to the development of acute, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite several antiviral drugs including interferon-? and nucleotide derivatives are approved for clinical treatment for HBV, critical issues remain unresolved, e.g., low-to-moderate efficacy, adverse side effects, and resistant strains. In this study, novel Paeonol-phenylsulfonyl derivatives were synthesized and their antiviral effect against HBV was evaluated. The experimental results indicated that these compounds process significant antiviral potential, including the inhibition of viral antigen expression and secretion, and the suppression of HBV viral DNA replication. Among compounds synthesized in this research, compound 2-acetyl-5-methoxyphenyl 4-methoxybenzenesulfonate (7f) had the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.36 ?M, and high selectivity index, SI (TC50/IC50) 47.75; which exhibited an apparent inhibition effect on viral gene expression and viral propagation in cell culture model. So, we believe our compounds could serve as reservoir for antiviral drug development. PMID:25461891

Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Chuang, Hong; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Hsien; Horng, Jia-Cherng; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Wen; Tsai, Fu-Yuan; Yen, Shih-Chieh; Chou, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Ming-Hua

2015-01-27

89

Antiviral Activity of Cardiospermum Halicacabum L. Extract against Coinfecting Agents HIV and HBV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current inadequate and inefficient market drugs used for the control and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with hepatitis viruses (HBV) poses serious threats to public health. The medicinal plant Cardiospermum halicacabum, having known anticancer and immunostimulatory activity was explored for their control in this study. The plant active principles extracted using five solvents were identified, and tested for

Kasi Murugan; Rengasami Venkatesh Prabu; Shanmugasamy Sangeetha; Saleh Al-Sohaibani

2011-01-01

90

HBV and HIV co-infection: Impact on liver pathobiology and therapeutic approaches  

PubMed Central

The consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on progression of severe liver diseases is a serious public health issue, worldwide. In the co-infection cases, about 90% of HIV-infected population is seropositive for HBV where approximately 5%-40% individuals are chronically infected. In HIV co-infected individuals, liver-related mortality is estimated over 17 times higher than those with HBV mono-infection. The spectrum of HIV-induced liver diseases includes hepatitis, steatohepatitis, endothelialitis, necrosis, granulomatosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. Moreover, HIV co-infection significantly alters the natural history of hepatitis B, and therefore complicates the disease management. Though several studies have demonstrated impact of HIV proteins on hepatocyte biology, only a few data is available on interactions between HBV and HIV proteins. Thus, the clinical spectrum as well as the complexity of the co-infection offers challenging fronts to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and to design effective therapeutic strategies.

Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

2015-01-01

91

Polyarteritis Nodosa and Extrahepatic Manifestations of HBV Infection: The Case Against Autoimmune Intervention in Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous extrahepatic manifestations have been reported in patients with both acute and chronic hepatitis B (arthralgias or arthritis, skin rashes, glomerulonephritis and neuritis), all of which are present in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) which is the most unique and spectacular extrahepatic manifestation. In the 1970s, the frequency of PAN due to the hepatitis B (HBV) reached 30%. Immunization programs explain the

Christian Trepo

2001-01-01

92

The Role of Proliferating Infected Hepatocytes on the Dynamics of an HBV-infected Liver  

E-print Network

The Role of Proliferating Infected Hepatocytes on the Dynamics of an HBV-infected Liver Sarah Hews, sometimes with liver failure. A global stability result of the liver failure state is included. It infects hepatocytes, the main cells found in the liver, and can lead to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis

Kuang, Yang

93

HBV and HIV co-infection: Impact on liver pathobiology and therapeutic approaches.  

PubMed

The consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on progression of severe liver diseases is a serious public health issue, worldwide. In the co-infection cases, about 90% of HIV-infected population is seropositive for HBV where approximately 5%-40% individuals are chronically infected. In HIV co-infected individuals, liver-related mortality is estimated over 17 times higher than those with HBV mono-infection. The spectrum of HIV-induced liver diseases includes hepatitis, steatohepatitis, endothelialitis, necrosis, granulomatosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. Moreover, HIV co-infection significantly alters the natural history of hepatitis B, and therefore complicates the disease management. Though several studies have demonstrated impact of HIV proteins on hepatocyte biology, only a few data is available on interactions between HBV and HIV proteins. Thus, the clinical spectrum as well as the complexity of the co-infection offers challenging fronts to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and to design effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:25625003

Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

2015-01-27

94

Ethnic Differences in Prevalence and Barriers of HBV Screening and Vaccination Among Asian Americans  

PubMed Central

Our study identifies the prevalence of HBV virus (HBV) screening and vaccination among Asian Americans, and ethnic differences for factors associated with screening and vaccination behaviors. In 2009–2010 we recruited 877 Korean, Chinese, and Vietnamese Americans 18 years of age and above through several community organizations, churches and local ethnic businesses in Maryland for a health education intervention and a self-administered survey. Prevalence of HBV screening, screening result and vaccinations were compared by each ethnic group. We used logistic regression analysis to understand how sociodemographics, familial factors, patient-, provider-, and resource-related barriers are associated with screening and vaccination behaviors, using the total sample and separate analysis for each ethnic group. Forty-seven percent of participants reported that they had received HBV screening and 38% had received vaccinations. Among the three groups, the Chinese participants had the highest screening prevalence, but lowest self-reported infection rate; Vietnamese has the lowest screening and vaccination prevalence. In multivariate analysis, having better knowledge of HBV, and family and physician recommendations was significantly associated with screening and vaccination behaviors. Immigrants who had lived in the US for more than a quarter of their lifetime were less likely to report ever having been screened (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.28–0.55) or vaccinated (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44–0.88). In ethnic-specific analysis, having a regular physician (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.62–12.25) and doctor's recommendation (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.05–4.22) are significantly associated with Korean's vaccination behaviors. Health insurance was associated with vaccination behaviors only among Vietnamese (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.21–5.83), but not among others. PMID:22302652

Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Tanaka, Miho

2013-01-01

95

Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xiao, Gengfu, E-mail: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2011-09-09

96

Genotype I of hepatitis B virus was found in east Xishuangbanna, China and molecular dynamics of HBV/I.  

PubMed

There is a dearth of data about the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Mengla, China; and no detailed analysis of the molecular evolution of genotype I in Asia. In this study, 909 serum samples from ethnic minority people in China were obtained. Serological assay and HBV S-gene amplification were carried out, and phylogenetic and evolutionary dynamics analysis of 62 HBV/I S-gene was performed. On this survey, 153 individuals were tested HBsAg-positive. Genotypes of S-gene were classified into three groups: C, B and I. Under the strict model and the relax model, the estimated evolutionary rates for HBV/I were 3.74 × 10(-4) and 6.93 × 10(-4) substitution/site/year, respectively. However, when the geographic origin was taken into account, the mean substitution rates were increased. Estimated time to most recent ancestor of genotype I varied from ~30 to ~70 years ago. The Bayesian sky plot showed a rapid spread of HBV/I at the end of 1980s. Peculiar nucleotides distributed were observed in the subgenotype I1/I2. In conclusion, higher prevalence of HBV infection was observed in Mengla county. Multifactors like timescale and spatial locations should be integrated to provide a better interpretation of the HBV/I evolutionary history in the region. PMID:24548532

Shen, T; Yan, X M; Liu, H X; Zhang, B X; Li, L; Zhang, J P; Wang, J L; Xiao, C J

2015-01-01

97

Anti-HBV effect of individual traditional Chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM. PMID:23730837

Chen, Y; Zhu, J

2013-07-01

98

Leukocyte Telomere Length-Related rs621559 and rs398652 Genetic Variants Influence Risk of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified eleven leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Since LTL has been associated with risk of many malignancies, LTL-related SNPs may contribute to cancer susceptibility. To test this hypothesis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we genotyped these eleven LTL-related SNPs in a case-control set including 1186 HBV-related HCC cases, 508 chronic HBV carriers and 1308 healthy controls at the discovery stage. The associations of HCC risk with these SNPs were further confirmed in an independent case-control set. We found that 1p34.2 rs621559 and 14q21 rs398652 were significantly associated with HBV-related HCC risk (both P<0.005 after Bonferroni corrections). There was no significant difference of either rs621559 or rs398652 genotypes between chronic HBV carriers and healthy controls, demonstrating that the association was not due to predisposition to HBV infection. In the pooled analyses (1806 HBV-related HCC cases and 1954 controls), we observed a decreased HCC risk, 0.72-times, associated with the 1p34.2 rs621559 AA genotype compared to the GG genotype (P?=?1.6×10?6). Additionally, there was an increased HCC risk, 1.27-fold, associated with the rs398652 GG genotype (P?=?3.3×10?6). A statistical joint effect between the rs621559 GG and rs398652 GG genotypes may exist in elevating risk of HBV-related HCC. We show, for the first time, that rs398652 and rs621559 might be marker genetic variants for risk of HBV-related HCC in the Chinese population. PMID:25365256

Shi, Juan; Lu, Chao; Wei, Jinyu; Li, Lichao; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Zhou, Liqing; Yang, Ming

2014-01-01

99

Association of HLA and TNF polymorphisms with the outcome of HBV infection in the South Indian population.  

PubMed

The role of host genetic factors in the pathogenesis and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not well known. We assessed the association of HLA and TNF (rs361525, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630 and rs1799964) polymorphisms with HBV outcome in the South Indian population. Association of HLA polymorphism was analyzed in 90 individuals from each group, that is, spontaneous recovery (SR) and chronic-HBV (C-HBV) infection. The role of TNF polymorphisms was evaluated in 150 subjects with SR and 137 patients with C-HBV infection. After adjusting for age and sex, HLA-DRB1*07:01 was strongly associated with chronicity (corrected P-value (pc) <0.005, odds ratio (OR) 3.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-7.68). The rs1800630 genotype was associated with HBV outcome in codominant (pc<0.01, OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.30-3.05) and dominant (pc<0.01, OR=2.28, 95% CI 1.35-3.84) analyzing models after adjusting for age and sex. Similarly, the rs1799964 genotype was associated with HBV outcome in codominant (pc=0.01, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.09-2.27) and dominant (pc<0.01, OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.27-3.83) analyzing models. Haplotype analysis (rs1799964/rs1800630/rs1799724/rs1800629/rs361525) revealed that the CACGG haplotype was strongly associated with C-HBV infection (P=0.0004). Our study suggests that inheritance of HLA and TNF polymorphisms might explain the outcome of HBV infection in the South Indian population. PMID:21593777

Fletcher, G J; Samuel, P; Christdas, J; Gnanamony, M; Ismail, A M; Anantharam, R; Eapen, C E; Chacko, M P; Daniel, D; Kannangai, R; Abraham, P

2011-10-01

100

Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by helper dependent adenoviral vectors expressing artificial anti-HBV pri-miRs from a liver-specific promoter.  

PubMed

Research on applying RNA interference (RNAi) to counter HBV replication has led to identification of potential therapeutic sequences. However, before clinical application liver-specific expression and efficient delivery of these sequences remain an important objective. We recently reported short-term inhibition of HBV replication in vivo by using helper dependent adenoviral vectors (HD Ads) expressing anti-HBV sequences from a constitutively active cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. To develop the use of liver-specific transcription regulatory elements we investigated the utility of the murine transthyretin (MTTR) promoter for expression of anti-HBV primary microRNAs (pri-miRs). HD Ads containing MTTR promoter effected superior expression of anti-HBV pri-miRs in mice compared to HD Ads containing the CMV promoter. MTTR-containing HD Ads resulted in HBV replication knockdown of up to 94% in mice. HD Ads expressing trimeric anti-HBV pri-miRs silenced HBV replication for 5 weeks. We previously showed that the product of the codelivered lacZ gene induces an immune response, and the duration of HBV silencing in vivo is likely to be attenuated by this effect. Nevertheless, expression of anti-HBV pri-miRs from MTTR promoter is well suited to countering HBV replication and development of HD Ads through attenuation of their immunostimulatory effects should advance their clinical utility. PMID:25003129

Mowa, Mohube Betty; Crowther, Carol; Ely, Abdullah; Arbuthnot, Patrick

2014-01-01

101

Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Helper Dependent Adenoviral Vectors Expressing Artificial Anti-HBV Pri-miRs from a Liver-Specific Promoter  

PubMed Central

Research on applying RNA interference (RNAi) to counter HBV replication has led to identification of potential therapeutic sequences. However, before clinical application liver-specific expression and efficient delivery of these sequences remain an important objective. We recently reported short-term inhibition of HBV replication in vivo by using helper dependent adenoviral vectors (HD Ads) expressing anti-HBV sequences from a constitutively active cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. To develop the use of liver-specific transcription regulatory elements we investigated the utility of the murine transthyretin (MTTR) promoter for expression of anti-HBV primary microRNAs (pri-miRs). HD Ads containing MTTR promoter effected superior expression of anti-HBV pri-miRs in mice compared to HD Ads containing the CMV promoter. MTTR-containing HD Ads resulted in HBV replication knockdown of up to 94% in mice. HD Ads expressing trimeric anti-HBV pri-miRs silenced HBV replication for 5 weeks. We previously showed that the product of the codelivered lacZ gene induces an immune response, and the duration of HBV silencing in vivo is likely to be attenuated by this effect. Nevertheless, expression of anti-HBV pri-miRs from MTTR promoter is well suited to countering HBV replication and development of HD Ads through attenuation of their immunostimulatory effects should advance their clinical utility. PMID:25003129

Mowa, Mohube Betty; Crowther, Carol; Ely, Abdullah; Arbuthnot, Patrick

2014-01-01

102

Assembly-directed antivirals differentially bind quasi-equivalent pockets to modify HBV capsid tertiary and quaternary structure  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver disease. Assembly of the HBV capsid is a critical step in virus production and an attractive target for new antiviral therapies. We determined the structure of HBV capsid in complex with AT-130, a member of the phenylpropenamide family of assembly effectors. AT-130 causes tertiary and quaternary structural changes, but does not disrupt capsid structure. AT-130 binds a hydrophobic pocket that also accommodates the previously characterized HAP compounds, but favors a unique quasi-equivalent location on the capsid surface. Thus, this pocket is a promiscuous drug binding site and a likely target for different assembly effectors with a broad range of mechanisms of activity. That AT-130 successfully decreases virus production by increasing capsid assembly rate without disrupting capsid structure delineates a new paradigm in antiviral design, that disrupting reaction timing is a viable strategy for assembly effectors of HBV and other viruses. PMID:23871485

Katen, Sarah P.; Tan, Zhenning; Chirapu, Srinivas Reddy; Finn, MG; Zlotnick, Adam

2013-01-01

103

Multineuropathy in a patient with HBV infection, polyarteritis nodosa and celiac disease.  

PubMed

We report on the first association of celiac disease, polyarteritis nodosa and HBV infection in a patient who developed a neuropathy. On admission his general and neurological conditions were severely compromised. Haematological test revealed HBV infection and high levels of antibodies to tissue transglutaminase, endomysium, gliadin. EMG showed sensory-motor asymmetric axonal neuropathy. A sural nerve biopsy revealed fibre loss, axonal degeneration with asymmetrical distribution and fascicular ischaemia. A duodenal biopsy was consistent with celiac disease. The patient was treated with immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy, and gluten-free diet with good result. Celiac disease can be related to a higher risk of autoimmune disorders and may have contributed to the development of multineuropathy in this patient. PMID:18810449

Squintani, Giovanna; Ferrari, Sergio; Caramaschi, Paola; Cavallaro, Tiziana; Refatti, Nicola; Rizzuto, Nicola; Tonin, Paola

2009-03-01

104

Ultrastructure of hepatorenal cell populations in patients with HCV and HBV infection markers. Hepatorenal associations.  

PubMed

Hepatorenal cell populations were studied in patients with HCV and HBV infection markers and renal dysfunction. Pronounced mosaicism of ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes was associated with polymorphic cytopathic effects caused by RNA-genome hepatitis C virus and DNA-genome hepatitis B virus. The destructive component of the tubular compartment predominated in renal biopsy specimens from patients, with subsequent degeneration of the tubular epithelium associated with progressive interstitial fi brosis. Immunohistochemical studies detected HCV NS3Ag and HBcAg structural marker in the tubular epitheliocytes. An appreciable part of the structural and functional changes in the liver in patients with HCV and HBV infections was caused by the therapeutic complex, including programmed hemoperfusion. PMID:25430651

Nepomnyashchikh, G I; Bakarev, M A; Nepomnyashchikh, D L; Yudanov, A V; Kapustina, V I; Postnikova, O A; Vinogradova, E V; Rusinova, S G; Telegina, T A

2014-12-01

105

Decreased Serum Hepcidin Concentration Correlates with Brain Iron Deposition in Patients with HBV-Related Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. Methods Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. Results Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. Conclusions Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional brain iron repletion. Serum hepcidin may be a clinical biomarker for brain iron deposition in cirrhotic patients, which may have therapeutic potential. PMID:23776499

Liu, Jian-Ying; He, Yi-Feng; Dai, Zhi; Chen, Cai-Zhong; Cheng, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Xin

2013-01-01

106

Histologic Disease in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B, High HBV DNA, and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have presented new options as well as challenges. Serum\\u000a alanine aminotransferase (ALT) continues to be one of the three principal parameters used by all existing treatment guidelines\\u000a to identify candidates for antiviral therapy. Although there is little controversy that inactive carriers and young immune\\u000a tolerant patients can be monitored

Joseph K. Lim; Walid S. Ayoub; Mindie H. Nguyen

2010-01-01

107

Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV Co-Infection and Risk Factors Analysis in Tripoli-Libya  

PubMed Central

Background In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population. Methods A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay. Results A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20–40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection. Conclusion HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned. PMID:24936655

Daw, Mohamed A.; Shabash, Amira; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnya A.

2014-01-01

108

Course of virologic breakthroughs under long-term lamivudine in HBeAg-negative precore mutant HBV liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the course of virologic breakthroughs detected by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in 32 of 78 patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative precore mutant hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic liver disease under long-term lamivudine monotherapy. Serum HBV DNA levels were measured every 3 months and on every biochemical breakthrough. YMDD mutants were detected in 30

George V. Papatheodoridis; Evangelini Dimou; Andreas Laras; Vassilios Papadimitropoulos; Stephanos J. Hadziyannis

2002-01-01

109

Rituximab-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoproliferative diseases: meta-analysis and examination of FDA safety reports  

PubMed Central

Background: Rituximab has been associated with hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBV-R). However, the characteristics and scope of this association remain largely undefined. Methods: We completed a comprehensive literature search of all published rituximab-associated HBV-R cases and from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) MedWatch database. Literature and FDA cases were compared for completeness, and a meta-analysis was completed. Results: One hundred and eighty-three unique cases of rituximab-associated HBV-R were identified from the literature (n = 27 case reports, n = 156 case series). The time from last rituximab to reactivation was 3 months (range 0–12), although 29% occurred >6 months after last rituximab. Within FDA data (n = 118 cases), there was a strong signal for rituximab-associated HBV-R [proportional reporting ratio = 28.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 23.9–34.1; Empiric Bayes Geometric Mean = 26.4, 95% CI 21.4–31.1]. However, the completeness of data in FDA reports was significantly inferior compared with literature cases (P < 0.0001). Among HBV core antibody (HBcAb(+)) series, the pooled effect of rituximab-based therapy showed a significantly increased risk of HBV-R compared with nonrituximab-treated patients (odds ratio 5.73, 95% CI 2.01–16.33; Z = 3.33, P = 0.0009) without heterogeneity (?2 = 2.12, P = 0.5473). Conclusions: The FDA AERS provided strong HBV-R safety signals; however, literature-based cases provided a significantly more complete description. Furthermore, meta-analysis of HBcAb(+) series identified a more than fivefold increased rate of rituximab-associated HBV-R. PMID:21115603

Evens, A. M.; Jovanovic, B. D.; Raisch, D. W.; Ganger, D.; Belknap, S. M.; Dai, M.-S.; Chiu, B.-C. C.; Fintel, B.; Cheng, Y.; Chuang, S.-S.; Lee, M.-Y.; Chen, T.-Y.; Kuo, C.-Y.

2011-01-01

110

PRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes_121112  

E-print Network

PRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes is the inability to run a report showing changes/additions to the PRO database. Linda has investigated that Digital on changes to the database to clients. An alternative is to run reports at various intervals and compare them

111

Is universal better than selective immunization in developing world? Vaccines (HBV).  

PubMed

Rumi et al. conducted a study to estimate the economic rationale for introducing routine prenatal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening and prescribing combined passive-active immunization to at-risk babies in Bangladesh. They concluded that universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization may be more cost-effective than selective immunization in developing countries such as Bangladesh and India, and have therefore called for the replacement of selective vaccination with universal vaccination in Bangladesh. Given the limited available facilities in Bangladesh for antenatal checkup and laboratory tests, the universal vaccination of newborns is the more simple logistical option to control HBV infection. The Global Advisory Group of the Expanded Program on Immunization and World Health Assembly has recommended that countries with higher than a 2% prevalence of HBV carriers add hepatitis B vaccine to their routine infant immunization schedules. In the Southeast Asian region, however, only Indonesia, Mongolia, Thailand, and the Maldives have begun such routine hepatitis B immunization. Economic constraints have prevented other countries in the region from following suit. PMID:12294767

Boyles, S

1998-10-19

112

Interaction between Cigarette Smoking and HBV or HCV Infection on the Risk of Liver Cancer: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic infection with HBV and HCV as well as cigarette smoking are established risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it is unclear whether an interaction exists between these factors in causing hepatocellular carcinogenesis. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the interaction of HBV and HCV infection and cigarette smoking on the risk of HCC. Methods We systematically searched the PUBMED and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A total of 16 eligible publications were identified. Cigarette smoking, and chronic HBV and HCV infections were dichotomized into present or absent. Additive (S) and multiplicative interaction indexes (V) between smoking and each of the two infections and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for each study and then combined in a meta-analysis. Results We found a more than additive interaction between HBV infection and cigarette smoking (S=1.44, 95% CI=1.00–2.06; 9 studies) and a more than multiplicative interaction (V=1.60, 95% CI=1.16–2.20; 6 studies) between HCV infection and cigarette smoking. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion Smoking appears to interact with both HBV and HCV in determining HCC risk. A pooled analysis of individual subject data, with appropriate adjustment with other risk factors is warranted to confirm these results. Impact Chronic carriers of HBV and HCV are suggested to avoid smoking. PMID:20447919

Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Dai, Min; Zheng, Tongzhang; Boffetta, Paolo

2014-01-01

113

Antihepatitis B Virus Activity of a Protein-Enriched Fraction from Housefly (Musca domestica) in a Stable HBV-Producing Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health problem. Although several vaccines and therapeutic strategies are currently being implemented to combat HBV virus, effective antiviral therapy against HBV infection has not been fully developed. Alternative strategies and new drugs to combat this disease are urged. Insects and insect derivatives are a large and unexploited source of potentially useful compounds for modern medicine. In the present study, we investigated the first anti-HBV activity of a protein-enriched fraction (PE) from the larvae of the housefly (Musca domestica) in a stable HBV-producing cell line. HBsAg and HBeAg in the culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HBV-DNA was quantified by fluorescent quantification PCR. HBV core protein was assayed by immunofluorescent staining. Results indicate PE treatment inhibited both HBsAg, HBeAg secretion, and HBV-DNA replication. Furthermore, PE could also suppress HBV core protein expression. PE could be a potential candidate for the development of a novel and effective drug for the treatment of HBV infection. PMID:25050391

Chu, Fujiang; Zhu, Jiayong

2014-01-01

114

The prevalence of HBV infection in the cohort of IDPs of war against terrorism in Malakand Division of Northern Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B is an important public health problem in the Pakistani population and is the major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. High prevalence of HBV infections has been observed especially in areas of low economic status. In spite of effective immunization programs, no significant change has been observed in the epidemiology of HBV in the rural areas of Pakistan (~67.5% of the total population) mainly due to lack of interest from government authorities and poor hygienic measures. The current study was aimed at estimating the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV infection within internally displaced persons (IDPs) due to war against terrorism in the Malakand Division of Northern Pakistan. Methods Blood samples from 950 IDPs suspected with HBV infection (including both males and females) were collected and processed with commercial ELISA kits for HBsAg, Anti HBs, HBeAg, Anti HBe antibodies. The samples positive by ELISA were confirmed for HBV DNA by real-time PCR analysis. Results The overall prevalence of HBV observed was 21.05% of which 78.5% were males and 21.5% were females. Most confirmed HBV patients belong to the Malakand and Dir (lower) district. High-risk of infection was found in the older subjects 29.13% (46-60 years), while a lower incidence (11.97%) was observed in children aged <15 years. Lack of awareness, socioecomic conditions, sexual activities and sharing of razor blades, syringes and tattooing needles were the most common risk factors of HBV infection observed during the cohort of patients. Conclusion The present study, revealed for the first time a high degree of prevalence of HBV infection in rural areas of Northern Pakistan. The noticed prevalence is gender- and age-dependent that might be due to their high exposures to the common risk factors. To avoid the transmission of HBV infection proper awareness about the possible risk factors and extension of immunization to the rural areas are recommended. PMID:21689435

2011-01-01

115

TP53 Mutations and HBX Status Analysis in Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Iran: Evidence for Lack of Association between HBV Genotype D and TP53 R249S Mutations  

PubMed Central

High incidence of HCC is mostly due to the combination of two major risk factors, chronic infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and/or C (HCV) viruses and exposure to the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, which induces a particular mutation at codon 249 in TP53 (R249S). Eight genotypes of HBV are diversely found in high and low incidence areas. Regardless of documented strong associations between TP53 R249S mutation and HBV genotypes B, C, A or E, there is no report of such association for genotype D despite of the presence of aflatoxin in areas with high prevalence of HBV genotype D. In Iran, 3% of the population is chronically infected with HBV, predominantly genotype D. Twenty-one histologically confirmed HCC cases from Iran were analyzed for TP53 R249S and HBV double mutations 1762T/1764A, hallmarks of more pathogenic forms of HBV. We did not detect any of these mutations. In addition, we report the only case identified so far carrying both R249S mutation and chronic HBV genotype D, a patient from The Gambia in West Africa. This paper suggests that association between HBV genotype D and aflatoxin-induced TP53 mutation is uncommon, explaining the relatively lower incidence of HCC in areas where genotype D is highly prevalent. PMID:21869931

Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Gouas, Doriane; Villar, Stephanie; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Hainaut, Pierre

2011-01-01

116

Comprehensive Analysis of Common Serum Liver Enzymes as Prospective Predictors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HBV Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Serum liver enzymes are frequently tested in clinics to aid disease diagnosis. Large observational studies indicated that these enzymes might predict cancer risk and mortality. However, no prospective study has reported on their relationships with the risk of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the predictive values of four routinely tested liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT]) in HCC risk in a prospectively enrolled clinical cohort of 588 Korean American HBV patients. For all four enzymes, the baseline level as well as the average and maximum levels during the first 1 or 2 years of follow-up were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Patients were categorized into a normal or an elevated group based on the clinical cut-off of each enzyme. During a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 52 patients (incidence rate, 8.8%) developed HCC. The incidence rates were higher in the elevated groups for all four enzymes. The most significant finding was for GGT, with the highest incidence rate of 16.4% in the elevated group compared to 4.6% in the normal group (P<0.001). Compared to patients with normal baseline GGT, those with elevated GGT exhibited a significantly increased HCC risk with a hazards ratio (HR) of 2.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41–4.77, P?=?0.002). Further analyses revealed a cumulative effect between baseline GGT and ALP (HR?=?3.41, 95% CI 1.54–7.56, P?=?0.003). Conclusions Significance Serum GGT might predict HCC risk in HBV patients individually or jointly with other enzymes. PMID:23112834

Myers, Ronald E.; Hann, Richard S.; Xing, Jinliang; Chen, Bicui; Yang, Hushan

2012-01-01

117

The direct and indirect roles of HBV in liver cancer: prospective markers for HCC screening and potential therapeutic targets.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains the number one risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for more than 600 000 deaths/year. Despite highly effective antiviral treatment options, chronic hepatitis B (CHB), subsequent end-stage liver disease and HCC development remain a major challenge worldwide. In CHB, liver damage is mainly caused by the influx of immune cells and destruction of infected hepatocytes, causing necro-inflammation. Treatment with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues can effectively suppress HBV replication in patients with CHB and thus decrease the risk for HCC development. Nevertheless, the risk of HCC in treated patients showing sufficient suppression of HBV DNA replication is significantly higher than in patients with inactive CHB, regardless of the presence of baseline liver cirrhosis, suggesting direct, long-lasting, predisposing effects of HBV. Direct oncogenic effects of HBV include integration in the host genome, leading to deletions, cis/trans-activation, translocations, the production of fusion transcripts and generalized genomic instability, as well as pleiotropic effects of viral transcripts (HBsAg and HBx). Analysis of these viral factors in active surveillance may allow early identification of high-risk patients, and their integration into a molecular classification of HCC subtypes might help in the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25196558

Ringelhan, Marc; O'Connor, Tracy; Protzer, Ulrike; Heikenwalder, Mathias

2015-01-01

118

Optimization of in vitro HBV replication and HBsAg production in HuH7 cell line.  

PubMed

The Gunther's vector-free method (GM), using PCR-amplified full length HBV-DNA (fl-HBV-DNA), is currently the best in vitro HBV replication system despite the low intracellular HBV-DNA production. The replication efficiency and HBsAg secretion of 12 isolates from HBsAg/HBeAg positive sera by GM, Monomer-Linear-Sticky-Ends-DNA (MLSE) and Monomer-Circular-Closed (MCC) were compared in HuH7 cells. Eight of twelve genomes (67%) were replication competent by GM; however direct sequencing (DS) showed that more than 80% of input DNA was undigested in spite of SapI treatment. Replication Intermediates (RI) were detected earlier (24 vs. 48h) and in higher amounts (2.51±0.32 and 6.43±0.43 fold) by MCC than GM or MLSE. By MCC 10 of 12 genomes (83%) were replication competent and 7 produced high RI levels. RI and HBsAg kinetics correlated positively in MCC (R=0.696, p=0.017 overall; R=0.928, p=0.008), but not in GM (R=-0.437, p=0.179 overall; R=-0.395, p=0.439) in genotype D isolates. In conclusion, HBV-DNA circularization prior transfection improves in vitro viral replication and replication competent HBsAg production, mimicking better the in vivo conditions. PMID:23391821

Cavallone, Daniela; Moriconi, Francesco; Colombatto, Piero; Oliveri, Filippo; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana

2013-04-01

119

HBeAg/anti-HBe, alanine aminotransferase and HBV DNA levels in HBsAg positive chronic carriers.  

PubMed

Serum samples from a total of 72 chronic hepatitis B virus carriers were analysed by serological, biochemical and molecular assays. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of the serological and biochemical parameters with molecular markers in order to assess the infectivity of virus. Out of 72 chronic HBsAg positive carriers, 28 patients were HBeAg positive and anti-HBe negative, 38 patients were HBeAg negative and anti-HBe positive, only 3 patients were positive for both HBeAg and anti-HBe and the rest 3 patients were negative for both markers. Detectable HBV DNA lcvcl was found in 92.86% HBsAg-positive/anti-HBe negative patients along with raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (67.86%) compared with HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe positive carriers (36.84%) (p value = 0.02) and out a total of 38 HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe positive carriers, 12 (31.58%) patients had detectable lcvel of HBV DNA. Among the 14 HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe positive patients with elevated ALT level, 8 (57.14%) had detectable HBV DNA whereas out of 24 HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe positive patients with normal ALT level only 4 (16.66%) had detectablc HBV DNA lcvel. Significantly high rate of detection of HBV DNA was seen among anti-HBe positive patients with raised ALT level compared with the patients with normal ALT level (p value = 0.01). PMID:19119537

Rabbi, Fareha Jesmin; Rezwan, Md Kamar; Shirin, Tahmina

2008-08-01

120

Overexpression of HGF Promotes HBV-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Is an Effective Indicator for Met-Targeting Therapy  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well-known cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the regulators effectively driving virus production and HCC progression remain unclear. By using genetically engineered mouse models, we show that overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) accelerated HCC progression, supporting the genomic analysis that an up-regulated HGF signature is associated with poor prognosis in HBV-positive HCC patients. We show that for both liver regeneration and spontaneous HCC development there is an inclusive requirement for MET expression, and when HGF induces autocrine activation the tumor displays sensitivity to a small-molecule Met inhibitor. Our results demonstrate that HGF is a driver of HBV-induced HCC progression and may serve as an effective biomarker for Met-targeted therapy. MET inhibitors are entering clinical trials against cancer, and our data provide a molecular basis for targeting the Met pathway in hepatitis B–induced HCC. PMID:24167653

Su, Yanli; Dykema, Karl; Johnson, Jennifer; Koeman, Julie; De Giorgi, Valeria; Huang, Alan; Schlegel, Robert; Essenburg, Curt; Kang, Liang; Iwaya, Keiichi; Seki, Shuhji; Khoo, Sok Kean; Zhang, Boheng; Buonaguro, Franco; Marincola, Francesco M.; Furge, Kyle; Vande Woude, George F.

2013-01-01

121

Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

2009-01-01

122

A new lignan with anti-HBV activity from the roots of Bombax ceiba.  

PubMed

A new lignan bombasinol A (1), together with three known compounds was obtained from the ethanol (95%) extract of roots of Bombax ceiba L. through its being subjected to silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Their structures were elucidated as 4-(4-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)hexahydrofuro[3,4-c]furan-1-yl)-2-methoxy-phenol (1), 5,6-dihydroxymatairesinol (2), (+)-pinoresinol (3) and matairesinol (4) on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 1-D and 2-D NMR (HSQC and HMBC) experiments and by comparison of the data with those previously reported literatures. All these compounds were the first reported from Bombacaceae. The anti-Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) activity of all compounds isolated from B. ceiba in the research was evaluated. From the results of the HBV assay, these tested compounds showed inhibitory activity against HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines. Compounds 1-4 showed relative differences in their abilities to inhibit HBsAg secretion, with IC50 values of 118.3, 123.7, 118.9 and 218.2 mM, respectively. PMID:23140388

Wang, Guo Kai; Lin, Bin Bin; Rao, Rao; Zhu, Kan; Qin, Xiao Ying; Xie, Guo Yong; Qin, Min Jian

2013-08-01

123

High occurrence of HBV among STD clinic attenders in Bombay, India.  

PubMed

The pattern of sexually transmitted disease (STD) is the basis for designing surveillance of specific STD, their trends and syndromic management protocols. Two hundred and fifteen consecutive first-time STD clinic attenders at a teaching hospital in Bombay were recruited for the study in October 1995. Thorough clinical examination and the following investigations were done: wet mount, Gram stain, Giemsa stain, modified Thayer-Martin (MTM) medium culture, Fontana stain, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL), Treponema pallidium haemagglutination test (TPHA), HBsAg and HIV. Ulcerative STD constituted 73.5% of total STD while 15.8% were discharges and 10.2% were genital growths. Ulcers in decreasing order of frequency were chancroid (51.9%), genital herpes (29.1%) and syphilis (14.5). 76.5% of genital discharges were due to gonococcal infection. The high rate of ulcerative STD is possibly an important co-factor for the high HIV prevalence of 31.2% in Bombay. Of 182 patients tested for HBV, 16 (8.8%) were reactive for HBsAg, revealing a high prevalence among STD attenders. A high co-relation of HBsAg positive with either HIV or VDRL requires urgent attention for HBV intervention strategies in this population. PMID:9598752

Kura, M M; Hira, S; Kohli, M; Dalal, P J; Ramnani, V K; Jagtap, M R

1998-04-01

124

Risks for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections among male injection drug users in northern Vietnam: A case-control study  

PubMed Central

Injection drug use (IDU) and HIV infection are important public health problems in Vietnam. The IDU population increased 70% from 2000 to 2004 and is disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS--the country’s second leading cause of death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share transmission routes with HIV and cause serious medical consequences. This study aimed to determine risk factors for acquisition of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections among IDUs in a northern province. We conducted a matched case-control study among active IDUs aged 18–45 who participated in a community-based survey (30-minute interview and serologic testing). Each HIV-infected IDU (case) was matched with one HIV-uninfected IDU (control) by age, sex (males only), and study site (128 pairs). Similar procedures were used for HBV infection (50 pairs) and HCV infection (65 pairs). Conditional logistic regression models were fit to identify risk factors for each infection. Among 309 surveyed IDUs, the HIV, HBV, and HCV prevalence was 42.4%, 80.9%, and 74.1%, respectively. Only 11.0% reported having been vaccinated against hepatitis B. While 13.3% of the IDUs reported sharing needles (past 6 months), 63.8% engaged in indirect sharing practices (past 6 months), including sharing drug solutions, containers, rinse water, and frontloading drugs. In multivariable models, sharing drugs through frontloading was significantly associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8), HBV infection (OR = 3.8), and HCV infection (OR = 4.6). We report an unrecognized association between sharing drugs through frontloading and higher rates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among male IDUs in Vietnam. This finding may have important implications for bloodborne viral prevention for IDUs in Vietnam. PMID:19085215

Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F.; Van Nam, Le; Bergenstrom, Anna; Thuoc, Nguyen Phuong; Zenilman, Jonathan; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David D.

2010-01-01

125

Simultaneous screening for HBV DNA and HCV RNA genomes in blood donations using a novel TaqMan PCR assay.  

