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1

VeriSure Pro HBV DNA External Quality Control  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... VeriSure Pro HBV DNA External Quality Control. Applicant: AcroMetrix Corporation. ... Product: VeriSure Pro HBV DNA External Quality Control. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

2

BK060064, Verisure Pro HBV DNA External Quality Control  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1. Trade Name VeriSure Pro HBV DNA External Quality Control 2. Common Name AcroMetrix HBV External Quality Control ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

3

VeriSure Pro West Nile Virus (WNV) RNA External Quality ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... VeriSure Pro West Nile Virus (WNV) RNA External Quality Controls: Applicant: AcroMetrix Corporation. 510(k) number: BK050061. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

4

Hepatitis B virus maintains its pro-oncogenic properties in the case of occult HBV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by persistence of HBV DNA into the tissue of hepatitis B surface antigen-negative individuals. The clinical relevance of this peculiar infection is still under debate. In particular, the impact of occult HBV infection in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncertain. We investigated the prevalence and molecular status of

Teresa Pollicino; Giovanni Squadrito; Giovanni Cerenzia; Irene Cacciola; Giuseppina Raffa; Fabio Farinati; Gabriele Missale; Antonina Smedile; Claudio Tiribelli; Erica Villa; Giovanni Raimondo

2004-01-01

5

BK060064 Letter  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... The VeriSure Pro HBV DNA External Quality Control is intended to provide a means of estimating precision and reproducibility of the Procleix ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

6

510(k) Summary: VeriSure Pro West Nile Virus (WNV) RNA ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... To our knowledge no special controls or performance standards have been established for a product of this type. Page 1 of 6 Page 2. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

7

HBV and HCV Therapy  

PubMed Central

One year of interferon therapy inhibits HBV replication in one third of the patients whereas long-term administration of oral nucleos(t)ide analogues is efficient in most of them, as long as early treatment adaptation in patients with partial virological response and resistance is provided. Following the demonstration of a more potent antiviral effect in terms of sustained virological response (SVR) rates, Pegylated-IFN coupled with Ribavirin has become the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C, with nearly 65% of all treated patients achieving a SVR. Long-term suppression of HBV and eradication of HCV would halt the progression of chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver decompensation.

Lampertico, Pietro; Aghemo, Alessio; Vigano, Mauro; Colombo, Massimo

2009-01-01

8

HBV plus HCV, HCV plus HIV, HBV plus HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coinfection of hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and HIV is common due to shared modes of transmission. These\\u000a coinfections accelerate the course of chronic liver disease and facilitate progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.\\u000a The viral interactions between these viruses are complex, and their treatment may be challenging for clinicians.

James S. Park; Neeraj Saraf; Douglas T. Dieterich

2006-01-01

9

Geographic distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype in patients with chronic HBV infection in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Japan and its clinical relevance are poorly understood. We studied 731 Japanese patients with chronic HBV infection. HBV genotype was determined by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method after polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 720 patients with positive PCR, 12 (1.7%) were HBV genotype A, 88 (12.2%) were

Etsuro Orito; Takafumi Ichida; Hiroshi Sakugawa; Michio Sata; Norio Horiike; Keisuke Hino; Kiwamu Okita; Takeshi Okanoue; Shiro Iino; Eiji Tanaka; Kazuyuki Suzuki; Hisayoshi Watanabe; Shuhei Hige; Masashi Mizokami

2001-01-01

10

Management of HBV in immunocompromised patients.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is more frequent in immune deficient populations than in the general population with lower rates of spontaneous recovery in acute cases, thus explaining the high rate of chronic infection and the increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in increased morbidity-mortality in these patients. The negative impact of immune deficiency on chronic HBV infection is related to two non-exclusive factors: (i) high viral load enhances the progression of fibrosis and may result in a rare severe liver disease called fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, which reflects the direct toxicity of high levels of HBV proteins; (ii) The pathobiology of HBV infection is mainly immune-mediated via HBV-specific T lymphocytotoxicity. The reduction or discontinuation of immune deficiency may result in severe liver disease including fulminant hepatitis from immune restoration. Thus, immune deficiency enhances the hepatitis B viral load, which results in the progression of fibrosis and/or acute exacerbation of underlying liver disease (HBV reactivation) on one hand, whereas reduction in immune deficiency may also be harmful because of immune restoration on the other hand. This double-edged sword explains why the diagnosis and evaluation of the impact of HBV infection on the liver must be especially rigorous in cases of immune deficiency whatever the cause: transplantation, oncology, haematology, internal medicine (rheumatology, gastroenterology …) or HIV infection, and why pre-emptive therapy by HBV nucleos(t)ide analogues should be considered for all HBV-infected patients. PMID:23286863

Pol, Stanislas

2013-02-01

11

Congenital Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most prevalent chronic infectious disease in the world. Perinatal acquisition is the major cause of infection in infants and children. Without vaccine during infancy, 90 % of infants born to women positive for the virus will go on to become lifelong carriers. There are significant sequelae associated with HBV infection, ranging

Nazan Dalg

2007-01-01

12

COBAS AmpliScreen HBV Test  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Proper Name: Hepatitis B Virus (Hepatitis B Virus/Polymerase Chain Reaction/Blood Cell Derived) Tradename: COBAS AmpliScreen HBV Test ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

13

Is there Emergence of Clinical HBV Resistance Under Long-Term HBV Combination Therapy? A Challenging Case Report  

PubMed Central

A first case of clinical tenofovir (TDF) HBV resistance in an HIV/HBV coinfected patient who developed an acute flare of hepatitis B is reported. The clinical course was accompanied by signs of acute liver failure after being on successful HBV treatment with tenofovir and persistently undetectable HBV-DNA viral load for over five years.

Schewe, Knud; Noah, Christian; Sirma, Huseyin; Schmiedel, Stefan; van Lunzen, Jan; Rockstroh, Jurgen Kurt; Schildgen, Oliver

2010-01-01

14

HBV vaccine efficacy and detection and genotyping of vaccine? asymptomatic breakthrough HBV infection in Egypt  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the impact of mass vaccination against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Egypt, and to search for vaccinee asymptomatic breakthrough HBV infection and its genotype. METHODS: Seven hundred serum samples from vaccinated children and adults (aged 2-47 years) were used for quantitative and qualitative detection of HBsAb by ELISA. Three hundred and sixty serum samples representing undetectable or low or high HBsAb were screened for markers of active HBV infection (HBsAg, HBcAb (IgG) and HBeAb by ELISA, plus HBsAg by AxSYM) and HBV-DNA genotyping by nested multiplex PCR and by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: It was found that 65% of children aged 2-4 years, and 20.5% aged 4-13 years, as well as 45% adults were good responders to HBV vaccination mounting protective level HBsAb. Poor responders were 28%, 59.5% and 34%, and non-responders were 7%, 20% and 21% respectively, in the three studied groups. Markers of asymptomatic HBV infections were HBsAg detected by ELISA in 2.5% vs 11.39% by AxSYM. Other markers were HBcAb (IgG) in 1.38%, HBeAb in 0.83%, and HBV-DNA in 7.8%. All had HBV genotype E infection. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that HBV vaccine is efficient in controlling HBV infection among children and adults. The vaccine breakthrough infection was by HBV genotype E. A booster dose of vaccine is recommended, probably four years after initial vaccination.