PubMed

The risk of contracting hepatitis from blood transfusions is estimated to be 1 in 63000 in the case of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 1 in 103000 in the case of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In some countries (Germany, USA and England, for example), molecular protocols are evaluated to detect viral genomes in blood donations in order to reduce the seroconversion period. However, no such method is available currently to screen large series samples for HBV and HCV. While strategies involving the pooling of plasma samples have been proposed and tested in Germany, there is the question of sensitivity. We developed a novel approach to screen for HBV and HCV based on the TaqMan technology that allows for the quantification of an amplified fragment during PCR analysis (Lee et al., 1993). This approach is more sensitive than other quantification methods. As a first step primers and probes were designed to detect the different sub-types of HBV and HCV genomes. We then optimized the reaction conditions in order to screen for the two viruses at the same time. The observed sensitivity is less than 50 molecules per ml for HBV and less than 50 molecules per ml for HCV. This assay is, to our knowledge, the first that allows the simultaneous detection of DNA and RNA viral genomes. In conclusion, this TaqMan approach could be used as a single test to screen for HBV and HCV genomes in a series of 96 samples in less than 5 h. Such an approach is a first step for development of automation allowing a systematic screening of blood donations. PMID:10029319

Mercier, B; Burlot, L; Férec, C

1999-01-01

126

Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain  

E-print Network

Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain In-gel Detection Technology for Protein Phosphorylation and phosphoproteomics, the Pro-Q Diamond phos- phoprotein gel stain is a breakthrough technology that provides a simple phosphoproteins, the Pro-Q Diamond signal is linear over three orders of magnitude and the strength of the signal

Lebendiker, Mario

127

ProQuest/UMI Agreement 2012 ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions  

E-print Network

ProQuest/UMI Agreement 1 © 2012 ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions Traditional Publishing Agreement This Agreement is between the author (Author) and ProQuest LLC, through its UMI to include the abstract, bibliography and other metadata in the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database

128

ProQuest/UMI Agreement 2012 ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions  

E-print Network

ProQuest/UMI Agreement 1 © 2012 ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. Terms and Conditions Open Access Publishing Agreement This Agreement is between the author (Author) and ProQuest LLC, through its UMI to include the abstract, bibliography and other metadata in the ProQuest Dissertations and These database

129

HBx M130K and V131I (TA) mutations in HBV genotype F during a follow-up study in chronic carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Around 400 million people worldwide are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV). An estimated 10% of these chronic patients develop progressive liver damage including cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). The HBx gene encodes a protein of 154 amino acids which is a transactivator and has been associated with HBV pathogenesis. A change in the amino acid sequences at

Bernal León; Lizeth Taylor; Minor Vargas; Ronald B Luftig; Federico Albertazzi; Libia Herrero; Kirsten Visona

2005-01-01

130

Bayard et al. Vaccine Page 1 Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived DRB1*0101-restricted CD4 T-cell epitopes3  

E-print Network

-cell epitopes3 help in the development of HBV-specific CD8+ T cells in vivo4 5 6 7 BAYARD Florence,1 : Hepatitis B virus helper epitopes for in vivo CD8 response16 Keywords: T cells, epitope, vaccination17 18 Abstract1 We previously identified two HLA-DRB1*0101-restricted epitopes in hepatitis B2 virus (HBV) X

Boyer, Edmond

131

Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of combined versus separately administered DTPw-HBV and Hib vaccines given to healthy infants at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, with a booster at 18 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a combined DTPw-HBV\\/Hib vaccine, in comparison with DTPw-HBV and Hib vaccines given as separate concomitant injections. Methods: In an open, randomized study, healthy infants were injected with either DTPw-HBV\\/Hib vaccine or separate DTPw-HBV and Hib vaccines at 2,4 and 6 months of age, with a booster at 18 months. Results: Both vaccination

Stella Riedemann; Germán Reinhardt; Jaime Jara; Richard Rios; Marfa Soledad Wenzel; Paul Willems; Hans L. Bock

2002-01-01

132

Prevalence and Presentation of Hepatitis B and C Virus (HBV and HCV) Infection in Vietnamese Americans via Serial Community Serologic Testing.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is reportedly high in Vietnamese Americans (VAs), but most previous studies did not assess full HBV serology, and not the prevalence of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection simultaneously. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of different HBV serologies and HCV infection in VAs. This study was based on the data collected by testing for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb IgG), anti-HBs antibody (HBsAb), and anti-HCV antibody (anti-HCV) in a series of community screening in VAs in Orange County, California. In 1,405 VA participants, the mean age was 51 (17-87) years, 45.1 % were males; 68.2 %, married; 97.2 %, born in Vietnam. Most of the participants were non-US born with their primary language being non-English and with limited access to health care. Of the 1,405 cases, 124 (8.8 %) were confirmed HBV infection by HBsAg+; 81 (5.8 %), HCV infection by anti-HCV+; including four (0.3 %) with HBV/HCV coinfection. Twelve percent of the participants with confirmed HBV infection thought they were previously tested negative, while 29.7 % of the participants with confirmed HCV infection thought they were previously tested negative. In this cohort, 15.4 % were HBsAg-/HBsAb-/HBcAb IgG-, i.e. being susceptible to HBV infection. In HCV infected participants, 65.4 % were born between 1945 and 1965. This large serial survey and screening in the Vietnamese American community confirmed the rates of HBV and HCV infection to be as high as 8.8 % and 5.8 %, respectively. We have also identified factors related to HBV and HCV infection in this high-risk population. PMID:24474437

Nguyen, Kelvin; Van Nguyen, Thai; Shen, Duke; Xia, Victor; Tran, Diep; Banh, Khanh; Ruan, Victor; Hu, Ke-Qin

2015-02-01

133

ProQuest/UMI Agreement Traditional Publishing Agreement  

E-print Network

(Author) and ProQuest LLC, through its UMI® Dissertation Publishing business (ProQuest/UMI). Under in the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (PQDT) and in ProQuest/UMI's Dissertation Abstracts

Kaminsky, Werner

134

Activation of anti-HBV immune activity by DNA vaccine via electroporation using heat shock proteins as adjuvant.  

PubMed

Although DNA vaccination is now a promising strategy against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, this approach has relatively modest antiviral effect, indicating that immunosuppressive mechanisms may occur in the long-term established infection. In this study, we studied the immunogenicity and anti-HBV efficiency of a combination of HBV surface (HBsAg) and core (HBcAg) DNA vaccine, enhanced by heat shock protein (HSP) gp96 or HSP70 and mediated by in vivo electroporation. Immunization with gp96 adjuvanted HBsAg/HBcAg DNA formulation induced potent T cell and antibody immunity against HBsAg and HBcAg. Notably, treatment with gp96 or HSP70 as adjuvant resulted in reduction of Treg populations by around 20%. Moreover, compared with nonimmunized control mice, immunization with gp96 or HSP70 adjuvanted DNA vaccine dramatically decreased serum HBsAg and viral DNA levels, and HBcAg expression in liver. These results may therefore provide an effective strategy for designing gp96-based DNA vaccine for immunotherapy of chronic HBV infection. PMID:24660624

Xu, Yaxing; Wang, Yanzhong; Zhao, Bao; Zhang, Xiaojun; Fan, Hongxia; Li, Xinghui; Meng, Songdong

2013-12-01

135

Autologous rosette-forming T cells and their relationship to OKT4+ and OKT8+ cells in chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

A percentage of human T lymphocytes forms rosettes with autologous erythrocytes and this property has been considered as a marker for post-thymic precursor suppressor cells capable of providing suppression under the influence of inducer cells. We quantitated autologous rosette-forming T cells (ARFC) in the peripheral blood of 37 patients with chronic HBV infection: 8 healthy carriers, 9 chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH-B) and 20 chronic active hepatitis (CAH-B). Two control groups were studied, one consisting of 26 healthy individuals and the other of 8 individuals with non-HBV-associated CAH. Patients with non-HBV-associated CAH had a significant reduction in the proportion of ARFC, whereas CAH-B patients fell into 2 distinct patterns, one with increased and the other with decreased proportions of ARFC. This was unrelated to the degree of biochemical activity of the disease or to degree of viral replication as defined by HBeAg status and HBV-DNA in the serum. Healthy carriers and CPH-B had no changes in ARFC. Simultaneous quantitation of OKT4 and OKT8+ cells was done and a positive correlation was found between the proportions of ARFC and the proportions of OKT8+ cells. The possible significance of this correlation and the relevance of the bimodal distribution of autologous rosette-forming cells in CAH-B are discussed. PMID:2943900

Victorino, R M; Lucas, M; de Moura, M C

1986-07-01

136

A novel HBV genotypes detecting system combined with microfluidic chip, loop-mediated isothermal amplification and GMR sensors.  

PubMed

Genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be used for clinical effective therapeutic drug-selection. A novel microfluidic biochip for HBV genotyping has been fabricated, for the first time, integrating loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), line probes assay (LiPA) and giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. Coupling LAMP with LiPA in microfluidic chip shortened reaction time substantially, and combining LAMP with GMR sensor enabled limit of detection to attain 10 copies mL(-1) target HBV DNA molecules in 1 h. Furthermore, the independent designed GMR sensors and microfluidic chip can decrease manufacturing cost and patient's test-cost, and facilitate GMR detector repeating use for signal detection. In addition, the detection system has a lower background signal owing to application of superparamagnetic nanoclusters. And it can be expected to use for multiple target molecules synchronous detection in microfluidic chip based on a characteristic of stationary reaction temperature of LAMP. In conclusion, the neoteric detecting system is well suitable for quick genotyping diagnosis of clinical HBV and other homothetic biomolecule detection in biological and medical fields. PMID:24292142

Zhi, Xiao; Deng, Min; Yang, Hao; Gao, Guo; Wang, Kan; Fu, Hualin; Zhang, Yixia; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

2014-04-15

137

1 H, 13 C and 15 N NMR assignments of Duck HBV apical stem loop of the epsilon encapsidation signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replication of Hepatitis B virus is initiated by binding of its reverse transcriptase to the apical stem loop and primer\\u000a loop of epsilon. Here, we present the 1H\\/13C\\/15N NMR assignments of the bases and sugars of the 29 residues apical stem loop of Duck HBV epsilon.

K. A. M. Ampt; O. M. Ottink; F. C. Girard; F. Nelissen; M. Tessari; S. S. Wijmenga

2008-01-01

138

HBV and HCV Coinfection among HIV/AIDS Patients in the National Hospital of Tropical Diseases, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Aim. To examine prevalence and characterization of HBV and HCV coinfection among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods. This cross-sectional, retrospective study analyzed 724 HIV/AIDS patients in the HIV clinic at the National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (NHTD), from 5/2005 to 4/2011. Results. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV coinfection was 50.3% (364/724), of which HbsAg, HCV, and both of HbsAg, and HCV positivity were 8.4%, 35.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. The cohort (364 patients) with HBV, HCV, and HIV coinfection live in the 30 provinces/cities in the North and Central area of Vietnam. We found statistically significant associations between heightened risk of coinfection with HIV and HCV in the age group 30–39 years (P < 0.001), male gender (P < 0.001), never married patients (P < 0.001), patients with a history of injection drug use (P < 0.001), and clinical stages 2–4 (P < 0.001). Coinfection with HBV/HIV was statistically significant associations between heightened risk of marital status (never married) (P < 0.001) and those who reported transmission through sexual intercourse. Conclusion. Coinfection with viral hepatitis is common in HIV patients; further study of the impact and evolution of coinfection is necessary to find effective treatment algorithms. PMID:25580287

Huy, Bùi V?; Vernavong, Kanxay; Kính, Nguy?n V?n

2014-01-01

139

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-targeted therapy: analysis of 257 cases.  

PubMed

The emergence of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-targeted therapies as a key therapeutic option for patients with rheumatic, digestive, and dermatologic autoimmune diseases has been associated with increasing reports of liver damage in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We studied the current evidence on the use of anti-TNF agents in patients with HBV through a systematic analysis of cases reported in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the MeSH term "hepatitis B virus" combined with the terms "infliximab," "etanercept," "adalimumab," "certolizumab," "golimumab," and "anti-TNF agents," and summarize the results here. We analyzed 257 patients with positive HBV markers who received anti-TNF therapy (255 identified in the search strategy and 2 new cases), 89 HBsAg+ carriers, and 168 anti-HBc+ persons. HBV reactivation was reported in 35 (39%) HBsAg+ carriers. The percentage of reactivation was higher in patients previously treated with immunosuppressive agents (96% vs. 70%, p=0.033) and lower in those who received antiviral prophylaxis (23% vs. 62%, p=0.003). Acute liver failure was reported in 5 patients, 4 of whom died. Infliximab was associated with a higher rate of induced liver disease (raised transaminase levels, clinical signs, viral reactivation, and acute liver failure) compared with etanercept. In anti-HBc+ persons, reactivation was reported in 9 (5%) cases, including 1 patient who died due to fulminant liver failure.In summary, our search of the current evidence identified 257 reported HBV+ patients treated with anti-TNF agents, with a significant percentage of liver damage in HBsAg+ carriers, including raised transaminase levels (42%), signs and symptoms of liver disease (16%), reappearance of serum HBV-DNA (39%), and death related to liver failure (5%). The rate of reactivation in anti-HBc+ persons was 7-fold lower than in HBsAg+ carriers. The increasing number of reported cases of HBV reactivation following TNF-targeted therapies and the associated morbidity and mortality demand specific preventive strategies. PMID:22033451

Pérez-Alvarez, Roberto; Díaz-Lagares, Cándido; García-Hernández, Francisco; Lopez-Roses, Leopoldo; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Pérez-de-Lis, Marta; Retamozo, Soledad; Bové, Albert; Bosch, Xavier; Sanchez-Tapias, Jose-Maria; Forns, Xavier; Ramos-Casals, Manuel

2011-11-01

140

Subfulminant hepatitis B after infliximab in Crohn’s disease: Need for HBV-screening?  

PubMed Central

Infections are a major adverse effect during the treatment with anti-TNF-?. While exclusion of any bacterial infection and screening for tuberculosis are mandatory before initiating a therapy with anti-TNF- ?-antibodies, there are no guidelines whether to screen for or how to deal with chronic viral infections such as hepatitis B. In this case report, we have described a patient with Crohn's disease who developed subfulminant hepatitis B after the fourth infusion of infliximab due to an unrecognized HBs-antigen carrier state. He recovered completely after lamivudine therapy was started, but this severe adverse event could have been prevented if screening for HBV and pre-emptive therapy with lamivudine would have been started prior to infliximab. We therefore strongly argue in favor of extended screening recommendations for infectious diseases including viral infections before considering a therapy with infliximab. PMID:16521231

Millonig, Gunda; Kern, Michaela; Ludwiczek, Othmar; Nachbaur, Karin; Vogel, Wolfgang

2006-01-01

141

Astershionones A-F, six new anti-HBV shionane-type triterpenes from Aster tataricus.  

PubMed

Six new shionane-type triterpenes, astershionones A-F (1-6), were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and CD analysis. 3 showed inhibitory activity against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion with IC50 values of 23.0 and 23.1 ?M, and cytotoxicity against HepG 2.2.15 cells with a CC50 value of 170.5 ?M. 3 also exhibited inhibitory activity against HBV DNA replication with an IC50 value of 22.4 ?M. PMID:24393620

Zhou, Wen-Bing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Xu, Hui-Min; He, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua

2014-03-01

142

Runoff simulation in the Ferghana Valley (Central Asia) using conceptual hydrological HBV-light model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers and permafrost on the ranges of the Tien Shan mountain system are primary sources of water in the Ferghana Valley. The water artery of the valley is the Syr Darya River that is formed by confluence of the Naryn and Kara Darya rivers, which originate from the mountain glaciers of the Ak-Shyrak and the Ferghana ranges accordingly. The Ferghana Valley is densely populated and main activity of population is agriculture that heavily depends on irrigation especially in such arid region. The runoff reduction is projected in future due to global temperature rise and glacier shrinkage as a consequence. Therefore, it is essential to study climate change impact on water resources in the area both for ecological and economic aspects. The evaluation of comparative contribution of small upper catchments (n=24) with precipitation predominance in discharge and the large Naryn and Karadarya River basins, which are fed by glacial melt water, to the Fergana Valley water balance under current and future climatic conditions is general aim of the study. Appropriate understanding of the hydrological cycle under current climatic conditions is significant for prognosis of water resource availability in the future. Thus, conceptual hydrological HBV-light model was used for analysing of the water balance of the small upper catchments that surround the Ferghana Valley. Three trial catchments (the Kugart River basin, 1010 km²; the Kurshab River basin, 2010 km2; the Akbura River basin, 2260 km²) with relatively good temporal quality data were chosen to setup the model. Due to limitation of daily temperature data the MODAWEC weather generator, which converts monthly temperature data into daily based on correlation with rainfall, was tested and applied for the HBV-light model.

Radchenko, Iuliia; Breuer, Lutz; Forkutsa, Irina; Frede, Hans-Georg

2013-04-01

143

Eight-year seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV in Diyarbakir training and research hospital.  

PubMed

Distribution of HBV, HCV and HIV results of the inpatients or outpatients, who had been treated for various diagnoses in Diyarbak?r Training and Research Hospital between 2005 and 2012, among years was investigated. Files of the patients, who had been treated as inpatient or outpatient 992. to any diagnosis between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2012 in the clinics or policlinics of Diyarbak?r 581 due Training and Research Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed using patient file database. Serum samples (235.534 for HBsAg, 196.727 for Anti-HBs antibody, 98.497 for HBeAg, 97.417 for Anti-HBe antibody, 225.483 for HCV and 138.923 for HIV) of these patients, which had been processed in microbiology laboratory, were studied by chemiluminescence technique using Roche E-170 (Modular Analytics System) device. Prevalence rates between 2005 and 2012 were as follows: 15.9%-9% for HBsAg, 32.9%-52.3% for Anti-HBs, 2.5%-1.8% for HBeAg, 30.4%-25.2% for Anti-HBe, 1%-0.7% for Anti-HCV, and 0.1%-1% for Anti-HIV. Increase in Anti-HBs prevalence is the successful outcome of routine immunization in population. This suggests that, governmental policies focused on this subject have resulted in successful outcomes and that people also take care about this. A prevalence rate decreasing to 9% from 15.9% for HBsAg and prevalence rate increasing to 52.3% from 32.9% for Anti-HBs antibody positivity in 8-year period in our region is quite meaningful. Such favorable developments in our region are of great valuable in terms of indicating to what extent could struggle against HBV is controlled by education and awareness. PMID:24046538

Turhano?lu, Mine; Onur, Arzu; Bilman, Fulya Bay?nd?r; Ayayd?n, Zeynep; Aktar, Gülseren Samanc?

2013-01-01

144

Eight-Year Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV in Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital  

PubMed Central

Distribution of HBV, HCV and HIV results of the inpatients or outpatients, who had been treated for various diagnoses in Diyarbak?r Training and Research Hospital between 2005 and 2012, among years was investigated. Files of the patients, who had been treated as inpatient or outpatient 992. to any diagnosis between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2012 in the clinics or policlinics of Diyarbak?r 581 due Training and Research Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed using patient file database. Serum samples (235.534 for HBsAg, 196.727 for Anti-HBs antibody, 98.497 for HBeAg, 97.417 for Anti-HBe antibody, 225.483 for HCV and 138.923 for HIV) of these patients, which had been processed in microbiology laboratory, were studied by chemiluminescence technique using Roche E-170 (Modular Analytics System) device. Prevalence rates between 2005 and 2012 were as follows: 15.9%-9% for HBsAg, 32.9%-52.3% for Anti-HBs, 2.5%-1.8% for HBeAg, 30.4%-25.2% for Anti-HBe, 1%-0.7% for Anti-HCV, and 0.1%-1% for Anti-HIV. Increase in Anti-HBs prevalence is the successful outcome of routine immunization in population. This suggests that, governmental policies focused on this subject have resulted in successful outcomes and that people also take care about this. A prevalence rate decreasing to 9% from 15.9% for HBsAg and prevalence rate increasing to 52.3% from 32.9% for Anti-HBs antibody positivity in 8-year period in our region is quite meaningful. Such favorable developments in our region are of great valuable in terms of indicating to what extent could struggle against HBV is controlled by education and awareness. PMID:24046538

Turhano?lu, Mine; Onur, Arzu; Bilman, Fulya Bay?nd?r; Ayayd?n, Zeynep; Aktar, Gülseren Samanc?

2013-01-01

145

The role of HBsAg levels in the current management of chronic HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can result in liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the natural course of the disease is highly dynamic and not every patient requires therapy. The challenges for optimal management are who to treat, which therapeutic regimen to use, and when to begin or stop treatment. Constant monitoring is mandatory to predict the natural course and guide treatment decisions. Surrogate markers for baseline and on treatment decisions are needed. Besides HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen levels also proved to be useful to help judge the natural course and guide treatment. High levels of HBsAg are suggestive of low fibrosis and immune tolerance in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive patients; whereas low levels of HBsAg indicate a lower risk for HCC and inactive carrier state in HBeAg negative patients. Data also support the possible use of HBsAg levels as an on-treatment response marker. So far, the best evidence exists for treatment with interferon (IFN)-? where lack of HBsAg decline after 12 weeks is associated with non-response. Thus, stopping rules after 12 weeks therapy could be established for HBeAg positive as well as for HBeAg negative patients. However, the positive predictive value for achieving sustained response is still vague. The value of HBsAg monitoring is less clear during treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) but it can be a useful marker for new concepts such as stopping NA or add-on IFN strategies. Currently, several studies are underway to validate HBsAg in these settings. PMID:24733569

Höner zu Siederdissen, Christoph; Cornberg, Markus

2014-01-01

146

Hyperimmune anti-HBs plasma as alternative to commercial immunoglobulins for prevention of HBV recurrence after liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B immune globulins (HBIG) in combination with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) are effectively used for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT). However, associated treatment costs for HBIG are exceedingly high. Methods Fresh frozen plasma obtained from blood donors with high anti-HBs levels (hyperimmune plasma, HIP) containing at least 4,500 IU anti-HBs was used as alternative treatment for HBV recurrence prophylaxis post-LT. Results Twenty-one HBV-related LT recipients received HIP starting at transplantation, followed by long-term combination treatment with NA. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 years (range 0.5-12.6) and each patient received on average 8.2 HIP per year (range 5.8-11.4). Anti-HBs terminal elimination kinetic after HIP administration was 20.6 days (range 13.8-30.9), which is comparable to values reported for commercial HBIG products. All 21 patients remained free of HBV recurrence during follow-up and no transfusion-transmitted infection or other serious complication was observed. Seven patients developed reversible mild transfusion reactions. The cost for one HIP unit was US$140; average yearly HBIG treatment cost was US$1,148 per patient, as compared to US$25,000-100,000 for treatment with commercial HBIG. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the use of HIP may be a useful and economical approach for the prevention of HBV recurrence post-LT if used in combination with NA. Additional prospective controlled studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these results. PMID:20598161

2010-01-01

147

New Susceptibility and Resistance HLA-DP Alleles to HBV-Related Diseases Identified by a Trans-Ethnic Association Study in Asia  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have revealed the association between SNPs located on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, including HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, mainly in Asian populations. HLA-DP alleles or haplotypes associated with chronic HBV infection or disease progression have not been fully identified in Asian populations. We performed trans-ethnic association analyses of HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1 alleles and haplotypes with hepatitis B virus infection and disease progression among Asian populations comprising Japanese, Korean, Hong Kong, and Thai subjects. To assess the association between HLA-DP and chronic HBV infection and disease progression, we conducted high-resolution (4-digit) HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 genotyping in a total of 3,167 samples, including HBV patients, HBV-resolved individuals and healthy controls. Trans-ethnic association analyses among Asian populations identified a new risk allele HLA-DPB1*09?01 (P?=?1.36×10?6; OR?=?1.97; 95% CI, 1.50–2.59) and a new protective allele DPB1*02?01 (P?=?5.22×10?6; OR?=?0.68; 95% CI, 0.58–0.81) to chronic HBV infection, in addition to the previously reported alleles. Moreover, DPB1*02?01 was also associated with a decreased risk of disease progression in chronic HBV patients among Asian populations (P?=?1.55×10?7; OR?=?0.50; 95% CI, 0.39–0.65). Trans-ethnic association analyses identified Asian-specific associations of HLA-DP alleles and haplotypes with HBV infection or disease progression. The present findings will serve as a base for future functional studies of HLA-DP molecules in order to understand the pathogenesis of HBV infection and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24520320

Kashiwase, Koichi; Minami, Mutsuhiko; Sugiyama, Masaya; Seto, Wai-Kay; Yuen, Man-Fung; Posuwan, Nawarat; Poovorawan, Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Matsuura, Kentaro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Izumi, Namiki; Kang, Jong-Hon; Hige, Shuhei; Ide, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Sakaida, Isao; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Yoshito; Tamori, Akihiro; Orito, Etsuro; Hiasa, Yoichi; Honda, Masao; Kaneko, Shuichi; Mita, Eiji; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Hino, Keisuke; Tanaka, Eiji; Mochida, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Masaki, Naohiko; Murata, Kazumoto; Korenaga, Masaaki; Mawatari, Yoriko; Ohashi, Jun; Kawashima, Minae; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Mizokami, Masashi

2014-01-01

148

Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Intrahepatic Covalently Closed Circular DNA and Serum Viral Markers in Treatment-Naive Patients with Acute and Chronic HBV Infection  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to investigate the relationships of intrahepatic cccDNA with serum HBsAg and with HBV DNA in treatment-naive patients throughout acute and chronic HBV infection. Methods A total of 120 patients who had a liver biopsy were enrolled, including 19 with acute hepatitis B (AHB), and 101 patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB) of whom were 10 in immune-tolerant (IT) phase, 59 in immune-clearance (IC) phase, 8 in low-replicative (LR) phase, and 24 in HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) phase. Intrahepatic cccDNA, serum HBsAg and serum HBV DNA levels were comparatively analyzed. Results The median intrahepatic cccDNA levels were 0.18 4.80, 3.81, 0.22 and 0.97 copies/cell for patients with AHB, CHB-IT, CHB-IC, CHB-LR, and CHB-ENH, respectively. In AHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg (r?=?0.665, P?=?0.003), as well as serum HBV DNA (r?=?0.536, P?=?0.022). In CHB patients, intrahepatic cccDNA was positively correlated with serum HBsAg in the IC phase (r?=?0.392, P?=?0.005), and with serum HBV DNA in the IC phase (r?=?0.301, P?=?0.036) and ENH phase (r?=?0.588, P?=?0.013). HBV replicative efficiency, defined as the ratio of serum HBV DNA to intrahepatic cccDNA, was obviously lower in AHB and CHB-LR patients than in CHB-IT, CHB-IC and CHB-ENH patients (0.70 and 0.53 vs. 1.12, 1.09 and 0.99, P<0.001, values were logarithmic transformed for analysis). In CHB-IC patients, HBV replicative efficiency was positively correlated with histological activity index of liver inflammation (r?=?0.308, P?=?0.009). Conclusion Serum HBsAg and HBV DNA levels may reflect the amount of active intrahepatic cccDNA in treatment-naive AHB and CHB-IC patients. Reduced intrahepatic cccDNA and HBV replicative efficiency may imply effective immune control of HBV infection. PMID:24551214

Zou, Zhengsheng; Liu, Yan; Li, Baosen; Sun, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Shuhong; Cai, Shaoping; Yao, Weimin; Xin, Shaojie; Lu, Fengmin; Xu, Dongping

2014-01-01

149

The immunogenicity and safety of a reduced PRP-content DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine when administered according to the accelerated EPI schedule  

PubMed Central

Background Combination vaccines improve coverage, compliance and effectively introduce new antigens to mass vaccination programmes. This was a phase III, observer-blind, randomized study of GSK Biologicals diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis vaccine combined with hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines, containing a reduced amount of polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) and a DTPw component manufactured at a different site (DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 [Kft]). The primary aim of this study was to demonstrate that DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 [Kft] was not inferior to the licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib (Tritanrix(tm)-HepB/Hiberix(tm)) vaccine or the DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 vaccine, also containing a reduced amount of PRP, with respect to the immune response to the PRP antigen, when administered to healthy infants, according to the Expanded Programme for Immunization (EPI) schedule at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Methods 299 healthy infants were randomised to receive either DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 [Kft] DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 or DTPw-HBV/Hib according to the 6-10-14 week EPI schedule. Blood samples were analysed prior to the first dose of study vaccine and one month after the third vaccine dose for the analysis of immune responses. Solicited local and general symptoms such as pain, redness and swelling at the injection site and drowsiness and fever, unsolicited symptoms (defined as any additional adverse event) and serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded up to 20 weeks of age. Results One month after the third vaccine dose, 100% of subjects receiving DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 [Kft] or DTPw-HBV/Hib and 98.8% of subjects receiving DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 vaccine had seroprotective levels of anti-PRP antibodies (defined as anti-PRP antibody concentration ?0.15 ?g/ml). Seroprotective antibody concentrations were attained in over 98.9% of subjects for diphtheria, tetanus and hepatitis B. The vaccine response rate to pertussis antigen was at least 97.8% in each group. Overall, the DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 [Kft] vaccine was well tolerated in healthy infants; no SAEs were reported in any group. Conclusions The DTPw-HBV/Hib2.5 [Kft] vaccine was immunogenic and well-tolerated when administered according to the EPI schedule to Indian infants. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00473668 PMID:20950457

2010-01-01

150

Epidemiological, Clinical and Histological Characteristics of HBV/HDV Co-Infection: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study in Guangdong, China  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology of hepatitis D virus (HDV) in China is fairly unknown. The mechanisms whereby HDV leads to accelerated liver disease in hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HDV co-infected patients and the histological characteristics of chronic hepatitis D (CHD) patients need further investigation. Methods The prevalence of HDV was retrospectively evaluated in all consecutive hospitalized patients with chronic HBV infection from May 2005 to October 2011. HBV/HDV co-infected patients and HBV mono-infected patients were compared clinically and histologically. Significant histological abnormality was defined as significant necroinflammation (grade ?A2) and/or significant fibrosis (stage ? F2). Results 6.5% of patients (426/6604) tested positive for IgM anti-HDV. HDV was more common in patients over 50 years old than those under 50 (11.7% vs. 5.1%, P<0.001). HBV/HDV co-infected patients had higher frequencies of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) than HBV mono-infected patients, and HDV co-infection was an independent risk factor for ESLD (OR: 1.428, 95%CI: 1.116–1.827; P?=?0.005). The HBV DNA levels in the HBV/HDV group were significantly lower than the HBV group in chronic hepatitis patients (median: 6.50 log10copies/mL vs 6.80 log10copies/mL, P?=?0.003), but higher than the HBV group in ESLD patients (median: 5.73 log10copies/mL vs 5.16 log10copies/mL, P<0.001). When stratified by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, 46.7%, 56.5% and 80.5% of CHD patients had significant necroinflammation and 86.7%, 87.0% and 90.3% had significant fibrosis with ALT 1–2×upper limit normal (ULN), 2–5×ULN and>5×ULN respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of HDV is not low in patients with chronic HBV infection. HDV may contribute to progression to ESLD through late-phase HBV DNA reactivation. PMID:25532128

He, Haolan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jiansheng; Xu, Ying; Yi, Junqing; Chen, Yunqing; Liu, Huiyuan; Wang, Zhanhui; Cai, Weiping

2014-01-01

151

Telomerase activated thymidine analogue pro-drug is a new molecule targeting hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although hepatectomy and transplantation have significantly improved survival, there is no effective chemotherapeutic treatment for HCC and its prognosis remains poor. Sustained activation of telomerase is essential for the growth and progression of HCC, suggesting that telomerase is a rational target for HCC therapy. Therefore, we developed a thymidine analogue pro-drug, acycloguanosyl-5?-thymidyltriphosphate (ACV-TP-T), which is specifically activated by telomerase in HCC cells and investigated its anti-tumour efficacy. Methods First, we verified in vitro whether ACV-TP-T was a telomerase substrate. Second, we evaluated proliferation and apoptosis in murine (Hepa1-6) and human (Hep3B, HuH7, HepG2) hepatic cancer cells treated with ACV-TP-T. Next, we tested the in vivo treatment efficacy in HBV transgenic mice that spontaneously develop hepatic tumours, and in a syngeneic orthotopic murine model where HCC cells were implanted directly in the liver. Results In vitro characterization provided direct evidence that the pro-drug was actively metabolized in liver cancer cells by telomerase to release the active form of acyclovir. Alterations in cell cycle and apoptosis were observed following in vitro treatment with ACV-TP-T. In the transgenic and orthotopic mouse models, treatment with ACV-TP-T reduced tumour growth, increased apoptosis, and reduced the proliferation of tumour cells. Conclusions ACV-TP-T is activated by telomerase in HCC cells and releases active acyclovir that reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in human and murine liver cancer cells. This pro-drug holds a great promise for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24862448

Tarocchi, Mirko; Polvani, Simone; Peired, Anna Julie; Marroncini, Giada; Calamante, Massimo; Ceni, Elisabetta; Rhodes, Daniela; Mello, Tommaso; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Quattrone, Alessandro; Luchinat, Claudio; Galli, Andrea

2014-01-01

152

The emerging role of hepatitis B virus pre-S2 deletion mutant proteins in HBV tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of HBV tumorigenesis, including inflammation and liver regeneration associated with cytotoxic immune injuries and transcriptional activators of mutant HBV gene products. The mutant viral oncoprotein-driven tumorigenesis is prevailed at the advanced stage or anti-HBe-positive phase of chronic HBV infection. Besides HBx, the pre-S2 (deletion) mutant protein represents a newly recognized oncoprotein that is accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and manifests as type II ground glass hepatocytes (GGH). The retention of pre-S2 mutant protein in ER can induce ER stress and initiate an ER stress-dependent VEGF/Akt/mTOR and NF?B/COX-2 signal pathway. Additionally, the pre-S2 mutant large surface protein can induce an ER stress-independent pathway to transactivate JAB-1/p27/RB/cyclin A,D pathway, leading to growth advantage of type II GGH. The pre-S2 mutant protein-induced ER stress can also cause DNA damage, centrosome overduplication, and genomic instability. In 5-10% of type II GGHs, there is co-expression of pre-S2 mutant protein and HBx antigen which exhibited enhanced oncogenic effects in transgenic mice. The mTOR signal cascade is consistently activated throughout the course of pre-S2 mutant transgenic livers and in human HCC tissues, leading to metabolic disorders and HCC tumorigenesis. Clinically, the presence of pre-S2 deletion mutants in sera frequently develop resistance to nucleoside analogues anti-virals and predict HCC development. The pre-S2 deletion mutants and type II GGHs therefore represent novel biomarkers of HBV-related HCCs. A versatile DNA array chip has been developed to detect pre-S2 mutants in serum. Overall, the presence of pre-S2 mutants in serum has implications for anti-viral treatment and can predict HCC development. Targeting at pre-S2 mutant protein-induced, ER stress-dependent, mTOR signal cascade and metabolic disorders may offer potential strategy for chemoprevention or therapy in high risk chronic HBV carriers. PMID:25316153

Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Han-Chieh; Teng, Chiao-Fang; Tsai, Hung-Wen; Huang, Wenya

2014-01-01

153

Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in VDR and DBP Genes with HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms of genes encoding components of the vitamin D pathway including vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been widely investigated because of the complex role played by vitamin D in cancer tumorogenesis. In this study, we investigated the association between VDR and DBP gene polymorphisms and HBV-related HCC risk in a Chinese population. Methods Study subjects were divided into three groups: 184 HBV patients with HCC, 296 HBV patients without HCC, and 180 healthy controls. The VDR rs2228570, and rs3782905 and the DBP rs7041 polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP and the VDR rs11568820 polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-SSP, respectively. DNA sequencing was performed to validate the genotype results. Results We found that there were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the VDR rs2228570 and DBP rs7041 polymorphisms between HBV patients with HCC and healthy controls. The rs2228570 T allele was associated with a significant increased HBV-related HCC risk as compared with the C allele. The rs2228570 TT and TT/TC genotypes were correlated with a significant increased HBV-related HCC risk when compared with the wild-type CC homozygote. Similarly, the rs7041 G allele was associated with a significant increased HBV-related HCC risk as compared with the T allele. The rs7041 GG and GG/TG genotypes were correlated with a significant increased HBV-related HCC risk when compared with the wild-type TT homozygote. However, we did not observe any significant effect of VDR rs11568820, and rs3782905 polymorphisms on HBV-related HCC risk in this population. In haplotype analysis, we also did not find any significant differences in haplotype frequencies of the VDR gene between HBV patients with HCC and the healthy controls. Conclusions We conclude that the VDR rs2228570 and DBP rs7041 polymorphisms may contribute to increased susceptibility to HBV-related HCC in the Chinese population. Due to the marginal significance, further large and well-designed studies in diverse ethnic populations are needed to confirm our results. PMID:25541958

Lao, Xianjun; Li, Ruolin; Chen, Zhiping; Wang, Jian; Qin, Xue; Li, Shan

2014-01-01

154

Pro-sociality without empathy  

PubMed Central

Empathy, the capacity to recognize and share feelings experienced by another individual, is an important trait in humans, but is not the same as pro-sociality, the tendency to behave so as to benefit another individual. Given the importance of understanding empathy's evolutionary emergence, it is unsurprising that many studies attempt to find evidence for it in other species. To address the question of what should constitute evidence for empathy, we offer a critical comparison of two recent studies of rescuing behaviour that report similar phenomena but are interpreted very differently by their authors. In one of the studies, rescue behaviour in rats was interpreted as providing evidence for empathy, whereas in the other, rescue behaviour in ants was interpreted without reference to sharing of emotions. Evidence for empathy requires showing that actor individuals possess a representation of the receiver's emotional state and are driven by the psychological goal of improving its wellbeing. Proving psychological goal-directedness by current standards involves goal-devaluation and causal sensitivity protocols, which, in our view, have not been implemented in available publications. Empathy has profound significance not only for cognitive and behavioural sciences but also for philosophy and ethics and, in our view, remains unproven outside humans. PMID:22859561

Vasconcelos, Marco; Hollis, Karen; Nowbahari, Elise; Kacelnik, Alex

2012-01-01

155

Prevalence of occult HBV among hemodialysis patients in two districts in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine.  

PubMed

Occult hepatitis B infection is the case with undetectable HBsAg, but positive for HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or serum. Occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Palestine has been understudied. In this study, 148 hemodialysis patients from 2 northern districts in Palestine, Jenin (89) and Tulkarem (59), were investigated for occult hepatitis B, HBV, HCV infections with related risk factors. ELISA and PCR were used for the detection of anti-HBc and viral DNA, respectively. The overall prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the study group was 12.5% (16/128). Occult hepatitis B infection is more prevalent among males with most cases (15/16) from Jenin District. About one-third (42/132) of the hemodialysis patients were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 27% of the hemodialysis patients were infected with HCV. Around 20% (28/140) were positive for HBV DNA, but only 8.2% (12/146) of the hemodialysis patients were positive for HBsAg. The comparison between hemodialysis patients with occult hepatitis B infection and those without occult hepatitis B infection for selected risk factors and parameters as liver Enzyme, age, sex, HCV infection, blood transfusion, kidney transplant, anti-HBc, and vaccination showed no statistical significance between both categories. Duration of hemodialysis significantly affected the rate of HCV infection. HCV is significantly higher in hemodialysis patients with both Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients is high; requiring stringent control policies. HBsAg assay is insufficient test for accurate diagnosis of HBV infection among hemodialysis patients. PMID:24992542

Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

2014-10-01

156

New enzyme immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and relation between levels of HBcAg and HBV DNA.  

PubMed

A new enzyme immunoassay specific for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (HBcAg) was developed. In order to detect HBcAg, specimens were pretreated with detergents to release HBcAg from the HBV virion and disassemble it to dimers, and simultaneously, the treatment inactivated anti-HBc antibodies. HBcAg detected by the assay peaked with HBV DNA in density gradient fractions of HBV-positive sera. The assay showed a wide detection range from 2 to 100,000 pg/ml. We observed no interference from anti-HBc antibody or blood components, but the assay was inhibited by very high concentrations (>1 microg/ml; corresponding to 80 signal/cutoff) of HBeAg. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 4 pg/ml, all healthy control (HBsAg and HBV DNA negative, n = 160) and anti-hepatitis C virus-positive (n = 55) sera were identified as negative. HBcAg concentrations correlated very closely with HBV DNA (r = 0.946, n = 145) in 216 samples from 72 hepatitis B patients. In seroconversion panels, HBcAg concentrations changed in parallel with HBV DNA levels. The assay, therefore, offers a simple method for monitoring hepatitis B patients. With a series of sera during lamivudine therapy, HBV DNA levels fell sharply and the HBcAg concentration also decreased, but the change in HBcAg was smaller and more gradual. The supposed mechanism of these changes and their clinical significance are discussed. PMID:12734224

Kimura, Tatsuji; Rokuhara, Akinori; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Maki, Noboru

2003-05-01

157

Combining Serum Cystatin C with Total Bilirubin Improves Short-Term Mortality Prediction in Patients with HBV-Related Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a severe liver disease which results in a high mortality in China. To early predict the prognosis of the patients may prevent the complications and improve the survival. This study was aimed to develop a new prognostic index to estimate the survival related to HBV-ACLF. Methods Consecutive patients with HBV-ACLF were included in a prospective observational study. Serum Cystatin C concentrations were measured by using the particle-enhanced immunonephelometry assay. All of the patients were followed for at least 3 months. Cox regression analysis was carried out to identify which factors were predictive of mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the efficacy of the variates for early predicting mortality. Results Seventy-two patients with HBV-ACLF were recruited between January 2012 and January 2013. Thirty patients died (41.7%) during 3-months followed up. Cox multivariate regression analysis identified serum cystatin C (CysC) and total bilirubin (TBil) were independent factors significantly (P < 0.01) associated with survival. Our results further showed that new prognostic index (PI) combining serum CysC with TBil was a good indicator for predicting the mortality of patients with HBV-ACLF. Specifically, the PI had a higher accuracy than the CTP, MELD, or MELD-Na scoring for early prediction short-term survival of HBV-ACLF patients with normal levels of serum creatinine (Cr). The survival rate in low risk group (PI < 3.91) was 94.3%, which was markedly higher than those in the high-risk group (PI ? 3.91) (17.4%, P < 0.001). Conclusion We developed a new prognostic index combining serum CysC with TBil which early predicted the short-term mortality of HBV-ACLF patients. PMID:25629773

Wan, Zhihong; Wu, Yichen; Yi, Jing; You, Shaoli; Liu, Hongling; Sun, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Bing; Zang, Hong; Li, Chen; Liu, Fangfang; Li, Dongze; Mao, Yuanli; Xin, Shaojie

2015-01-01

158

Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Resistant to HBV Infection during Differentiation into Hepatocytes in Vitro  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic methods for chronic hepatitis B are limited. The shortage of organ donors and hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection obstruct the clinical application of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). In the present study, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were isolated from chronic hepatitis B patients and characterized for morphology, growth potency, surface phenotype and the differentiation potential. The results showed that both MSCs had adipogenic, osteogenic and neuron differentiation potential, and nearly all MSCs expressed CD105, CD44 and CD29. Compared with AD-MSCs, BM-MSCs of chronic hepatitis B patients proliferated defectively. In addition, the ability of AD-MSCs to differentiate into hepatocyte was evaluated and the susceptibility to HBV infection were assessed. AD-MSCs could differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells. These cells express the hepatic-specific markers and have glycogen production and albumin secretion function. AD-MSCs and hepatic differentiation AD-MSCs were not susceptible to infection by HBV in vitro. Compared with BM-MSCs, AD-MSCs may be alternative stem cells for chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID:24727377

Wang, Ying; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hongchang; Zhang, Xiaohe; Chen, Haiying; Zhang, Kaiyu

2014-01-01

159

Drug-Resistance Associated Mutations in Polymerase (P) Gene of Hepatitis B Virus Isolated From Malaysian HBV Carriers  

PubMed Central

Background: Mutations in the polymerase (P) gene of hepatitis B virus are often associated with drug resistance. The pattern of mutations varies geographically, thus giving rise to genotypes diversity. Objectives: This study was carried out to detect mutations in P gene of hepatitis B virus isolated from Malaysian HBV carriers. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 sera samples were analyzed by PCR and sequencing, of which the P gene of isolated HBV was successfully amplified and sequenced from 40 samples. Results: Genotyping of these samples revealed that the predominant genotype was genotype C (22/40, 55.0%), followed by genotype B (17/40, 42.5%), and only 1 sample showed genotype D (2.5%). A number of significant drug resistant mutations were found in five patients including S202I, N236T, M250L, L180M/V, M204I, A181T, T184G, M250V, and V173L. Of these, L180M/V and M204I were most frequently detected (80%) and associated with lamivudine in combination with emtricitabine and telbivudine drug resistance. Association with age, sex, and clinical symptoms revealed that these patients were all male, mid to elderly age and almost all hadcirrhotic liver disease. Conclusions: Detection and surveillance of the significant sites of mutations in HBV is crucial for clinicians to decide on the choice of antiviral treatment and further management of hepatitis B carriers. PMID:24497877

Suppiah, Jeyanthi; Mohd Zain, Rozainanee; Haji Nawi, Salbiah; Bahari, Norazlah; Saat, Zainah

2014-01-01

160

Combination versus sequential monotherapy in chronic HBV infection: a mathematical approach.  

PubMed

Sequential monotherapy is the most widely used therapeutic approach in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection. Unfortunately, under therapy, in some patients the hepatitis virus mutates and gives rise to variants which are drug resistant. We wonder whether those patients would have benefited from the choice of combination therapy instead of sequential monotherapy. To study the action of these two therapeutic approaches and to explain the emergence of drug resistance, we propose a stochastic model for the infection within a patient who is treated with two drugs, either sequentially or contemporaneously, and who, under the first kind of therapy develops a strain of the virus which is resistant to both drugs. Our stochastic model has a deterministic approximation which is a slight modification of a classic three-strain model. We discuss why stochastic simulations are more suitable than the study of the deterministic approximation, when modelling the rise of mutations (this is mainly due to the amplitude of the stochastic fluctuations). We run stochastic simulations with suitable parameters and compare the time when, under the two therapeutic approaches, the resistant strain first reaches detectability in the serum viral load. Our results show that the best choice is to start an early combination therapy, which allows one to stay drug resistance free for a longer time and in many cases leads to viral eradication. PMID:25398978

Bertacchi, Daniela; Zucca, Fabio; Foresti, Sergio; Mangioni, Davide; Gori, Andrea

2014-11-13

161

TIPE2 protein negatively regulates HBV-specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte functions in humans.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing of virus-infected hepatocytes is an important pathogenic process of hepatitis B. However, its underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. TNFAIP8L2 (TIPE2) is a newly described anti-inflammatory protein that is essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. In this study, we found that the protein levels of TIPE2 in PBMCs of hepatitis B patients were significantly reduced and negatively correlated with the sera values of aminotransferases. Importantly, TIPE2 protein was downregulated preferentially in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, not CD4(+) helper T cells. The CD8(+) T cells with low TIPE2 expression were more activated and produced higher levels of perforin, granzyme B, and IFN-?. As a result, their cytolytic activity was markedly enhanced. Interestingly, HBc18-27 peptide stimulation could reduce TIPE2 expression in PBMCs. These results indicate that TIPE2 plays an important role in regulating HBV-specific CD8(+) T cell functions in patients with hepatitis B. PMID:25499447

Zhang, Wenqian; Zhang, Jiao; Zhao, Lianying; Shao, Jie; Cui, Jian; Guo, Chun; Zhu, Faliang; Chen, Youhai H; Liu, Suxia

2015-03-01

162

Acyclic nucleoside thiophosphonates as potent inhibitors of HIV and HBV replication.  

PubMed

9-[2-(Thiophosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine 3 and (R)-9-[2-(Thiophosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine 4 were synthesized as the first thiophosphonate nucleosides bearing a sulfur atom at the ?-position of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates PMEA and PMPA. Thiophosphonates S-PMEA 3 and S-PMPA 4 were evaluated for in vitro activity against HIV-1 (subtypes A to G), HIV-2 and HBV-infected cells, and found to exhibit potent antiretroviral activity. We showed that their diphosphate forms S-PMEApp 5 and S-PMPApp 6 are readily incorporated by wild-type (WT) HIV-1 RT into DNA and act as DNA chain terminators. Compounds 3 and 4 were evaluated for in vitro activity against a broad panel of DNA and RNA viruses and displayed beside HIV a moderate activity against herpes simplex virus and vaccinia viruses. In order to measure enzymatic stabilities of the target derivatives 3 and 4, kinetic data and decomposition pathways were studied at 37 °C in several media. PMID:21803462

Barral, Karine; Weck, Clément; Payrot, Nadine; Roux, Loic; Durafour, Céline; Zoulim, Fabien; Neyts, Johan; Balzarini, Jan; Canard, Bruno; Priet, Stéphane; Alvarez, Karine

2011-09-01

163

Pro-Anorexia and Pro-Recovery Photo Sharing: A Tale of Two Warring Tribes  

PubMed Central

Background There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. Objective To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as “pro-anorexia”) and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. Methods The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Results Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Conclusions Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photo sharing and accentuate the need for clinicians to be aware of such content and its effect on their patients. Our findings suggest that some currently used interventions are not useful in helping pro-anorexia users recover. Thus, future work should focus on new intervention methods, possibly tailored to individual characteristics. PMID:23134671

Yom-Tov, Elad; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

2012-01-01

164

DNA vaccine cocktail expressing genotype A and C HBV surface and consensus core antigens generates robust cytotoxic and antibody responses in mice and Rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

There are well over a quarter of a billion chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers across the globe. Most carriers are at high risk for development of liver cirrhosis and subsequent progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. It is therefore imperative to develop new approaches for immunotherapy against this infection. Antibodies and cytotoxic T cells to different HBV antigens are believed to be important for reducing viral load and clearing HBV-infected cells from the liver. Some of the major challenges facing current vaccine candidates have been their inability to induce both humoral and cellular immunity to multiple antigenic targets and the induction of potent immune responses against the major genotypes of HBV. In this study, highly optimized synthetic DNA plasmids against the HBV consensus core (HBc) and surface (HBs) antigens genotypes A and C were developed and evaluated for their immune potential. These plasmids, which encode the most prevalent genotypes of the virus, were observed to individually induce binding antibodies to HBs antigens and drove robust cell-mediated immunity in animal models. Similar responses to both HBc and HBs antigens were observed when mice and non-human primates were inoculated with the HBc-HBs cocktails. In addition to the cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities exhibited by the immunized mice, the vaccine-induced responses were broadly distributed across multiple antigenic epitopes. These elements are believed to be important to develop an effective therapeutic vaccine. These data support further evaluation of multivalent synthetic plasmids as therapeutic HBV vaccines. PMID:24310062

Obeng-Adjei, N; Hutnick, N A; Yan, J; Chu, J S; Myles, D J F; Morrow, M P; Sardesai, N Y; Weiner, D B

2013-12-01

165

Mutations in pre-core and basal-core promoter regions of hepatitis B virus in chronic HBV patients from Golestan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): It has been reported that the mutation of the pre-core (PC) and basal-core promoter (BCP) may play an important role in the development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study the PC and BCP mutations were investigated in chronic HBV patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, 120 chronic HBV patients from Golestan, Northeast of Iran who were not vaccinated against HBV, were recruited from the year 2008 to 2012. HBV-DNA extraction from plasma and PCR were performed and positive PCR products were subjected to automated sequencing. Results: One hundred out of 120 (83.3%) patients were HBeAg negative. Comparison of our nucleotide sequences with reference sequence showed high rate mutation in BCP and PC region (96.66%). Frame shift mutation was found in 78 (65%) of patients in BCP region, among them 8 (6.6%) patients showed mutation in PC region. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated high rate of mutations in BCP and PC regions among HBV chronic patients in Northeast of Iran. PMID:24967066

Moradi, Abdolvahab; Zhand, Sareh; Ghaemi, Amir; Javid, Naeme; Bazouri, Masoud; Tabarraei, Alijan

2014-01-01

166

Prevalent HBV point mutations and mutation combinations at BCP/preC region and their association with liver disease progression  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the basic core promoter (BCP) and its adjacent precore (preC) region in HBV genome are common in chronic hepatitis B patients. However, the patterns of mutation combinations in these two regions during chronic infection are less understood. This study focused on single base mutations in BCP and preC region and the multi-mutation patterns observed in chronic HBV infection patients. Methods Total 192 blood samples of chronic HBV infection patients were included. Direct PCR sequencing on the target region of HBV genome was successfully conducted in 157 samples. The rest 35 samples were analyzed by clone sequencing. Only the nucleotide substitutions with their frequencies no less than 10% were included in multi-mutation analysis with the exception for the polymorphic sites between genotypes B and C. Results Five high frequency mutations (?10%) were found in BCP and preC region. Thirteen types of multi-mutations in one fragment were observed, among which 3 types were common combinations (?5%). The top three multi-mutations were A1762T/G1764A (36%), A1762T/G1764A/G1896A (11%) and T1753(A/C)/A1762T/G1764A/G1896A (8%). Patients with multi-mutations in viral genomes (?3) were more likely to have liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.6-6.0, P = 0.001). G1896A mutation seemed to be involved in liver disease progression independent of the patient age (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.6; P = 0.004). In addition, patients with more viral mutations detected (?3) were more likely to be HBeAg negative (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1-6.4; P = 0.027). Moreover, G1776A mutation was shown to contribute to HBeAg negativity in our study (OR = 8.6, 95% CI: 1.2-44.9; P = 0.01). Conclusions Patients with advanced liver diseases and with HBeAg negativity more likely have multi-mutations in HBV genomes but with different mutation combination patterns. G1896A mutation appears to be independent of infection history. PMID:20846420

2010-01-01

167

Genotype and subtype analyses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and possible co-infection of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis D virus (HDV) in blood donors, patients with chronic liver disease and patients on hemodialysis in Surabaya, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Four subtypes (adw, adr, ayw, and ayr ) and eight genotypes (A to H) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been identified. They appear to be associated with particular geographic distribution, ethnicity, and possibly clinical outcomes. In this study, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) subtyping and HBV genotyping were carried out on sera obtained from HBsAg-positive HBV carriers, including healthy blood donors; patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma; and patients on hemodialysis all located in Surabaya, Indonesia. We report here that all HBV isolates tested in Surabaya belonged to genotype B, with more than 90% of them being classified into subtype adw. Our results also revealed that prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection among HBV carriers in Surabaya was approximately 10% for healthy blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease, and approximately 60% for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Interestingly, HBsAg titers were lower in HBV carriers with HCV co-infection than in those without HCV co-infection. We also found that prevalence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection was < 0.5% among HBV carriers in Surabaya. PMID:14695447

Lusida, Maria I; Surayah; Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Nagano-Fujii, Motoko; Soetjipto; Mulyanto; Handajani, Retno; Boediwarsono; Setiawan, Poernomo B; Nidom, Chairul A; Ohgimoto, Shinji; Hotta, Hak

2003-01-01

168

Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs.  

PubMed

Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

2014-07-01

169

Epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in 223 HIV co-infected patients: a French multi-centre collaborative study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a clinical concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals due to substantial prevalence, difficulties to treat, and severe liver disease outcome. A large nationwide cross-sectional multicentre analysis of HIV-HBV co-infected patients was designed to describe and identify parameters associated with virological and clinical outcome of CHB in HIV-infected individuals with detectable HBV viremia. Methods A multicenter collaborative cross-sectional study was launched in 19 French University hospitals distributed through the country. From January to December 2007, HBV load, genotype, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 223 HBV-HIV co-infected patients with an HBV replication over 1000 IU/mL were investigated. Results Patients were mostly male (82%, mean age 42 years). Genotype distribution (A 52%; E 23.3%; D 16.1%) was linked to risk factors, geographic origin, and co-infection with other hepatitis viruses. This genotypic pattern highlights divergent contamination event timelines by HIV and HBV viruses. Most patients (74.7%) under antiretroviral treatment were receiving a drug with anti-HBV activity, including 47% receiving TDF. Genotypic lamivudine-resistance detected in 26% of the patients was linked to duration of lamivudine exposure, age, CD4 count and HIV load. Resistance to adefovir (rtA181T/V) was detected in 2.7% of patients. Advanced liver lesions were observed in 54% of cases and were associated with an older age and lower CD4 counts but not with viral load or genotype. Immune escape HBsAg variants were seldom detected. Conclusions Despite the detection of advanced liver lesions in most patients, few were not receiving anti-HBV drugs and for those treated with the most potent anti-HBV drugs, persistent replication suggested non-optimal adherence. Heterogeneity in HBV strains reflects epidemiological differences that may impact liver disease progression. These findings are strong arguments to further optimize clinical management and to promote vaccination in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23497042

2013-01-01

170

Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.  

PubMed

Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063]. PMID:11249748

Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

2000-12-01

171

Assimilating H-SAF and MODIS Snow Cover Data into the Conceptual Models HBV and SRM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual hydrological models are widely used for operational and scientific water resources management applications in mountain catchments. However, current model-based forecasting approaches are jeopardized by input data and model uncertainties. Data assimilation provides a suitable tool to merge information from remotely sensed observations and hydrological model predictions for improving the lead time performance of streamflow forecasts in the context of operational hydrological forecasting systems. In this study, we present a novel variational approach based on Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE). It includes a highly flexible formulation of distance metrics for penalizing the introduction of noise into the model and enforcing the agreement between simulated and observed variables. Furthermore, the MHE setup shows a high robustness regarding non-equidistant, noisy and sometimes missing data and enables the modification of model input as well as state variables. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed in mountainous regions. Therefore the data limitations in combination with snowpack heterogeneity prevent a detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. Remotely sensed images offer an opportunity to supplement ground measurements for performing runoff predictions during the snowmelt season. In this context, EUMETSAT initiated the H-SAF (Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management) project for deriving novel products from satellite data and applying it to operational hydrology. This research contributes to the H-SAF product validation by applying a generic data assimilation test bed for H-SAF snow products in comparison to snow cover data of MODIS. A preliminary performance assessment of the data assimilation framework using the conceptual models HBV and SRM with satellite derived snow data is evaluated for a snow dominated test site of 10250 km2 at the headwaters of Euphrates River in Turkey.

Sensoy, Aynur; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Sorman, Arda; Akkol, Bulut; Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Uysal, Gokcen

2014-05-01

172

Immunosuppressive analogues of hexapeptide Tyr-Val-Pro-Leu-Phe-Pro, an immune system stimulant.  

PubMed

It was found that substitution of Val2 and/or Leu4 residue in a hexapeptide Tyr-Val-Pro-Leu-Phe-Pro (I) transforms this peptide immunostimulant into analogues possessing the immunosuppressor activity--Tyr-Gly-Pro-Leu-Phe-Pro (II), Tyr-Val-Pro-Gly-Phe-Pro (III), and Tyr-Gly-Pro-Gly-Phe-Pro (IV). Biological effects of peptides I-IV were studied using PFC (plaque forming cell) test, GvH (graft vs host) reaction in mice, and ARFC (autologous rosette forming cell) test. The strongest immunosuppressor activity was observed for III--in this case the immunosuppressor effect was observed even in PFC test in vitro in which II and IV showed no such activity. These results suggest that simultaneous presence of both Val2 and Leu4 residues is necessary for the generation of immunostimulation. The CD study of I-IV in methanol solution suggests that the conformational preferences of II-IV change towards stabilization of the beta-turn structure, whereas in the case of I the gamma-turn on Leu4 and cis' orientation of the Pro3 carbonyl (distorted beta-turn of type I) was found as the preferred conformation. Competition in biological effects observed for I and III in PFC in vitro test suggests that these analogues may interact with the same cellular receptor. Drastic changes in the activity which accompany changes in the sequence are discussed in the terms of our stereochemical hypothesis. PMID:1938105

Siemion, I Z; Kubik, A; Lisowski, M; Szewczuk, Z; Zimecki, M; Wieczorek, Z

1991-07-01

173

Liver FOXP3 and PD1/PDL1 Expression is Down-Regulated in Chronic HBV Hepatitis on Maintained Remission Related to the Degree of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: T cell expression of PD1 and inhibition of T effector cells by Foxp3+-T regulatory cells are among the most powerful mechanisms for achieving a balanced immune response. Our aim was to investigate, how liver FOXP3 and PD1/PDL1 expression is regulated in chronic HBV hepatitis (CHB) on maintained long-term remission in comparison with active disease, and whether they are correlated to the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis mediators, along with the degree of histological inflammation and markers of T cell effector restoration. Methods: Fifty-three HBeAg-negative CHB patients with both active (30) and completely remitted disease on long-term antiviral treatment (23) and four controls (submitted to liver biopsy due to a mild increase of aminotransferases but without liver necroinflammatory and architecture changes) were enrolled in the study. Liver mRNA levels of immunoregulatory genes (FOXP3, IL10, TGFB1, and those of PD1/PDL1/PDL2 pathway), major apoptosis mediators (FAS, FASL, TNFA, TRAIL), cytokines of effector T cell restoration (IL2, IFNG), and those of IL1B, CD4, and CD8, were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR and were correlated with each other, along with the intensity of liver inflammation and fibrosis staging. The expression and localization of FOXP3, PD1, PDL1, CD4, and CD8 were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: The expression of FOXP3, IL10, TGFB1, PD1, PDL1, FASL, and CD8 was significantly down-regulated in the remission state. In contrast, liver expression of IL2 and IFNG, along with CD4, IL1B, TNFA, and FAS did not change significantly. Moreover, FOXP3, PD1, PDL1, and CD8 transcripts were positively correlated to the intensity of liver inflammation. Conclusion: Our data indicate that in the CHB disease model, the immunosuppressive liver environment is down-regulated in the maintained on-treatment long-term remission state and correlates with the intensity of liver inflammation, but not liver T cell restoration. PMID:23898331

Germanidis, Georgios; Argentou, Nikoletta; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Vassiliadis, Themistoklis; Patsiaoura, Kalliopi; Germenis, Anastasios E.; Speletas, Matthaios

2013-01-01

174

Protein ProQ influences osmotic activation of compatible solute transporter ProP in Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed

ProP is an osmoregulatory compatible solute transporter in Escherichia coli K-12. Mutation proQ220::Tn5 decreased the rate constant for and the extent of ProP activation by an osmotic upshift but did not alter proP transcription or the ProP protein level. Allele proQ220::Tn5 was isolated, and the proQ sequence was determined. Locus proQ is upstream from prc (tsp) at 41.2 centisomes on the genetic map. The proQ220::Tn5 and prc phenotypes were different, however. Gene proQ is predicted to encode a 232-amino-acid, basic, hydrophilic protein (molecular mass, 25,876 Da; calculated isoelectric point, 9.66; 32% D, E, R, or K; 54.5% polar amino acids). The insertion of PCR-amplified proQ into vector pBAD24 produced a plasmid containing the wild-type proQ open reading frame, the expression of which yielded a soluble protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa. Antibodies raised against the overexpressed ProQ protein detected cross-reactive material in proQ+ bacteria but not in proQ220::Tn5 bacteria. ProQ may be a structural element that influences the osmotic activation of ProP at a posttranslational level. PMID:10049386

Kunte, H J; Crane, R A; Culham, D E; Richmond, D; Wood, J M

1999-03-01

175

Dynamic comparison between Daan real-time PCR and Cobas TaqMan for quantification of HBV DNA levels in patients with CHB  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels are crucial for managing chronic hepatitis B (CHB). It was unclear whether Daan real-time polymerase chain reaction test (Daan test) or COBAS TaqMan HBV DNA Test (Cobas TaqMan) was superior in measuring different HBV DNA levels in clinical specimens. Methods We enrolled 67 treatment-naïve, HBV surface antigen-positive CHB patients (high baseline viral levels) who received either lamivudine/adefovir or entecavir. Serum samples were tested at baseline and treatment week 24 using the Daan test and Cobas TaqMan. Results In the 67-baseline samples, the HBV DNA levels with the Cobas TaqMan (7.90?±?0.73 log10 IU/mL) were significantly greater than those of the Daan test (7.11?±?0.44 log10 IU/mL; P?HBV DNA in 26 of 34 samples undetectable by the Daan test (range, 1.4–3.7 log10 IU/mL) or 38% of samples (26/67). The reductions in viral load after 24 weeks of oral antiviral treatment in the 33 samples that were positive for both the Daan test and the Cobas TaqMan test were significantly different (3.59?±?1.11 log10 IU/mL versus 4.87?±?1.58 log10 IU/mL, respectively; P?=?0.001). Spearman correlation analysis showed positive correlation between results from two tests (rp?=?0.602,P<0.001). The HBV genotypes and the anti-viral treatment did not affect the measurements of the HBV DNA by the Daan assay and the Cobas Taqman assay. Conclusion The Cobas Taqman was more sensitive at low viral loads than the Daan test and the change from complete to partial virological response could affect clinical decisions. The Cobas Taqman may be more appropriate for detection of HBV DNA levels. PMID:24528480

2014-01-01

176

A Study on the HBV and the HCV Infections in Female Sex Workers and their Co-Infection with HIV  

PubMed Central

Background: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) have been shown to enhance the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The Hepatitis B and the Hepatitis C viral infections are highly prevalent among the HIV-infected persons as a result of shared transmission routes. Aim: To determine the seroprevalence of the HIV, Syphilis, HBV and HCV infections and their co-infection rates among Female Sex Workers (FSWs). Settings and Design: 250 blood samples were collected from FSWs from a red light area of Mumbai by using an outreach strategy. Materials and Methods: Their sera were tested for the HIV antibodies as per the strategy II of the NACO guidelines, for syphilis by RPR, for the HCV antibodies and for HBsAg by ELISA. Results: The study group showed (105/250) 42% HIV reactivity, (15/250) 6% RPR reactivity, (20/250) 8% HBsAg positivity, (7/250) 2.8% HCV reactivity, (11/250) 4.4% HIV-RPR reactivity, (7/250) 2.8% HIV-HBV co-infection and (3/250)1.2% HIV-HCV co-infection. Statistical test which was used: The Chi square test. Conclusion: A high HIV sero-prevalence was found among the FSWs. A high HIV prevalence was found among the RPR reactive FSWs. The relationship between the HIV reactivity and the RPR reactivity was statistically significant. Co-infections with HBV and HCV were detected among the HIV reactive FSWs, but they were not statistically significant. PMID:23543505

Praseeda S., Desai; Anuradha, Dutta; Jayanthi S., Shastri

2013-01-01

177

26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1... § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro...subsequent termination within the same taxable year unless the shareholder...1. Shareholder's pro rata share in the case of a partial...

2010-04-01

178

Lack of association between the GRP78 polymorphisms in the promoter and 3' UTR and susceptibility to chronic HBV infection in a Chinese Han population  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes large amount of unfolding or false-folding protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn induces the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). The aim in the present study was to analyse the potential association between GRP78 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of HBV infection. Methods The associations between seven common GRP78 polymorphisms in the promoter (rs391957, rs17840762, rs17840761, rs11355458) and in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) (rs16927997, rs1140763, rs12009) and possible risk of chronic HBV infection were assessed in a case-control study. 496 cases and 539 individually matched healthy controls were genotyped. Results Overall, no associations were observed in genotypic analyses. In addition, haplotypes and diplotypes combining those SNPs in the promoter or in the 3' UTR in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) were also not associated with HBV risk. Conclusion These observations do not support a role for GRP78 polymorphisms in HBV infection in a predominantly Chinese Han population. PMID:20525207

2010-01-01

179

QuickTime Pro Tutorial 1 How to Edit a Movie in QuickTime Pro  

E-print Network

QuickTime Pro Tutorial 1 How to Edit a Movie in QuickTime Pro 1. How To Extract a Clip: The first step in extracting your clip from a QuickTime movie is to decide which clip you Footage From Your Movie: Editing footage out of your movie is very similar to extracting a clip

Qiu, Weigang

180

Pro-Poor local economic development in South Africa: The role of pro-poor tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes features of the emerging nexus in South Africa between tourism, poverty alleviation and local economic development (LED) interventions. The South African experience of evolving a strong pro-poor focus in LED planning is distinctive in the international context of writings on LED. Pro-poor LED is increasingly the outcome of the application of measures and programmes that are linked

Christian M. Rogerson

2006-01-01

181

CoursePro 0.7.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No doubt there are students (and teachers) who will find Course Pro 0.7.0 quite a helpful application to have around. The application allows users to keep track of courses, course data, assignments and grades. Within each of these areas, users can define assignment types, assign weights to each assignment, create new assignments, and add indicators to keep abreast of when various assignments are due. The website for the program also features some nice screenshots, a help forum, and contact information. This version of Course Pro 0.7.0 is compatible with all systems running Windows 95 and above, and for the Palm OS as well.

Meehl, Keith

182

Down-regulation of Z39Ig on macrophages by IFN-gamma in patients with chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

Co-inhibitory signals from the B7 superfamily have been demonstrated to induce T cell dysfunction in chronic HBV infection (CHB). However, the expression and function of Z39Ig, a new inhibitor of the B7 superfamily, is still unclear in CHB. Here immunohistochemical staining showed that Z39Ig was restricted to macrophages and that its level was decreased significantly in CHB patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, reduced Z39Ig expression was positively correlated with plasma HBV load but was inversely related to serum alanine aminotransaminase levels. Further, Z39Ig mRNA had a negative relation to IFN-gamma in vivo, and IFN-gamma also down-regulated Z39Ig expression on monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in a time- and dose-dependent manner in vitro. Interestingly, Z39Ig expression on MDMs was restored when IFN-gamma neutralizing antibodies were added to the T cell/MDM co-culture system, indicating that the IFN-gamma derived from activated-T cells may contribute to the reduction of Z39Ig in the CHB environment. Our results suggest that T cells can opposite T cell hyporesponsiveness through dampening Z39Ig inhibitory signals from macrophages and thus maintain their anti-viral function in CHB. Therefore, decreasing Z39Ig signals from macrophages could contribute to CHB clinical therapy. PMID:20399148

Guo, Sheng; Yang, Chengying; Mei, Feng; Wu, Shengxi; Luo, Na; Fei, Lei; Chen, Yongwen; Wu, Yuzhang

2010-08-01

183

Testing of a coupled model of the HBV model and a glacier retreat model on a Himalayan basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalayan glaciers are source of numerous large Asian river systems, including the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra, which provide water for 1.5 billion people. This region is among areas that are the most sensitive to climate change. Shrinking of the glaciers is expected to significantly affect hydrologic responses of glaciated basins. Retreat of glaciers in these basins is predicted to cause severe water crisis in these basins. However, glacier behaviours are not well represented in most current hydrological models. The objective of the present study is to test performance of a coupled model consisting of a hydrological model and a glacier retreat model. The hydrological model is a distributed HBV model, simulating runoff response to water input into catchment. The glacier retreat model is a distributed glacier-specific model, ?h-parameterization describing ice redistribution caused by glacier movement. The Beas River basin in the Northern India is selected as focus area because of its high representativeness of the Himalayan basins and availability of data. This study will not only improve the HBV model for hydrological studies in glaciated catchments, but also contribute to improved understanding and modelling of glacier hydrology. The coupled model will be a useful tool for water resources projections and hydropower planning in a far future on highly glaciated basins.

LI, Hong; Xu, Chongyu; Beldring, Stein; Melvold, Kjetil; Jain, Sharad

2014-05-01

184

Public interest PUBLIC INTEREST AND PRO BONO  

E-print Network

Student Profile 11Alumni Profile Pro Bono Numbers (statistics for 2008-09 academic year) 374 students growing caseload, and a new project investigating racial bias in the court system in north Carolina. the second was spurred by the state legislature's recent passage of the Racial Justice act, which allows

185

Appointment of Pro-Vice-Chancellor  

E-print Network

consecutive Times Higher Education Awards, including: ­ University Fundraising Team of the Year (2012. UNIVERSITY · Gradireland/Association of Higher Education Careers Services, Gold Award for Employability 2014Appointment of Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Education and Students Candidate Information May 2014 #12

186

Communicating Stigma: The Pro-Ana Paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype,

Daphna Yeshua-Katz; Nicole Martins

2012-01-01

187

BNP and NT-proBNP Test  

MedlinePLUS

... conditions, and it may co-exist with them. BNP and NT-proBNP levels can help doctors differentiate between heart failure and other problems, such as lung disease . An accurate diagnosis is important because the treatments are often different ...

188

A comparison of SRM and HBV models for real time runoff forecasting in the Upper Euphrates Basin, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting snowmelt runoff in the mountainous eastern part of Turkey at a daily time step is important in water resource management as it constitutes nearly 2/3 in volume of the total yearly runoff during spring and early summer months. Keeping track of snow dynamics as well as forecasting the amount and timing of snowmelt runoff in the headwaters of the trans-boundary Euphrates River, where large dams are located, is a crucial and challenging task concerning the practical importance and great demand for real time forecasting of melt water. In mountainous regions, data limitations prevent detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed relative to snowpack heterogeneity therefore, to supplement ground measurement networks, remotely sensed images of snow covered area (SCA) provide useful information for runoff prediction during the snowmelt season. SCA has been used as a direct input to hydrological models such as Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) or as a means of assimilating hydrologic model snowpack and checking the internal validity as in the case of HBV model. Alternative ways of handling melt water modeling using satellite derived SCA is discussed, with emphasis on the contrasting treatments in two widely used hydrologic models, SRM and HBV. The greatest similarity between the two models is that each uses a temperature index method to predict melt rate whereas the greatest difference lies in the way snow cover is handled. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow cover products with 500 m spatial resolution are used to derive SCA data in this study. Since the cloud obscuring problem degrades the use of satellites with optical sensors, a special combination and filtering methodology is utilized to reduce cloud coverage of the product. Both models are used to simulate runoff for the years 2001-2010 with model efficiency above 0.86 and volume difference less than 2.5%. Finally, operational snowmelt runoff forecasting is carried out for 2011 ablation season using numerical weather prediction (Mesoscale Model 5) data as forcing input variables. Discussion of results are supervised to reflect the general debates in hydrologic modeling in terms of parameters and calibration, internal validation, the value and limitations of using satellite derived and numerical weather prediction data. Key words: snow, SRM, HBV, forecasting, Upper Euphrates Basin

Sorman, A. A.; Sensoy, A.; Yamankurt, E.; Gozel, E.

2012-04-01

189

Diagnostic and prognostic significance of serum miR-24-3p in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) in hepatitis B viral (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 84 consecutive patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent curative resection. Additionally, we enrolled 46 healthy controls and 31 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Serum levels of miR-155-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-490-3p, miR-210-3p, and miR-335-5p were measured. Associations of serum miRNAs with clinicopathological factors were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were established for discriminating HCC patients from CLD patients, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were examined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were determined by multivariate Cox analysis. Consequently, serum miR-24-3p levels were significantly greater in HCC patients than healthy controls and CLD patients. Serum miR-24-3p was significantly associated with vascular invasion in HCC patients. Serum miR-24-3p discriminated HCC patients from CLD, with an AUC of 0.636 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.524-0.748]. Combined serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and miR-24-3p had an increased AUC of 0.834 (95 % CI 0.745-0.923; P < 0.001). Elevated serum miR-24-3p was an independent poor prognostic factor for OS and DFS of HCC patients. In conclusion, the combination of serum miR-24-3p and AFP improves the diagnostic accuracy for HCC prediction compared to each biomarker alone. High serum miR-24-3p level is an independent predictor of poor OS and DFS in patients with HBV-related HCC. PMID:25129312

Meng, Fan-Long; Wang, Wei; Jia, Wei-Dong

2014-09-01

190

Physical Conditions and Elemental Abundances in the Symbiotic Novae V1016-CYGNI Hm-Sagittae and HBV:475  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained optical, near-infrared and UV spectra of the symbiotic stars HM Sge, V 1016 Cyg and HBV 475. We present diagnostic diagrams which indicate that physical conditions vary strongly throughout the symbiotic nebulosities. In HM Sge and V 1016 Cyg we find a steep electron-density gradient covering more than an order of magnitude from the lowest to the highest observed ionization stages. We discuss the formation of hydrogen and helium recombination lines in dense nebulae in order to obtain He abundances. We emphasize that Balmer self-absorption and collisional excitation in He I are important processes in symbiotic nebulae. Their inclusion leads to considerably lower He abundances than previously reported. We obtain He abundances in HM Sge, which are consistent with the solar value. Also in V1016 Cyg and HBV 475 no He overabundance is found although some problems concerning the H I and He I lines remain unsolved. We determine the abundances of C, N, O and Ne in all three objects and additionally Si, Ar and Fe in HM Sge and V1016 Cyg. Compared to solar, nitrogen is enhanced by a factor of 10 in HM Sge and HBV 475 and a factor of 3.5 in V1016 Cyg. The other elements are compatible with solar abundances. The overall abundance pattern found in these symbiotic stars differs markedly from the one observed in nova ejecta. The H and He mass fractions in both HM Sge and V1016 Cyg are 0.72 and 0.25, in contrast to the hydrogen mass fractions ?0.53 observed in novae. We suggest that the material presently constituting these symbiotic nebulae has not undergone nova-processing. The C, N, O abundances in V1016 Cyg are almost identical to the mean abundances observed in M and S giants. HM Sge shows the signs of a more advanced nuclear burning stage and can be interpreted as due to a wind of a highly evolved red giant. We also find no depletion of typical dust constituents like Si and Fe in the D-type symbiotics HM Sge and V1016 Cyg. We conclude that the dust observable in the IR is located outside the ionized nebulosity. We suggest that symbiotic stars can be used to determine elemental abundances in red giants including Miras by means of nebular diagnostic tools. This may be particularly important for poorly known elemental abundances such as He.

Schmid, H. M.; Schild, H.

1990-09-01

191

Crystal structure of the collagen triple helix model [(Pro-Pro-Gly)10]3  

PubMed Central

The first report of the full-length structure of the collagen-like polypeptide [(Pro-Pro-Gly)10]3 is given. This structure was obtained from crystals grown in a microgravity environment, which diffracted up to 1.3 ?, using synchrotron radiation. The final model, which was refined to an Rfactor of 0.18, is the highest-resolution description of a collagen triple helix reported to date. This structure provides clues regarding a series of aspects related to collagen triple helix structure and assembly. The strict dependence of proline puckering on the position inside the Pro-Pro-Gly triplets and the correlation between backbone and side chain dihedral angles support the propensity-based mechanism of triple helix stabilization/destabilization induced by hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the analysis of [(Pro-Pro-Gly)10]3 packing, which is governed by electrostatic interactions, suggests that charges may act as locking features in the axial organization of triple helices in the collagen fibrils. PMID:11790836

Berisio, Rita; Vitagliano, Luigi; Mazzarella, Lelio; Zagari, Adriana

2002-01-01

192

FRUITS OF TRANSGENIC TOMATO PLANTS PRODUCING TBI-HBSAG CHIMERIC PROTEIN CAN BE USED AS AN ORAL VACCINE AGAINST HIV AND HBV AS SHOWN IN EXPERIMENTAL MICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Human immunodeficiency (HIV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses are pathogens causing dangerous diseases. These infections are spreading at a high rate, reaching the level of a worldwide epidemic. According to the WHO data, 2–3 million people die annually of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)...