Abushady, Eman AE; Gameel, Magda MA; Klena, John D; Ahmed, Salwa F; Abdel-Wahab, Kouka SE; Fahmy, Sanya M

2011-01-01

15

Prospective comparison of Abbott RealTime HBV DNA and Versant HBV DNA 3.0 assays for hepatitis B DNA quantitation: Impact on HBV genotype monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitation of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the serum of infected patients is recommended to characterize the course of chronic HBV infection. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the performance of the Abbott RealTime PCR assay for HBV DNA quantitation by comparison with the standard Versant HBV DNA 3.0 assay.The better sensitivity and broader dynamic

Jonathan Pol; Catherine Le Pendeven; Agnes Beby-Defaux; Elodie Rabut; Jean Philippe Jais; Marilyse Pilloux; Catherine Osada; Fadila Zatla; Hichem Assami; Jean Didier Grange; Dina Kremsdorf; Jean Claude Nicolas; Patrick Soussan

2008-01-01

16

[Chronic HBV infection in patients with lymphoproliferative syndromes].  

PubMed

Treatment of patients with neoplastic diseases of the lymphatic or lymphoreticular system and HBV infection can lead to reactivation of viral infection. Assessment of HBs antigen among this group is insufficient for the diagnosis of chronic HBV infection. Current research suggests the necessity of determining anti-HBc, antiHBs and HBV-DNA. Elimination of HBV as well as the influence of the virus on hepatocytes is associated with increased inflammatory and necrotic changes in the liver. Understandable, therefore, becomes a possibility of significant damage to hepatocytes caused by HBV during chemoimmunotherapy. Ofparticular importance in the reactivation of HBV are glicocorticosteroids acting as suppressants of the immune system and rituximab activating B cell apoptosis. Reactivation of HBV may occur in more than 60% of patients with positive HBs antigen and in approximately 50% of patients without HBsAg. Early therapy with nucleo(z)tide analogues significantly reduces the incidence ofHBV reactivation. PMID:22708294

?api?ski, Tadeusz Wojciech; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Ostapczuk, Anna; Flisiak, Robert

2012-01-01

17

NGI UltraQual™ HBV PCR Raw Data  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPooled HBV NAT Using the UltraQual™ HBV PCR Assay. April - 2011 Richard Smith, PhD. ... April - 2011. UltraQual™ HBV PCR Raw Data. Primer. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

18

Steroid-free chemotherapy decreases risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV-carriers with lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactivation of hepatitis is one of the most serious complications of chemotherapy in lymphoma patients who are carriers of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Glucocorticoids are linked to increased risk of HBV reactivation. This study seeks to clarify whether removal of glucocorticoids from chemotherapy regimens may decrease the risk of HBV reactivation. Eligible patients were seropositive for hepatitis B surface

Ann-Lii Cheng; Chao A. Hsiung; Ih-Jen Su; Ming-Chih Chang; Chao-Jung Tsao; Woei-Yao Kao; Wu-Ching Uen; Chih-Hung Hsu; Hwei-Fan Tien; Tsu-Yi Chao; Li-Tzong Chen; Jacqueline Whang-Peng

2003-01-01

19

Managing HBV in patients with impaired immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. In patients with an impaired immune system the prevalence of HBsAg is even higher and the course of hepatitis B infection is often aggravated. In HIV\\/HBV co-infected patients, liver related morbidity and mortality can be reduced by implementing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) that contains substances active against

Karsten Wursthorn; Heiner Wedemeyer; Michael P Manns

2010-01-01

20

Management of HBV Infection During Immunosuppressive Treatment  

PubMed Central

The literature on hepatitis B virus (HBV) in immunocompromised patients is heterogeneous and refers mainly to the pre-antivirals era. Currently, a rational approach to the problem of hepatitis B in these patients provides for: a) the evaluation of HBV markers and of liver condition in all subjects starting immunosuppressive therapies (baseline), b) the treatment with antivirals (therapy) of active carriers, c) the pre-emptive use of antivirals (prophylaxis) in inactive carriers, especially if they are undergoing immunosuppressive therapies judged to be at high risk, d) the biochemical and HBsAg monitoring (or universal prophylaxis in case of high risk immunosuppression, as in onco-haematologic patients and bone marrow transplantation) in subjects with markers of previous contact with HBV (HBsAg-negative and antiHBc-positive), in order to prevent reverse seroconversion. Moreover in solid organ transplants it is suggested a strict adherence to the criteria of allocation based on the virological characteristics of both recipients and donors and the universal prophylaxis or therapy with nucleos(t)ides analogs

Marzano, Alfredo

2009-01-01

21

Management of HBV Infection in Liver Transplantation Patients  

PubMed Central

In the absence of preventative therapy, reinfection of allografts with hepatitis B virus (HBV) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) resulted in dismal allograft and patient survival. Major advances in the management of HBV-infected recipients of OLT during the past 15 years have steadily reduced the rate of reinfection, resulting in improved outcomes. Initially, long-term use of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) as a source of anti-HBs antibodies was effective in preventing or delaying reinfection. Lamivudine monotherapy made it possible to suppress HBV replication prior to OLT, markedly decreasing the risk of reinfection. Although lamivudine monotherapy used before and after OLT could prevent reinfection, its effectiveness was limited by progressive development of lamivudine-resistant mutant infections. Combination therapy with HBIG and lamivudine after OLT reduced both HBV recurrence and the risk of lamivudine resistance even in patients with active HBV replication. Introduction of adefovir provided a safe, alternative oral antiviral able to treat effectively lamivudine-resistant mutants HBV. Available strategies to prevent reinfection have resulted in OLT outcomes for HBV-infected patients comparable to those for patients transplanted for non-HBV indications. In the future, combination therapies of HBIG and both nucleoside and/or nucleotide agents will undoubtedly be optimized. Development of new drugs to treat HBV will increase opportunities to combine agents to enhance safety, efficacy and prevent emergence of HBV escape mutants. New vaccines and adjuvants may make it possible to generate anti-HBs in immunosuppressed patients, eliminating the need for HBIG.