193

In vitro stimulation with HBV therapeutic vaccine candidate Nasvac activates B and T cells from chronic hepatitis B patients and healthy donors.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infections remain a considerable health problem worldwide. The standard therapies have demonstrated limited efficacy, side effects or need life-long treatments. Nowadays therapeutic vaccination is a promising option. Recently, we developed a new vaccine formulation called Nasvac, based on the combination of surface and core antigens from HBV. Clinical trials already performed showed good efficacy in virus control. However, the exact mode of action of Nasvac formulation remains unclear. So far the functional impairment of DCs during persistent HBV infection is a controversial issue. On the other hand, it is known that B cells may function as antigen presenting cells (APC) activating T cells. The hepatitis B core antigen contained in Nasvac vaccine is able to bind and activate a high frequency of naive human B cells. In the present study the surface expression of activation and exhaustion markers on B cells and the subsequent activation of T cells after in vitro stimulation with Nasvac antigens were evaluated in chronic HBV patients and healthy donors. B- and T-cell phenotype and proliferation were assessed by flow cytometry. Our results indicate that in contrast to exhaustions markers B cell activation markers were increased on both study groups after Nasvac stimulation. A shift toward an activation phenotype was observed for both B and T cells. The present work suggests that B cells could act as efficient APCs for Nasvac antigens in humans, which might suggest the use of activated B cells as immunotherapeutic strategy for chronic hepatitis B. PMID:25193323

Lobaina, Yadira; Hardtke, Svenja; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Aguilar, Julio Cesar; Schlaphoff, Verena

2015-02-01

194

Intrahepatic PD-1/PD-L1 up-regulation closely correlates with inflammation and virus replication in patients with chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B was characterized by fluctuant immune response to infected hepatocytes resulting in hepatic inflammation and virus persistence. Recently, Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 have been demonstrated to play an essential role in balancing antiviral immunity and inflammation in the livers of acute hepatitis B patients, significantly influencing disease outcome. PD-1 up-regulation in peripheral T cells is associated with immune dysfunction in chronic hepatitis B patients. However, the effect of PD-1/PD-L1 on hepatic damage and chronic infective status is still unknown in patients with chronic HBV infection. Here, we report up-regulation of PD-1 and PD-L1 in liver biopsies from 32 chronic HBV patients compared to 4 healthy donors. PD-1/PD-L1 up-regulation was significantly associated with hepatic inflammation and ALT elevation. Moreover, appropriate up-regulation but not overexpression of PD-L1 in the active phase of chronic hepatitis B as well as lower expression of PD-L1 in the inactive phase in liver residential antigen presenting cells (including Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells) may contribute to viral inhibition. Our data suggest that the intrahepatic interaction of PD-1 and PD-L1 might play an important role in balancing the immune response to HBV and immune-mediated liver damage in chronic HBV infection. PMID:19811426

Xie, Zhunyi; Chen, Yongwen; Zhao, Songtao; Yang, Zhiqing; Yao, Xiaohong; Guo, Sheng; Yang, Chengying; Fei, Lei; Zeng, Xingguang; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang

2009-01-01

195

Two Distinct Subtypes of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute Liver Failure Are Separable By Quantitative Serum IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA Levels  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus-related acute liver failure (HBV-ALF) may occur following acute HBV infection (AHBV-ALF) or during an exacerbation of chronic HBV infection (CHBV-ALF). Clinical differentiation of the two is often difficult if a prior history of hepatitis B is not available. Quantitative measurements of anti-hepatitis B core immunoglobulin M (IgM anti-HBc) titers and of HBV viral loads (VLs) might allow separation of acute from chronic HBV-ALF. Methods Of 1602 patients with ALF, 60 met clinical criteria for AHBV-ALF and 27 for CHBV-ALF. Sera were available on 47 and 23 patients, respectively. A quantitative immunoassay was used to determine IgM anti-HBc levels, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) to determine HBV VLs. Results AHBV-ALFs had much higher IgM anti-HBc titers than CHBV-ALFs, (signal to noise (S/N) ratio median 88.5, range 0–1,120, vs. 1.3, 0–750, p<0.001); a cut point for S/N ratio of 5.0 correctly identified 44/46 (96%) AHBV-ALFs and 16/23 (70%) CHBV-ALFs; the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.86, p<0.001. AHBV-ALF median admission VL was 3.9 (0–8.1) log10 IU/mL, vs. 5.2 (2.0–8.7) log10 IU/mL for CHBV-ALF, p<0.025. Twenty percent (12/60) of the AHBV-ALF group had no hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) detectable on admission to study, while no CHBV-ALF patients experienced HBsAg clearance. Rates of transplant-free survival were 33% (20/60) for AHBV-ALF vs. 11% (3/27) for CHBV-ALF, p=0.030. Conclusions AHBV-ALF and CHBV-ALF differ markedly in IgM anti-HBc titers, in HBV VLs and in prognosis, suggesting that the two forms are indeed different entities that might each have a unique pathogenesis. PMID:21987355

Dao, Doan Y; Hynan, Linda S.; Yuan, He-Jun; Sanders, Corron; Balko, Jody; Attar, Nahid; Lok, Anna S.F.; Word, R. Ann; Lee, William M.

2011-01-01

196

Maternal Chronic HBV Infection Would Not Increase the Risk of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension – Results from Pregnancy Cohort in Liuyang Rural China  

PubMed Central

The relationship between maternal HBV (hepatitis B virus) infection and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted in rural areas of China. In order to examine the association between maternal chronic HBV infection and risk of PIH in Liuyang rural area China, we enrolled 6,195 eligible pregnant women in 2010–2011 in selected 14 towns of Liuyang on their first prenatal visit to local maternity care unit. A total of 461 subjects (7.44% (95%CI: 6.79%, 8.10%)) were identified with positive HBsAg status (exposed group) and 5734 were non-HBV carriers (unexposed group). Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk of PIH, gestational hypertension (GH), and preeclampsia (PE) in relation to maternal chronic HBV infection. There are total of 455 subjects diagnosed with PIH (7.34% (95%CI: 6.70%, 7.99%)), including 371 GH (5.99% (95%CI: 5.40%, 6.58%)) and 81 PE (1.31% (95%CI: 1.07%, 1.64%)). The crude risk ratio between PIH, GH, PE and maternal HBV infection were 1.20 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.64), 1.30(95%CI: 0.93, 1.81) and 0.79 (95%CI: 0.32, 1.93), respectively. After adjustment for gravidity history, abortion history, family history of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and family history of hypertension, positive HBsAg status was still not significantly associated with PIH (RR?=?1.18, 95%CI: 0.87, 1.62), GH (RR?=?1.27, 95%CI: 0.91, 1.78) or PE (RR?=?0.79, 95%CI: 0.32, 1.95). Additional adjustment for maternal age, marital status, parity history, family history of DM, Body Mass Index at first antenatal visit, folic acid supplementation, smoking status during pregnancy and economic status of living area, multivariate analysis provided similar results. In conclusion, our study found that maternal chronic HBV infection prevalence rate is 7.4% among Liuyang rural area and there is no significant association between maternal HBV infection and the risk of PIH, GH or PE. PMID:25479003

Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Li, Xun; Zhou, Shujin; Wen, Shi Wu; Luo, Meiling

2014-01-01

197

The potential of magnetic nanocluster and dual-functional protein-based strategy for noninvasive detection of HBV surface antibodies.  

PubMed

Magnetic nanoclusters (MNCs) were synthesized in a one-pot process, carboxylic MNCs and dual-functional protein were prepared and used to capture hepatitis B virus surface antibodies (anti-HBs) in simulated diseased oral mucosal transudate (OMT) samples. The specific substrate of dual-functional protein, dual-labeled double-chained DNA molecules, based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), was used to amplify the detection signal and the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL(-1) of anti-HBs monoclonal antibodies was achieved. Combination MNCs with dual-functional protein enables the noninvasive detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antibodies in OMT samples, showing promise as a diagnostic tool for the OMT diagnosis of infectious diseases with sensitive, specific and facile capabilities. PMID:21049106

Hu, Hengyao; Yang, Hao; Li, Ding; Wang, Kan; Ruan, Jing; Zhang, Xueqing; Chen, Jun; Bao, Chenchen; Ji, Jiajia; Shi, Donglu; Cui, Daxiang

2011-02-21

198

Cryogenic system for BERLinPro  

SciTech Connect

In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2014-01-29

199

Cryogenic system for BERLinPro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

2014-01-01

200

Occult and Overt HBV Co-Infections Independently Predict Postoperative Prognosis in HCV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective and Background The roles of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection (CI) in carcinogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remained controversial. To gain new insights into this issue, we investigated the postoperative prognostic value of HBVCI in HCV-associated HCC. Methods A study cohort of 115 liver tissues obtained from the noncancerous parts of surgically removed HCV-associated HCCs were subjected to virological analysis in a tertiary care setting. Assayed factors included clinicopathological variables, tissue amounts of viral genomes, genotypic characterization of viruses, as well as the presence of overt (serum HBsAg positive) or occult (serum HBsAg negative but tissue HBV-DNA positive) HBVCI. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate postoperative survivals. Results Of the 115 patients, overt and occult HBVCIs were detected in 35 and 16 patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size >3 cm (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 2.079 [95% confidence interval, 1.149?3.761]), alpha-fetoprotein >8 ng/mL (AHR, 5.976 [2.007?17.794]) albumin <4 g/dL(AHR, 2.539 [1.399?4.606]), ALT >50 U/L (AHR,1.086 [1.006?1.172]), presence of occult HBVCI (AHR, 2.708 [1.317?5.566]), and absence of overt HBVCI (AHR, 2.216 [1.15?4.269]) were independently associated with unfavorable disease-free survival. Patients with occult HBVCI had a shorter disease-free (P?=?0.002), a shorter overall survival (P?=?0.026), a higher bilirubin level (P?=?0.003) and a higher prevalence of precore G1896A mutation (P?=?0.006) compared with those with overt HBVCI. Conclusion Occult and overt HBVCI served as independent predictors for postoperative survival in HCV-associated HCC. PMID:23805180

Chang, Ming-Ling; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chang, Chee-Jen; Yeh, Charisse; Chen, Tse-Ching; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Lee, Wei-Chen; Yeh, Chau-Ting

2013-01-01

201

ProGen: GPHMM for prokaryotic genomes Sharad Akshar Punuganti  

E-print Network

ProGen: GPHMM for prokaryotic genomes Sharad Akshar Punuganti May 10, 2011 Abstract Pro and implemented to train the model and find the genes respectively. ProGen models prokaryotic genome (hence of GPHMMs in the domain of prokaryotic genomes as the genomic structure of prokaryotes is relatively simple

Liblit, Ben

202

IN VITRO INHIBITION OF THE ACTIVATION OF PRO-MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1 (PRO-MMP-1) AND PRO-MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9 (PRO-MMP-9) BY RICE AND SOYBEAN BOWMAN - BIRK INHIBITORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor (rBBI), or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (sBBI), against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metallogroteinase 1 or 9 (pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9), respectively, was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining, heparin...

203

PRO-ESP -Enhanced System Package TABLE OF CONTENTS  

E-print Network

PRO-ESP - Enhanced System Package ESP - 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ALTDISK, MicroConsultants, All rights reserved. PRO-ESP is published by MISOSYS, Inc., Sterling VA 22170. LS This documentation covers the TRSDOS 6.x or LS-DOS 6.x (herinafter referred to as DOS) version called PRO-ESP

Mann, Tim

204

31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93 Section 50.93 Money... § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro rata share of each insured loss to be...

2010-07-01

205

MP 33354 Pro-Q Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain  

E-print Network

MP 33354 Pro-Q® Sapphire 532 Oligohistidine Gel Stain Product Information Storage upon receipt: · 6­ polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and Western blot analysis. With Molecular Probes Pro-Q® Sapphire 532­polyacrylamide gel, eliminating the need to blot the protein to a membrane (Figure 1, top). Pro-Q Sapphire 532

Lebendiker, Mario

206

Rapid screening and identification of dominant B cell epitopes of HBV surface antigen by quantum dot-based fluorescence polarization assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future.

Meng, Zhongji; Song, Ruihua; Chen, Yue; Zhu, Yang; Tian, Yanhui; Li, Ding; Cui, Daxiang

2013-03-01

207

HBV Reactivation in Patients Treated with Antitumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-?) Agents for Rheumatic and Dermatologic Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

Introduction. Antitumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) agents are widely used for treatment of rheumatic and dermatological diseases. We conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of HBV reactivation among patients treated with anti-TNF-?. Methods and Findings. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. From 21 studies included in the systematic review, 9 included patients with occult chronic HBV infection and 6 included patients with overt infection while 6 addressed both groups. Based on 10 studies eligible for meta-analysis we report pooled estimate of HBV reactivation of 4.2% (95% CI: 1.4-8.2%, I (2): 74.7%). The pooled prevalence of reactivation was 3.0% (95% CI: 0.6-7.2, I (2): 77.1%) for patients with occult infection, and 15.4% (95% CI: 1.2-41.2%, I (2): 79.9%) for overt infection. The prevalence of reactivation was 3.9% (95% CI: 1.1-8.4%, I (2): 51.1%) for treatment with etanercept and 4.6% (95% CI: 0.5-12.5%, I (2): 28.7%) for adalimumab. For subgroup of patients without any antiviral prophylaxis the pooled reactivation was 4.0% (95% CI: 1.2-8.3%, I (2): 75.6%). Conclusion. Although HBV reactivation rate is relatively low in patients treated with anti-TNF-? for rheumatic and dermatological conditions, the antiviral prophylaxis would be recommended in patients with overt chronic HBV infection. PMID:25114684

Cantini, Fabrizio; Boccia, Stefania; Goletti, Delia; Iannone, Florenzo; Leoncini, Emanuele; Panic, Nikola; Prignano, Francesca; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista

2014-01-01

208

HBV Reactivation in Patients Treated with Antitumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-?) Agents for Rheumatic and Dermatologic Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Antitumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) agents are widely used for treatment of rheumatic and dermatological diseases. We conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of HBV reactivation among patients treated with anti-TNF-?. Methods and Findings. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. From 21 studies included in the systematic review, 9 included patients with occult chronic HBV infection and 6 included patients with overt infection while 6 addressed both groups. Based on 10 studies eligible for meta-analysis we report pooled estimate of HBV reactivation of 4.2% (95% CI: 1.4–8.2%, I2: 74.7%). The pooled prevalence of reactivation was 3.0% (95% CI: 0.6–7.2, I2: 77.1%) for patients with occult infection, and 15.4% (95% CI: 1.2–41.2%, I2: 79.9%) for overt infection. The prevalence of reactivation was 3.9% (95% CI: 1.1–8.4%, I2: 51.1%) for treatment with etanercept and 4.6% (95% CI: 0.5–12.5%, I2: 28.7%) for adalimumab. For subgroup of patients without any antiviral prophylaxis the pooled reactivation was 4.0% (95% CI: 1.2–8.3%, I2: 75.6%). Conclusion. Although HBV reactivation rate is relatively low in patients treated with anti-TNF-? for rheumatic and dermatological conditions, the antiviral prophylaxis would be recommended in patients with overt chronic HBV infection. PMID:25114684

Cantini, Fabrizio; Boccia, Stefania; Iannone, Florenzo; Leoncini, Emanuele; Prignano, Francesca; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista

2014-01-01

209

Rapid screening and identification of dominant B cell epitopes of HBV surface antigen by quantum dot-based fluorescence polarization assay  

PubMed Central

A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future. PMID:23452727

2013-01-01

210

A randomized, dose-ranging assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine vs. co-administration of DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines in 12 to 24 months old Filipino toddlers  

PubMed Central

As progress toward global poliovirus eradication continues, more and more countries are moving away from use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) in national vaccination schedules. Reduction of antigen dose in IPV could increase manufacturing capacity and facilitate the change from OPV to IPV. Combination vaccines reduce the number of injections required to complete vaccination, thus playing an important role in maintaining high vaccine coverage with good public acceptability. Three formulations of a combined, candidate hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) differing only in IPV antigen content (full-dose, half-dose and one-third dose as compared with available stand-alone IPV vaccines), were evaluated when administered to healthy toddlers. Controls received separately administered licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines. Immunogenicity was assessed before and one month after vaccination. Safety and reactogenicity data were assessed for 30 d after vaccination. A total of 312 Filipino children were vaccinated in their second year of life. Each DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation was non-inferior to control in terms of pre-defined criteria for IPV immunogenicity. Post-vaccination GMTs against each poliovirus type were increased between 4.2- and 37.9-fold over pre-vaccination titers. Non-inferiority to other vaccine antigens was also demonstrated. The safety profile of the 3 DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulations resembled licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib Kft and IPV in terms of the frequency and intensity of adverse reactions after vaccination. Further investigation of DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib containing reduced quantity of IPV antigen for primary vaccination in infants is warranted.   This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT number: NCT01106092 PMID:22330958

Quiambao, Beatriz; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kolhe, Devayani; Gatchalian, Salvacion

2012-01-01

211

Potential risks of pro-eating disorder websites.  

PubMed

Although dangers of pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) websites have recently been discussed in the popular press, no integration of research findings on this topic yet exists. After completing a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles about pro-ED websites, we identified three possible risks as themes: operation under the guise of "support," reinforcement of disordered eating, and prevention of help-seeking and recovery. Pro-ED websites tend to be perceived as supportive by users, but instead appear to exacerbate or maintain users' eating disorder symptoms. We discuss research and clinical implications of these dangers. Future research should clarify how specific features of pro-ED websites contribute to the development, exacerbation, and maintenance of eating pathology, e.g., by employing experimental techniques and prospective designs with clinical samples and various ages. Despite limited empirical research on the topic, existing findings should prompt clinicians, parents, and researchers to remain vigilant about potential negative influences of pro-ED websites on users. PMID:21272967

Rouleau, Codie R; von Ranson, Kristin M

2011-06-01

212

The presentation of "pro-anorexia" in online group interactions.  

PubMed

Although pro-anorexia online support forums and the narratives that occur within them are increasingly the focus of research, none, to date, focuses closely on issues of identity within this online context. Our aim in conducting this study was to examine the presentation of pro-anorexia via an interpretive phenomenological analysis of postings to a pro-anorexia ("pro-ana") online discussion forum. Analysis indicates that pro-anorexic identities are normalized and strengthened through the normalization of participants' pro-ana thoughts and behaviors, and the group bond created through sharing a secret identity. This process renders participants less likely to reveal their pro-ana identity to friends and family in the real world. The implications of our findings are discussed in relation to the theory of identity demarginalization. PMID:18235156

Gavin, Jeff; Rodham, Karen; Poyer, Helen

2008-03-01

213

The impact of HBV or HCV infection in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving a nevirapine-based antiretroviral regimen in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Coinfection with the hepatitis viruses is common in the HIV population in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess, in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections and to determine the impact of these infections on the occurrence of liver toxicity and on the viro-immunological response. Methods Women were screened for HBsAg and HCV-RNA before starting, at week 25 of gestational age, an antiretroviral regimen consisting of lamivudine and nevirapine plus either stavudine or zidovudine. Women with CD4+?HBV (n. 27), or HCV (n. 1). During follow-up 125 women (40.4%) developed a grade???1 ALT elevation, 28 (9.1%) a grade???2 and 6 (1.9%) an elevation defining grade 3 toxicity. In a multivariate model including age, baseline CD4+ count and hemoglobin level, the presence of either HBV or HCV infection was significantly associated with the development of an ALT increase of any grade (P?=?0.035). Moderate or severe liver laboratory toxicity (grade???2) was more frequent among women with baseline CD4+?>?250/mm3 (P?=?0.030). In HBV-infected women a baseline HBV-DNA level above 10,000 IU/ml was significantly associated to the development of liver toxicity of grade???1 (P?=?0.040). Coinfections had no impact on the immunological and virological response to antiretroviral drugs up to 2 years after delivery. Conclusions In this cohort of nevirapine-treated women the presence of HBV or HCV was associated only to the development of mild liver toxicity, while the occurrence of moderate or severe hepatoxicity was correlated to a baseline CD4+ count?>?250/mm3. No statistically significant effect of the coinfections was observed on the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:24708626

2014-01-01

214

[Private companies: an opportunity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and care in Ivory Coast in the wake of HIV/AIDS?  

PubMed

In the 1990s, defenders of "aids exceptionnalism" have promised that the inequities caused by HIV/AIDS could provide leverage in the care of other health issues later. Fifteen years later, this argument can be rethought at the light of the current context of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Ivory Coast. In fact, in this country, the challenges caused by HBVecho those of HIV/AIDS fifteen years ago: high prevalence (8-10%), ignorance of the disease, and high cost of care. To this end, this article compares the role of private companies in the fights against HIV/AIDS in the 2000s and its role in the fight against HBV today. Although some private firms played a critical role in the promotion of universal access to ART, today, they are one of the few places where HBV screening, vaccination and treatment are offered in the country. HIV/AIDS opened the door for private companies to address other diseases through their health care systems. However, many challenges still need to be met: the absence of qualitative ongoing training for health professionals, illness representations and the costs of treatments, which are all related to the lack of international and national collective action. In Ivory Coast, at the early stage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, national authorities took up the leadership in the fight against AIDS in West Africa, by developing extraverted strategies (Xth ICASA's organization, Unaids initiative hosting). The exceptional international mobilization and the creation of innovative funding mechanisms [International Therapeutic Solidarity Fund (ITSF), Global Fund (GM), and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)] have facilitated easy access to ARV. Although 380 million people are infected by chronic HBV in the world, even so, international and national collective actions are fledgling and remained weak. Moreover, private firms have represented leverage for testing, treatment, and the provision of universal access to medication in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ivory Coast, as relayed by other public and private actors. In the HBV context, private companies can only be a vector for the development of a two tier healthcare system. Therefore, the lack of a strong international commitment prevents public and private local initiatives to generalize HBV prevention and treatment. PMID:25407333

Bekelynck, A

2014-11-18

215

Pro-neurotrophins, sortilin, and nociception  

PubMed Central

Nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling is important in the development and functional maintenance of nociceptors, but it also plays a central role in initiating and sustaining heat and mechanical hyperalgesia following inflammation. NGF signaling in pain has traditionally been thought of as primarily engaging the classic high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA to initiate sensitization events. However, the discovery that secreted proforms of nerve NGF have biological functions distinct from the processed mature factors raised the possibility that these proneurotrophins (proNTs) may have distinct function in painful conditions. ProNTs engage a novel receptor system that is distinct from that of mature neurotrophins, consisting of sortilin, a type I membrane protein belonging to the VPS10p family, and its co-receptor, the classic low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Here, we review how this new receptor system may itself function with or independently of the classic TrkA system in regulating inflammatory or neuropathic pain. PMID:24494677

Lewin, Gary R; Nykjaer, Anders

2014-01-01

216

Communicating stigma: the pro-ana paradox.  

PubMed

This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype, and e-mail. Participants were motivated to blog because they found social support, a way to cope with a stigmatized illness, and means of self-expression. Participants described blogging as a cathartic experience and perceived the social support they received from other members of the pro-ana community as a benefit. The fear that the eating disorder will be revealed if the blog is exposed and the concern that the blog encourages disordered eating were the perceived negative consequences of maintaining such a blog. Thus, blogging about anorexia serves to both alleviate and trigger anxiety about living with this stigmatized illness. Recommendations for future research are made. PMID:22873763

Yeshua-Katz, Daphna; Martins, Nicole

2013-01-01

217

Pro-anorexia Communities and Online Interaction: Bringing the Pro-ana Body Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article details the making of community and bodies in online environments, specifically the online pro-anorexia community. Building community among members of these groups is particularly fraught because tensions over claims to authenticity permeate these groups. Because these are embodied practices and online spaces are presumably disembodied, participants constantly grapple with authenticity, largely through the threat of the ‘wannarexic’. Participants

Natalie C. Boero; C. J. Pascoe

2012-01-01

218

Optimization and validation of FePro cell labeling method.  

PubMed

Current method to magnetically label cells using ferumoxides (Fe)-protamine (Pro) sulfate (FePro) is based on generating FePro complexes in a serum free media that are then incubated overnight with cells for the efficient labeling. However, this labeling technique requires long (>12-16 hours) incubation time and uses relatively high dose of Pro (5-6 microg/ml) that makes large extracellular FePro complexes. These complexes can be difficult to clean with simple cell washes and may create low signal intensity on T2* weighted MRI that is not desirable. The purpose of this study was to revise the current labeling method by using low dose of Pro and adding Fe and Pro directly to the cells before generating any FePro complexes. Human tumor glioma (U251) and human monocytic leukemia cell (THP-1) lines were used as model systems for attached and suspension cell types, respectively and dose dependent (Fe 25 to 100 microg/ml and Pro 0.75 to 3 microg/ml) and time dependent (2 to 48 h) labeling experiments were performed. Labeling efficiency and cell viability of these cells were assessed. Prussian blue staining revealed that more than 95% of cells were labeled. Intracellular iron concentration in U251 cells reached approximately 30-35 pg-iron/cell at 24 h when labeled with 100 microg/ml of Fe and 3 microg/ml of Pro. However, comparable labeling was observed after 4 h across the described FePro concentrations. Similarly, THP-1 cells achieved approximately 10 pg-iron/cell at 48 h when labeled with 100 microg/ml of Fe and 3 microg/ml of Pro. Again, comparable labeling was observed after 4 h for the described FePro concentrations. FePro labeling did not significantly affect cell viability. There was almost no extracellular FePro complexes observed after simple cell washes. To validate and to determine the effectiveness of the revised technique, human T-cells, human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC), human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSC) and mouse neuronal stem cells (mNSC C17.2) were labeled. Labeling for 4 hours using 100 microg/ml of Fe and 3 microg/ml of Pro resulted in very efficient labeling of these cells, without impairing their viability and functional capability. The new technique with short incubation time using 100 microg/ml of Fe and 3 microg/ml of Pro is effective in labeling cells for cellular MRI. PMID:19517015

Janic, Branislava; Rad, Ali M; Jordan, Elaine K; Iskander, A S M; Ali, Md M; Varma, N Ravi S; Frank, Joseph A; Arbab, Ali S

2009-01-01

219

Inhibitory Phenotype of HBV-Specific CD4+ T-Cells Is Characterized by High PD-1 Expression but Absent Coregulation of Multiple Inhibitory Molecules  

PubMed Central

Background T-cell exhaustion seems to play a critical role in CD8+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic viral infections. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms underlying CD4+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection and the role of inhibitory molecules such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) for CD4+ T-cell failure. Methods The expression of multiple inhibitory molecules such as PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, CD244, KLRG1 and markers defining the grade of T-cell differentiation as CCR7, CD45RA, CD57 and CD127 were analyzed on virus-specific CD4+ T-cells from peripheral blood using a newly established DRB1*01-restricted MHC class II Tetramer. Effects of in vitro PD-L1/2 blockade were defined by investigating changes in CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Results CD4+ T-cell responses during chronic HBV infection was characterized by reduced Tetramer+CD4+ T-cell frequencies, effector memory phenotype, sustained PD-1 but low levels of CTLA-4, TIM-3, KLRG1 and CD244 expression. PD-1 blockade revealed individualized patterns of in vitro responsiveness with partly increased IFN-?, IL-2 and TNF-? secretion as well as enhanced CD4+ T-cell expansion almost in treated patients with viral control. Conclusion HBV-specific CD4+ T-cells are reliably detectable during different courses of HBV infection by MHC class II Tetramer technology. CD4+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic HBV is basically linked to strong PD-1 upregulation but absent coregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors. PD-L1/2 neutralization partly leads to enhanced CD4+ T-cell functionality with heterogeneous patterns of CD4+ T-cell rejunivation. PMID:25144233

Kurktschiev, Peter; Schraut, Winfried; Zachoval, Reinhart; Wendtner, Clemens; Wächtler, Martin; Spannagl, Michael; Denk, Gerald; Ulsenheimer, Axel; Bengsch, Bertram; Pircher, Hanspeter; Diepolder, Helmut M.; Grüner, Norbert H.; Jung, Maria-Christina

2014-01-01

220

CPG 7909, an Immunostimulatory TLR9 Agonist Oligodeoxynucleotide, as Adjuvant to Engerix-B ® HBV Vaccine in Healthy Adults: A Double-Blind Phase I\\/II Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oligodeoxynucleotides containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN) act as potent Th1-like immune enhancers with many antigens in animal models. We have extended these observations to the first clinical evaluation of the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of CPG 7909 when added to a commercial HBV vaccine. In a randomized, double-blind phase I dose escalation study, healthy volunteers aged 18–35 years were

C. L. COOPER; H. L. DAVIS; M. L. MORRIS; S. M. EFLER; M. AL ADHAMI; A. M. KRIEG; D. W. CAMERON; J. HEATHCOTE

2004-01-01

221

A hepatitis A, B, C and HIV prevalence and risk factor study in ever injecting and non-injecting drug users in Luxembourg associated with HAV and HBV immunisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In Luxembourg, viral hepatitis and HIV infection data in problem drug users (PDUs) are primarily based on self-reporting.\\u000a Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV infections in ever injecting (IDUs) and non-injecting\\u000a drug users (nIDUs) including inherent risk factors analysis for IDUs. Secondary objectives were immunisation against HAV and\\u000a HBV, referral to care and

Nathalie Removille; Alain Origer; Sophie Couffignal; Michel Vaillant; Jean-Claude Schmit; Marie-Lise Lair

2011-01-01

222

Important Information about the ProQuest/UMI Publishing Agreement  

E-print Network

://www.gradsch.psu.edu/current/thesis.html The instructions below supersede all instructions contained in the ProQuest form itself (you may ignore pages 1, 2 on the eTD Web site; this form will not be sent to ProQuest until all restrictions have been lifted of the dissertation to ProQuest. If you choose to register the copyright (page 6), an additional fee of $55

Omiecinski, Curtis

223

Important Information about the ProQuest/UMI Publishing Agreement  

E-print Network

://www.gradsch.psu.edu/current/thesis.html The instructions below supersede all instructions contained in the ProQuest form itself (you may ignore pages 1, 2 on the eTD Web site; this form will not be sent to ProQuest until all restrictions have been lifted to ProQuest. If you choose to register the copyright (page 6), an additional fee of $55 will be required

Omiecinski, Curtis

224

TA01 Launch Solid Rocket PRoPulSion  

E-print Network

TA01 · Launch ProPuLsion systems Solid Rocket PRoPulSion SyStemS · Propellants · CaseMaterials · NozzleSystems · HybridRocketPropulsion Systems · FundamentalSolidPropulsion Technologies liquid Rocket PRoPulSion SyStemS · LH2 /LOXBased · RP/LOXBased · CH4 /LOXBased · DetonationWaveEngines (Closed

225

Osteopontin and latent-TGF ? binding-protein 2 as potential diagnostic markers for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Chronic Hepatitis B (HB) is the main risk factor for chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in many low-resource countries, where diagnosis is constrained by lack of clinical, histopathological and biomarker resources. We have used proteomics to detect plasma biomarkers that outperform ?-Fetoprotein (AFP), the most widely used biomarker for HCC diagnosis in low-resource contexts. Deep-plasma proteome analysis was performed in HCC patients, patients with CLD and in HB-carrier controls from Thailand (South-East Asia) and The Gambia (West-Africa). Mass spectrometry profiling identified latent-transforming growth factor ? binding-protein 2 (LTBP2) and Osteopontin (OPN) as being significantly elevated in HCC versus CLD and controls. These two proteins were further analyzed by ELISA in a total of 684 plasma samples, including 183 HCC, 274 CLD and 227 asymptomatic controls. When combined, LTBP2 and OPN showed an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.85 in distinguishing HCC from CLD in subjects with AFP <20 ng/mL. In a prospective cohort of 115 CLD patients from Korea, increased plasma levels of LTBP2 and/or OPN were detected in plasma collected over 2 years prior to diagnosis in 21 subjects who developed HCC. Thus, the combination of LTBP2 and OPN outperformed AFP for diagnosis and prediction of HCC and may therefore improve biomarker-based detection of HBV-related HCC. PMID:24803312

da Costa, Andre Nogueira; Plymoth, Amelie; Santos-Silva, Daniela; Ortiz-Cuaran, Sandra; Camey, Suzy; Guilloreau, Paule; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Mendy, Maimuna; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Duk-Hee; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kirk, Gregory D; Merle, Philippe; Beretta, Laura; Hainaut, Pierre

2015-01-01

226

Freeze-drying of plant tissue containing HBV surface antigen for the oral vaccine against hepatitis B.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-drying protocol facilitating successful processing of plant material containing the small surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (S-HBsAg) while preserving its VLP structure and immunogenicity. Freeze-drying of the antigen in lettuce leaf tissue, without any isolation or purification step, was investigated. Each process step was consecutively evaluated and the best parameters were applied. Several drying profiles and excipients were tested. The profile of 20°C for 20?h for primary and 22°C for 2?h for secondary drying as well as sucrose expressed efficient stabilisation of S-HBsAg during freeze-drying. Freezing rate and postprocess residual moisture were also analysed as important factors affecting S-HBsAg preservation. The process was reproducible and provided a product with VLP content up to 200?µg/g DW. Assays for VLPs and total antigen together with animal immunisation trials confirmed preservation of antigenicity and immunogenicity of S-HBsAg in freeze-dried powder. Long-term stability tests revealed that the stored freeze-dried product was stable at 4°C for one year, but degraded at elevated temperatures. As a result, a basis for an efficient freeze-drying process has been established and a suitable semiproduct for oral plant-derived vaccine against HBV was obtained. PMID:25371900

Czy?, Marcin; Dembczy?ski, Rados?aw; Marecik, Roman; Wojas-Turek, Justyna; Milczarek, Magdalena; Pajtasz-Piasecka, El?bieta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Pniewski, Tomasz

2014-01-01

227

Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Qualitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Antigens and Anti-HBV, Based on “Membrane-engineered” Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens  

PubMed Central

A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV)-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific antibodies (anti-HBs, anti-HBe) or antigens (HBsAg) in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous antigen to the electroinserted antibody (or, respectively, of the antibody to the electroinserted antigen) triggered specific changes to the cell membrane potential that were measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The sensor was used for screening 133 clinical blood serum samples according to a double-blind protocol. Considerably higher sensor responses were observed against HBV-positive samples, compared with responses against negative samples or samples positive for heterologous hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV) virus. Detection of anti-HBs antibodies was made possible by using a biosensor based on immobilized Vero cells bearing the respective antigen (HBsAg). The observed response was rapid (45 sec) and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to cells membrane-engineered with anti-HBs was associated with a decrease of [Ca2+]cyt. The perspectives for using the novel biosensor as a qualitative, rapid screening, high throughput assay for HBV antigens and anti-HBs in clinical samples is discussed. PMID:22574007

Perdikaris, Antonios; Alexandropoulos, Nikos; Kintzios, Spiridon

2009-01-01

228

Laiha lohtu? Tunnustus ja todistus pro ana -blogien rituaalisina käytänteinä.  

E-print Network

??Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on pohtia syömishäiriöaiheisten pro ana -blogien sekä kulttuurin välistä suhdetta. Ympäröivässä kulttuurissamme laihduttamista ihannoidaan, mutta samalla liialliseen laihuuteen liitetään kielteisiä merkityksiä. Syömishäiriömyönteisyyteen yhdistetty… (more)

Nukari, Katja

2013-01-01

229

InterPro, progress and status in 2005  

PubMed Central

InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biological and functional information. Annotation is provided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping and links to specialized databases. New features of InterPro include extended protein match views, taxonomic range information and protein 3D structure data. One of the new match views is the InterPro Domain Architecture view, which shows the domain composition of protein matches. Two new entry types were introduced to better describe InterPro entries: these are active site and binding site. PIRSF and the structure-based SUPERFAMILY are the latest member databases to join InterPro, and CATH and PANTHER are soon to be integrated. InterPro release 8.0 contains 11 007 entries, representing 2573 domains, 8166 families, 201 repeats, 26 active sites, 21 binding sites and 20 post-translational modification sites. InterPro covers over 78% of all proteins in the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL components of UniProt. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). PMID:15608177

Mulder, Nicola J.; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Durbin, Richard; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Harte, Nicola; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McDowall, Jennifer; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N.; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Ponting, Chris P.; Quevillon, Emmanuel; Selengut, Jeremy; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Silventoinen, Ville; Studholme, David J.; Vaughan, Robert; Wu, Cathy H.

2005-01-01

230

ProTherm and ProNIT: thermodynamic databases for proteins and protein-nucleic acid interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProTherm and ProNIT are two thermodynamic data- bases that contain experimentally determined ther- 15 modynamic parameters of protein stability and protein-nucleic acid interactions, respectively. The current versions of both the databases have consid- erably increased the total number of entries and enhanced search interface with added new fields, 20 improved search, display and sorting options. As on September 2005, ProTherm

M. D. Shaji Kumar; K. Abdulla Bava; M. Michael Gromiha; Ponraj Prabakaran; Koji Kitajima; Hatsuho Uedaira; Akinori Sarai

2006-01-01

231

Student Name: Subject Categories The ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT) database and the ProQuest/UMI citation indices are arranged by subject  

E-print Network

Student Name: Subject Categories The ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (PQDT) database and the Pro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0792 Food Science & Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . 0359 Forestry & Wildlife

Ellis, Randy

232

Establishment of Real Time Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid Quantitative PCR for Detection of HBV YIDD (ATT) Mutation and Evaluation of Its Application  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term use of nucleos(t)ide analogues can increase risk of HBV drug-resistance mutations. The rtM204I (ATT coding for isoleucine) is one of the most important resistance mutation sites. Establishing a simple, rapid, reliable and highly sensitive assay to detect the resistant mutants as early as possible is of great clinical significance. Methods Recombinant plasmids for HBV YMDD (tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate) and YIDD (tyrosine-isoleucine-aspartate-aspartate) were constructed by TA cloning. Real time allele specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR (RT-AS-LNA-qPCR) with SYBR Green I was established by LNA-modified primers and evaluated with standard recombinant plasmids, clinical templates (the clinical wild type and mutant HBV DNA mixture) and 102 serum samples from nucleos(t)ide analogues-experienced patients. The serum samples from a chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patient firstly received LMV mono therapy and then switched to LMV + ADV combined therapy were also dynamically analyzed for 10 times. Results The linear range of the assay was between 1×109 copies/?l and 1×102 copies/?l. The low detection limit was 1×101 copies/?l. Sensitivity of the assay were 10?6, 10?4 and 10?2 in the wild-type background of 1×109 copies/?l, 1×107 copies/?l and 1×105 copies/?l, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay in detection of clinical samples was 0.03%. The complete coincidence rate between RT-AS-LNA-qPCR and direct sequencing was 91.2% (93/102), partial coincidence rate was 8.8% (9/102), and no complete discordance was observed. The two assays showed a high concordance (Kappa?=?0.676, P?=?0.000). Minor variants can be detected 18 weeks earlier than the rebound of HBV DNA load and alanine aminotransferase level. Conclusions A rapid, cost-effective, high sensitive, specific and reliable method of RT-AS-LNA-qPCR with SYBR Green I for early and absolute quantification of HBV YIDD (ATT coding for isoleucine) variants was established, which can provide valuable information for clinical antiretroviral regimens. PMID:24587198

Wang, Wei; Su, Mingkuan; Lin, Jinpiao; Chen, Huijuan; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Jing; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

2014-01-01

233

The relationship between IL-28B polymorphisms and the response to peginterferon alfa-2a monotherapy in anti-HBe-positive patients with chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

The impact of interleukin 28B (IL-28B) on the results of interferon (IFN)-based therapy in patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between IL-28B markers and the response to IFN monotherapy in Polish patients with anti-hepatitis B e (HBe)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We determined three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-28B (rs12979860, rs12980275, and rs8099917) in 86 patients who were treated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for 48 weeks. The effectiveness of the therapy was evaluated based on the virological and biochemical response. The primary efficacy parameters were the HBV DNA viral load below 400 IU/ml and 2,000 IU/ml in combination with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization (<40 IU/l), measured 24 weeks after the treatment. Viral load below 400 IU/ml or 2,000 IU/ml with ALT normalization was achieved by 37 % and 46 % of patients, respectively. It has been shown that the distribution of IL-28B genotypes in the dominant genetic model in patients with different therapeutic success differ significantly only for rs12979860. The IL-28B rs12979860 CC genotype was associated with lower treatment success [odds ratio (OR), 0.31; p?=?0.025 and OR, 0.37; p?=?0.044 for <400 IU/ml HBV DNA with <40 IU/l ALT, and <2,000 IU/ml HBV DNA with <40 IU/l ALT, respectively]. However, in the conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted by factors associated with combined response, rs12979860 was significantly associated only with <400 IU/ml HBV DNA with <40 IU/l ALT (OR, 0.24; p?=?0.026). IL-28B polymorphisms have prognostic significance in assessing the treatment effectiveness based on the virological and biochemical response of patients with anti-HBe-positive CHB. PMID:24924923

Domagalski, K; Paw?owska, M; Zale?na, A; Tyczyno, M; Skorupa-K?aput, M; Tretyn, A; Halota, W

2014-11-01

234

Genes controlling prolamin biosynthesis, Pro1 and Pro2, in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.  

PubMed

Variation and genetic control of seed protein in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) were studied using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Variation in the electrophoregram of the total seed protein were detected in the range between 20 and 30 kDa which is derived from the polymorphism of five prolamin bands. The segregation for each of the bands in F2 seeds showed that these bands are governed by seven alleles at two loci, Pro1 and Pro2, which are not linked to one another. Among 271 local cultivars examined, eight out of ten possible genotypes were observed. With its level of diversity comparable to that of isozymes, the alleles conferring prolamin polymorphism are useful genetic markers. PMID:10586518

Nakayama, H; Namai, H; Okuno, K

1999-06-01

235

Geographical variation of the alleles at the two prolamin loci, Pro1 and Pro2, in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.  

PubMed

Allelic variation at the two prolamin loci (Pro1 and Pro2) and its geographical distribution in 560 local cultivars of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) mainly from Eurasia were studied using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Genetic analysis of a newly detected polymorphic band, band 6, indicated that it is controlled by an allele at the Pro2 locus, which was designated as Pro2f. Two alleles (Pro1a and Pro1null) at the Pro1 locus and six alleles (Pro2a, Pro2b, Pro2c, Pro2d, Pro2e and Pro2f) at the Pro2 locus were detected among the cultivars examined. Although the frequency of the Pro1a allele varied from 0% in the Nansei islands of Japan and Africa to 66% in Afghanistan, no apparent trend was observed in geographical distribution. In contrast, two common alleles at the Pro2 locus, Pro2b and Pro2f, had clear differential geographical distribution. The Pro2b allele was most frequent in Europe and decreased in frequency eastwards. The Pro2f allele occurred frequently in subtropical and tropical regions including the Nansei islands of Japan, the Philippines, Nepal, India, Pakistan and Africa. All eight alleles at the Pro1 and Pro2 loci occurred in China, suggesting China is a center of diversity. The origin of geographical differentiation of local cultivars into a "tropical group" characterized by the Pro2f allele and other genes was discussed. PMID:10791025

Nakayama, H; Namai, H; Okuno, K

1999-12-01

236

Pro-death and pro-survival properties of ouabain in U937 lymphoma derived cells  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies revealed significantly lower mortality rates in cancer patients receiving cardiac glycosides, which turned on interest in the anticancer properties of these drugs. However, cardiac glycosides have also been shown to stimulate cell growth in several cell types. In the present investigation we analyzed the pro-death and pro-survival properties of ouabain in the human lymphoma derived cell line U937. Methods ROS, intracellular Ca++, cell cycle were evaluated by loading the cells with fluorescent probes under cytofluorimetry. Cell counts and evaluation of trypan blue-excluding cells were performed under optic microscope. Protein detection was done by specific antibodies after protein separation from cellular lysates by SDS-PAGE and transfer blot. Results High doses of ouabain cause ROS generation, elevation of [Ca++]i and death of lymphoma derived U937 cells. Lower doses of OUA activate a survival pathway in which plays a role the Na+/Ca++-exchanger (NCX), active in the Ca++ influx mode rather than in the Ca++ efflux mode. Also p38 MAPK plays a pro-survival role. However, the activation of this MAPK does not appear to depend on NCX. Conclusion This investigation shows that the cardiac glycoside OUA is cytotoxic also for the lymphoma derived cell line U937 and that can activate a survival pathway in which are involved NCX and p38 MAPK. These molecules can represent potential targets of combined therapy. PMID:23153195

2012-01-01

237

Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

2011-01-01

238

Weborexics: The Ethical Issues Surrounding Pro-Ana Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pro-Ana's are young women who proclaim themselves to be proudlyanorexic, and they have created a vibrant community online. Thisarticle will examine the nature of the Pro-Ana sites, analyzingtheir discursive community, and discuss the ethical issuessurrounding the sites, wherein many have been censured or shut downby commercial website hosting sites, which has raised issues ofcensorship versus freedom of speech.

Leslie Regan Shade

2003-01-01

239

THE ANA SANCTUARY: WOMEN'S PRO-ANOREXIA NARRATIVES IN CYBERSPACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I explore cyberspace as a space where women who are struggling with anorexia can potentially find sanctuary from the surveillance and regulatory mechanisms of control in the public sphere. I explore the narratives of women who create and visit pro-anorexia or pro-ana websites in order to listen to these women's experiences of anorexia and rationale for inhabiting

Karen Dias

240

Michigan Law School Pro Bono Program Organization Evaluation of Student  

E-print Network

Michigan Law School Pro Bono Program Organization Evaluation of Student Date Student Name the student perform in a professionally responsible manner? Would you supervise another Michigan Law student.) Comments or suggestions regarding Michigan Law School's Pro Bono Program. From: I certify that completed

Kamat, Vineet R.

241

Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

242

Pro le restoration in MASS: xed layers A. Tokovinin  

E-print Network

Pro#12;le restoration in MASS: #12;xed layers A. Tokovinin Draft 1.0. April 5, 2002 1 Introduction. From this data, the vertical distribution of turbulence (pro#12;le) is restored. Here we study one particular method of this restoration, when the atmosphere is modeled as a collection of turbulent layers

Tokovinin, Andrei A.

243

Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

Moon, Bruce L.

2011-01-01

244

Intracerebroventricular Infusion of the (Pro)renin Receptor Antagonist PRO20 Attenuates Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Hypertension.  

PubMed

We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT1 receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

2015-02-01

245

Profiling the ‘Pro-environmental Individual’: A Personality Perspective  

PubMed Central

There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

2011-01-01

246

Emergence of lamivudine resistance hepatitis B virus mutations in pregnant women infected with HBV and HIV receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-infant transmission in Malawi.  

PubMed

HIV/HBV co-infection is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine if the use of triple combination lamivudine-containing prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-infant HIV transmission was associated with the emergence of lamivudine HBV mutations. The study included 21 pregnant co-infected women in Malawi who received either zidovudine or stavudine plus lamivudine and nevirapine from week 25 of gestation until 6 months after delivery or indefinitely if they met the criteria for treatment (CD4+ <350/mm(3)). HBV-DNA was determined using the Roche COBAS assay. Resistance mutations were assessed by the Trugene assay (Siemens Diagnostics). At baseline 33% of the women were HBeAg positive and had HBV-DNA > 10(4) IU/ml. Median CD4 count was 237 cells/mm(3) and median HIV-RNA was 3.8 log(10) copies/ml. After a median of 259 days of treatment, HBV-DNA was detectable in 9 out of 21 patients (42.8%). In three cases the HBV-DNA level was >10(4) IU/ml. Resistance mutations (M204I in five cases and L180M + M204I/V in one case) were present in 6 (28.6%) patients. Women with a resistant virus had significantly higher baseline HBV-DNA levels than those not developing resistance (1.1 × 10(7) IU/ml vs. 20.8 IU/ml, P = 0.022). Levels of ALT and AST were higher in women with resistant viruses compared to those retaining a wild-type virus. A high rate of lamivudine resistance was seen in this cohort of pregnant women. Follow-up of these patients will clarify if the presence of resistance has a significant impact on liver disease. PMID:22930502

Galluzzo, Clementina; Liotta, Giuseppe; Andreotti, Mauro; Luhanga, Richard; Jere, Haswell; Mancinelli, Sandro; Maulidi, Martin; Sagno, Jean-Baptiste; Pirillo, Maria; Erba, Fulvio; Amici, Roberta; Ceffa, Susanna; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Vella, Stefano; Palombi, Leonardo; Giuliano, Marina

2012-10-01

247

Is it necessary to delay antiviral therapy for 3-6 months to anticipate HBeAg seroconversion in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in endemic areas of HBV genotype C?  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion occurs frequently in the immune reactive phase in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, observation for 3-6 months before commencing antiviral therapy is recommended in patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels that exceed twice the upper limit of normal (ULN). However, HBeAg seroconversion occurs infrequently in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the waiting policy is necessary in endemic areas of HBV genotype C infection. Methods Ninety patients with HBeAg-positive CHB were followed prospectively without administering antiviral therapy for 6 months. Antiviral therapy was initiated promptly at any time if there was any evidence of biochemical (i.e., acute exacerbation of HBV infection or aggravation of jaundice) or symptomatic deterioration. After 6 months of observation, antiviral therapy was initiated according to the patient's ALT and HBV DNA levels. Results Only one patient (1.1%) achieved spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. Biochemical and symptomatic deterioration occurred before 6 months in 17 patients (18.9%) and 5 patients, respectively. High ALT and HBV DNA levels were both independent risk factors for biochemical deterioration. Of 15 patients with HBV DNA ?5.1×107 IU/mL and ALT ?5×ULN, biochemical deterioration occurred in 7 (46.7%), including 1 patient receiving liver transplantation due to liver failure. Conclusions Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB is rare within 6 months. Biochemical deterioration was common and may lead to liver failure. Immediate antiviral therapy should be considered, especially in patients with high ALT and HBV DNA levels in endemic areas of genotype C infection.

Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Jwa, Hyeyoung; Choi, Eun Kwang; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Hyun Joo; Na, Soo-Young; Boo, Sun-Jin; Jeong, Seung Uk

2014-01-01

248

Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

2009-01-01

249

ProPortal: A Database for Prochlorococcus  

DOE Data Explorer

Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans, and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL) adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL) adapted group. They are closely related to, but distinct from, marine Synechococcus. The genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced and they range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 Mbp. They represent diverse lineages, spanning the rRNA diversity (97 to 99.93% similarity) of cultured representatives of this group. Our analyses of these genomes inform our understanding of how adaptation occurs in the oceans along gradients of light, nutrients, and other environmental factors, providing essential context for interpreting rapidly expanding metagenomic datasets. [Copied from http://proportal.mit.edu/project/prochlorococcus/] ProPortal allows users to browse and search genome date for not only Prochlorococcus, but Cyanophage and Synechococcus. Microarray data, environmental cell concentration data, and metagenome information are also available.

Huang, Katherine (Chisholm lab, MIT)

250

Pro-angiogenic properties of orosomucoid (ORM)  

SciTech Connect

The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM), also known as alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is found to be increased in infection, inflammation and cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that ORM is produced by endothelial cells and detectable in urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. However, it was not clarified yet whether ORM plays a role in new vessel formation. To this aim we performed overexpression and gene silencing for ORM in human microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). ORM purified from human plasma was used individually or in combination with VEGF-A in endothelial tube formation, migration and proliferation assay. The in vivo effect of ORM in angiogenesis was studied using the chicken chorionallantois membrane (CAM) with subsequent counting of blood vessels on histological sections from the stimulated areas of CAM tissue. Our data show that ORM alone enhances migration but not proliferation of HDMECs. ORM alone does not induce endothelial tubes in vitro but simultaneous application of ORM with VEGF-A increases the number and the network of VEGF-A-induced endothelial tubes. Remarkably, ORM alone induces new vessel formation in vivo using CAM assay and supports the VEGF-A-induced new vessel formation in this assay. Taken together, our results let assume that ORM has pro-angiogenic properties and supports the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. Thus, ORM seems to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

Irmak, Ster [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia [Department of Oncology/Hematology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)] [Department of Oncology/Hematology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Singer, Bernhard B. [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Erguen, Sueleyman, E-mail: sueleyman.erguen@uk-essen.de [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Tilki, Derya [Department of Urology, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Urology, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)

2009-11-01

251

Pro-Inflammatory Mediation of Myoblast Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle satellite cell function is largely dictated by the surrounding environment following injury. Immune cell infiltration dominates the extracellular space in the injured area, resulting in increased cytokine concentrations. While increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression has been previously established in the first 3 days following injury, less is known about the time course of cytokine expression and the specific mechanisms of cytokine induced myoblast function. Therefore, the expression of IL-1? and IL-6 at several time points following injury, and their effects on myoblast proliferation, were examined. In order to do this, skeletal muscle was injured using barium chloride in mice and tissue was collected 1, 5, 10, and 28 days following injury. Mechanisms of cytokine induced proliferation were determined in cell culture using both primary and C2C12 myoblasts. It was found that there is a ?20-fold increase in IL-1? (p?0.05) and IL-6 (p?=?0.06) expression 5 days following injury. IL-1? increased proliferation of both primary and C2C12 cells ?25%. IL-1? stimulation also resulted in increased NF-?B activity, likely contributing to the increased proliferation. These data demonstrate for the first time that IL-1? alone can increase the mitogenic activity of primary skeletal muscle satellite cells and offer insight into the mechanisms dictating satellite cell function following injury. PMID:24647690

Otis, Jeffrey S.; Niccoli, Sarah; Hawdon, Nicole; Sarvas, Jessica L.; Frye, Melinda A.; Chicco, Adam J.; Lees, Simon J.

2014-01-01

252

The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

Davis, Blair J.

2010-01-01

253

The Pro-Apoptotic and Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Calprotectin on Human Periodontal Ligament Cells  

PubMed Central

Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9) and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9) in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF?, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-?B inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis. PMID:25338166

Peng, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Lingfei; Wang, Xian'e; Wei, Shicheng; Meng, Huanxin

2014-01-01

254

The Association between Preoperative Serum C-Reactive Protein and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection—A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

The prognosis of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence following curative hepatectomy is usually dismal. Whether preoperative serum C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict the recurrence of HCC in patients with chronic HBV infection is not clear. Total 232 patients with chronic HBV infection were included in this retrospective study. We investigated the association between detailed preoperative serum CRP levels and early (? 2 year) and late (> 2 year) HCC recurrence following curative hepatectomy. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a saturation effect for preoperative serum CRP of 2.1 mg/dl existed for early HCC recurrence (ER). The incidence of ER increased with preoperative serum CRP less than 2.1 mg/dl (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6–7.6, P = 0.001), and higher preoperative serum CRP (>2.1 mg/dl) did not increase the incidence of ER (OR = 0.8, 95% CI 0.2–2.7, P = 0.703). Whereas there is a linear relationship between preoperative serum CRP and late HCC recurrence (LR) (OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1- 0.4) (OR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.2–2.5, P = 0.002). In addition, the optimal cutoff point for serum CRP level was 1.5 mg/dl, instead of 1.0 mg/dl, in predicting both ER and LR. Patients with higher preoperative serum CRP level (>1.5 mg/dl) had lower recurrence free survival rates and overall survival rates (P<0.01). These results suggest that preoperative serum CRP played different roles on ER and LR following curative hepatectomy, thus further predictingthe prognosis in patients with chronic HBV infection. PMID:25602444

Zhao, Xiaoming; Luo, Jingyu; Li, Bobo; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Daotang

2015-01-01

255

Pro-oxidative action of polyphenols as action mechanism for their pro-apoptotic activity.  

PubMed

Polyphenols, secondary metabolites widely present in plant kingdom, are known for their positive effects on human health, such as treatments of degenerative disease and cancer. Many dietary polyphenols show anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and they are proposed as chemopreventive agents for many skin disorders and cancer. Exposure to solar UV radiation is widely considered to cause skin cancer and a consistent carcinogenic dose derived from UVA causes several skin disorders as a consequence of free radicals generation and DNA damages. In this study, verbascoside, isoverbascoside and tyrosol were investigated for their effects on HEKa (Human Epidermal Keratinocytes adult) cell cultures challenged from UVA-rays. Non-toxic doses of each polyphenol were assayed on HEKa before, during and after the exposure to a damaging dose of UVA. Treatment with polyphenols before and after the UVA-irradiation exerted a pro-oxidant effect, while the simultaneous treatment caused a weak decrease of ROS production. The increasing of ROS levels was associated with a proapoptotic effect on HEKa, detected by AnnexinV/Propidiun Iodide, mainly evident in surviving cells treated with the polyphenols after the UVA-irradiation. The pro-apoptotic effect was confirmed by the immunodetection of significant changes in the Bax and Bcl-xL protein levels, leading to apoptotic events. The hypothesis that these polyphenols could trigger the apoptosis pathway mainly in UVA-damaged cells, via ROS increase, is here proposed as action mechanism behind their protective effect. PMID:25244914

Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Logrieco, Antonio; Leone, Antonella

2014-01-01

256

Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using ?-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

2014-01-01

257

Variations in serum sphingolipid levels associate with liver fibrosis progression and poor treatment outcome in HCV but not HBV infection.  

PubMed

Ablation of very long chain ceramides with consecutive elevations in sphinganine levels has been shown to cause a severe hepatopathy in a knockout mouse model. We have recently shown that serum sphingolipids are deregulated in patients with chronic liver disease. However, their role as possible biomarkers in liver fibrosis remains to date unexplored. We assessed, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, serum concentrations of various sphingolipid metabolites in 406 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, 203 infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 203 with hepatitis B virus (HBV) respectively. We observed significant variations of serum sphingolipids with sphingosine and sphinganine being both in univariate (P<0.05) as well as in multivariate analysis significantly associated to severity of liver fibrosis in HCV infected patients (odds ratio (OR)=1.111, confidence interval (CI)=1.028-1.202, P=0.007 and OR=0.634, CI=0.435-0.925, P=0.018 respectively). Serum sphingolipids correlated significantly with serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels as well as with insulin resistance, defined by the homeostatic model assessment-index in HCV patients. Sustained viral response rates in HCV patients were independently predicted by serum C24ceramide (OR=0.998, CI=0.997-0.999, P=0.001), its unsaturated derivative C24:1ceramide (OR=1.001, CI=1.000-1.002, P=0.059) and C18:1ceramide (OR=0.973, CI=0.947-0.999, P=0.048) together with ferritin (OR=1.006, CI=1.003-1.010, P<0.001), alkaline phosphatase (AP) (OR=1.020, CI=1.001-1.039, P=0.032) and IL28B genotype (OR=9.483, CI=3.139-28.643, P<0.001). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a tight interaction between variations in serum sphingolipid levels and progression of liver fibrosis as well as responsiveness to antiviral therapy. Particularly sphingosine, sphinganine and C24ceramide appear as promising novel biomarkers in chronic HCV infection and should be further evaluated within the non-invasive prediction of liver fibrosis. (Hepatology 2014;). PMID:25348752

Grammatikos, Georgios; Ferreiros, Nerea; Bon, Dimitra; Schwalm, Stephanie; Dietz, Julia; Berkowski, Caterina; Fitting, Daniel; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph; Pfeilschifter, Josef

2014-10-28

258

PRoP: Personal Roving Presence Eric Paulos John Canny  

E-print Network

PRoP: Personal Roving Presence Eric Paulos John Canny Department of Electrical Engineering to ubiquitous telecommunications [4]. Telephones are in every office, cellular phones are in many automobiles

Paulos, Eric

259

Thermo2Pro: Knowledge dissemination for deep geothermal exploration  

E-print Network

1/12 Thermo2Pro: Knowledge dissemination for deep geothermal exploration Philippe Calcagno1 geothermal exploration, information system, Web tool, sedimentary basin, dissemination. Abstract The understanding of geology and petrophysical properties is necessary to develop deep geothermal projects. However

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Pro-cyclical mortality across socioeconomic groups and health status.  

PubMed

Using variation across geographic regions, a number of studies from the U.S. and other developed countries have found more deaths in economic upturns and less deaths in economic downturns. We use data from regions in Norway for 1977-2008 and find the same pro-cyclical patterns. Using individual-level register data for the identical population, we find that disadvantaged socioeconomic groups are not hit harder by pro-cyclical mortality than advantaged groups. We also find that other indicators of deteriorated health (than death), like becoming disabled, are pro-cyclical. Overall, our analysis suggests that pro-cyclical mortality is rather related to deaths of people already in deteriorated health than to people of low socioeconomic status. PMID:25205610

Haaland, Venke Furre; Telle, Kjetil

2015-01-01

261

Recent advances in tissue (pro)renin imaging  

PubMed Central

1. ABSTRACT Due to its pivotal role in blood pressure control and renal pathologies there is renewed interest in renin and its precursor prorenin. Also, the newly discovered (pro)renin receptor is a new element of the ever broadening renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The complexity of RAS including the recently recognized collecting duct site of (pro)renin (a term denoting both renin and prorenin) synthesis requires the use of advanced research techniques such as multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. With the help of this technology we have pioneered an imaging approach to directly visualize (pro)renin content, release and tissue activity in the living kidney. The use of this technology is reviewed here and exemplified by the direct visualization of (pro)renin activity in the collecting duct. New pharmacological tools, the renin inhibitor aliskiren and the handle region peptide (decoy peptide) was used to further characterize the intra-renal, collecting duct RAS. PMID:20515794

Prokai, Agnes; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

2010-01-01

262

The Conceptualization of Anorexia: The Pro-Ana Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative content analysis examined mission statements of pro-anorexia websites to gain a better understanding of how these individuals conceptualize the function of self-starvation. The results indicated that there is substantial diversity within this online community. Specifically, some pro-anorexia authors defined anorexia as an illness and disease from which recovery is not possible, while others suggested that anorexia is a

Samantha Roberts Strife; Kathryn Rickard

2011-01-01

263

MexicoExperiences with Pro-Poor Expenditure Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of Mexico's persistently high degree of inequality, this paper analyzes the country's experience with pro-poor policies over the last decade. A number of important government initiatives, implemented since the mid-1990s, have aimed at improving distributional equity through pro-poor expenditure programs, while at the same time seeking to increase the efficiency of public spending. This paper reviews these

Ana Corbacho; Gerd Schwartz

2002-01-01

264

Pro-Anorexia Websites: Content, Impact, and Explanations of Popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa is a major concern in contemporary society. Anorexia has been linked to forms of media such as television, and examined in relation to Internet-based methods of treatment. However, research about Internet sites actively promoting anorexia, known as 'pro-ana sites', is minimal. This literature review amassed articles about pro-ana sites, using psychology databases such as

Grace Overbeke

2008-01-01

265

Mexico: Experiences with Pro-Poor Expenditure Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of Mexico's persistently high degree of inequality, this paper analyzes the country's experience with pro-poor policies over the last decade. A number of important government initiatives, implemented since the mid-1990s, have aimed at improving distributional equity through pro-poor expenditure programs, while at the same time seeking to increase the efficiency of public spending. This paper reviews these

Ana Corbacho; Gerd Schwartz

2002-01-01

266

DIGIBAR-PRO-a new hand-held, interactive velocimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new product from Odom Hydrographic Systems, the DIGIBAR-PRO, provides a fast, accurate, and safe method for calibrating single beam and multibeam echo sounders. The DIGIBAR-PRO probe is lowered over the side to measure sound velocity in the water column, collecting samples automatically in either time or depth intervals. Data is logged by a hand-held unit and later downloaded to

A. P. Rougeau

2000-01-01

267

ProTeus: identifying signatures in protein termini  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProTeus (PROtein TErminUS) is a web-based tool for the identification of short linear signatures in protein termini.Itisbasedonaposition-basedsearchmethod forrevealingshortsignaturesinterminiofallproteins. TheinitialstepinProTeusdevelopmentwastocollect all signature groups (SIGs) based on their relative positions at the termini. The initial set of SIGs went through a sequential process of inspection and removal of SIGs, which did not meet the attributed statistical thresholds. The SIGs that were found

Iris Bahir; Michal Linial

2005-01-01

268

Sorafenib overcomes the chemoresistance in HBx-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HBx protein stability and suppresses HBV gene expression.  

PubMed

Previous studies have revealed that HBx expression has anti-apoptotic effects, resulting in increased drug resistance in HCC cells. Thus, we examined if sorafenib efficiently induces apoptosis in HBx-overexpressing HCC cells. Noticeably, sorafenib efficiently induced apoptosis, even in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells, indicating that the HBx protein does not attenuate sorafenib-induced apoptosis. We next investigated if sorafenib modulates autophagy, allowing HCC cells to overcome the chemoresistance conferred by the HBx protein. Although autophagy plays a cytoprotective role against sorafenib-induced lethality, sorafenib was effective irrespective of HBx protein overexpression. We next examined if sorafenib exerts its cytotoxic effect via direct effects on the HBx protein. Importantly, sorafenib decreased HBx protein stability through a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Moreover, sorafenib decreased HBV gene expression and viral promoter activity. Taken together, sorafenib efficiently induces apoptotic cell death in HBx-expressing HCC cells via the downregulation of the HBx protein, a key factor in the anti-cancer drug resistance observed in HBV-induced HCC. PMID:25218348

Kim, Hye Young; Jung, Hye Uk; Yoo, Seung Hee; Yoo, Ki Soo; Cheong, JaeHun; Park, Bong Soo; Yun, Il; Yoo, Young Hyun

2014-12-01

269

Levels of Anti-HBs Antibody in HBV-Vaccinated Students Enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Professions of a Large Italian University  

PubMed Central

Background. Prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus (HBV) addressed to students of the faculties of health professions has received great attention. Objectives. The present study aims to assess vaccination coverage against hepatitis B in healthcare professionals in training. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was carried out using data from the students of medicine, dentistry, and health professions. Results. 4180 vaccination certifications were examined through the internal database. Significant differences (<0.0001) emerge between the number of doses applied and the antibody level. 50.4% of the students have nonprotective antibody levels (<10?IU). The age of the first dose significantly influences the level of coverage, resulting in more coverage in those vaccinated with earlier onset (1–10 years). Antibody levels are not significantly different by type of course; the levels of noncoverage are present in 44.4% of the students of medicine and dentistry and in 50.6% among those belonging to the health professions. Conclusions. This study represents one of the first experiences in Italy on vaccination against HBV and the relationship between doses of vaccination and antibody titer in the biomedical students that can configure a step forward in the real-time monitoring in order to establish a register of vaccination. PMID:25629052

Sernia, Sabina; Ortis, Marina; Antoniozzi, Tranquillo; Maffongelli, Emanuele; La Torre, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

270

Involvement of GRP78 in inhibition of HBV secretion by Boehmeria nivea extract in human HepG2 2.2.15 cells.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that the root extract of Boehmeria nivea (BNE) can significantly suppress the production of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. In this study, viral core and large-surface proteins accompanied with their encapsidated viral DNA were observed to accumulate within the cells. Notably, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) was found to be suppressed by BNE, and stimulation of the GRP78 expression by thapsigargin could rescue virus production initially inhibited by BNE. The antiviral effect of BNE was reversible, which also coincided with the level of GRP78. Furthermore, we synthesized the GRP78 siRNA to knockdown the expression of GRP78 protein, and the production of supernatant HBV DNA was reduced simultaneously. Moreover, combined treatment of BNE and 3TC exhibited an additive anti-hepatitis B virus effect. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of BNE on blocking assembled virion secretion might be via the reduction of GRP78. PMID:19228285

Huang, K-L; Lai, Y-K; Lin, C-C; Chang, J-M

2009-05-01

271

Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys?) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys? cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases. PMID:25361011

Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

2014-01-01

272

Detection of EBV, HBV, HCV, HIV-1, HTLV-I and -II, and SMRV in Human and Other Primate Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of contaminated cell cultures suggests that viral contaminations might be distributed among cultures. We investigated more than 460 primate cell lines for Epstein-Barr (EBV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus I and II (HTLV-I/-II), and squirrel monkey retrovirus (SMRV) infections for risk assessment. None of the cell lines were infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HTLV-I/-II. However, one cell line displayed reverse transcriptase activity. Thirty-nine cell lines harbored EBV DNA sequences. Studies on the lytic phase of EBV revealed that five cell lines produce EBV particles and six further cell lines produced EBV upon stimulation. One cell line contained an integrated HBV genome fragment but showed no virus production. Six cell lines were SMRV-infected. Newly established cell lines should be tested for EBV infections to detect B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL). B-LCLs established with EBV from cell line B95-8 should be tested for SMRV infections. PMID:20454443

Uphoff, Cord C.; Denkmann, Sabine A.; Steube, Klaus G.; Drexler, Hans G.

2010-01-01

273

Comparison of elastography, serum marker scores, and histology for the assessment of liver fibrosis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients in Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Liver fibrosis (LF) must be assessed before talking treatment decisions in hepatitis B. In Burkina Faso, liver biopsy (LB) remains the "gold standard" method for this purpose. Access to treatment might be simpler if reliable alternative techniques for LF evaluation were available. The hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients who underwent LB was invited to have liver stiffness measurement (Fibroscan) and serum marker assays. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled. The performance of each technique for distinguishing F0F1 from F2F3F4 was compared. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves was 0.61, 0.71, 0.79, 0.82, and 0.87 for the aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI), Fib-4, Fibrotest, Fibrometre, and Fibroscan. Elastometric thresholds were identified for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis. Combined use of Fibroscan and a serum marker could avoid 80% of biopsies. This study shows that the results of alternative methods concord with those of histology in HBV-infected patients in Burkina Faso. These alternative techniques could help physicians to identify patients requiring treatment. PMID:20207872

Bonnard, Philippe; Sombié, Roger; Lescure, Francois-Xavier; Bougouma, Alain; Guiard-Schmid, Jean Baptiste; Poynard, Thierry; Calès, Paul; Housset, Chantal; Callard, Patrice; Le Pendeven, Catherine; Drabo, Joseph; Carrat, Fabrice; Pialoux, Gilles

2010-03-01

274

HBx protein-induced upregulation of microRNA-221 promotes aberrant proliferation in HBV?related hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting estrogen receptor-?.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging evidence has shown the association between aberrantly expressed miR-221 and cancer development; however, little is known concerning its potential role in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. In the present study, functional studies demonstrated that HBx leads to the promotion of cell proliferation and cell growth viability. Obviously overexpressed miR-221 was found in HBx-transfected cells compared with the mock counterparts. Suppression of miR-221 significantly inhibited HCC cell proliferation. Western blot analysis indicated that estrogen receptor-? (ER?) was downregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis combined with validation experiments identified ER? as a direct target of miR-221. The present study suggests that miR-221 modulates HCC cancer cell proliferation by suppressing ER?, functioning as a tumor promoter. Moreover, our data imply that miR-221 has potential as an miRNA-based therapeutic target for HBV-related HCC. PMID:25483016

Chen, Juan-Juan; Tang, Yi-Shu; Huang, Shi-Feng; Ai, Jian-Gang; Wang, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Ping

2015-02-01

275

Republished: pro-arrhythmic and pro-ischaemic effects of inhaled anticholinergic medications.  

PubMed

The majority of deaths in COPD are from cardiovascular causes. Several large randomized controlled trials demonstrate that inhaled anticholinergic agents ipratropium and tiotropium increase the risk of serious cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular mortality. Tiotropium Respimat is associated with a statistically significant increased risk of mortality (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.16) and cardiovascular death (RR 2.05; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.99) compared with placebo in a meta-analysis of clinical trials. In the largest study, the subgroup of patients with COPD in the Respimat group with known rhythm and cardiac disorders at baseline had an especially high risk for cardiac death (RR 8.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 67.2). Although there was no significantly increased risk of mortality (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.02) or myocardial infarction (MI) (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.00) with tiotropium handihaler in the Understanding Potential Long-Term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) trial, the reported excess of angina (RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.91 to 2.26), imbalance in strokes related to ischaemia and rates of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias are consistent with the pro-ischemic and pro-arrhythmic effects. The subjects at greatest risk of cardiovascular death, such as those with a recent history of MI, unstable or life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias or hospitalisation with heart failure, were excluded from the UPLIFT trial. The Prevention of Exacerbations with Tiotropium in COPD trial showed an excess of serious coronary ischaemic events of angina, myocardial ischaemia and MI with the tiotropium Handihaler compared with salmeterol. The authors urge caution in prescribing inhaled anticholinergics for patients with pre-existing arrhythmias or cardiac disorders. PMID:24643260

Singh, Sonal; Loke, Yoon K; Enright, Paul; Furberg, Curt D

2014-04-01

276

[Cholesterol-lowering effect of the regulatory peptide Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu].  

PubMed

In the present paper anticoagulant-fibrinolytic effects of the peptide Pro-Gly-Pro-Leu in rats (370-500 g body weight) who consumed fatty foods with excess of saturated fatty acids (wheat flour and bread--35%, sugar--10%, margarine hydrogenated fats, mayonnaise, cheese--35% and offals--10%, cholesterol--1%, dry food--9%) has been established. The duration of the animals on the diet was 15 days. The experimental animals intranasally obtained peptide (200 microg/kg body weight per volume of 0.02 ml per 200 g body weight) 11 times (daily except weekends). Animals from the control group intranasally received instead of peptide its vehicle (0.85% solution of NaCl) at the same time and in the same amount. It has been shown that daily nasal administration of the regulatory tetrapeptide under fatty food intake for the entire period of the experiment has a positive effect on lipid metabolism. It warned the development of alimentary hypercholesterolemia, an increase in body weight, normalized disturbed lipid profile, blood cholesterol level. In addition, its administration also restored functional status of anticoagulation system and decreased elevated degree of blood coagulation to normal values. Possible mechanism of hypocholesterolemic activity of peptide can be explained by its ability to interact with receptors of blood or brain cells, and through a series of reactions mediated to reduce blood cholesterol levels. Thanks to the anti-platelet activity glyprolines effectively improves endothelial function and reduces the risk of blood clots in the blood vessels, providing improved rheological properties of blood and preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial wall. PMID:24640158

Miasoedov, N F; Shubina, T A; Obergan, T Iu; Grigor'eva, M E; Andreeva, L A; Liapina, L A

2013-01-01

277

Synthesis, DNA recognition and cleavage studies of novel tetrapeptide complexes, Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New tetrapeptide complexes Cu(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (1) and Zn(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (2) were synthesized from the reaction of tetrapeptide, Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro and CuCl2/ZnCl2 and were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H and 13C NMR (in case of 2), ESI-MS, UV and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study was carried out employing UV-vis absorption titrations over a broad range of pH which suggested the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA was studied employing UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroic and viscometry studies. To throw insight into molecular binding event at the target site, UV-vis titrations of 1 and 2 with mononucleotides of interest viz.; 5'-GMP and 5'-TMP were carried out. Cleavage activity of the complexes with pBR322 plasmid DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and, the electrophoresis pattern demonstrated that both the complexes 1 and 2 are efficient cleavage agents. Further, the Cu(II) complex displayed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA while various reactive oxygen species are responsible for the cleavage in Zn(II) complex.

Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.; Mohapatra, D. K.

2013-05-01

278

NT-proBNP concentrations in mountain marathoners.  