2005-01-01

22

HBV genotypes: Epidemiology and implications regarding natural history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem and eight different genotypes (A to H) have been identified.\\u000a The epidemiology of HBV genotypes and their implications for the natural history of HBV infection have become increasingly\\u000a recognized. Genotypes A and D are common in Europe, whereas genotypes B and C are prevalent in Asia. In Asian countries, genotype

Jia-Horng Kao; Ding-Shinn Chen

2006-01-01

23

Effects of HBV Genetic Variability on RNAi Strategies  

PubMed Central

RNAi strategies present promising antiviral strategies against HBV. RNAi strategies require base pairing between short RNAi effectors and targets in the HBV pregenome or other RNAs. Natural variation in HBV genotypes, quasispecies variation, or mutations selected by the RNAi strategy could potentially make these strategies less effective. However, current and proposed antiviral strategies against HBV are being, or could be, designed to avoid this. This would involve simultaneous targeting of multiple regions of the genome, or regions in which variation or mutation is not tolerated. RNAi strategies against single genotypes or against variable regions of the genome would need to have significant other advantages to be part of robust therapies.

Panjaworayan, Nattanan; Brown, Chris M.

2011-01-01

24

Relationship between HBV viremia level of pregnant women and intrauterine infection: neated PCR for detection of HBV DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM To determine the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in trauterine infection and to explore the relationship between HBV viremia level of pregnant women and HBV intrauterine infection. METHODS Sixty-nine pregnant women were divided into three groups. Group A, 41 HBsAg positive patients, 14 of them were HBeAg positive (group A1), and 27 HBeAg negative (group A2); Group B,

ZHANG Shu-Lin; HAN Xiao-Bing; YUE Ya-Fei

25

Bloodborne Pathogens: HIV and HBV Contagion Risks at Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|AIDS and hepatitis B are diseases caused by the viruses HIV and HBV, respectively, which are spread in blood and body fluids. HBV is 100 times more contagious than HIV. Diligent implementation of universal precautions, an exposure control plan, use of personal protective equipment, a vaccination program, and ongoing staff and camper education can…

Skaros, Susan

1996-01-01

26

MicroRNA-501 promotes HBV replication by targeting HBXIP.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can negatively regulate gene expression and also induce or inhibit viral replication. In the present study, we found 10 miRNAs were differentially expressed in a stable HBV-producing cell line (HepG2.2.15) compared with its control cell line (HepG2) by miRNA array analysis. miR-501 was significantly up-regulated in HepG2 cells and tissues with high-HBV replication. miR-501 expression was significantly up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, where HBV replication kept high. Down-regulating miR-501 could significantly inhibit HBV replication, but not influence the growth of HepG2.2.15 cells. Luciferase reporter and western blot assays revealed that HBXIP, an inhibitor of HBV replication, was a potential target of miR-501. Moreover, knockdown of HBXIP rescued the inhibition of HBV that occurred after the loss of miR-501 in HepG2.2.15 cells, suggesting that miR-501 induced HBV replication partially by targeting HBXIP. Thus, knockdown of miR-501 might provide a new mechanism and therapeutic target for inhibiting HBV replication. PMID:23266610

Jin, Jiang; Tang, Shanhong; Xia, Lin; Du, Rui; Xie, Huahong; Song, Jiugang; Fan, Rui; Bi, Qian; Chen, Zheng; Yang, Guitao; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yongquan; Fan, Daiming

2012-12-22

27

The use of HBV model for flash flood forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard conceptual HBV model was originally developed with daily data and is normally operated on daily time step. But many floods in Slovenia are usually flash floods as result of intense frontal precipitation combined with orographic enhancement. Peak discharges are maintained only for hours or even minutes. To use the HBV model for flash flood forecasting, the version of

M. Kobold; M. Brilly

2006-01-01

28

Worldwide epidemiology of HBV infection, disease burden, and vaccine prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common among those hepatitis viruses that cause chronic infections of the liver in humans, and it represents a global public health problem. Chronic hepatitis caused by HBV is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide, and remains therefore a major public health problem globally. This fact is related to both the

D. Lavanchy

2005-01-01

29

Development and test of the distributed HBV96 hydrological model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive re-evaluation of the HBV hydrological model has been carried out. The objectives were to improve its potential for making use of spatially distributed data, to make it more physically sound and to improve the model performance. The new version, HBV-96, uses subbasin division with a typical resolution of 40 km z, although any resolution can be used. In

Göran Lindström; Barbro Johansson; Magnus Persson; Marie Gardelin; Sten Bergström

1997-01-01

30

Influence of chronic HBV infection on superimposed acute hepatitis E  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the influence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection [based on the status of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV DNA, and cirrhosis] on superimposed acute hepatitis E. METHODS: A total of 294 patients were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, from January 2003 to January 2012. The patients were classified into two groups: an HBV + hepatitis E virus (HEV) group (a group with chronic HBV infection that was superinfected with acute hepatitis E, n = 118) and an HEV group (a group with acute hepatitis E, n = 176). We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical features of the two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the ?2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and the Student’s t test for continuous variables. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The peak values of prothrombin time, serum total bilirubin, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were significantly higher in the HBV + HEV group. More patients in the HBV + HEV group had complications (39.8% vs 16.5%, P = 0.000) and developed liver failure (35.6% vs 8.5%, P = 0.000). Additionally, the mortality of the HBV + HEV group was significantly higher (20.3% vs 7.4%, P = 0.002). Further analysis of the HBV + HEV group showed that there were no significant differences in complication occurrence, liver failure incidence, or mortality between patients with different HBeAg and HBV DNA statuses. However, in patients with underlying cirrhosis, complication occurrence and liver failure incidence significantly increased. In total, 12.7% of the patients in the HBV + HEV group received anti-HBV treatment, but this therapy failed to reduce mortality in patients who developed liver failure. CONCLUSION: The presence of underlying cirrhosis in chronic HBV infection results in more severe clinical outcomes with superimposed acute hepatitis E. Anti-HBV treatment cannot improve the prognosis of liver failure caused by HBV-HEV superinfection.

Cheng, Si-Hong; Mai, Li; Zhu, Feng-Qin; Pan, Xing-Fei; Sun, Hai-Xia; Cao, Hong; Shu, Xin; Ke, Wei-Min; Li, Gang; Xu, Qi-Huan

2013-01-01

31

Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)Specific T-Cell Dysfunction in Chronic HBV Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunctional CD8 T cells present in chronic virus infections can express programmed death 1 (PD-1) molecules, and the inhibition of the engagement of PD-1 with its ligand (PD-L1) has been reported to enhance the antiviral function of these T cells. We took advantage of the wide fluctuations in levels of viremia which are typical of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Carolina Boni; Paola Fisicaro; Caterina Valdatta; Barbara Amadei; Paola Di Vincenzo; Tiziana Giuberti; Diletta Laccabue; Alessandro Zerbini; Albertina Cavalli; Gabriele Missale; Antonio Bertoletti; Carlo Ferrari

2007-01-01

32

Frequency of hepatic HBV-DNA in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma: relation to serum HBV markers.  

PubMed Central

As part of a larger study designed to investigate the interaction of factors such as cirrhosis and hepatitis B virus infection as aetiological agents in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, we investigated the status of hepatic HBV-DNA sequences in 156 cirrhotic patients. Forty-one were HBsAg seropositive and 18 (44%) of these had HBV-DNA sequences detectable in their livers. There are also 26 subjects who showed markers of a previous HBV infection (anti-HBs/anti-HBc), only one (4%) of whom had demonstrable hepatic HBV-DNA sequences. No sequences were found in any of the remaining 89 patients who were seronegative for all markers. Thus, liver HBV-DNA was only detected in the presence of a serum marker, usually HBsAg. Images Figure 1

White, Y. S.; Johnson, P. J.; Davison, F.; Williams, R.

1990-01-01

33

Enhanced stability of cis Pro-Pro peptide bond in Pro-Pro-Phe sequence motif  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of sequence motifs that favor cis peptide bonds in proteins is important for understanding and designing proteins containing turns mediated by cis peptide conformations. From 1H NMR solution studies on short peptides, we show that the Pro-Pro peptide bond in Pro-Pro-Phe almost equally populates the cis and trans isomers, with the cis isomer stabilized by a CH?? interaction involving

Bhaskar Dasgupta; Pinak Chakrabarti; Gautam Basu

2007-01-01

34

Breastfeeding and chronic HBV infection: Clinical and social implications  

PubMed Central

Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is among the most important causes of chronic HBV infection and is the commonest mode of transmission worldwide. Currently, the presence of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in breast milk is confirmed. Several studies have reported that breastfeeding carries no additional risk that might lead to vertical transmission. Beyond some limitations, the surveys have not demonstrated any differences in HBV transmission rate regarding feeding practices in early childhood. Promotion of breastfeeding is substantial, especially for low-income individuals and regions with uncertain, unfeasible, and unsafe water supplies. Lactoferrin, minimal inflammation or activation within the infant gut during exclusive breastfeeding, and nonspecific biological molecules in the milk are identified as major factors of breast-milk defense. This review discusses preemptive antiviral therapy during pregnancy and lactation. Long-term follow up of breast-milk HBV concentrations and correlation with serum viral load; nucleos(t)ide analogue concentrations in breast milk in HBV-positive mothers in the setting of chronic HBV infection; safety of antiviral therapy during pregnancy and lactation; and the difference in viral load in the milk in exclusive or non-exclusive breastfeeding are still open questions. The paper reviews the current data and outlines the course of further investigation into this often underestimated issue.

Petrova, Mihaela; Kamburov, Victor

2010-01-01

35

Comparison of the Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan HBV Test versus the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor for HBV-DNA detection and quantification during antiviral therapy.  

PubMed

Performances of the new automatic system COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan 48 (CAP/CTM) (Roche, Branchburg, NJ) for HBV DNA extraction and real-time PCR quantification were assessed and compared with the endpoint PCR COBAS AMPLICOR HBV Monitor (CAHBM, Roche). Analytical evaluation with proficiency panels from UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) over a 1-year period of distribution showed that CAP/CTM correctly measured HBV DNA levels with a close correlation between expected and observed values (r=0.995). Clinical evaluation as tested with samples from 11 HBsAg-positive patients undergoing antiviral therapy (71 serial specimens of plasma), demonstrated excellent correlation with CAHBM (r=0.958, mean difference in quantitation: 0.14 log, IU/ml), but CAP/CTM detected longer period of residual viremia. HBV DNA reduction was much higher in the combination schedule (Lamivudine+Adefovir), than in Adefovir monotherapy (5.1 vs. 3.5 logs). In conclusion, CAP/CTM allows for an accurate and standardized quantification of HBV DNA in high through-put laboratories. Due to it high sensitivity, it may further improve the detection of emerging drug resistance strains and the assessment of antiviral therapy. PMID:18437839

Allice, Tiziano; Cerutti, Francesco; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Varetto, Silvia; Gabella, Silvia; Marzano, Alfredo; Franchello, Alessandro; Ghisetti, Valeria

2008-01-01

36

An overview of molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major global public health problems. In India, HBsAg prevalence among general population ranges from 2% to 8%, placing India in intermediate HBV endemicity zone and the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be 50 million, forming the second largest global pool of chronic HBV infections. India is a vast country, comprised

Sibnarayan Datta

2008-01-01

37

Evaluation of a new assay for HBV DNA quantitation in patients with chronic hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Amplicor™ HBV Monitor Test for quantitative determination of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA has recently been introduced. This assay is based on PCR and a non-radioactive hybridization and detection system on microwell plates.Objective: The performance of the Amplicor™ HBV Monitor Test was evaluated in a routine diagnostic laboratory. The Amplicor™ HBV Monoitor assay was compared to the

Harald H Kessler; Karen Pierer; Elizabeth Dragon; Herwig Lackner; Brigitte Santner; Doris Stünzner; Evelyn Stelzl; Brigitte Waitzl; Egon Marth

1998-01-01

38

What technique should be used for routine detection and quantification of HBV DNA in clinical samples?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum allows monitoring of HBV replication and assessing responses to antiviral treatment. HBV DNA quantification measures virus replication and can be used as a prognosis indicator of liver disease and an index of response to antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of three HBV DNA detection

Jean-Michel Pawlotsky; Anne Bastie; Isabelle Lonjon; Jocelyne Re´mire´; Françoise Darthuy; Claude-James Soussy; Daniel Dhumeaux