PubMed

The 76 amino acid N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is proposed for evaluating and monitoring heart pathologies characterized by myocardial wall stress. Strenuous exercise might generate transitory ischemia, myocardial stress, and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, possibly inducing an increase of some biochemical parameter concentrations. An alert has been claimed owing to biochemical and instrumental signs of heart dysfunction in recreational athletes during marathon races. We studied the behaviour of NT-proBNP in 15 mountain marathoners before and after a race. The concentrations of the parameter were lower than that observed in controls at rest and were similar to that observed in professional soccer and rugby players. The concentrations significantly increased after the race. NT-proBNP is low at rest in professional athletes, and the increase after physical exercise is physiological. The marathoners, even when performing races in a high-altitude environment, show NT-proBNP concentrations similar to those of athletes from other sports disciplines, characterized by low levels of effort and by a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. The increase of NT-proBNP is linked to strenuous physical exercise and to heavy heart effort, testified also by an increase of troponin I. However, the role of the NT-proBNP could be important to screen recreational and professional marathoners to avoid possible heart problems and sudden cardiac death in subjects with occult heart disease. The results of the present study are relevant to the design and evaluation of training programs for improving strength and function of professional marathoners. PMID:20393354

Banfi, Giuseppe; Lippi, Giuseppe; Susta, Daniele; Barassi, Alessandra; D'Eril, Gianvico Melzi; Dogliotti, Giada; Corsi, Massimiliano M

2010-05-01

279

Publishing Options for Princeton University Dissertations ProQuest Traditional/DataSpace Open Access Option  

E-print Network

Publishing Options for Princeton University Dissertations ProQuest Traditional/DataSpace Open Access Option · ProQuest Traditional Publishing, no embargo Dissertation will be available in full text for ProQuest (additional fee for optional copyright registration*) Embargo Option · ProQuest

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

280

[Effect of HBV on the expression of SREBP in the hepatocyte of chronic hepatitis B patients combined with hepatic fatty change].  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of HBV on the expression of Sterol regulatory element binding proteins( SREBP ) in the hepatocyte of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) combined with hepatic fatty change. 55 cases diagnosed as CHB combined with hepatic fatty change in our department were selected and liver biopsies were carried out. The patients were dividied into 3 groups, group A: HBV DNA is less than or equal to 1000 copies/ml(15 cases), group B: 1000 copies/ml less than HBV DNA less than 100000 copies/ml (18 cases) and group C: HBV DNA is more than or equal to 100000 copies/ml (22 cases). 10 patients with HBV DNA in less than or equal to 1000 copies/ml after antiviral therapy with Nucleoside analogues were seen as group C1 (before treatment) and group C2 (after treatment) respectively; 12 patients with HBV DNA is more than or equal to 100000 copies/ml after antiviral therapy were classified as group C3 (before treatment) and group C4 (after treatment). Lipid droplets in the hepatic tissue were observed with oil red staining. Real time PCR were performed to detect the expressions of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 mRNA in the liver. The protein expressions of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 were detected with immunohistochemistry staining. Statistic data were analysed with SPSS11.5 software. (1) Red integrated optical densities (IOD) reflected by lipid drops in group A, B and C are 1004.27+/-218.63, 1937.01+/-401.47 and 4133.79+/-389.28 respectively, the degree of oil red O in each group was different (F = 385.69, P is less than to 0.01), which is increased as HBV DNA load increasing; Red IOD in group C1, C2 and C3, C4 are 4020.84+/-326.64, 1012.02+/-244.89, 4189.18+/-329.21 and 4121.76+/-304.09 respectively. Compared with group C1, the degree of oil red O in group C2 is decreased and the difference is statistically significant (t = 22.55, P is less than to 0.01); However, the difference of the degree of oil red O between group C4 and C3 is not statistically significant. (2) Compared with group A, the expressions of SREBP-1c mRNA in group B and C are raised by 1.218+/-0.130 and 1.798+/-0.118 times respectively, among group A, B, C, the expressions of SREBP-1c mRNA are statistically significant different ( F = 297.47, P is less than to 0.01). The expressions of SREBP-2 mRNA in group B and C are decreased by 0.956+/-0.118 and 0.972+/-0.153 times as compared to group A. However, the difference of SREBP-2 mRNA expression among the 3 groups is not statistically significant ( F = 0.568, P is more than to 0.05). Compared with group C1, SREBP-1c mRNA in group C2 is decreased by 0.714+/-0.081 folds (t=11.224, P is less than to 0.01), while SREBP-2 mRNA in group C2 is raised by1.034+/-0.155 times(t=0.692, P is more than to 0.05). SREBP-1c mRNA and SREBP-2 mRNA in group C4 are raised by 1.012+/-0.206 times and decreased by 0.998+/-0.183 times as compared to group C3 without difference found (t=0.196 or 0.031, P is more than to 0.05). (3) the expressions of SREBP-1c protein in group A, B and C are 36257.21+/-5709.79, 50413.47+/-4989.28 and 71025.83+/-6047.13 respectively, and the difference is statistically significant among the 3 groups (F = 178.26, P is less than to 0.01); the expressions of SREBP-2 protein in group A, B and C are 32913.52+/-3951.21, 32625.91+/-4025.06 and 34173.44+/-5316.25 respectively, but the difference is not statistically significant among the 3 groups ( F = 0.562, P is more than to 0.05), SREBP-1c protein levels in group C1, C2, C3, C4 are 69832.16+/-4941.36, 48735.47+/-5471.41, 70871.69+/-5083.14 and 68913.32+/-5343.22 respectively, the difference of SREBP-1c protein levels between group C1 and C2 is statistically significant (t=10.260, P is less than to 0.01); while the difference between group C3 and group C4 is not statistically significant(t=1.558, P is more than to 0.05). The expressions of SREBP-2 protein in group C1, C2, C3 and C4 are 33 980.21+/-4081.80, 34011.50+/-3859.27, 33610.12+/-4761.10 and 32915.66+/-5023.61 respectively, the difference of SREBP-2 protein levels in group C1 and group C2 is not statistically sign

Jiang, Cui-Ying; Zeng, Wei-Qiong; Chen, Ya-Xi; Dai, Fu-Hong; Jiang, Ping

2011-08-01

281

Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned to fly in 2001, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 10 km spectra or dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDs instrumentation includes a Langmuir probe and Differential Ion Flux Probe, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations, The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the deorbit of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

Ballance, Judy; Johnson, Les; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

282

CanProVar: A Human Cancer Proteome Variation Database  

PubMed Central

Identification and annotation of mutated genes or proteins involved in oncogenesis and tumor progression are crucial for both cancer biology and clinical applications. We have developed a human Cancer Proteome Variation Database (CanProVar) by integrating information on protein sequence variations from various public resources, with a focus on cancer-related variations. We have also built a user-friendly interface for querying the database. The current version of CanProVar comprises 8,570 cancer-related variations in 2,921 proteins derived from existing genome variation databases and recently published large-scale cancer genome re-sequencing studies. It also includes 41,541 non-cancer specific variations in 30,322 proteins derived from the dbSNP database. CanProVar provides quick access to known cancer-related variations in protein sequences along with related cancer samples, relevant publications, data sources, and functional information such as Gene Ontology annotations for the proteins, protein domains in which the variation occurs, and protein interaction partners with cancer-related variations. CanProVar also helps reveal functional characteristics of cancer-related variations and proteins bearing these variations. Our analysis showed that cancer-related variations were enriched in certain protein domains. We also showed that proteins bearing cancer-related variations were more likely to interact with each other in the protein interaction network. CanProVar can be accessed from http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/canprovar. PMID:20052754

Li, Jing; Duncan, Dexter T.; Zhang, Bing

2009-01-01

283

Performance and diagnostic usefulness of commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and rapid kits for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV in India  

PubMed Central

Background HIV, HBV and HCV pose a major public health problem throughout the world. Detection of infection markers for these agents is a major challenge for testing laboratories in a resource poor setting. As blood transfusion is an important activity saving millions of live every year, it also carries a risk of transfusion transmissible infections caused by these fatal blood borne pathogens if the quality of testing is compromised. Conventional ELISA is regarded as the mostly used screening technique but due to limitations like high cost, unavailability in many blood banks and testing sites, involvement of costly instruments, time taking nature and requirement of highly skilled personnel for interpretation, rapid tests are gaining more importance and warrants comparison of performance. Results A comparative study between these two techniques has been performed using commercially available diagnostic kits to assess their efficacy for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. Rapid kits were more efficient in specificity with synthetic antigens along with high PPV than ELISA in most cases. Comparison between different ELISA kits revealed that Microlisa HIV and Hepalisa (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.); ERBA LISA HIV1 + 2, ERBA LISA Hepatitis B and ERBA LISA HCV (Transasia Bio-medicals Ltd.) gives uniform result with good performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and efficiency, whereas, Microlisa HCV (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.), Microscreen HBsAg ELISA and INNOVA HCV (Span Diagnostics Ltd.) did not perform well. Rapid kits were also having high degree of sensitivity and specificity (100%) except in HIV Comb and HCV Comb (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.). The kit efficiency didn’t vary significantly among different companies and lots in all the cases except for HCV ELISA showing statistically significant variation (p?HBV and HCV infections. Rapid tests are useful for further detection of false positive samples. ELISA seems the appropriate assay in blood bank. For availability of quality commercial diagnostic assays, evaluation of kit may be helpful. PMID:23181517

2012-01-01

284

Protective effect of S-adenosylmethionine on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury during hepatectomy in HCC patients with chronic HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Although hepatectomy is often performed with the Pringle maneuver, the problem of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) can also be serious. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) on HIRI, especially for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and cirrhosis. Methods Eighty-one HCC patients with chronic HBV infection, undergoing partial hepatectomy with inflow occlusion, were divided into three groups. In the pretreatment group (PR group, n?=?26), patients were given SAMe two hours before surgery. In the post-treatment group (PO group, n?=?25), patients were given SAMe six hours after surgery. And in the control group (control group, n?=?30), patients received partial hepatectomy without any SAMe. All pre-, intra- and postoperative blood samples were collected to measure the plasma levels of transaminases, bilirubin and cytokines. The results were compared among the three groups. Results There were no statistically significant intergroup differences observed in age, gender, hepatic inflow occlusion time and the results of liver function tests. Preoperative administration of SAMe (PR group) significantly reduced the plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) as compared to the other two groups. In the PO group, TBIL and DBIL were significantly lower than in the control group. Significant differences were also seen in IL-6 and TNF-? between the PR group and the other groups. In all groups, postoperative liver reserve function in the PR group as revealed by ICGR15 (Post ICGR15) was at its best before abdominal closure. Compared to the control group, the risk of complications and the hospital stay after surgery were significantly meliorated in the PR group. Additionally, patients with cirrhosis had a more acute rate of change in ALT and AST than non-cirrhotic patients. Conclusions Taken together, our preliminary findings suggest that preoperative administration of SAMe is useful and safe for reducing the HIRI in partial hepatectomy, especially for HCC patients whose disease is associated with chronic HBV infection and cirrhosis. PMID:24485003

2014-01-01

285

Presence of pro-tobacco messages on the Web.  

PubMed

Ignored in the finalized Master Settlement Agreement (National Association of Attorneys General, 1998), the unmonitored, unregulated World Wide Web (Web) can operate as a major vehicle for delivering pro-tobacco messages, images, and products to millions of young consumers. A content analysis of 318 randomly sampled pro-tobacco Web sites revealed that tobacco has a pervasive presence on the Web, especially on e-commerce sites and sites featuring hobbies, recreation, and "fetishes." Products can be ordered online on nearly 50% of the sites, but only 23% of the sites included underage verification. Further, only 11% of these sites contain health warnings. Instead, pro-tobacco sites frequently associate smoking with "glamorous" and "alternative" lifestyles, and with images of young males and young (thin, attractive) females. Finally, many of the Web sites offered interactive site features that are potentially appealing to young Web users. Recommendations for future research and counterstrategies are discussed. PMID:12356288

Hong, Traci; Cody, Michael J

2002-01-01

286

Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF  

PubMed Central

Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

2011-01-01

287

Pro-2-PAM therapy for central and peripheral cholinesterases.  

PubMed

Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using (a) surgically implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG), (b) neurohistopathology of brain, (c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and (d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro-2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for the deleterious effects of OP poisoning by reactivating CNS AChE. PMID:20156430

Demar, James C; Clarkson, Edward D; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Campbell, Amy J; Thangavelu, Sonia G; Herdman, Christine A; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A; Ku, Therese C; Evans, Sarah A; Khan, Farhat A; Owens, Roberta R; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K

2010-09-01

288

Long-term follow-up of a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with triple hepatitis virus (HBV, HDV, HCV) infection.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old Japanese man with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with triple hepatitis viruses [hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis D virus (HDV)] infection is reported. The patient had a past history of intravenous drug abuse and a tattoo on his back. A liver biopsy, performed in November 1989, showed HCC associated with cirrhosis. HBsAg and anti-HD antibody had been detected repeatedly starting in August 1984 and anti-HCV antibody was detected in 1990. By indirect immunoperoxidase staining the HD antigen was detected in the nuclei of hepatocytes of biopsy specimens and noncancerous liver cells obtained from autopsy specimens. Liver cirrhosis associated with triple hepatitis virus infection developed to hepatocellular carcinoma, and transcatheter arterial embolization treatment for HCC was effective. Despite having HCC and cirrhosis, the patient lived well beyond the expected time. PMID:9884504

Koda, T; Tamura, I; Ishikawa, K

1998-11-01

289

Seroprevalence of HBV in immigrant pregnant women and coverage of HBIG vaccine for neonates born to chronically infected immigrant mothers in Hsin-Chu County, Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of HBsAg positivity and coverage rate of antenatal HBV screening among immigrant women. In addition, the extent of administration of HBIG plus HB vaccine #1 to neonates born to chronically infected (HBeAg-positive/HBsAg-positive) mothers was assessed. All pregnant women residing in Hsin-Chu County, Taiwan and giving birth during 2004-2006 were recruited. Among all 16926 cases, the prevalence of HBsAg positivity according to their ethnicities was Mainland Chinese, 11.0% (68/616); Indonesian, 3.5% (15/426); Vietnamese, 7.4% (42/568); aboriginal Taiwanese, 20.6% (109/530); and non-aboriginal Taiwanese 11.5% (1536/13368). Among the HBsAg carriers, the prevalence of HBeAg positivity was Mainland Chinese, 52.9% (36/68); Indonesian, 53.3% (8/15); Vietnamese, 45.2% (19/42); aboriginal Taiwanese, 47.7% (52/109); and non-aboriginal Taiwanese, 26.8% (411/1534). With non-aboriginal Taiwanese as the reference category, results of multiple logistic regression revealed the healthy immigrant phenomenon in the HBsAg carriage state among pregnant women from Indonesia (OR 0.30; CI 95%: 0.18-0.50) and Vietnam (OR 0.68; CI 95%: 0.49-0.93). On the contrary, among chronically infected mothers, Mainland Chinese showed the highest risk for HBeAg positivity (OR 2.79; CI 95%: 1.7-4.58). More efforts should be made to improve HBV infection among aboriginal Taiwanese pregnant women who were more vulnerable to HBsAg positivity (OR 2.15; CI 95%: 1.72-2.68) and HBeAg positivity (OR 1.93; CI 95%: 1.28-2.90). Age was another independent predictor for HBsAg positivity (OR 1.02; CI 95%: 1.01-1.03) and for HBeAg positivity among chronically infected mothers (OR 0.93; CI 95%: 0.91-0.96). The coverage rates of antenatal HBV screening and HBIG plus HB vaccine #1 showed no difference among these multiple ethnic subgroups. In 2006, the overall coverage rate of antenatal HBV screening was 98.7% (5546/5639), with the individual rate being Mainland Chinese, 100% (267/267); Indonesian, 97.2% (106/109); Vietnamese, 99.5% (201/202); aboriginal Taiwanese, 97.0% (196/202); and non-aboriginal Taiwanese, 99.8% (4776/4785). The administration rate of HBIG plus HB vaccine #1 was 100% for all ethnic subgroups. PMID:17767981

Liu, Ching-Yun; Chang, Nien-Tzu; Chou, Pesus

2007-11-01

290

Next maSigPro: updating maSigPro bioconductor package for RNA-seq time series  

PubMed Central

Motivation: The widespread adoption of RNA-seq to quantitatively measure gene expression has increased the scope of sequencing experimental designs to include time-course experiments. maSigPro is an R package specifically suited for the analysis of time-course gene expression data, which was developed originally for microarrays and hence was limited in its application to count data. Results: We have updated maSigPro to support RNA-seq time series analysis by introducing generalized linear models in the algorithm to support the modeling of count data while maintaining the traditional functionalities of the package. We show a good performance of the maSigPro-GLM method in several simulated time-course scenarios and in a real experimental dataset. Availability and implementation: The package is freely available under the LGPL license from the Bioconductor Web site (http://bioconductor.org). Contact: mj.nueda@ua.es or aconesa@cipf.es PMID:24894503

Nueda, María José; Tarazona, Sonia; Conesa, Ana

2014-01-01

291

A Whole Recombinant Yeast-Based Therapeutic Vaccine Elicits HBV X, S and Core Specific T Cells in Mice and Activates Human T Cells Recognizing Epitopes Linked to Viral Clearance  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is characterized by sub-optimal T cell responses to viral antigens. A therapeutic vaccine capable of restoring these immune responses could potentially improve HBsAg seroconversion rates in the setting of direct acting antiviral therapies. A yeast-based immunotherapy (Tarmogen) platform was used to make a vaccine candidate expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) X, surface (S), and Core antigens (X-S-Core). Murine and human immunogenicity models were used to evaluate the type and magnitude of HBV-Ag specific T cell responses elicited by the vaccine. C57BL/6J, BALB/c, and HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice immunized with yeast expressing X-S-Core showed T cell responses to X, S and Core when evaluated by lymphocyte proliferation assay, ELISpot, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), or tumor challenge assays. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were observed. Human T cells transduced with HBc18–27 and HBs183–91 specific T cell receptors (TCRs) produced interferon gamma (IFN? following incubation with X-S-Core-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs). Furthermore, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from CHB patients or from HBV vaccine recipients with autologous DCs pulsed with X-S-Core or a related product (S-Core) resulted in pronounced expansions of HBV Ag-specific T cells possessing a cytolytic phenotype. These data indicate that X-S-Core-expressing yeast elicit functional adaptive immune responses and supports the ongoing evaluation of this therapeutic vaccine in patients with CHB to enhance the induction of HBV-specific T cell responses. PMID:25051027

King, Thomas H.; Mann, Derrick; Lu, Yingnian; Coeshott, Claire; Gehring, Adam J.; Bertoletti, Antonio; Ho, Zi Z.; Delaney, William; Gaggar, Anuj; Subramanian, G. Mani; McHutchison, John G.; Shrivastava, Shikha; Lee, Yu-Jin L.; Kottilil, Shyamasundaran; Bellgrau, Donald; Rodell, Timothy; Apelian, David

2014-01-01

292

The patient-reported outcome (PRO) consortium: filling measurement gaps for PRO end points to support labeling claims.  

PubMed

The importance of appropriately and effectively incorporating the patient's voice into the evaluation of new medical products has been recognized and affirmed by regulators.(1,2,3) Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are increasingly being assessed in clinical trials to quantify treatment benefits such as symptom relief and improved functioning. Translating PRO-based treatment benefits into labeling claims can provide information to physicians and patients and assist in prescribing decisions.(4,5) Hence, standardizing the valid and reliable measurement of PRO end points is critical. PMID:21993428

Coons, S J; Kothari, S; Monz, B U; Burke, L B

2011-11-01

293

http://pro.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting  

E-print Network

http://pro.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings of the Human Factors and http: 1027Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Shadeequa Miller, Bilge and Ergonomics Society can be found at:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting

Mutlu, Bilge

294

http://pro.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting  

E-print Network

http://pro.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings of the Human Factors and http: 945Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Clayton T. Stanley, Michael and Ergonomics Society can be found at:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting

Byrne, Mike

295

Pro-Trade Democrats Go AWOL (NYT) 639 words  

E-print Network

Pro-Trade Democrats Go AWOL (NYT) 639 words Published: June 13, 2005 Back in 1993, Vice President Al Gore went on prime-time television to debate Ross Perot, a foe of free trade, in a clash Mr. Gore is widely believed to have won. The debate helped propel supporters of the North American Free Trade

Lopez-Carr, David

296

Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

297

ESTATE STRATEGY 2010-16 PRO-VICE-CHANCELLOR'S FOREWORD  

E-print Network

ESTATE STRATEGY 2010-16 #12;CONTENTS PRO-VICE-CHANCELLOR'S FOREWORD DIRECTOR OF ESTATES AND FACILITIES MANAGEMENT'S FOREWORD ESTATES AND FACILITIES MANAGEMENT'S MISSION AND VALUES I. INTRODUCTION 2. CONTEXT 3. THE EXISTING SINGLETON ESTATE 4. BAY SCIENCE AND INNOVATION CAMPUS 5. AN INTEGRATED FUTURE 6

Grant, P. W.

298

ProActive Routing in Scalable Data Centers Dushyant Arora  

E-print Network

ProActive Routing in Scalable Data Centers with PARIS Dushyant Arora Master's Thesis Presented Rexford June 2013 #12;c Copyright by Dushyant Arora, 2013. All rights reserved. #12;Abstract Modern data, while offering high bisection bandwidth and flexible placement of virtual machines. (b) They must allow

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

299

Pro-eating disorder websites: facts, fictions and fixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Pro-eating disorder websites are online communities of individuals who do not consider eating disorders to be serious mental illnesses requiring treatment. People visit these websites to meet other like-minded individuals, to share tips and tricks on how to lose weight and how to otherwise maintain the symptomatology of the disorder. This paper aims to review what is actually

Helen Sharpe; Peter Musiat; Olivia Knapton; Ulrike Schmidt

2011-01-01

300

Engineering Graphics/Pro-Engineer on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, authored by Stephen W. Crown of the University of Texas-Pan American, is the 1999 recipient of Premier Award for Excellence in Engineering Education Courseware. It includes a course syllabus for an Engineering Graphics course, virtual world, lecture notes, games and quizzes, class photos, and pro-engineer tutorials.

Crown, Stephen W.

301

64 IT Pro September October 2004 Toward a Business Process  

E-print Network

of a busi- ness process for electronic design. Without the concept of grid-enabled design collabora- tion64 IT Pro September October 2004 Toward a Business Process Grid for Utility Computing computing capacity to solve business problems and provide IT-level infrastruc- ture to support business

Li, Haifei

302

WS_FTP Pro v6.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WS_FTP Pro v6.0, from Ipswitch, Inc., is the latest version of the venerable WS_FTP client. WS_FTP Pro is one of the best and most well-known FTP clients available, and version 6.0 should only enhance its reputation. Outstanding among the improvements is the "Explorer Interface," which allows navigation and use of FTP sites via the familiar Windows file interface; sites are arranged as folders and icons, and remote files can be seamlessly drag-and-dropped onto the local hard drive. Other enhancements include new utilities that allow scripting, file synchronization, and file finding; a bookmark-like FTP site manager to organize frequently used FTP sites; and several other improvements. For anyone needing more advanced FTP capabilities than current browsers provide, WS_FTP Pro v6.0 is an excellent choice. WS_FTP Pro v6.0 is free to download and use for 30 days, after which time it can be purchased for $37.50 (previous users may upgrade for $9.95).

303

QSAR STUDY OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS USING CODESSA PRO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protection times provided by 31 synthetic repellents against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were correlated with the chemical structures of these repellents using Codessa Pro software. Two statistically significant quantitative models with R2 values of ca 0.80 are presented and discussed....

304

Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sizeable (and growing) proportion of the public in Western democracies deny the existence of anthropogenic climate change. It is commonly assumed that convincing deniers that climate change is real is necessary for them to act pro-environmentally. However, the likelihood of `conversion' using scientific evidence is limited because these attitudes increasingly reflect ideological positions. An alternative approach is to identify outcomes of mitigation efforts that deniers find important. People have strong interests in the welfare of their society, so deniers may act in ways supporting mitigation efforts where they believe these efforts will have positive societal effects. In Study 1, climate change deniers (N=155) intended to act more pro-environmentally where they thought climate change action would create a society where people are more considerate and caring, and where there is greater economic/technological development. Study 2 (N=347) replicated this experimentally, showing that framing climate change action as increasing consideration for others, or improving economic/technological development, led to greater pro-environmental action intentions than a frame emphasizing avoiding the risks of climate change. To motivate deniers' pro-environmental actions, communication should focus on how mitigation efforts can promote a better society, rather than focusing on the reality of climate change and averting its risks.

Bain, Paul G.; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Bongiorno, Renata; Jeffries, Carla

2012-08-01

305

RacerPro Demos Software Technology & Systems Group  

E-print Network

.sts-tu-harburg.de/~at.kaya/racerManager · Preliminary support for SWRL · Expressive query language nRQL · ABox query language · RDF & OWL query language "real" Semantic Web application! · Queries are translated into nRQL queries, processed by RacerPro w

Wessel, Michael

306

Departement Informatique L3 Pro Informatique, 2010/2011  

E-print Network

D´epartement Informatique L3 Pro Informatique, 2010/2011 Jean-Michel Richer D´eveloppement Web Travaux Pratiques Exercice 1 - Implanter le site web ListPerson vu en TD en Java en utilisant les servletInconnu comme vu en TD. Exercice 3 - Mettre en place un site web pour la gestion de commandes. On implantera les

Hao, Jin-Kao

307

Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

2010-01-01

308

Development of Polymer Coatings for the ProSEDS Tether  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ProSEDS mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned, expendable booster. A 5 km conductive tether is attached to the deployer baseplate on the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the Delta II second stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-15 km non-conductive tether, which in turn is attached to an endmass. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for optimum conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire, coated with 12.7 micrometers (0.5 mil) atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of COR and PANi, wrapped around a braided Kevlar 29 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure has been performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Plasma chamber tests have been completed, as well as tether deployment tests. Also developed for the ProSEDS mission was the insulating polymer TOR-BP. Approximately 200 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta II second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulating material is TOR-BP with a dielectric strength of TBD.

Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetsky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria; Wright, Ken

2000-01-01

309

Direct Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Prorenin on Microglia  

PubMed Central

Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-system. In addition, we determined whether prorenin, an essential component of the renin-angiotensin-system, exerts direct pro-inflammatory effects on these microglia. Our data indicate that two rodent models which display neurogenic hypertension and over activation of the renin-angiotensin-system in the brain (sRA mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats) exhibit microglial activation, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an area crucial for regulation of sympathetic outflow. Further, the renin-angiotensin-system component prorenin elicits direct activation of hypothalamic microglia in culture and induction of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in these cells, effects that involve prorenin receptor-induced NF?B activation. In addition, the prorenin-elicited increases in cytokine expression were fully abolished by microglial inhibitor minocycline, and were potentiated by pre-treatment of cells with angiotensin II. Taken together with our previous data which indicate that pro-inflammatory processes in the paraventricular nucleus are involved in the hypertensive action of renin-angiotensin-system, the novel discovery that prorenin exerts direct stimulatory effects on microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production provides support for the idea that renin-angiotensin-system -induced neurogenic hypertension is not restricted to actions of angiotensin II alone. PMID:25302502

Shi, Peng; Grobe, Justin L.; Desland, Fiona A.; Zhou, Guannan; Shen, Xiao Z.; Shan, Zhiying; Liu, Meng; Raizada, Mohan K.; Sumners, Colin

2014-01-01

310

Using Pro/ENGINEER`s{reg_sign} interface module  

SciTech Connect

When the ACCORD Process introduced Pro/ENGINEER to Sandians several years ago, a new process for design/definition was implemented. Prior to ACCORD, engineers and draftsmen worked in the 2-D mode with a program caned ANVIL{reg_sign}, which had limited capabilities. Although the transition from 2-D modeling to 3-D modeling met with some resistance, most engineers have embraced this new concept with enthusiasm They are now able to work in the 3-D mode and at increased levels of productivity with appropriate time savings never achieved before. One area that Pro/ENGINEER is noted for that this report will concentrate on, is the powerful interface module with its wide selection of transfer file configurations. This allows the engineer to create parts or assemblies and transfer them to many different second party software packages whose vendors can provide the capability for stress analysis, rapid prototypes, virtual reality environments, or many other forms of advanced manufacturing modes of communication. The ACCORD Program has at its core, the Pro/ENGINEER program from Parametric Technology Inc. Included in the ACCORD program, are several supporting programs from other vendors to make this cooperation between software packages a reality. It is possible to create parts in Pro/ENG transfer those parts to another package that has the capability to analyze the parts for deficiencies, then optimize those parts, and allow for changes to be made. Also included in this report, are other packages closely tied to Pro/ENGINEER, but not necessarily supported under the ACCORD program. Some of these packages allow you to create very impressive video productions, or allow you to meander through a virtual reality scenario. All of these new software packages will give you a new perspective on performance. This report will show how some of these interfaces work, and how you can improve your productivity if you utilize the ACCORD program as it is implemented here at Sandia.

Schulze, J.

1994-06-01

311

Human breast and colon carcinomas express cysteine proteinase activities with pro-aggregating and pro-coagulant properties.  

PubMed

We have investigated concomitantly the pro-aggregating and pro-coagulant activities of 11 breast and 2 colon human carcinomas. Tumor tissues, obtained at surgery, were immediately processed to prepare tumor-cell suspensions for the study of aggregating activity and tissue extracts for the study of procoagulant capacity. Nine carcinomas (8 breast and 1 colon) possessed a high, dose-dependent platelet-aggregating activity, which was present in the cell-free supernatant and was inhibited by HgCl2 and iodoacetic acid, specific cysteine proteinase inhibitors, while apyrase and hirudin had no significant effect; in contrast, the other tumors did not aggregate platelets. All the tumor extracts tested from 12 carcinomas (11 breast and 1 colon) were able to activate blood coagulation in both the presence and the absence of F VII. The activity was inhibited by HgCl2 and iodoacetamide, while Con A was less effective. Therefore, these tumors do not aggregate platelets through the production of ADP or thrombin, nor promote blood coagulation through the production and release of tissue factor; a tumor-associated cysteine proteinase plays a major role in both pro-aggregating and pro-coagulant activities. PMID:3170028

Grignani, G; Falanga, A; Pacchiarini, L; Alessio, M G; Zucchella, M; Fratino, P; Donati, M B

1988-10-15

312

Systematic Evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Content of Clinical Trial Protocols  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative evidence suggests patient-reported outcome (PRO) information is frequently absent from clinical trial protocols, potentially leading to inconsistent PRO data collection and risking bias. Direct evidence regarding PRO trial protocol content is lacking. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the PRO-specific content of UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme trial protocols. Methods and Findings We conducted an electronic search of the NIHR HTA programme database (inception to August 2013) for protocols describing a randomised controlled trial including a primary/secondary PRO. Two investigators independently reviewed the content of each protocol, using a specially constructed PRO-specific protocol checklist, alongside the ‘Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials’ (SPIRIT) checklist. Disagreements were resolved through discussion with a third investigator. 75 trial protocols were included in the analysis. Protocols included a mean of 32/51 (63%) SPIRIT recommendations (range 16–41, SD 5.62) and 11/33 (33%) PRO-specific items (range 4–18, SD 3.56). Over half (61%) of the PRO items were incomplete. Protocols containing a primary PRO included slightly more PRO checklist items (mean 14/33 (43%)). PRO protocol content was not associated with general protocol completeness; thus, protocols judged as relatively ‘complete’ using SPIRIT were still likely to have omitted a large proportion of PRO checklist items. Conclusions The PRO components of HTA clinical trial protocols require improvement. Information on the PRO rationale/hypothesis, data collection methods, training and management was often absent. This low compliance is unsurprising; evidence shows existing PRO guidance for protocol developers remains difficult to access and lacks consistency. Study findings suggest there are a number of PRO protocol checklist items that are not fully addressed by the current SPIRIT statement. We therefore advocate the development of consensus-based supplementary guidelines, aimed at improving the completeness and quality of PRO content in clinical trial protocols. PMID:25333349

Kyte, Derek; Duffy, Helen; Fletcher, Benjamin; Gheorghe, Adrian; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine; Draper, Heather; Ives, Jonathan; Brundage, Michael; Blazeby, Jane; Calvert, Melanie

2014-01-01

313

Pro-TRH and pro-CRF expression in paraventricular nucleus of small litter-reared fasted adult rats.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine axes adapt to nutrient availability. During fasting, the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is reduced, whereas that of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is increased. Overfeeding-induced hyperleptinemia during lactation may alter the regulatory set point of neuroendocrine axes and their adaptability to fasting in adulthood. Hyperleptinemia is developed in rodents by litter size reduction during lactation; adult rats from small litters become overweight, but their paraventricular nucleus (PVN) TRH synthesis is unchanged. It is unclear whether peptide expression still responds to nutrient availability. PVN corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression has not been evaluated in this model. We analyzed adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to fasting-induced low leptin levels of reduced-litter adult rats. Offspring litters were reduced to 2-3/dam (early-overfed) or maintained at 8/dam (controls, C). At 10 weeks old, a subset of animals from each group was fasted for 48?h and leptin, corticosterone, and thyroid hormones serum levels were analyzed. In brain, expressions of leptin receptor, NPY and SOCS3, were evaluated in arcuate nucleus, and those of proTRH and proCRF in PVN by real-time PCR. ProTRH expression in anterior and medial PVN subcompartments was assayed by in situ hybridization. Early-overfed adults developed hyperphagia and excessive weight, together with decreased proTRH expression in anterior PVN, supporting the anorexigenic effects of TRH. Early-overfed rats presented low PVN proTRH synthesis, whereas fasting did not induce a further reduction. Fasting-induced stress was unable to increase corticosterone levels, contributing to reduced body weight loss in early-overfed rats. We concluded that early overfeeding impaired the adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to excess weight and fasting in adults. PMID:24464021

Aréchiga-Ceballos, F; Alvarez-Salas, E; Matamoros-Trejo, G; Amaya, M I; García-Luna, C; de Gortari, P

2014-04-01

314

The miR-545/374a Cluster Encoded in the Ftx lncRNA is Overexpressed in HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Promotes Tumorigenesis and Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have shown several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play various roles in HCC progression, but no research has focused on the expression pattern of microRNA clusters encoded in lncRNAs. The Ftx gene encodes a lncRNA which harbors 2 clusters of microRNAs in its introns, the miR-374b/421 cluster and the miR-545/374a cluster. To date, no research has focused on the role of the miR-545/374a and miR-374b/421 clusters in HBV-related HCC. In this study, 66 pairs of HBV-related HCC tissue and matched non-cancerous liver tissue specimens were analyzed for the expression of the Ftx microRNA clusters. Our results showed that the miR-545/374a cluster was upregulated in HBV-HCC tissue and significantly correlated with prognosis-related clinical features, including histological grade, metastasis and tumor capsule. Transfection studies with microRNA mimics and inhibitors revealed that miR-545/374a expression promoted in vitro cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. The wild-type HBV-genome-containing plasmid or full-length HBx protein encoding plasmid was transfected into the Bel-7402 cell line and observed for their influence on miR-545/374a expression. We found that transfection of the HBV genome or HBx alone resulted in an increase in miR-545/374a expression. Next, by monitoring the expression of sera miR-545/374a before and after surgical tumor excision, we found serum miR-545/374a was tumor-derived and exhibited a sharp decrease 25 days after tumor excision. We also examined the gender-based difference in miR-545/374a expression among HCC patients and utilized microRNA target prediction software to find the targets of miR-545/374a. One of these targets, namely estrogen-related receptor gamma (ESRRG) was inversely correlated with miR-545 expression. In conclusion, the overexpression of miR-545/374a cluster located in the Ftx lncRNA is partially responsible for a poor prognosis, and monitoring sera levels of miR-545/374a may be a useful diagnostic marker for HCC. PMID:25299640

Zhao, Qi; Li, Tao; Qi, Jianni; Liu, Juan; Qin, Chengyong

2014-01-01

315

26 CFR 1.355-4 - Non pro rata distributions, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Non pro rata distributions, etc. 1.355-4 Section 1.355-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-4 Non pro rata distributions, etc....

2010-04-01

316

'I Love You to the Bones': Constructing the Anorexic Body in 'Pro-Ana' Message Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

With reference to an \\\\'online ethnography\\\\' (Ward, 1999) carried out in the \\\\'Anagrrl\\\\' pro-anorexic (ana) asynchronous web based community, I explore the radical, underground web-based pro-ana movement. The \\\\'pro-ana\\\\' movement challenges established biomedical ideas surrounding the treatment of anorexia, based on the \\\\'normalisation\\\\' of the body shape and weight. For participants of the pro-ana movement, the anorexic condition represents a

Katie J. Ward

2007-01-01

317

The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

2014-04-01

318

Ratio of Pro-Resolving and Pro-Inflammatory Lipid Mediator Precursors as Potential Markers for Aggressive Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a rapidly progressing type of periodontal disease in otherwise healthy individuals which causes destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The disease is initiated by pathogenic bacteria in the dental biofilm, and the severity of inflammation and attachment loss varies with the host response. Recently, there has been an increased interest in determining the role of lipid mediators in inflammatory events and the concept of pro-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators has been brought into focus also in periodontal disease. The present study aimed to determine the profile of omega-3 or n3- as well as omega-6 or n6- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and PUFA-metabolites of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and serum in AgP patients and healthy controls. In total, 60 selected n3- and n6-PUFAs and various PUFA metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Of these, 51 could be quantified in this study. The concentrations of the majority were low in saliva samples compared with serum and GCF, but were mainly higher in AgP patients compared with healthy controls in all three kinds of sample. Ratios of n3- to n6-PUFAs (DHA + EPA)/AA were significantly lower in the GCF of AgP patients than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, various ratios of the direct precursors of the pro-resolution lipid mediators (precursors of resolvins and protectins) were calculated against the precursors of mainly pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. These ratios were mainly lower in GCF and saliva of AgP patients, compared with healthy controls, but only reached significance in GCF (P<0.05). To conclude, the ratios of precursors of pro-resolution/pro-inflammatory lipid mediators seem to be more relevant for describing the disease status of AgP than the concentration of specific lipid mediators. PMID:23951021

Zein Elabdeen, Hager R.; Mustafa, Manal; Szklenar, Monika; Rühl, Ralph; Ali, Raouf; Bolstad, Anne Isine

2013-01-01

319

Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

2014-01-01

320

The Systemic Pro-Inflammatory Response in Sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is the predominantly cytokine-mediated, pro-inflammatory response of the host to invading pathogens and is considered the hallmark sign of sepsis. Molecular components of this response can be divided into cytokines, plasma cascades and acute phase proteins while the predominant cellular components are leukocytes and the endothelium. High-throughput genetic profiling studies have led to increased

Hanna Katrien de Jong; Tom van der Poll; Willem Joost Wiersinga

2010-01-01

321

The pro-opiomelanocortin gene of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNA and the gene for pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) were isolated and analyzed. The gene consists of three exons and two short introns and has a similar overall structural organization as in Homo sapiens. Intron 1 (339bp) divides the 5? untranslated region from the coding region while intron 2 (1522bp) is located between the signal peptide

Immo A Hansen; Thuy T To; Sebastian Wortmann; Thorsten Burmester; Christoph Winkler; Susanne R Meyer; Cordula Neuner; Martin Fassnacht; Bruno Allolio

2003-01-01

322

ProFusion*: Intelligent Fusion from Multiple, Distributed Search Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosive growth of the World Wide Web, and the resulting information overload, has led to a mini-explosion in World Wide Web search engines. This mini-explosion, in turn, led to the development of ProFusion, a meta search engine. Educators, like other users, do not have the time to evaluate multiple search engines to knowledgeably select the best for their uses.

Susan Gauch; Guijun Wang; Mario Gomez

1996-01-01

323

TiProD: the Tissue-specific Promoter Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiProD is a database of human promoter sequences for which some functional features are known. It allows a user to query individual promoters and the expression pattern they mediate, gene expression signatures of individual tissues, and to retrieve sets of promoters according to their tissue-specific activ- ity or according to individual Gene Ontology terms the corresponding genes are assigned to.

Xin Chen; Jian-min Wu; Klaus Hornischer; Alexander E. Kel; Edgar Wingender

2006-01-01

324

Effects of MagPro™ on muscle performance.  