1997-01-01

39

A new DTPa-HBV-IPV vaccine co-administered with Hib, compared to a commercially available DTPw-IPV\\/Hib vaccine co-administered with HBV, given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks following HBV at birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred and twenty eligible infants were enrolled in an open randomized clinical trial and allocated to one of two groups to receive either separate concomitant injections of a candidate combined DTPa-HBV-IPV and commercial Hib vaccine (candidate administration: DTPa-HBV-IPV+Hib) or separate concomitant injections of licensed DTPw-IPV mixed in the same syringe with Hib and HBV vaccines (comparator administration: DTPw-IPV\\/Hib+HBV). Vaccines

R. Gylca; V. Gylca; O. Benes; A. Melnic; V. Chicu; C. Weisbecker; P. Willems; A. Kaufhold

2000-01-01

40

Identification of a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype from Brazil that expresses HBV surface antigen subtype adw4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) from Brazil that expressed the subtype adw4 of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was cloned and sequenced. The genome, termed w4B, consists of 3215 bp. The overall genetic organization of typical hepadnaviruses with four open reading frames including the preC region was found to be conserved. When comparing the w4B sequence with

Heike Naumann; Stephan Schaefer; C. F. T. Yoshida; A. M. C. Gaspar; R. Repp; W. H. Gerlich

1993-01-01

41

Cellular Protein TIA-1 Regulates the Expression of HBV Surface Antigen by Binding the HBV Posttranscriptional Regulatory Element  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) interacting with the posttranscriptional regulatory element (PRE) of hepatitis B virus (HBV), and reveal TIA-1 function on HBV gene expression. Methods: In order to demonstrate TIA-1 binding to PRE, electrophoretic mobility shift and RNA and protein pull-down assays were used. The pDM138-PRE reporter system, HepG2.2.15 cell line and HBs-PRE transient expression cells

Hua Tang; Ying Huang; Jing Chen; Chao Yu; Ai-long Huang

2008-01-01

42

Successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HBV-positive donor into an HBV-positive recipient using lamivudine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 21-year-old woman with severe aplastic anemia underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor. The patient also had chronic hepatitis B and the donor was an HBV carrier. To decrease HBV and improve hepatic dysfunction before BMT, the patient had received lamivudine for 6 months. After marrow transfusion, administration of lamivudine was continued to inhibit replication of

S Hashino; M Takahata; A Nozawa; K Izumiyama; K Chiba; S Suzuki; S Hige; M Asaka

2002-01-01

43

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Particles are Produced in a Cell Culture System by Transient Expression of Transfected HBV DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro system for the production of hepatitis B virus (HBV) particles was established by the transient expression of transfected HBV DNA using a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell, HuH-7, as a recipient. The 3.6- and 2.2-kilobase transcripts observed were similar to those in virus-infected liver cells. Both transcripts revealed the microheterogeneity of their 5' ends. The formation of virus-related

Katsuyuki Yaginuma; Yumiko Shirakata; Midori Kobayashi; Katsuro Koike

1987-01-01

44

Project ProMED.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of Project ProMED clearly demonstrated the potential usefulness of Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), in particular, Apple's Newton MessagePad, in the health care environment of military medical centers. ProMED proved that PDA technology prov...

R. R. Whitecotton

1995-01-01

45

Mutation spectra of the surface-protein-coding region of the HBV genome in HBV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals in Hungary.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a major effect on health care systems, with about one-third of the world's population currently infected with the virus. There is an effective vaccine against HBV, which contains a recombinant "surface antigen" produced in an expression vector. Vaccination has proved to be successful in Hungary: the number of acute HBV cases has decreased in the past 10 years. Although an increasing number of publications report on "vaccine-escape" HBV variants which can infect HBV-vaccinated individuals, such mutant HBV strains have not yet been detected in Hungary. We therefore surveyed two risk groups for vaccine-escape or immunoglobulin-escape HBV mutations in Hungary: 28 actively and/or passively HBV-immunized children of HBV carrier mothers who proved to be HBsAg and/or anti-HBc positive and 40 symptomless HBV carrier pregnant women (presumably carrying genotype B or C). We focused on the coding sequences of the "a" immundominant region of the surface protein. We could not detect the G145R amino acid substitution associated with vaccine escape mutant virus. However, we could map other mutations potentially affecting the immunodominant "a" region of the HBV surface protein. PMID:18813870

Szomor, Katalin N; Dencs, Agnes; Garai, Eszter; Rusvai, Erzsébet; Berencsi, György; Takács, Mária

2008-09-24

46

Impact of occult HBV infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients: HBV-DNA detection in liver specimens and in serum samples.  

PubMed

Prevalence and impact of occult HBV infection in HIV positive patients is controversial. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection and its impact on histological and virological parameters. 52 HIV/HCV (but HBsAg-negative) co-infected patients, 29 HBsAg and anti-HCV negative chronic hepatitis, and 20 HBsAg positive chronic hepatitis controls were studied. DNA was extracted from frozen biopsies and amplified with primers for S, C and X regions, and for (ccc) HBV-DNA. Sera were tested for HBV-DNA with two quantitative assays (Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor, and the real-time COBAS (r) Taqman HBV Test, Roche Diagnostics, UK). Occult HBV infection was detected in 7 (13.4%) liver biopsies of the study group, and in none case of the non viral chronic hepatitis group (p=0.04). All serum samples were HBV-DNA negative with Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor assay, while 3 cases were found positive with real time PCR. Statistical analysis didn't show any impact of occult HBV infection on liver histology, CD4+ cells count, HIV and HCV load, and ALT levels. Occult B infection is relatively frequent in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, and is underestimated by common HBV-DNA serological assays. However, it doesn't seem to exert a relevant impact. PMID:18336266

Fabris, Paolo; Biasin, Maria R; Giordani, Maria T; Berardo, Laura; Menini, Vania; Carlotto, Antonio; Miotti, Maria G; Manfrin, Vinicio; Baldo, Vincenzo; Nebbia, Gaia; Infantolino, Domenico

2008-03-01

47

An overview of molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major global public health problems. In India, HBsAg prevalence among general population ranges from 2% to 8%, placing India in intermediate HBV endemicity zone and the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be 50 million, forming the second largest global pool of chronic HBV infections. India is a vast country, comprised of multiracial communities with wide variations in ethnicity and cultural patterns, which is attributable to its geographical location, gene influx due to invasion and/or anthropological migrations in the past. Moreover, recent increase in trade, trafficking and use of illicit drugs has also considerably influenced the epidemiology of HBV, specifically in the eastern and north eastern parts of India. However, data on the molecular epidemiology of HBV in India is scanty. HBV genotypes A and D have been well documented from different parts of mainland India. Interestingly, in addition to genotypes A and D, genotype C having high nucleotide similarity with south East Asian subgenotype Cs/C1 strain, have been detected exclusively from eastern Indian HBV carriers, suggesting a recent introduction. Thus, compared to other parts of India, the molecular epidemiology of HBV is naturally distinct in eastern India. Very recently, taking the advantage of circulation of three distinct HBV genotypes within the population of eastern India, different aspects of HBV molecular epidemiology was studied that revealed very interesting results. In this study, the clinical significance of HBV genotypes, core promoter and precore mutations, possible routes of introduction of HBV genotype C in eastern India, the clinical implications of x gene variability, prevalence of the AFB1 induced p53 gene codon 249 mutation, the transmission potentiality of HBV among asymptomatic/inactive or occult HBV carriers and the genetic variability of HBV persisting in the PBL was investigated. In this manuscript, the information available on the molecular epidemiology of HBV in India has been reviewed and the results of studies among the eastern Indian population have been summarised.

Datta, Sibnarayan

2008-01-01

48

The case of PRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Icelandic case agreement suggests that nominative case is active in PRO infinitives in much the same way as in finite clauses,\\u000a thus posing a difficult and a long-standing problem for generative (GB and minimalist) case theory and the PRO Theorem. In\\u000a this article, I examine the Icelandic facts in detail, illustrating that the unmarked and common nominative morphology in\\u000a Icelandic

Halldór Ármann Sigurðsson

2008-01-01

49

Peripheral T-lymphocyte subpopulations in different clinical stages of chronic HBV infection correlate with HBV load  

PubMed Central

AIM: To characterize the peripheral T-cell subpopulation profiles and their correlation with hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in different clinical stages of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 422 patients with chronic HBV infection were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into three stages: immune-tolerant stage, immune active stage, and immune-inactive carrier stage. Composition of peripheral T-cell subpopulations was determined by flow cytometry. HBV markers were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum HBV DNA load was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: CD8+ T-cells were significantly higher in patients at the immune-tolerant stage than in patients at the immune-active and -inactive carrier stages (36.87 ± 7.58 vs 34.37 ± 9.07, 36.87 ± 7.58 vs 28.09 ± 5.64, P < 0.001). The peripheral blood in patients at the immune-tolerant and immune active stages contained more CD8+ T-cells than CD4+ T-cells (36.87 ± 7.58 vs 30.23 ± 6.35, 34.37 ± 9.07 vs 30.92 ± 7.40, P < 0.01), whereas the peripheral blood in patients at the immune-inactive carrier stage and in normal controls contained less CD8+ T-cells than CD4+ T-cells (28.09 ± 5.64 vs 36.85 ± 6.06, 24.02 ± 4.35 vs 38.94 ± 3.39, P < 0.01). ANOVA linear trend test showed that CD8+ T-cells were significantly increased in patients with a high viral load (39.41 ± 7.36, 33.83 ± 7.50, 31.81 ± 5.95 and 26.89 ± 5.71, P < 0.001), while CD4+ T-cells were significantly increased in patients with a low HBV DNA load (37.45 ± 6.14, 33.33 ± 5.61, 31.58 ± 6.99 and 27.56 ± 5.49, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis displayed that log copies of HBV DNA still maintained its highly significant coefficients for T-cell subpopulations, and was the strongest predictors for variations in CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD8+ ratio after adjustment for age at HBV-infection, maternal HBV-infection status, presence of hepatitis B e antigen and HBV mutation. CONCLUSION: Differences in peripheral T-cell subpopulation profiles can be found in different clinical stages of chronic HBV infection. T-cell impairment is significantly associated with HBV load.

You, Jing; Zhuang, Lin; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Chen, Hong-Ying; Sriplung, Hutcha; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Piratvisuth, Teerha; McNeil, Edward; Yu, Lan; Tang, Bao-Zhang; Huang, Jun-Hua

2009-01-01

50

Summary Basis for Regulatory Action UltraQualTM HBV PCR ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... NGI's UltraQualTM HBV PCR Assay is a polymerase chain reaction assay for the qualitative detection of the HBV genome in pools of human ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

51

Prevalence of HBV precore\\/core promoter variants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variants in the precore (G1896A) and core promoter (A1762T, G1764A) regions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may be related to serum HBV DNA levels and severity of liver disease. The aims of this nationwide study were to determine the prevalence of HBV precore\\/core promoter variants in the United States and the association between these variants and patient demographics, HBV genotypes,

Chi-Jen Chu; Emmet B. Keeffe; Steven-Huy Han; Robert P. Perrillo; Albert D. Min; Consuelo Soldevila-Pico; William Carey; Robert S. Brown; Velimir A. Luketic; Norah Terrault; Anna S. F. Lok

2003-01-01

52

Potent and persistent in vivo anti-HBV activity of chemically modified siRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of lipid-encapsulated, chemically modified short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted to hepatitis B virus (HBV) was examined in an in vivo mouse model of HBV replication. Stabilized siRNA targeted to the HBV RNA was incorporated into a specialized liposome to form a stable nucleic-acid-lipid particle (SNALP) and administered by intravenous injection into mice carrying replicating HBV. The improved efficacy

Jennifer A Lockridge; Lucinda Shaw; Karin Blanchard; Kristi Jensen; Wendy Breen; Kimberly Hartsough; Lynn Machemer; Susan Radka; Vasant Jadhav; Narendra Vaish; Shawn Zinnen; Chandra Vargeese; Keith Bowman; Chris S Shaffer; Lloyd B Jeffs; Adam Judge; Ian MacLachlan; Barry Polisky; David V Morrissey

2005-01-01

53

Associations of pesticides, HCV, HBV, and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in Egypt where the major risk factors are chronic infections with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV). A major segment of the population is employed in agriculture, raising the possibility that exposure to pesticides is an additional risk factor for HCC. The objective of this study is to investigate pesticides

Sameera Ezzat; Mohamed Abdel-Hamid; Soheir Abdel-Latif Eissa; Nadia Mokhtar; Nargis Albert Labib; Laila El-Ghorory; Nabiel Nasmi Mikhail; Amany Abdel-Hamid; Tamer Hifnawy; G. Thomas Strickland; Christopher A. Loffredo

2005-01-01

54

The application of geographic information system in HBV genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic information system is an application engineering technology of the management and the analysis spatial data, with gathering, management, processing, and analysis of the spatial data. The geographic information system can be use to solve the complex plan and the management question. Molecular biology rapidly expands causes thorough understanding about HBV. But the research concerning the geographic distribution of