PubMed

Athletes are on an endless quest to enhance performance and are frequently barraged by products that purport to contribute to various components of athletic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if MagPro™ influenced muscle flexibility or muscle endurance. This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study using a repeated-measures design. The Institutional Review Board approved consent was obtained. The participants were healthy, physically active adults (n = 38 for phase 1; n = 18 for phase 2). Two creams were used: MagPro™ (Mg cream) and a placebo. In phase 1, each cream was applied to the gastroc-soleus muscles. A stretching protocol was completed, and ankle dorsiflexion was compared. In phase 2, 1 cream was applied to both quadriceps muscles. An endurance protocol using a Life Fitness bicycle was completed. The procedure was repeated with the other cream on the quadriceps muscle 1 week later. For the flexibility phase, an analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed no difference between the 2 creams (p = 0.50), but there was a change in the flexibility over time (p = 0.00). For the endurance phase, paired t-tests revealed that there was no significant difference between the first (p = 0.26) or second (p = 0.35) cycling bouts of either cream. Likewise, there were no differences between the first and second cycling bouts of both the creams (MagPro™ p = 0.46; Placebo p = 0.08). Despite previous studies demonstrating improved performance with Mg supplements, MagPro™ did not enhance the outcome measures of this study. Examination of alternative application techniques and other outcome measures would be appropriate. PMID:22067254

Gulick, Dawn T; Agarwal, Melinda; Josephs, Jeremy; Reinmiller, Amanda; Zimmerman, Becky

2012-09-01

325

Quick Start Guide Cisco Small Business Pro IP Phone  

E-print Network

Quick Start Guide Cisco Small Business Pro IP Phone Models SPA501G, SPA502G, SPA504G, SPA508G, on your network. · Using a Wireless Connection--You can use a Cisco WBP54G Wireless-G Bridge with the IP on Cisco.com for more information (see the list of links at the end of this document). STEP 8 (Optional

326

Parli-Pro: A Fun Guide for Learning Parliamentary Procedures  

E-print Network

Parliamentary Procedure Classification and Summary of Motions (in order of rank) Classification of Motion Second Required Debatable Amendable Vote Required Can Be Reconsidered Privileged Motions 26 Adjourn (when unqualified) Yes No No Majority No 27 Orders..../Mrs. President, I second the motion. President: It has been moved and seconded that?The floor is now open for discussion. ................19 Mission: Parli-Pro/A Fun Guide for Learning Parliamentary Procedure MISSION 5: Amend a Motion You may amend a motion...

Davis, Brad

2007-07-23

327

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The summary of activity during this reporting period, most of which was covered by a no-cost extension of the grant, is as follows: 1) Participation in remote and in-situ (at MSFC EDAC facility) mission operation simulations; 2) Analysis of the decay rate of ProSEDS when starting the mission at a lower altitude; 3) Analysis of the deployment control law performance when deploying at a lower altitude.

Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Curtis, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

328

Departement Informatique L3 Pro Informatique, 11/12  

E-print Network

D´epartement Informatique L3 Pro Informatique, 11/12 Jean-Michel Richer D´eveloppement Web Projet 1 Objectif R´ealisez en Java, en utilisant les servlets, un site web de jeu en ligne appel´e Mot'utilisateur le mot le plus long qu'il aurait pu trouver. 2 Contraintes ­ utilisez Eclipse pour le d´eveloppement

Hao, Jin-Kao

329

Departement Informatique L3 Pro Informatique, 2010/2011  

E-print Network

D´epartement Informatique L3 Pro Informatique, 2010/2011 Jean-Michel Richer D´eveloppement Web´ee ­ redirection vers une autre page Exercice 2 - On d´esire r´ealiser un site web ListPerson en Java en utilisant´ealiser un site web de jeu en ligne appel´e NombreInconnu, le tout en Java en utilisant les servlet. Ce site

Hao, Jin-Kao

330

Departement Informatique L3 Pro Informatique, 10/11  

E-print Network

D´epartement Informatique L3 Pro Informatique, 10/11 Jean-Michel Richer D´eveloppement Web Projet 1 vous aurez cr´e´e (cf. ci-apr`es). 2 Contraintes ­ utilisez Eclipse pour le d´eveloppement du site web Objectif R´ealisez en Java, en utilisant les servlets, un site web de jeu en ligne appel´e Pendu. Ce site

Hao, Jin-Kao

331

HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum infections among blood donors and Transfusion-related complications among recipients at the Laquintinie hospital in Douala, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) pose a major health risk in Cameroon given the high prevalence of such pathogens and increased demands for blood donations in the local communities. This study aims at establishing the prevalence of commonly encountered TTIs among blood donors and transfusion-related complications among recipients in an urban center of Cameroon. Methods A total of 477 blood donors and 83 blood recipients were recruited by consecutive sampling at the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala (LHD), Cameroon. Serum samples from blood donors were tested by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and/or using various Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for presence of Hepatits B (HBV) viral antigens, and antibodies to human immunodeficiency (HIV-1/2), Hepatits B (HCV) and Treponema pallidum. Recipient’s medical records were also analyzed for possible transfusion-associated complications. Results The male/female sex ratio of the blood donors was 4/1 with a mean age of 30.2 (Sd?=?8.3) years. Of all blood donors, 64/467 (13.7%) were infected by at least one of the four TTIs. Infected volunteer donors represented 8.3% while infected family donors comprised 14.3% of the donor population. The prevalence of HCV, HIV, HBV and T. pallidum were 1.3%, 1.8%, 3.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. More than half of the blood recipients were female (78.3%) and the mean age was 20.6 (SD?=?16.1) years. The causes of severe anemia indicative of transfusion in recipients varied with wards (postpartum hemorrhage, caesarean section, uterine or cervical lacerations, abortions, urinary tract infections, severe malaria, vaso-occlusive attacks, wounds and gastrointestinal bleeding). The most frequent complications were chills and hematuria, which represented 46.1% of all observed complications. Other complications such as nausea, vomiting, jaundice, sudden diarrhea, anxiety, tachycardia, or hyperthermia were also found in recipients. Three cases of deaths occurred during the study, including a girl of less than one year. Conclusion This study confirms the presence of blood-borne infectious diseases in blood donors at the LHD, identifying T. pallidum as the greatest threat to blood safety in the region, and hematuria as the most common immunological complications in blood recipients. PMID:24517107

2014-01-01

332

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection in Liver Disease Patients in Mumbai, India with Special Reference to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Mutant Detection  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface antigen (HBsAg) in patients attending the Hepatology Out Patient Department (OPD) of a tertiary care hospital and to compare the routinely used HBsAg detection kit with the mutant detection kit to find out the presence of mutants in a given setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with liver disease attending the Hepatology OPD, of a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India. Age, gender and clinical history of the patient were recorded. Blood specimen was tested for HBsAg (MicroscreenTM ELISA, Span diagnostics, India) and HBsAg mutants (Hepanostika HBsAg UltraTM ELISA, Biomerieux, France). The samples with discordant results between these two ELISAs were confirmed by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (Cobas TaqmanTM, Roche Molecular Systems, USA). Results: Seven hundred and eighteen patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of patients in the study group was 41 years (range 17 to 69 years). Four hundred and ninety seven (69.22%) were males and remaining were females. The prevalence of HBsAg was found to be 17.4%. The positivity amongst the male population was 18.1% which was higher than the female population (15.8%). Of the 718 samples tested, 120 were positive for HBsAg by MicroscreenTM ELISA and 132 were positive by Hepanostika HBsAg ultraTM. Of the 12 discordant samples, HBV DNA was detected in five samples indicating 0.7% prevalence of mutants. Conclusion: Hepatitis B is prevalent in liver disease patients. The mutant detecting assay is recommended in set-ups where missing HBsAg in patients would have tremendous impact on the outcome such as in blood donors, organ or tissue donors and antenatal screening of mothers. It is also helpful in chronic liver disease patients where the routine HBsAg detection test is negative and the other causes of chronic liver disease have been ruled out. However, it is not recommended for use in routine diagnostic set-ups where high false positivity would lead to over-diagnosis of the condition. PMID:24783069

Kamat, Shweta P.; Mehta, Preeti R.; Paranjpe, Supriya M.; Ingole, Nayana A.

2014-01-01

333

75 FR 5147 - Corning, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Pro Unlimited, Piedmont Prime Care...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Workers From Adecco, Pro Unlimited, Piedmont Prime Care Computer Task Group and Guardsmark...workers from Adecco, Pro Unlimited, Piedmont Prime Care, and Computer Task Group...workers from Adecco, Pro Unlimited, Piedmont Prime Care, Computer Task Group...

2010-02-01

334

2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 What is COS Pivot?  

E-print Network

©2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 What is COS Pivot? For years, COS has been recognized strong network connections for future opportunities #12;©2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 as you may experience reduced functionality. Mac Chrome 10.6 #12;©2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved

Berdichevsky, Victor

335

2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 What is a COS Pivot Homepage?  

E-print Network

©2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 What is a COS Pivot Homepage? When you first log;©2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 Main Homepage and Active Opps The Main Homepage provides you. You can expand all your Active Opps by clicking on the Expand All link. #12;©2011, ProQuest, LLC All

Berdichevsky, Victor

336

2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 COS Pivot Profile Overview  

E-print Network

©2011, ProQuest, LLC All rights reserved 1 COS Pivot Profile Overview COS Pivot contains as well. COS Pivot takes an inclusive approach to creating profiles. #12;©2011, ProQuest, LLC All rightsMed citation database o ProQuest citation databases o CSA citation databases o ERIC citation database o

Berdichevsky, Victor

337

Searching for thinspiration: the nature of internet searches for pro-eating disorder websites.  

PubMed

Pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) Websites are widespread and easily accessible. The risks associated with these Websites (e.g., reinforcing and encouraging eating disordered behaviors) have received interest from researchers, media, and mental health professionals. However, little is known about how these Websites are found, which may provide insight into prevention and intervention initiatives. Using Google AdWords Keywords in February 2011, a series of search terms (based on previous research) were entered to generate search-related data regarding actual pro-ED terms used in Google, including the corresponding search results, which were coded for degree of potential harm. Results indicated that Pro-ED search terms are sought out more than 13 million times annually, with pro ana receiving the most searches monthly. Overall, different terms are associated with varying numbers of monthly searches and regional interest. Search terms with references to thinspiration and thinspo are associated with the most harmful Website content. To provide those who seek pro-ED content with helpful, research-supported resources, it may be important to intervene before the point of access by targeting the search results corresponding with pro-ED search terms. Efforts may need to pay particular attention to terms such as thinspiration and thinspo. PMID:22335543

Lewis, Stephen P; Arbuthnott, Alexis E

2012-04-01

338

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Activation of pro-oncogenic pathways in  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Activation of pro-oncogenic pathways in colorectal hyperplastic polyps involved in colon carcinogenesis and is known to activate pro-oncogenic pathways such as the ERK a malignant potential. Keywords: Hyperplastic polyps, Colorectal, Progastrin, ERK, STAT3, Pro-oncogenic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Virtually free pro-p groups whose torsion elements have finite centralizers  

E-print Network

Virtually free pro-p groups whose torsion elements have finite centralizers W. Herfort University-DF, Brazil pz@mat.unb.br July 15, 2006 Abstract It is shown that a finitely generated virtually free pro-p group G with finite centralizers of its torsion elements is the free pro-p product of finite p

Zalesskii, Pavel

340

78 FR 22808 - Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake Dora; Tavares, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake Dora; Tavares, FL AGENCY...Tavares, Florida during the Pro Hydro-X Tour, a series of high-speed personal...Racing Promotions will host the Pro Hydro-X Tour, a series of high-speed...

2013-04-17

341

Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators  

PubMed Central

The popular view that all lipid mediators are pro-inflammatory arises largely from the finding that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The resolution of inflammation was widely held to be a passive event until recently, with the characterization of novel biochemical pathways and lipid-derived mediators that are actively turned on in resolution possessing potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. A lipid mediator informatics approach was employed to systematically identify new families of endogenous local-acting mediators from omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in resolving exudates in addition to the lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins generated from arachidonic acid. These new chemical mediator families were coined resolvins and protectins, given their potent bioactions. In this annual review, we present recent advances on the biosynthesis and stereospecific actions of these new pro-resolving mediators, which have also proven to be organ protective and anti-fibrotic. PMID:18233953

Serhan, Charles N.; Yacoubian, Stephanie; Yang, Rong

2009-01-01

342

PRoNTo: pattern recognition for neuroimaging toolbox.  

PubMed

In the past years, mass univariate statistical analyses of neuroimaging data have been complemented by the use of multivariate pattern analyses, especially based on machine learning models. While these allow an increased sensitivity for the detection of spatially distributed effects compared to univariate techniques, they lack an established and accessible software framework. The goal of this work was to build a toolbox comprising all the necessary functionalities for multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data, based on machine learning models. The "Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging Toolbox" (PRoNTo) is open-source, cross-platform, MATLAB-based and SPM compatible, therefore being suitable for both cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. In addition, it is designed to facilitate novel contributions from developers, aiming to improve the interaction between the neuroimaging and machine learning communities. Here, we introduce PRoNTo by presenting examples of possible research questions that can be addressed with the machine learning framework implemented in PRoNTo, and cannot be easily investigated with mass univariate statistical analysis. PMID:23417655

Schrouff, J; Rosa, M J; Rondina, J M; Marquand, A F; Chu, C; Ashburner, J; Phillips, C; Richiardi, J; Mourão-Miranda, J

2013-07-01

343

Proteomic characterization of human early pro-angiogenic cells.  

PubMed

Early pro-angiogenic cells (EPCs) have been shown to be involved in neovascularization, angiogenesis and re-endothelialization and cathepsin L inhibition blunted their pro-angiogenic effect. In the present study, we have analysed and mapped the proteome and secretome of human EPCs, utilizing a combination of difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and shotgun proteomics. A population of 206 protein spots were analysed, with 171 being identified in the cellular proteome of EPCs. 82 proteins were identified in their conditioned medium, including the alternative macrophage markers C-C motif chemokine 18 (CCL18) and the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 as well as platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) and platelet basic protein (CXCL7) with "platelet alpha granule" being returned as the top category according to the Gene Ontology Annotation. Apart from cathepsin L, the cathepsin L inhibitor also attenuated the release of a wide range of other cathepsins and lysosomal proteins such as legumain, but stimulated the secretion of members of the S100 protein family. The data presented here are the most comprehensive characterization of protein expression and secretion in human EPCs to date and highlight the potential importance of cysteine proteases in the processing of platelet factors for their pro-angiogenic potential. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited". PMID:21147123

Urbich, Carmen; De Souza, Ayesha I; Rossig, Lothar; Yin, Xiaoke; Xing, Qiuru; Prokopi, Marianna; Drozdov, Ignat; Steiner, Marianne; Breuss, Johannes; Xu, Qingbo; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Mayr, Manuel

2011-02-01

344

Control of the Immune Response by Pro-Angiogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The progressive conversion of normal cells into cancer cells is characterized by the acquisition of eight hallmarks. Among these criteria, the capability of the cancer cell to avoid the immune destruction has been noted. Thus, tumors develop mechanisms to become invisible to the immune system, such as the induction of immunosuppressive cells, which are able to inhibit the development of an efficient immune response. Molecules produced in the tumor microenvironment are involved in the occurrence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Recently, it has been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) exhibits immunosuppressive properties in addition to its pro-angiogenic activities. VEGF-A can induce the accumulation of immature dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells, and inhibit the migration of T lymphocytes to the tumor. Other pro-angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor (PlGF) could also participate in tumor-induced immunosuppression, but only few works have been performed on this point. Here, we review the impact of pro-angiogenic factors (especially VEGF-A) on immune cells. Anti-angiogenic molecules, which target VEGF-A/VEGFR axis, have been developed in the last decades and are commonly used to treat cancer patients. These drugs have anti-angiogenic properties but can also counteract the tumor-induced immunosuppression. Based on these immunomodulatory properties, anti-angiogenic molecules could be efficiently associated with immunotherapeutic strategies in preclinical models. These combinations are currently under investigation in cancer patients. PMID:24765614

Voron, Thibault; Marcheteau, Elie; Pernot, Simon; Colussi, Orianne; Tartour, Eric; Taieb, Julien; Terme, Magali

2014-01-01

345

RASMOT-3D PRO: a 3D motif search webserver  

PubMed Central

Detection of structural motif of residues in protein structures allows identification of structural or functional similarity between proteins. In the field of protein engineering, structural motif identification is essential to select protein scaffolds on which a motif of residues can be transferred to design a new protein with a given function. We describe here the RASMOT-3D PRO webserver (http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/rasmot3d/) that performs a systematic search in 3D structures of protein for a set of residues exhibiting a particular topology. Comparison is based on C? and C? atoms in two steps: inter-atomic distances and RMSD. RASMOT-3D PRO takes in input a PDB file containing the 3D coordinates of the searched motif and provides an interactive list of identified protein structures exhibiting residues of similar topology as the motif searched. Each solution can be graphically examined on the website. The topological search can be conducted in structures described in PDB files uploaded by the user or in those deposited in the PDB. This characteristic as well as the possibility to reject scaffolds sterically incompatible with the target, makes RASMOT-3D PRO a unique webtool in the field of protein engineering. PMID:19417073

Debret, Gaëlle; Martel, Arnaud; Cuniasse, Philippe

2009-01-01

346

RASMOT-3D PRO: a 3D motif search webserver.  

PubMed

Detection of structural motif of residues in protein structures allows identification of structural or functional similarity between proteins. In the field of protein engineering, structural motif identification is essential to select protein scaffolds on which a motif of residues can be transferred to design a new protein with a given function. We describe here the RASMOT-3D PRO webserver (http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/rasmot3d/) that performs a systematic search in 3D structures of protein for a set of residues exhibiting a particular topology. Comparison is based on Calpha and Cbeta atoms in two steps: inter-atomic distances and RMSD. RASMOT-3D PRO takes in input a PDB file containing the 3D coordinates of the searched motif and provides an interactive list of identified protein structures exhibiting residues of similar topology as the motif searched. Each solution can be graphically examined on the website. The topological search can be conducted in structures described in PDB files uploaded by the user or in those deposited in the PDB. This characteristic as well as the possibility to reject scaffolds sterically incompatible with the target, makes RASMOT-3D PRO a unique webtool in the field of protein engineering. PMID:19417073

Debret, Gaëlle; Martel, Arnaud; Cuniasse, Philippe

2009-07-01

347

IUE observations of proto-planetary and variable planetary nebulae. I - V1016 Cygni, HM Sagittae, and HBV 475. II - A search for variability in IC 4997 and NGC 6905  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IUE satellite has undertaken UV observations of the proto-planetary nebulae V1016 Cyg, HM Sge, and HBV 475, yielding emission line fluxes, line ratios, line profiles, electron densities, and distances from these objects. While levels of increasing excitation and ionization as a function of time are shown by the data for the first two nebulae, the trend for HBV 475 is found to lead in the opposite direction. The formation of a shell is suggested by dramatic changes in the HM Sge UV line profiles over the last four years, including the disappearance of W-R features and the incipient splitting of the semi-forbidden C III 1909 A line. An additional IUE search for UV variability in the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 6905 has yielded emission line fluxes, line ratios and profiles, and central star temperatures, as well as stratification effects data for several ions in NGC 6905

Feibelman, W. A.

1982-07-01

348

The Prosequence of Pro-?K Promotes Membrane Association and Inhibits RNA Polymerase Core Binding  

PubMed Central

Pro-?K is the inactive precursor of ?K, a mother cell-specific sigma factor responsible for the transcription of late sporulation genes of Bacillus subtilis. Upon subcellular fractionation, the majority of the pro-?K was present in the membrane fraction. The rest of the pro-?K was in a large complex that did not contain RNA polymerase core subunits. In contrast, the majority of the ?K was associated with core RNA polymerase. Virtually identical fractionation properties were observed when pro-?E was analyzed. Pro-?K was completely solubilized from the membrane fraction and the large complex by Triton X-100 and was partially solubilized from the membrane fraction by NaCl and KSCN. The membrane association of pro-?K did not require spoIVF gene products, which appear to be located in the mother cell membrane that surrounds the forespore, and govern pro-?K processing in the mother cell. Furthermore, pro-?K associated with the membrane when overproduced in vegetative cells. Overproduction of pro-?K in sporulating cells resulted in more pro-?K in the membrane fraction. In agreement with the results of cell fractionation experiments, immunofluorescence microscopy showed that pro-?K was localized to the mother cell membranes that surround the mother cell and the forespore in sporulating wild-type cells and mutant cells that do not process pro-?K. Treatment of extracts with 0.6 M KCl appeared to free most of the pro-?K and ?K from other cell constituents. After salt removal, ?K, but not pro-?K, reassociated with exogenous core RNA polymerase to form holoenzyme. These results suggest that the prosequence inhibits RNA polymerase core binding and targets pro-?K to the membrane, where it may interact with the processing machinery. PMID:9573196

Zhang, Bin; Hofmeister, Antje; Kroos, Lee

1998-01-01

349

Dynamic structure of NGF and proNGF complexed with p75NTR: pro-peptide effect.  

PubMed

Crystallographic structures of NGF/p75NTR and proNGF/p75NTR were previously obtained in 2:1 and 2:2 stoichiometries, respectively. However, evidence shows that both stoichiometries can occur for mature neurotrophins and pro-neurotrophins. We used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the energetic and structural characteristics of these two complete systems as well as the uncomplexed forms of NGF and understand how these could translate in a new view of different biological outcomes. Here, we show that one chain at the 2:2 proNGF complex seems to be preferentially lost creating a 2:1 structure able to interact with sortilin. We also demonstrated that the structure of the neurotrophin dimers is not pre-established and suffers large structural modifications upon p75NTR binding. Moreover, our data suggests an elegant explanation for the dual role of NGF in neuronal cell death and survival, where different stoichiometries induce conformational changes that might be the basis for the different biological outcomes observed with the mature and proforms of neurotrophins. PMID:24941229

Pimenta, A C; Dourado, D F A R; Martins, J M; Melo, A; Dias Soeiro Cordeiro, M N; Almeida, R D; Morra, G; Moreira, I S

2014-07-28

350

Behavior and major barriers faced by non-injectable drug users with HBV/HCV seeking treatment for hepatitis and drug addiction in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Drug users (DU) are a marginalized group and at risk for viral hepatitis, who seldom access health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 111 DU with chronic HBV/HCV and 15 in-depth interviews with health professionals/policymakers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Most interviewees were male, non-white, with a low educational background, unemployed and/or living on less than $245 a month (minimun wage). In the last 6 months, 61.8% of interviewees snorted cocaine, 64.7% at least once a week. Half of the interviewees had a stable partner and 38.3% of those with occasional partners never/almost never using condoms. Addiction treatment seeking was found to be associated with: being white (OR:5.5), high-school degree (OR:8.7), and employment (OR:5.7). Hepatitis treatment seeking was high (80.9%), and access to low-threshold, user-friendly health services was key for treatment seeking behaviors (OR:3.6). Missed opportunities for hepatitis treatment seem to be associated with structural (uneven political/financial support to hepatitis programs) and patient-related barriers (severe addiction and non-adherence). Those most in need were less likely to access treatment, calling for renewed strategies, in order to curb hepatitis among impoverished drug users and their sexual partners. PMID:22124917

Malta, Monica; Cavalcanti, Sabine; Gliksman, Louis; Adlaf, Edward; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea Vilas-Boas; Bertoni, Neilane; Massard, Elize; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

2011-12-01

351

Usability test of the ImPRO, computer-based procedure system  

SciTech Connect

ImPRO is a computer based procedure in both flowchart and success logic tree. It is evaluated on the basis of computer based procedure guidelines. It satisfies most requirements such as presentations and functionalities. Besides, SGTR has been performed with ImPRO to evaluate reading comprehension and situation awareness. ImPRO is a software engine which can interpret procedure script language, so that ImPRO is reliable by nature and verified with formal method. One bug, however, had hidden one year after release, but it was fixed. Finally backup paper procedures can be prepared on the same format as VDU in case of ImPRO failure. (authors)

Jung, Y.; Lee, J. [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Company, Munjidong, Yuseonggu Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

352

Context of action of Proline Dehydrogenase (ProDH) in the Hypersensitive Response of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Background Proline (Pro) dehydrogenase (ProDH) potentiates the oxidative burst and cell death of the plant Hypersensitive Response (HR) by mechanisms not yet elucidated. ProDH converts Pro into ?1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and can act together with P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH) to produce Glu, or with P5C reductase (P5CR) to regenerate Pro and thus stimulate the Pro/P5C cycle. To better understand the effects of ProDH in HR, we studied the enzyme at three stages of the defense response differing in their ROS and cell death levels. In addition, we tested if ProDH requires P5CDH to potentiate HR. Results Control and infected leaves of wild type and p5cdh plants were used to monitor ProDH activity, in vivo Pro catabolism, amino acid content, and gene expression. Wild type plants activated ProDH at all HR stages. They did not consume Pro during maximal ROS accumulation, and maintained almost basal P5C levels at all conditions. p5cdh mutants activated ProDH as wild type plants. They achieved maximum oxidative burst and cell death levels producing normal HR lesions, but evidenced premature defense activation. Conclusion ProDH activation has different effects on HR. Before the oxidative burst it leads to Pro consumption involving the action of P5CDH. During the oxidative burst, ProDH becomes functionally uncoupled to P5CDH and apparently works with P5CR. The absence of P5CDH does not reduce ROS, cell death, or pathogen resistance, indicating this enzyme is not accompanying ProDH in the potentiation of these defense responses. In contrast, p5cdh infected plants displayed increased ROS burst and earlier initiation of HR cell death. In turn, our results suggest that ProDH may sustain HR by participating in the Pro/P5C cycle, whose action on HR must be formally evaluated in a future. PMID:24410747

2014-01-01

353

Higher Education Students -Academic Progression Procedures pro-038 Version 4.01 Contact Officer: Pro Vice-Chancellor, Academic Page 1 of 8  

E-print Network

Higher Education Students - Academic Progression Procedures pro-038 Version 4.01 Contact Officer to be the most current version. Higher Education Students - Academic Progression Procedures pro-038 Version: 4 The monitoring of student progress is undertaken as a proactive, enabling strategy that aims for the early

354

Bush to Begin with Pro-life Executive Order  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In one of his first official acts as President, George W. Bush announced yesterday his intentions to block funding of international organizations and clinics that offer abortion procedures or counseling. President Clinton had signed an executive order authorizing such funding three days after taking office in 1992. Bush's action will reinstate the ban on such funding that had been in place up to that time under both the Reagan and Bush administrations. The announcement comes on the 28th anniversary of Roe v. Wade and has been accompanied by a formal statement of support from the President to pro-life advocates. The statement will be read by a Bush spokesperson to pro-life demonstrators in the Capitol today. Both actions signal the President's intention to aggressively limit the right to an abortion and are in line with his controversial choice for Attorney General, John Ashcroft, who has publicly stated his opposition to abortion even in cases of rape and incest. The administration also announced its intention to review the release of RU 486, though Tommy Thompson, Bush's nominee for the head of Health and Human Services, stated in his confirmation hearing last week, that any withdrawal of the "abortion pill" should be premised fundamentally on health concerns. The President, however, does not necessarily share this opinion and may instruct Thompson to do otherwise. In a potentially related development, USA Today reported Monday that Sandra Day O'Connor was considering imminent retirement from the court, in part due to her discomfort with the lingering acrimony on the Court over the December decision that effectively ratified the election results for Bush. If O'Connor retires, it will give Bush an early opportunity to consider appointing to the court someone in the mold of the justices he says he most admires -- staunchly pro-life jurists Clarence Thomas and Antonin Scalia.

Charbonneau, David D.

2001-01-01

355

Infection regulates pro-resolving mediators that lower antibiotic requirements.  

PubMed

Underlying mechanisms for how bacterial infections contribute to active resolution of acute inflammation are unknown. Here, we performed exudate leukocyte trafficking and mediator-metabololipidomics of murine peritoneal Escherichia coli infections with temporal identification of pro-inflammatory (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). In self-resolving E. coli exudates (10(5) colony forming units, c.f.u.), the dominant SPMs identified were resolvin (Rv) D5 and protectin D1 (PD1), which at 12?h were at significantly greater levels than in exudates from higher titre E. coli (10(7) c.f.u.)-challenged mice. Germ-free mice had endogenous RvD1 and PD1 levels higher than in conventional mice. RvD1 and RvD5 (nanograms per mouse) each reduced bacterial titres in blood and exudates, E. coli-induced hypothermia and increased survival, demonstrating the first actions of RvD5. With human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages, RvD1, RvD5 and PD1 each directly enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli, and RvD5 counter-regulated a panel of pro-inflammatory genes, including NF-?B and TNF-?. RvD5 activated the RvD1 receptor, GPR32, to enhance phagocytosis. With self-limited E. coli infections, RvD1 and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin accelerated resolution, each shortening resolution intervals (R(i)). Host-directed RvD1 actions enhanced ciprofloxacin's therapeutic actions. In 10(7) c.f.u. E. coli infections, SPMs (RvD1, RvD5, PD1) together with ciprofloxacin also heightened host antimicrobial responses. In skin infections, SPMs enhanced vancomycin clearance of Staphylococcus aureus. These results demonstrate that specific SPMs are temporally and differentially regulated during infections and that they are anti-phlogistic, enhance containment and lower antibiotic requirements for bacterial clearance. PMID:22538616

Chiang, Nan; Fredman, Gabrielle; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Oh, Sungwhan F; Vickery, Thad; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Serhan, Charles N

2012-04-26

356

Meeting your financial pro forma in a competitive environment  

SciTech Connect

At times it may seem that the odds are stacked against today`s independent power producer when seeking to bid and secure projects, and then having to meet financial obligations within the pro forma. However, many of the problems experienced at independent power plants in the US can be largely mitigated during the engineering and construction phases of the project. Once a plant is constructed, poor technology selection, design, and construction are difficult to correct. Good initial planning and design will optimize plant availability and performance, minimize construction schedule and cost, and control operating expenses over long-term operation.

Klausner, C.J.; Pintcke, T.P.; Qadri, S.S. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-10-01

357

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

2001-01-01

358

pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API  

E-print Network

pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO

359

Capturing Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Data Electronically: The Past, Present, and Promise of ePRO Measurement in Clinical Trials.  

PubMed

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an important means of evaluating the treatment benefit of new medical products. It is recognized that PRO measures should be used when assessing concepts best known by the patient or best measured from the patient's perspective. As a result, there is growing emphasis on well defined and reliable PRO measures. In addition, advances in technology have significantly increased electronic PRO (ePRO) data collection capabilities and options in clinical trials. The movement from paper-based to ePRO data capture has enhanced the integrity and accuracy of clinical trial data and is encouraged by regulators. A primary distinction in the types of ePRO platforms is between telephone-based interactive voice response systems and screen-based systems. Handheld touchscreen-based devices have become the mainstay for remote (i.e., off-site, unsupervised) PRO data collection in clinical trials. The conventional approach is to provide study subjects with a handheld device with a device-based proprietary software program. However, an emerging alternative for clinical trials is called bring your own device (BYOD). Leveraging study subjects' own Internet-enabled mobile devices for remote PRO data collection (via a downloadable app or a Web-based data collection portal) has become possible due to the widespread use of personal smartphones and tablets. However, there are a number of scientific and operational issues that must be addressed before BYOD can be routinely considered as a practical alternative to conventional ePRO data collection methods. Nevertheless, the future for ePRO data collection is bright and the promise of BYOD opens a new chapter in its evolution. PMID:25300613

Coons, Stephen Joel; Eremenco, Sonya; Lundy, J Jason; O'Donohoe, Paul; O'Gorman, Hannah; Malizia, William

2014-10-10

360

The Association of Mid-Regional Pro-Adrenomedullin and Mid-Regional Pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide with Mortality in an Incident Dialysis Cohort  

PubMed Central

High levels of the plasma peptides mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) are associated with clinical outcomes in the general population. Data in patients with chronic kidney disease are sparse. We therefore investigated the association of MR-proANP and MR-proADM levels with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, CV events and peripheral arterial disease in 201 incident dialysis patients of the INVOR-Study prospectively followed for a period of up to more than 7 years. The overall mortality rate was 43%, thereof 43% due to CV events. Both baseline MR-proANP and MR-proADM were associated with higher risk of all-cause (HR?=?1.44, p?=?0.001 and HR?=?1.32, p?=?0.002, respectively) and CV mortality (HR?=?1.75, p<0.001 and HR?=?1.41, p?=?0.007, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex, previous CV events, diabetes mellitus and time-dependent type of renal replacement therapy. We then stratified patients in high risk (both peptides in the upper tertile), intermediate risk (only one of the two peptides in the upper tertile) and low risk (none in the upper tertile). Although demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were similar among the intermediate and high risk group, to be with both parameters in the upper tertile was associated with a 3-fold higher risk for all-cause (HR?=?2.87, p<0.001) and CV mortality (HR?=?3.58, p?=?0.001). In summary, among incident dialysis patients MR-proANP and MR-proADM were shown to be associated with all-cause and CV mortality, with the highest risk when both parameters were in the upper tertiles. PMID:21408188

Lamina, Claudia; Zitt, Emanuel; Freistätter, Otto; Struck, Joachim; Wolzt, Michael; Knoll, Florian; Lins, Friederike; Lhotta, Karl; Neyer, Ulrich; Kronenberg, Florian

2011-01-01

361

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS AS A PRO-FIBROTIC STIUMULUS  

PubMed Central

Current evidence suggests a prominent role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in fibrotic conditions affecting a number of internal organs, including the lungs, liver, GI tract, kidney, and heart. ER stress enhances the susceptibility of structural cells, in most cases the epithelium, to pro-fibrotic stimuli. Studies suggest that ER stress facilitates fibrotic remodeling through activation of pro-apoptotic pathways, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and promotion of inflammatory responses. While genetic mutations that lead to ER stress underlie some cases of fibrosis, including lung fibrosis secondary to mutations in surfactant protein C (SFTPC), a variety of other factors can cause ER stress. These ER stress inducing factors include metabolic abnormalities, oxidative stress, viruses, and environmental exposures. Interestingly, the ability of the ER to maintain homeostasis under stress diminishes with age, potentially contributing to the fact that fibrotic disorders increase in incidence with aging. Taken together, underlying ER stress and UPR pathways are emerging as important determinants of fibrotic remodeling in different forms of tissue fibrosis. Further work is needed to better define the mechanisms by which ER stress facilitates progressive tissue fibrosis. In addition, it remains to be seen whether targeting ER stress and the UPR could have therapeutic benefit. PMID:23201247

Tanjore, Harikrishna; Lawson, William E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

362

Antioxidant, Pro-oxidant and Other Biological Activities of Sesquiterpenes.  

PubMed

Sesquiterpenes, 15-carbon compounds formed from 3 isoprenoid units, are secondary metabolites produced mainly in higher plants but also in fungi and invertebrates. Sesquiterpenes occur in human food, but they are principally taken as components of many folk medicines and dietary supplements. Moreover, sesquiterpenes could become a rich reservoir of candidate compounds for drug discovery as several sesquiterpenes and their derivatives possess interesting biological activities.Recent efforts in the research and development of new drugs derived from natural products have led to the identification of a variety of sesquiterpenes that possess promising anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic and anti-carcinogenic activities. On the other hand, some sesquiterpenes can cause serious toxicity and other adverse effects. Therefore, more and more attention has been paid to the investigation of the mechanisms of biological activities of sesquiterpenes in vitro as well as in vivo. The data collected in this review shows that many of sesquiterpenes biological activities are based on antioxidant or pro-oxidant actions of sesquiterpenes. Structure, concentration, metabolism as well as type of cells determine if sesquiterpene acts as anti-oxidant or pro-oxidant. Therefore, detailed research of sesquiterpenes is very important for evaluation of their efficacy and for their safe use. PMID:25478887

Bártíková, Hana; Hanušová, Veronika; Skálová, Lenka; Ambrož, Martin; Boušová, Iva

2014-12-01

363

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).

Lorenzini, Enrico C.

2002-01-01

364

Schistosome tegumental ecto-apyrase (SmATPDase1) degrades exogenous pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic nucleotides.  

PubMed

Schistosomes are parasitic worms that can survive in the hostile environment of the human bloodstream where they appear refractory to both immune elimination and thrombus formation. We hypothesize that parasite migration in the bloodstream can stress the vascular endothelium causing this tissue to release chemicals alerting responsive host cells to the stress. Such chemicals are called damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and among the most potent is the proinflammatory mediator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Furthermore, the ATP derivative ADP is a pro-thrombotic molecule that acts as a strong activator of platelets. Schistosomes are reported to possess at their host interactive tegumental surface a series of enzymes that could, like their homologs in mammals, degrade extracellular ATP and ADP. These are alkaline phosphatase (SmAP), phosphodiesterase (SmNPP-5) and ATP diphosphohydrolase (SmATPDase1). In this work we employ RNAi to knock down expression of the genes encoding these enzymes in the intravascular life stages of the parasite. We then compare the abilities of these parasites to degrade exogenously added ATP and ADP. We find that only SmATPDase1-suppressed parasites are significantly impaired in their ability to degrade these nucleotides. Suppression of SmAP or SmNPP-5 does not appreciably affect the worms' ability to catabolize ATP or ADP. These findings are confirmed by the functional characterization of the enzymatically active, full-length recombinant SmATPDase1 expressed in CHO-S cells. The enzyme is a true apyrase; SmATPDase1 degrades ATP and ADP in a cation dependent manner. Optimal activity is seen at alkaline pH. The Km of SmATPDase1 for ATP is 0.4 ± 0.02 mM and for ADP, 0.252 ± 0.02 mM. The results confirm the role of tegumental SmATPDase1 in the degradation of the exogenous pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic nucleotides ATP and ADP by live intravascular stages of the parasite. By degrading host inflammatory signals like ATP, and pro-thrombotic signals like ADP, these parasite enzymes may minimize host immune responses, inhibit blood coagulation and promote schistosome survival. PMID:24711968

Da'dara, Akram A; Bhardwaj, Rita; Ali, Yasser B M; Skelly, Patrick J

2014-01-01

365

Schistosome tegumental ecto-apyrase (SmATPDase1) degrades exogenous pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic nucleotides  

PubMed Central

Schistosomes are parasitic worms that can survive in the hostile environment of the human bloodstream where they appear refractory to both immune elimination and thrombus formation. We hypothesize that parasite migration in the bloodstream can stress the vascular endothelium causing this tissue to release chemicals alerting responsive host cells to the stress. Such chemicals are called damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and among the most potent is the proinflammatory mediator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Furthermore, the ATP derivative ADP is a pro-thrombotic molecule that acts as a strong activator of platelets. Schistosomes are reported to possess at their host interactive tegumental surface a series of enzymes that could, like their homologs in mammals, degrade extracellular ATP and ADP. These are alkaline phosphatase (SmAP), phosphodiesterase (SmNPP-5) and ATP diphosphohydrolase (SmATPDase1). In this work we employ RNAi to knock down expression of the genes encoding these enzymes in the intravascular life stages of the parasite. We then compare the abilities of these parasites to degrade exogenously added ATP and ADP. We find that only SmATPDase1-suppressed parasites are significantly impaired in their ability to degrade these nucleotides. Suppression of SmAP or SmNPP-5 does not appreciably affect the worms’ ability to catabolize ATP or ADP. These findings are confirmed by the functional characterization of the enzymatically active, full-length recombinant SmATPDase1 expressed in CHO-S cells. The enzyme is a true apyrase; SmATPDase1 degrades ATP and ADP in a cation dependent manner. Optimal activity is seen at alkaline pH. The Km of SmATPDase1 for ATP is 0.4 ± 0.02 mM and for ADP, 0.252 ± 0.02 mM. The results confirm the role of tegumental SmATPDase1 in the degradation of the exogenous pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic nucleotides ATP and ADP by live intravascular stages of the parasite. By degrading host inflammatory signals like ATP, and pro-thrombotic signals like ADP, these parasite enzymes may minimize host immune responses, inhibit blood coagulation and promote schistosome survival. PMID:24711968

Da’dara, Akram A.; Bhardwaj, Rita; Ali, Yasser B.M.