ShuQin Zhu; MiaoHeng Wang

2011-01-01

55

Kinetics of the immune response during HBV and HCV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innate immune system has a role not only in protecting the host during the initial period of virus infection, but also in shaping the nature of the adaptive immune response. In this review, we follow the kinetics of the virologic and immunologic events occurring from the time of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We

Antonio Bertoletti; Carlo Ferrari

2003-01-01

56

Investigations into the performance of various HBV physical structures for high efficiency harmonic generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterostructure barrier varactors (HBV) with different physical structures have been investigated and characterised for their capacitance-voltage characteristic and device series resistance. This is a novel concept to increase the HBV capacitance modulation whilst minimize the device series resistance for the NLTL in achieving optimum harmonic generation. Various capacitance modulation characteristics can be engineered by shaping the HBV mesa with either

W. H. Chow; D. P. Steenson

2003-01-01

57

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) promoters are regulated by the HBV enhancer in a tissue-specific manner.  

PubMed

The activities of the individual hepatitis B virus (HBV) promoters and the effects of the HBV enhancer on these promoters in several human cell types have been compared by measuring the activity and RNA levels of the linked reporter function chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. The relative promoter activities in the human HepG2 (liver), HeLa, and HS27 (fibroblast) cell lines are in the order precore greater than X greater than preS2 greater than preS1; thus, the promoters of the gene producing the largest quantity of viral proteins have relatively low activity. The juxtaposition of the HBV enhancer in either orientation increased the promoter activities only modestly (2- to 5-fold) in the nonliver cell lines, whereas it dramatically increased (20- to 100-fold) the promoter activities in the liver cell line. Thus, the HBV enhancer is especially active in liver cells. This may be one of the causes of hepatotrophicity of the virus. PMID:2536093

Antonucci, T K; Rutter, W J

1989-02-01

58

Familial clustering of HBV in families with children who are diagnosed as chronic hepatitis B or inactive carriers of HBV.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess and compare the spread of HBV infection in families with children who are diagnosed as chronic hepatitis B or are inactive carriers of HBV. A total of 570 patients aged 2-16 years and 2358 family members were included in the study. Patients were classified as inactive carriers (Group 1, 350 patients) or patients diagnosed as chronic active hepatitis B (Group 2, 220 patients). Demographic features of the families, HBV serological markers and routes of transmission were evaluated. Parental transmission was lower compared to nonparental transmission (34.8% and 65.1%, respectively). HBsAg positivity rate was found to be highest among mothers in both of the groups. HBeAg positivity and anti-HBs positivity were significantly higher in family members of Group 2. Transmission rates were significantly higher in families consisting of five or more members compared to families consisting of less than five members. HBsAg positivity of siblings was lowest when both parents were HbsAg negative and highest when both parents were HBsAg positive in both groups. A high risk of HBV transmission among mothers of HBsAg carriers and patients with chronic hepatitis B was demonstrated. PMID:23455870

Urganci, Nafiye; Akyildiz, Basak Nur; Kalyoncu, Derya; Gulec, Seda Geylani

2013-03-01

59

Serum HBV DNA as a marker of efficacy during therapy for chronic HBV infection: Analysis and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, compounds under evaluation for treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are evaluated with liver histology as the primary end point for efficacy. However, because of practical limitations in serial liver biopsies, there is a need for alternate markers to assess efficacy over shorter periods of time. Considering the direct correlation between viral replication and disease progression during

Elsa Mondou; M. Robert Blum; Franck Rousseau

2003-01-01

60

Knowledge of HBV and HCV and Individuals' Attitudes Toward HBV- and HCV-Infected Colleagues: A National Cross-Sectional Study among a Working Population in Japan.  

PubMed

Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005). This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. PMID:24086765

Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji

2013-09-26

61

Mutation spectra of the surface-protein-coding region of the HBV genome in HBV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a major effect on health care systems, with about one-third of the world’s population\\u000a currently infected with the virus. There is an effective vaccine against HBV, which contains a recombinant “surface antigen”\\u000a produced in an expression vector. Vaccination has proved to be successful in Hungary: the number of acute HBV cases has decreased\\u000a in

Katalin N. Szomor; Ágnes Dencs; Eszter Garai; Erzsébet Rusvai; György Berencsi; Mária Takács

2008-01-01

62

Strong Association between Genotype F and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) e Antigen-Negative Variants among HBV-Infected Argentinean Blood Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of reports have indicated an increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected individuals carrying HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-negative variants. Although distinct core promoter and precore mutations distributed according to geographical locality and viral genotype have been reported, epidemiological data from South America are still scarce. The prevalences of HBV genotypes and core promoter

Paulo H. C. Franca; Jorge E. Gonzalez; M. Silvina Munne; Larissa H. Brandao; Vera S. Gouvea; Erwin Sablon; Bart O. M. Vanderborght

2004-01-01

63

Knowledge of HBV and HCV and Individuals' Attitudes Toward HBV- and HCV-Infected Colleagues: A National Cross-Sectional Study among a Working Population in Japan  

PubMed Central

Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: “ensuring daily activities not to be infected”; “risk of infection”; and “characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis”, based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005). This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals’ negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues.

Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji

2013-01-01

64

[Detection of HBV-DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of anti-HIV-positive patients and its relation to other serological markers of HBV].  

PubMed

HBV infection has been investigated in 47 anti-human HIV positive patients in relation to a similar group of 33 anti-HIV negative patients. Serological HBV markers were found in 87% of anti-HIV positive patients. The difference in markers of viral replication (HBeAg, HBV-DNA) was not statistically significant between the two groups. It has been suggested that HBV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells could be a cofactor implicated in the development of immunodeficiency due to HIV. For this reason we have investigated the presence of HBV-DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by in situ hybridization. Although its detection was more frequent in anti-HIV positive patients than in anti-HIV negative ones (p < 0.05), it was not related to clinical state of immunodeficiency. With regard to serological HBV markers, HBV-DNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from antiHBc w/o antiHBs patients. This fact means the virus may persist in this cells after recovery and suggest they could serve as additional reservoirs of HBV. These cells, that contain the HBV genome, could be implicated in the perpetuation, reactivation of the infection and in its transmission. PMID:1489771