2014-01-01

366

ProFit Version 3.1 Dr. Andrew C.R. Martin, Dr. Craig T. Porter  

E-print Network

ProFit Version 3.1 Dr. Andrew C.R. Martin, Dr. Craig T. Porter University College London Document updated: 17th February, 2009 1 Introduction and Methodology ProFit (pronounced Pro-Fit, not profit, sequence, or by sequence alignment. Early versions of ProFit did not try to address the question of sorting

Martin, Andrew C.R.

367

Interaction of Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Cathepsin Protease Progenitor (proV-CATH) with Insect Baculovirus Chitinase as a Mechanism for proV-CATH Cellular Retention?†  

PubMed Central

The insect baculovirus chitinase (CHIA) and cathepsin protease (V-CATH) enzymes cause terminal host insect liquefaction, enhancing the dissemination of progeny virions away from the host cadavers. Regulated and delayed cellular release of these host tissue-degrading enzymes ensures that liquefaction starts only after optimal viral replication has occurred. Baculoviral CHIA remains intracellular due to its C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motif. However, the mechanism for cellular retention of the inactive V-CATH progenitor (proV-CATH) has not yet been determined. Signal peptide cleavage occurs upon cotranslational ER import of the v-cath-expressed protein, and ER-resident CHIA is needed for the folding of proV-CATH. Although this implies that CHIA and proV-CATH bind each other in the ER, the putative CHIA–proV-CATH interaction has not been experimentally verified. We demonstrate that the amino-terminal 22 amino acids (aa) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) preproV-CATH are responsible for the entry of proV-CATH into the ER. Furthermore, the CHIA–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and proV-CATH-red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion proteins colocalize in the ER. Using monomeric RFP (mRFP)-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), we determined that CHIA and proV-CATH interact directly with each other in the ER during virus replication. Moreover, reciprocal Ni/His pulldowns of His-tagged proteins confirmed the CHIA–proV-CATH interaction biochemically. The reciprocal copurification of CHIA and proV-CATH suggests a specific CHIA–proV-CATH interaction and corroborates our BiFC data. Deletion of the CHIA KDEL motif allowed for premature CHIA secretion from cells, and proV-CATH was similarly prematurely secreted from cells along with ?KDEL-CHIA. These data suggest that CHIA and proV-CATH interact directly with each other and that this interaction aids the cellular retention of proV-CATH. PMID:21289117

Hodgson, Jeffrey J.; Arif, Basil M.; Krell, Peter J.

2011-01-01

368

A long-term study of the effects of antiviral therapy on survival of patients with HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following local tumor ablation  

PubMed Central

The ultimate goal of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Earlier we reported favorable effects of antiviral therapy on survival of HCC patients following curative tumor ablation (Int J Cancer online 14 April 2010; doi: 10.1002/ijc.25382). It was the first observation made in the United States. We now report 12 year follow-up of this patient group. CHB patients with no prior antiviral therapy with a single HCC (?7 cm) were studied. All patients underwent local tumor ablation as their first option. Patients diagnosed before 1999 received no antiviral treatment while those diagnosed after 1999 received antiviral treatment. Survival between the treated and untreated groups was compared. Among 555 HCC patients seen at our clinic between 1991 and 2013, 25 subjects were eligible. Nine subjects (all male patients, median age 53 years [46–66]) did not receive antiviral therapy while 16 (14 male patients, median age 56 years [20–73]) received treatment. Between the two groups, there was no difference in their median tumor size and levels of alpha-fetoprotein and albumin. However, the survival was significantly different (P = 0.001): the median survival of the untreated was 16 months (3–36 months) while that of the treated was 80 months (15–152 months). Fourteen of 16 treated patients are alive to date with two longest survivors alive for ?151 months. In conclusion, concomitant antiviral therapy for CHB patients with HCC reduces and prevents new/recurrent tumor and improves survival. This novel treatment strategy offers an alternative to liver transplantation in patients with HBV-associated HCC. PMID:24519810

Hann, Hie-Won; Coben, Robert; Brown, Daniel; Needleman, Laurence; Rosato, Ernest; Min, Albert; Hann, Richard S; Park, Kyong Bin; Dunn, Stephen; DiMarino, Anthony J

2014-01-01

369

Immune response at birth, long-term immune memory and 2 years follow-up after in-utero anti-HBV DNA immunization.  

PubMed

Infections occurring at the end of pregnancy, during birth or by breastfeeding are responsible for the high toll of death among first-week infants. In-utero DNA immunization has demonstrated the effectiveness in inducing specific immunity in newborns. A major contribution to infant immunization would be achieved if a vaccine proved able to be protective as early as at the birth, preventing the typical 'first-week infections'. To establish its potential for use in humans, in-utero DNA vaccination efficiency has to be evaluated for short- and long-term safety, protection at delivery, efficacy of boosts in adults and effective window/s for modulation of immune response during pregnancy, in an animal model suitable with human development. Here we show that a single intramuscular in-utero anti-HBV DNA immunization at two-thirds of pig gestation produces, at birth, antibody titers considered protective in humans. The boost of antibody titers in every animal following recall at 4 and 10 months demonstrates the establishment of immune memory. The safety of in-utero fetus manipulation is guaranteed by short-term (no fetus loss, lack of local alterations, at-term spontaneous delivery, breastfeeding) and long-term (2 years) monitoring. Treatment of fetuses closer to delivery results in immune ignorance without induction of tolerance. This result highlights the repercussion of selecting the appropriate time point when this approach is used to deliver therapeutic genes. All these findings illustrate the relevance of naked DNA-based vaccination technology in therapeutic efforts aimed to prevent the high toll of death among first-week infants. PMID:14999226

Fazio, V M; Ria, F; Franco, E; Rosati, P; Cannelli, G; Signori, E; Parrella, P; Zaratti, L; Iannace, E; Monego, G; Blogna, S; Fioretti, D; Iurescia, S; Filippetti, R; Rinaldi, M

2004-03-01

370

In vitro evaluation of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine ester analogues, a series of anti-HBV structures with improved plasma stability and liver release.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, but few drugs are available for its treatment. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) have remarkable antivirus activities but are not easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and accumulate in the kidneys, resulting in nephrotoxicity. Therefore, there is a need to find effective liver site-specific prodrugs. The dipivaloyloxymethyl ester of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA)-adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-is a first-line therapy drug for chronic hepatitis B with a low therapeutic index because of renal toxicity and low hepatic uptake. In this study, a series of PMEA derivatives were synthesized to enhance plasma stability and liver release. The metabolic stability of ADV (Chemical I) and its two analogues (Chemicals II and III) was evaluated in rat plasma and liver homogenate in vitro. An ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC-UV method and a hybrid ion trap and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS) were used to evaluate the degradation rate of the analogues and to identify their intermediate metabolites, respectively. Chemicals I and II were hydrolyzed by cleavage of the C-O bond to give monoesters. Sufficient enzymatic activation in the liver homogenate through a relatively simple metabolic pathway, in addition to a favorable stability profile in rat plasma, made Chemical II an optimal candidate. Next, six analogues based on the structure of Chemical II were synthesized and evaluated in plasma and liver homogenate. Compared to Chemical II, these compounds generated less active PMEA levels in rat liver homogenate. Therefore, chemical modification of Chemical II may lead to new promising PMEA derivatives with enhanced plasma stability and liver activation. PMID:24338503

Liao, Sha; Fan, Shi-Yong; Liu, Qin; Li, Chang-Kun; Chen, Jia; Li, Jing-Lai; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Zhen-Qing; Zhong, Bo-Hua; Xie, Jian-Wei

2014-11-01

371

The effect of the parenteral route of administration on the immune response to simultaneous nasal and parenteral immunizations using a new HBV therapeutic vaccine candidate.  

PubMed

Chronic hepatitis B is a major health problem, with more than 350 million people infected worldwide. Available therapies have limited efficacy and require long-term continuous and expensive treatments, which often lead to the selection of resistant viral variants and rarely eliminate the virus. Immunotherapies have been investigated as a promising new approach. Several vaccine formulations have been clinically tested in chronic patients, none of which have clearly demonstrated efficacy so far. In this study we evaluated a new vaccination strategy comprising the simultaneous co-administration by the nasal and parenteral routes of a multicomponent vaccine formulation in BALB/C and HBsAg-transgenic mice. The formulation under study contains the surface and nucleocapsid antigens of the HBV, and was co-administered by the nasal route and three parenteral routes. For parenteral administration we also evaluated the immunogenicity of the antigenic mixture with alum or without the adjuvant. The immune response was evaluated by ELISA and IFN-? ELISPOT assays. Our results indicate that all variants generated a strong antibody response in the sera against both antigens, but differed in their capacity to induce cellular immune responses against the surface antigen. Mice immunized by the nasal and subcutaneous routes without alum generated the highest IFN-?-secreting CD8+ T-cell response, and results in this transgenic mouse model showed that there is no need to include alum. In conclusion, our results indicate that the immunization routes have to be carefully selected before carrying out clinical trials to optimize the immune response and promote further clinical development. PMID:20883166

Lobaina, Yadira; Trujillo, Heidy; García, Daymir; Gambe, Aylin; Chacon, Yahima; Blanco, Aracelys; Aguilar, Julio Cesar

2010-10-01

372

Use of KNN technique to improve the efficiency of SCE-UA optimisation method applied to the calibration of HBV Rainfall-Runoff model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Calibration of Rainfall-Runoff models can be viewed as an optimisation problem involving an objective function that measures the model performance expressed as a distance between observed and calculated discharges. Effectiveness (ability to find the optimum) and efficiency (cost expressed in number of objective function evaluations to reach the optimum) are the main criteria of choose of the optimisation method. SCE-UA is known as one of the most effective and efficient optimisation method. In this work we tried to improve the SCE-UA efficiency, in the case of the calibration of HBV model by using KNN technique to estimate the objective function. In fact after a number of iterations by SCE-UA, when objective function is evaluated by model simulation, a data base of parameter explored and respective objective function values is constituted. Within this data base it is proposed to estimate the objective function in further iterations, by an interpolation using nearest neighbours in a normalised parameter space with weighted Euclidean distance. Weights are chosen proportional to the sensitivity of parameter to objective function that gives more importance to sensitive parameter. Evaluation of model output is done through the objective function RV=R2- w |RD| where R2 is Nash Sutcliffe coefficient related to discharges, w : a weight and RD the relative bias. Applied to theoretical and practical cases in several catchments under different climatic conditions : Rottweil (Germany) and Tessa, Barbra, and Sejnane (Tunisia), the hybrid SCE-UA presents efficiency better then that of initial SCE-UA by about 20 to 30 %. By using other techniques as parameter space transformation and SCE-UA modification (2), we may obtain an algorithm two to three times faster. (1) Avi Ostfeld, Shani Salomons, "A hybrid genetic-instance learning algorithm for CE*QAL-W2 calibration", Journal of Hydrology 310 (2005) 122-125 (2) Nitin Mutil and Shie-Yui Liong, "Improved robustness and Efficiency of the SCE-UA model calibrating algorithm"

Dakhlaoui, H.; Bargaoui, Z.

2007-12-01

373

An unusual case of Primary Effusion Lymphoma with aberrant T-cell phenotype in a HIV-negative, HBV-positive, cirrhotic patient, and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an unusual, human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)-associated type of lymphoma, presenting as lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, without a detectable tumor mass. It primarily affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but has also been described in other immunocompromised individuals. Although PEL is a B-cell lymphoma, the neoplastic cells are usually of the 'null' phenotype by immunocytochemistry. This report describes a case of PEL with T-cell phenotype in a HIV-negative patient and reviews all the relevant cases published until now. Our patient suffered from cirrhosis associated with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and presented with a large ascitic effusion, in the absence of peripheral lymphadenopathy or solid mass within either the abdomen or the thorax. Paracentesis disclosed large lymphoma cells with anaplastic features consisting of moderate cytoplasm and single or occasionally multiple irregular nuclei with single or multiple prominent nucleoli. Immunocytochemically, these cells were negative for both CD3 and CD20, but showed a positive reaction for T-cell markers CD43 and CD45RO (VCHL-1). Furthermore, the neoplastic cells revealed strong positivity for EMA and CD30, but they lacked expression of ALK-1, TIA-1, and Perforin. The immune status for both HHV-8 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was evaluated and showed positive immunostaining only for the former. The combination of the immunohistochemistry results with the existence of a clonal rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (identified by PCR), were compatible with the diagnosis of PEL. The presence of T-cell markers was consistent with the diagnosis of PEL with an aberrant T-cell phenotype. PMID:22919423

Nepka, Charitini; Kanakis, Dimitrios; Samara, Maria; Kapsoritakis, Andreas; Potamianos, Spyridon; Karantana, Maria; Koukoulis, Georgios

2012-01-01

374

This Agreement is between the author (Author) and ProQuest LLC, through its UMI Dissertation Publishing business (ProQuest/UMI). Under this Agreement, Author grants ProQuest/UMI certain rights to preserve, archive and publish the dissertation or thesis, a  

E-print Network

This Agreement is between the author (Author) and ProQuest LLC, through its UMI® Dissertation Publishing business (ProQuest/UMI). Under this Agreement, Author grants ProQuest/UMI certain rights by Author to ProQuest/UMI. Section I. License for Inclusion of the Work in UMI® Publishing Program. Grant

Buehrer, R. Michael

375

Use of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures at Group and Patient Levels: Experiences From the Generic Integrated PRO System, WestChronic  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures may be used at a group level for research and quality improvement and at the individual patient level to support clinical decision making and ensure efficient use of resources. The challenges involved in implementing PRO measures are mostly the same regardless of aims and diagnostic groups and include logistic feasibility, high response rates, robustness, and ability to adapt to the needs of patient groups and settings. If generic PRO systems can adapt to specific needs, advanced technology can be shared between medical specialties and for different aims. Objective We describe methodological, organizational, and practical experiences with a generic PRO system, WestChronic, which is in use among a range of diagnostic groups and for a range of purposes. Methods The WestChronic system supports PRO data collection, with integration of Web and paper PRO questionnaires (mixed-mode) and automated procedures that enable adherence to implementation-specific schedules for the collection of PRO. For analysis, we divided functionalities into four elements: basic PRO data collection and logistics, PRO-based clinical decision support, PRO-based automated decision algorithms, and other forms of communication. While the first element is ubiquitous, the others are optional and only applicable at a patient level. Methodological and organizational experiences were described according to each element. Results WestChronic has, to date, been implemented in 22 PRO projects within 18 diagnostic groups, including cardiology, neurology, rheumatology, nephrology, orthopedic surgery, gynecology, oncology, and psychiatry. The aims of the individual projects included epidemiological research, quality improvement, hospital evaluation, clinical decision support, efficient use of outpatient clinic resources, and screening for side effects and comorbidity. In total 30,174 patients have been included, and 59,232 PRO assessments have been collected using 92 different PRO questionnaires. Response rates of up to 93% were achieved for first-round questionnaires and up to 99% during follow-up. For 6 diagnostic groups, PRO data were displayed graphically to the clinician to facilitate flagging of important symptoms and decision support, and in 5 diagnostic groups PRO data were used for automatic algorithm-based decisions. Conclusions WestChronic has allowed the implementation of all proposed protocol for data collection and processing. The system has achieved high response rates, and longitudinal attrition is limited. The relevance of the questions, the mixed-mode principle, and automated procedures has contributed to the high response rates. Furthermore, development and implementation of a number of approaches and methods for clinical use of PRO has been possible without challenging the generic property. Generic multipurpose PRO systems may enable sharing of automated and efficient logistics, optimal response rates, and other advanced options for PRO data collection and processing, while still allowing adaptation to specific aims and patient groups. PMID:24518281

Larsen, Louise Pape; Biering, Karin; Johnsen, Soren Paaske; Riiskjær, Erik; Schougaard, Liv Marit

2014-01-01

376

The Cytoplasmic Domain of proEGF Negatively Regulates Motility and Elastinolytic Activity in Thyroid Carcinoma Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular domains of the membrane-anchoring regions of some precursors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members have intrinsic biologic activities. We have determined the role of the human proEGF cytoplasmic domain (proEGFcyt) as part of the proEGF transmembrane-anchored region (proEGFctF) in the regulation of motility and elastinolytic invasion in human thyroid cancer cells. We found proEGFctF to act as

Aleksandra Glogowska; Janette Pyka; Astrid Kehlen; Marek Los; Paul Perumal; Ekkehard Weber; Sheue-yann Cheng; Cuong Hoang-Vu; Thomas Klonisch

377

Effect of Gastric Banding on Aminoterminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide in the Morbidly Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Aminoterminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), like brain natriuretic peptide, might have diagnostic utility in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy and\\/or left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between morbid obesity and NT-proBNP and the effect of weight reduction on this parameter.Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 34 morbidly obese patients underwent laparoscopic adjustable

Ursula Hanusch-Enserer; Katharina Maria Hermann; Edmund Cauza; Marita Spak; Bruno Mähr; Attila Dunky; Harald R. Rosen; Ursula Köller; Rudolf Prager

2003-01-01

378

The VolumePro real-time ray-casting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes VolumePro, the world's first single-chip real- time volume rendering system for consumer PCs. VolumePro im- plements ray-casting with parallel slice-by-slice processing. Our discussion of the architecture focuses mainly on the rendering pipeline and the memory organization. VolumePro has hardware for gradient estimation, classification, and per-sample Phong illu- mination. The system does not perform any pre-processing and makes

Hanspeter Pfister; Jan Hardenbergh; Jim Knittel; Hugh C. Lauer; Larry Seiler

1999-01-01

379

Pro-sequence of subtilisin can guide the refolding of denatured subtilisin in an intermolecular process  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUBTILISIN E, an alkaline serine protease consisting of a single polypeptide chain of 275 amino acids is produced from a pre-pro-protein1. The pre-sequence functions as the signal peptide for protein secretion across the membrane2. Deletion of the pro-sequence yields mature but inactive subtilisin3: the 77-amino acid pro-sequence must precede the mature subtilisin to guide the latter into an active conformation.

Xueli Zhu; Yoshiji Ohta; Frank Jordan; Masayori Inouye

1989-01-01

380

Pro-environmental Behavior in Egypt: Is there a Role for Islamic Environmental Ethics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egypt, a less affluent, predominantly Muslim country, suffers from numerous forms of environmental pollution, some severe.\\u000a This study investigates pro-environmental behaviors of citizens in Cairo, Egypt’s largest metropolis, and studies the relationship\\u000a between pro-environmental behavior and demographic variables, beliefs, values, and religiosity. Analysis shows that three\\u000a types of pro-environmental behavior are present: Public Sphere, Private Sphere, and Activist Behavior, with

Gillian Rice

2006-01-01

381

Control of extracellular cleavage of ProBDNF by high frequency neuronal activity  

PubMed Central

Pro- and mature neurotrophins often elicit opposing biological effects. For example, mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) is critical for long-term potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation, whereas proBDNF facilitate long-term depression induced by low-frequency stimulation. Because mBDNF is derived from proBDNF by endoproteolytic cleavage, mechanisms regulating the cleavage of proBDNF may control the direction of BDNF regulation. Using methods that selectively detect proBDNF or mBDNF, we show that low-frequency stimulation induced predominant proBDNF secretion in cultured hippocampal neurons. In contrast, high-frequency stimulation preferentially increased extracellular mBDNF. Inhibition of extracellular, but not intracellular cleavage of proBDNF greatly reduced high-frequency stimulation-induced extracellular mBDNF. Moreover, high-frequency, but not low-frequency stimulation selectively induced the secretion of tissue plasminogen activator, a key protease involved in extracellular proBDNF to mBDNF conversion. Thus, high-frequency neuronal activity controls the ratio of extracellular proBDNF/mBDNF by regulating the secretion of extracellular proteases. Our study demonstrates activity-dependent control of extracellular proteolytic cleavage of a secretory protein, and reveals an important mechanism that controls diametrically opposed functions of BDNF isoforms. PMID:19147841

Nagappan, Guhan; Zaitsev, Eugene; Senatorov, Vladimir V.; Yang, Jianmin; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Lu, Bai

2009-01-01

382

Parallel Ab initio quantum chemistry on pentium-pro networks  

SciTech Connect

As the performance of inexpensive PCS approaches that of the fastest single processor supercomputers, high-end computing is increasingly dominated by massively parallel computers with hundreds or thousands of CPUs. Although such systems are essential for many applications, smaller parallel computers can achieve much lower price/performance ratios using commodity processors and interconnections. To investigate the feasibility of this approach for parallel quantum chemistry we have constructed a 56 processor parallel computer from fourteen 4-processor shared memory Pentium-Pro motherboards. These are interconnected by a 100 Mbit/sec. fast ethernet switch and each motherboard has 256 Mbytes of RAM and 1 Gbyte of disk. The system runs the LINUX operating system which supports symmetric multiprocessing on each four processor motherboard. Although some bottlenecks still exist in the inter-system communication, we have achieved very reasonable speedups running our massively parallel quantum chemistry program (MPQC).

Seidl, E.; Janssen, C.; Colvin, M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

383

Pro-oxidative, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of uranyl ions.  

PubMed

It is demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide are formed under the action of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions containing no reducing agents. In the presence of uranyl ions, formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA and long-lived protein radicals are observed in vitro. It is shown that the pro-oxidant properties of uranyl at micromolar concentrations mostly result from the physico-chemical nature of the compound rather than its radioactive decay. Uranyl ions lead to damage in DNA and proteins causing death of HEp-2 cells by necrotic pathway. It is revealed that the uranyl ions enhance radiation-induced oxidative stress and significantly increase a death rate of mice exposed to sublethal doses of X-rays. PMID:23312590

Garmash, S A; Smirnova, V S; Karp, O E; Usacheva, A M; Berezhnov, A V; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Bruskov, V I; Gudkov, S V

2014-01-01

384

Pro-opiomelanocortin peptides and the adrenal gland.  

PubMed

The adrenal gland regulates a number of essential biological functions through production of steroids and catecholamines. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides have been implicated in all aspects of generating, maintaining, and functioning of the adrenal glands. An appreciation for the roles of POMC-derived peptides with respect to the adrenal has been gained from experiments in vitro, and in vivo in different animal models which surgically, pharmacologically, or genetically decrease or increase the amount of POMC peptides available. We recently produced a mouse model with a deletion of the entire coding region of the POMC gene, thus lacking all POMC-derived peptides, from all sources, and at all times. Here we will summarize and discuss the results of traditional in vivo studies on the role of POMC peptides in adrenal development, maintenance, and function in the context of findings in a mouse model genetically lacking all POMC-derived peptides. PMID:17222502

Karpac, Jason; Kern, Andras; Hochgeschwender, Ute

2007-02-01

385

Pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates.  

PubMed

Most aquatic organisms behave as conformers with respect to environmental variables, including changes in O2 availability. Aquatic species that show tolerance to hypoxia/anoxia or hyperoxia can be excellent models for investigating physiological and biochemical adaptations that deal with changing O2 and consequent changes in metabolic rate and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, I summarize selected data on ROS production and antioxidant defenses in a model marine invertebrate, the bivalve Mytilus, under different environmental and physiological conditions. An example of other bivalves adapted to particular environments (the Antarctic Sea) is also reported. These studies contributed to the knowledge on pro-oxidant and antioxidant processes in aquatic invertebrates from comparative and environmental perspectives. A common role for metallothioneins in antioxidant protection in mammals and aquatic invertebrates is underlined in different conditions, from human disease to responses to environmental exposure to heavy metals. PMID:25428611

Canesi, Laura

2014-11-26

386

Efficacy of Neonatal HBV Vaccination on Liver Cancer and Other Liver Diseases over 30-Year Follow-up of the Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination has been implemented worldwide to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Its long-term protective efficacy on primary liver cancer (PLC) and other liver diseases has not been fully examined. Methods and Findings The Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study, a population-based, cluster randomized, controlled trial between 1985 and 1990 in Qidong, China, included 39,292 newborns who were randomly assigned to the vaccination group in which 38,366 participants completed the HBV vaccination series and 34,441 newborns who were randomly assigned to the control group in which the participants received neither a vaccine nor a placebo. However, 23,368 (67.8%) participants in the control group received catch-up vaccination at age 10–14 years. By December 2013, a total of 3,895 (10.2%) in the vaccination group and 3,898 (11.3%) in the control group were lost to follow-up. Information on PLC incidence and liver disease mortality were collected through linkage of all remaining cohort members to a well-established population-based tumor registry until December 31, 2013. Two cross-sectional surveys on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence were conducted in 1996–2000 and 2008–2012. The participation rates of the two surveys were 57.5% (21,770) and 50.7% (17,204) in the vaccination group and 36.3% (12,184) and 58.6% (17,395) in the control group, respectively. Using intention-to-treat analysis, we found that the incidence rate of PLC and the mortality rates of severe end-stage liver diseases and infant fulminant hepatitis were significantly lower in the vaccination group than the control group with efficacies of 84% (95% CI 23%–97%), 70% (95% CI 15%–89%), and 69% (95% CI 34%–85%), respectively. The estimated efficacy of catch-up vaccination on HBsAg seroprevalence in early adulthood was 21% (95% CI 10%–30%), substantially weaker than that of the neonatal vaccination (72%, 95% CI 68%–75%). Receiving a booster at age 10–14 years decreased HBsAg seroprevalence if participants were born to HBsAg-positive mothers (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.68, 95% CI 0.47–0.97). Limitations to consider in interpreting the study results include the small number of individuals with PLC, participants lost to follow-up, and the large proportion of participants who did not provide serum samples at follow-up. Conclusions Neonatal HBV vaccination was found to significantly decrease HBsAg seroprevalence in childhood through young adulthood and subsequently reduce the risk of PLC and other liver diseases in young adults in rural China. The findings underscore the importance of neonatal HBV vaccination. Our results also suggest that an adolescence booster should be considered in individuals born to HBsAg-positive mothers and who have completed the HBV neonatal vaccination series. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25549238

Fan, Chunsun; Zhan, Qimin; Wang, Yuting; Lu, Jianhua; Lu, Ling-ling; Ni, Zhengping; Huang, Fei; Yao, Hongyu; Zhu, Jian; Fan, Jian; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Guoting; Gao, Wenhong; Zang, Mengya; Wang, Dongmei; Dai, Min; Hsia, Chu Chieh; Zhang, Yawei; Sun, Zongtang

2014-01-01

387

Pro-neural transcription factors as cancer markers  

PubMed Central

Background The aberrant transcription in cancer of genes normally associated with embryonic tissue differentiation at various organ sites may be a hallmark of tumour progression. For example, neuroendocrine differentiation is found more commonly in cancers destined to progress, including prostate and lung. We sought to identify proteins which are involved in neuroendocrine differentiation and differentially expressed in aggressive/metastatic tumours. Results Expression arrays were used to identify up-regulated transcripts in a neuroendocrine (NE) transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer. Amongst these were several genes normally expressed in neural tissues, including the pro-neural transcription factors Ascl1 and Hes6. Using quantitative RT-PCR and immuno-histochemistry we showed that these same genes were highly expressed in castrate resistant, metastatic LNCaP cell-lines. Finally we performed a meta-analysis on expression array datasets from human clinical material. The expression of these pro-neural transcripts effectively segregates metastatic from localised prostate cancer and benign tissue as well as sub-clustering a variety of other human cancers. Conclusion By focussing on transcription factors known to drive normal tissue development and comparing expression signatures for normal and malignant mouse tissues we have identified two transcription factors, Ascl1 and Hes6, which appear effective markers for an aggressive phenotype in all prostate models and tissues examined. We suggest that the aberrant initiation of differentiation programs may confer a selective advantage on cells in all contexts and this approach to identify biomarkers therefore has the potential to uncover proteins equally applicable to pre-clinical and clinical cancer biology. PMID:18489756

Vias, Maria; Massie, Charlie E; East, Philip; Scott, Helen; Warren, Anne; Zhou, Zongxiang; Nikitin, Alexander Yu; Neal, David E; Mills, Ian G

2008-01-01

388

The Pro-inflammatory Role of TGF?1: A Paradox?  

PubMed Central

TGF?1 was initially identified as a potent chemotactic cytokine to initiate inflammation, but the autoimmune phenotype seen in TGF?1 knockout mice reversed the dogma of TGF?1 being a pro-inflammatory cytokine to predominantly an immune suppressor. The discovery of the role of TGF?1 in Th17 cell activation once again revealed the pro-inflammatory effect of TGF?1. We developed K5.TGF?1 mice with latent human TGF?1 overexpression targeted to epidermal keratinocytes by keratin 5. These transgenic mice developed significant skin inflammation. Further studies revealed that inflammation severity correlated with switching TGF?1 transgene expression on and off, and genome wide expression profiling revealed striking similarities between K5.TGF?1 skin and human psoriasis, a Th1/Th17-associated inflammatory skin disease. Our recent study reveals that treatments alleviating inflammatory skin phenotypes in this mouse model reduced Th17 cells, and antibodies against IL-17 also lessen the inflammatory phenotype. Examination of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines affected by TGF?1 revealed predominantly Th1-, Th17-related cytokines in K5.TGF?1 skin. However, the finding that K5.TGF?1 mice also express Th2-associated inflammatory cytokines under certain pathological conditions raises the possibility that deregulated TGF? signaling is involved in more than one inflammatory disease. Furthermore, activation of both Th1/Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) by TGF?1 reversely regulated by IL-6 highlights the dual role of TGF?1 in regulating inflammation, a dynamic, context and organ specific process. This review focuses on the role of TGF?1 in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:22253566

Han, Gangwen; Li, Fulun; Singh, Tej Pratap; Wolf, Peter; Wang, Xiao-Jing

2012-01-01

389

The Role of Pro20 in the Isomerization of Myotoxin afrom Crotalus viridis viridis:Folding and Structural Characterization of Synthetic Myotoxin aand Its Pro20Gly Homolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical characterization has established the presence of two conformational forms of myotoxina.To test the hypothesis that this may be due tocis-transisomerization at Pro20, synthetic versions of myotoxinaand its Pro20?Gly structural homolog were folded, then purified using a two-step cation-exchange\\/reverse-phase perfusion chromatography method. The disulfide bond configuration for the folded proteins was found to be the same as that of native

Dobrin Nedelkov; Michael P. O'keefe; Tara L. Chapman; Allan L. Bieber

1997-01-01

390

PROGRESSION SALARIALE ANNUELLE -SERUM-PRO et ACPUM Au 1er juin de chaque anne, le personnel professionnel reprsent par le SERUM-PRO et le  

E-print Network

PROGRESSION SALARIALE ANNUELLE - SERUM-PRO et ACPUM Au 1er juin de chaque année, le personnel professionnel représenté par le SERUM-PRO et le personnel représenté par l'ACPUM connaissent une progression annuelle de salaire. Ces progressions ont été appliquées dans Synchro et seront effectives au 1er juin. L

Charette, André

391

N-terminal amino acid sequences of prolamins encoded by the alleles at the Pro1 and Pro2 loci in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.  

PubMed

N-terminal amino acid sequences of six prolamins encoded by seven alleles at two loci, Pro1 and Pro2, of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) were analyzed and compared with other prolamins of subfamily Panicoideae. Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequences, band 3 (the prolamin purified from band 3) which is controlled by an allele at the Pro1 locus and bands 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 which are controlled by alleles at the Pro2 locus could be classified into three groups. Band 3 was found to be homologous to the prolamin of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) and is designated as the "pennisetin-like prolamin". Bands 2 and 4, and bands 1, 5 and 6 were subdivided into "x-type prolamin" and "y-type prolamin". Both of the x-type and y-type prolamins showed homology with prolamin of Echinochloa crus-galli and alpha-zein-like prolamins of maize, sorghum and Job's tears. Therefore, these prolamins were designated as "alpha-zein-like prolamin". These results suggest that alleles at the Pro1 locus and those at the Pro2 locus have not arisen from an identical ancestral gene, and that the Pro2 locus comprise two tightly linked genes, which encode similar prolamins. Hypotheses on the diversification of alleles at the Pro2 locus are discussed based on the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the respective bands, combinations of bands controlled by the alleles, and frequencies of the alleles. PMID:10791027

Nakayama, H; Komatsu, S; Namai, H; Okuno, K

1999-12-01

392

CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors  

PubMed Central

Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24222276

Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon

2014-01-01

393

CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors.  

PubMed

Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24222276

Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

2013-12-01

394

Changes in circulating Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and interleukin-17-producing T helper cells during HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure  

PubMed Central

AIM: To longitudinally investigate cytokine gene expression and protein levels in Th17 and Treg cells, to observe T-cell phenotypes during hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACHBLF) and to analyze changes in Th17 and Treg phenotypes during disease progression. METHODS: We measured the expression of seven Th17/Treg differentiation-related genes and serum concentrations of the corresponding cytokines in 18 ACHBLF, 18 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) disease controls and 10 healthy controls (HCs) by real-time quantitative PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral Th17 and Treg cell frequencies were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: From the onset of ACHBLF, patients presented with a conductive Th17 differentiation cytokine environment accompanied by high Th17 frequency and high serum IL-17 levels, which were sustained throughout the disease course. The Treg-related cytokine IL-2 and Foxp3 were also up-regulated from disease onset, and Foxp3 gene expression showed a gradually increasing trend during ACHBLF. The circular phenotype of Treg and Th17 cells showed changes from the onset of ACHGLF. At disease onset, Th17 frequency increased significantly compared with both CHB and HCs, but Treg cell frequency decreased significantly compared with CHB. During the ACHBLF event, Th17 frequency remained higher compared with HCs, but decreased sharply from the peak point to the recovery point; Treg cell frequency increased gradually during the ACHBLF event. Treg and Th17 cell counts correlated with ACHBLF development; in all patients, serum IL-17 levels significantly correlated with patient serum ALT levels. In survivors, Th17 frequency at the onset point and the Treg to Th17 ratio at the peak point correlated with the patient’s model for end stage liver disease (MELD) plus sodium (MELD-Na) score. The Treg to Th17 ratio and the Th17 frequency at onset were significant predictors of patient survival. Low Treg/Th17 cell ratios at the onset predicted poor survival. Survivors exhibited an initial decrease in the circulating Treg/Th17 ratio from the onset to the peak time, and subsequently displayed a continuous increase. CONCLUSION: Treg and Th17 cells showed changes in genes, protein levels and T cell phenotypes during ACHBLF events. An increased Treg/Th17 ratio was associated with the survival of ACHBLF patients. PMID:25024610

Liang, Xue-Song; Li, Cheng-Zhong; Zhou, Yin; Yin, Wei; Liu, Ya-Yun; Fan, Wen-Han

2014-01-01

395

Tribenuron-methyl resistance and mutation diversity of Pro197 in flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) accessions from China.  

PubMed

Flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) is a problematic weed in winter wheat fields in China, which causes great loss of wheat yield. A total of 46 flixweed accessions from winter wheat-planting areas were collected and used for the survey of resistance to tribenuron-methyl and Pro197 mutation diversity. According to the "R" resistance rating system, 16 flixweed accessions have evolved resistance to tribenuron-methyl, 13 accessions have high risk of developing resistance to this herbicide and 17 accessions are susceptible. The mutation of Pro197 codon (CCT) changed proline (Pro) into leucine (Leu) (homozygous, RR), serine (Ser, RR), histidine (His, RR), threonine (Thr, RR), Pro/Leu (heterozygous, RS), Pro/Ser (RS), Pro/His, Pro/Thr (RS) and Pro/Tyr (RS). Among these amino acid changes, a Pro197-Pro/Tyr (heterozygous, RS) substitution caused by the mutation of two successive nucleotides was identified for the first time in resistant weed species. In addition, the Pro197-His and Pro197-Pro/His mutations have not been reported previously in flixweed. Finally, a CPAS marker was developed to identify flixweed plants with or without Pro197 mutation. PMID:25619914

Deng, Wei; Liu, Ming Jie; Yang, Qian; Mei, Yu; Li, Xue Feng; Zheng, Ming Qi

2015-01-01

396

Quantitative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal instrumentation with ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and self-adjusting file systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during preparation with ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer), a reciprocating single-file (WaveOne; VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany), and a self-adjusting file (SAF; ReDent Nova, Ra’anna, Israel). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six intact mandibular premolar teeth were randomly assigned to four groups. The root canals were prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and SAF. Apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted Eppendorf tubes during instrumentation. The net weight of the apically extruded debris was determined by subtracting the preweights and postweights of the tubes. The data were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: A measurable amount of debris was apically extruded in all groups, and the amounts of debris extrusion in the groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The ProTaper Next and WaveOne groups resulted in less debris extrusion than the ProTaper Universal group (P < 0.05), and the SAF group resulted in the least debris extrusion. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that all systems extruded debris beyond the apical foramen. PMID:25512732

Ozsu, Damla; Karatas, Ertugrul; Arslan, Hakan; Topcu, Meltem C.

2014-01-01

397

Pro...t with Purpose? A Theory of Social Enterprise with  

E-print Network

. This paper develops a model of social enterprise based on selection of citizen-managers with this goalPro...t with Purpose? A Theory of Social Enterprise with Experimental Evidence Timothy Besley LSE organization which se- lects managers based on motivation can be used to balance pro...ts with a social purpose

Royal Holloway, University of London

398

Female and male perceptions of female physical attractiveness in front-view and pro le  

E-print Network

to female physical attractiveness are body mass index (BMI) and shape. In front view, it seems that BMI may of pictures of real women (50 in front-view and 50 in pro le) for attractiveness. BMI was the primary predictor of attractiveness in both front and pro le, and the putative visual cues to BMI showed a higher

Cornelissen, Piers

399

Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

Lackstrom, John Edwin

400

Applying informatics to optimize scheduling for Nippon Pro Baseball Richard HOSHINO Ken-ichi KAWARABAYASHI  

E-print Network

Applying informatics to optimize scheduling for Nippon Pro Baseball Richard HOSHINO Ken) (Contact): (Ken-ichi KAWARABAYASHI), (Principles of Informatics Research Division) TEL : 03.6% Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 #12;, Applying informatics to optimize scheduling for Nippon Pro Baseball

Shimizu, Akira

401

Inside the “Pro-ana” Community: A Covert Online Participant Observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A covert participant observation was conducted into the meanings of interaction in the “pro-ana” online community. Specifically, the researchers were interested in the kind of psychological support offered by such websites and by the beliefs of community members towards eating disorders and the processes of treatment and recovery. One of the authors joined a number of pro-ana sites in the

Sarah R. Brotsky; David Giles

2007-01-01