Suñén, E; Malave, C; Sarriá, L; Gorriño, C; Campelo, C; Martínez, J; Cisterna, R

1992-10-01

65

Emergence of HBV resistance to lamivudine (3TC) in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in The Gambia, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Lamivudine (3TC) is a potent inhibitor of both Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) replication and is part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the Gambia. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of 3TC against HBV is limited by the emergence of resistant strains. Aim The aim of this retrospective study was to characterise 3TC-resistant mutations in HBV from co-infected patients receiving HAART, by generating HBV polymerase sequence data and viral loads from HBV genotype E infected patients, both at initiation and during a course of 3TC therapy. Method Samples from 21 HBV chronic carriers co-infected with HIV-1 (n = 18), HIV-2 (n = 2) and HIV-dual (n = 1) receiving HAART for a period of 6-52 months were analysed for the emergence of 3TC-resistance mutations. Findings Sixteen out of 21 HBV/HIV co-infected patients responded well to HAART treatment maintaining suppression of HBV viraemia to low (? 104 copies/mL) (n = 5) or undetectable levels (< 260 copies/ml) (n = 11). Out of the 5 non-responders, 3 had developed 3TC-resistant HBV strains showing mutations in the YMDD motif at position 204 of the RT domain of the HBV polymerase. One patient showed the M204V+ L180M+ V173L+ triple mutation associated with a vaccine escape phenotype, which could be of public health concern in a country with a national HBV vaccination programme. All except one patient was infected with HBV genotype E. Conclusions Our findings confirm the risk of 3TC mutations in HAART patients following monotherapy. This is a novel study on 3TC resistance in HBV genotype E patients and encourage the use of tenofovir (in association with 3TC), which has not shown unequivocally documented HBV resistance to date, as part of first-line therapy in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in West Africa. HBV- hepatitis B infection; HIV- human immunodeficiency virus; HAART- antiretroviral therapy.

2011-01-01

66

PRO-140 (Progenics).  

PubMed

PRO-140, a monoclonal antibody against the HIV coreceptor CCR5, is under investigation by Progenics and the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) as a potential treatment for HIV infection [211441], [286246], [286247]. Phase I/II trials were expected to commence during 2001 [395621], [409142], despite being initially planned for 2000 [322637], [361819], [365216], [375598], [408483]. In January 1998, ADARC and Progenics reported that the HIV binding site on the CCR5 coreceptor is distinct from betachemokine binding domains, which they claimed may allow for the development of therapeutics with fewer side effects [273391], 421256]. In vitro studies have shown PRO-140 potently blocked all of 17 primary HIV isolates that use CCR5 as a fusion coreceptor [342173]. In October 2000, Progenics was awarded an SBIR grant to fund a 2-year project exploring the breadth, potency and durability of PRO-140 therapy in laboratory and animal models of HIV infection. This project was a collaboration between Progenics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University and the Scripps Research Institute [385982]. In May 1999, the company entered into an agreement with Protein Design Labs (PDL) for the humanization by PDL of PRO-140 [325445]. In November 1997, Progenics was awarded a 600,000 dollars grant from the NIAID for the examination of new approaches to HIV vaccine design based on CCR5 [268407]. PMID:15965853

Poli, G

2001-09-01

67

Comodo Firewall Pro  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are wary of Trojan viruses and marauding hackers, then this version of Comodo Pro Firewall is worth checking out. The application includes tabs that allow users to customize some of its main features, and while the user interface isn't too fancy, it's still fairly easy to use. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP or Vista.

2008-01-01

68

Distribution of HBV genotypes F and H in Mexico and Central America.  

PubMed

The distribution of HBV genotypes is associated with populations of specific geographical regions of the world. We show data from the GenBank sequence database and medical reports, which indicate that HBV genotype H (HBV/H) is mainly distributed in Mexico, whereas HBV genotype F (HBV/F) is distributed in countries from Central America. The phylogenetic analysis and historical records suggest that HBV/H has been present in Mexico even before the arrival of the Spaniards. Interestingly, occult hepatitis B is a common finding in both natives and patients with chronic liver disease in Mexico. This suggests that an immunogenic background could be important during the natural history of liver diseases. The estimated large number of HBV/H-infected patients in Mexico does not correlate with the total number of patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis reported in the country. This may be because of the fact that HBV infection is often masked by alcoholic liver disease, HCV coinfection and/or obesity. Here, we analyse the data concerning the distribution of HBV/F and HBV/H genotypes in Central America and Mexico. Specifically, we focus on the effect of molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis of HBV/H. These recent findings reveal new areas of study with therapeutic potential in viral liver diseases. PMID:23792777

Panduro, Arturo; Maldonado-Gonzalez, Montserrat; Fierro, Nora A; Roman, Sonia

2013-06-21

69

COBAS AmpliPrep-COBAS TaqMan Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Test: a Novel Automated Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantification of HBV DNA in Plasma?  

PubMed Central

Success in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B is supported by highly sensitive PCR-based assays for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. Nucleic acid extraction from biologic specimens is technically demanding, and reliable PCR results depend on it. The performances of the fully automatic system COBAS AmpliPrep-COBAS TaqMan 48 (CAP-CTM; Roche, Branchburg, NJ) for HBV DNA extraction and real-time PCR quantification were assessed and compared to the endpoint PCR COBAS AMPLICOR HBV monitor (CAHBM; Roche). Analytical evaluation with a proficiency panel showed that CAP-CTM quantitated HBV DNA levels in one single run over a wide dynamic range (7 logs) with a close correlation between expected and observed values (r = 0.976, interassay variability below 5%). Clinical evaluation, as tested with samples from 92 HBsAg-positive patients, demonstrated excellent correlation with CAHBM (r = 0.966, mean difference in quantitation = 0.36 log10 IU/ml). CAP-CTM detected 10% more viremic patients and longer periods of residual viremia in those on therapy. In lamivudine (LAM)-resistant patients, the reduction of HBV DNA after 12 months of Adefovir (ADF) was higher in the combination (LAM+ADF) schedule than in ADF monotherapy (5.1 logs versus 3.5 logs), suggesting a benefit in continuing LAM. CAP-CTM detected HBV DNA in liver biopsy samples from 15% of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBcAg-positive graft donors with no HBV DNA in plasma. The amount of intrahepatic HBV DNA was significantly lower in occult HBV infection than in overt disease. CAP-CTM can improve the management of HBV infection and the assessment of antiviral therapy and drug resistance, supporting further insights in the emerging area of occult HBV infection.

Allice, Tiziano; Cerutti, Francesco; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Varetto, Silvia; Gabella, Silvia; Marzano, Alfredo; Franchello, Alessandro; Colucci, Giuseppe; Ghisetti, Valeria

2007-01-01

70

COBAS AmpliPrep-COBAS TaqMan hepatitis B virus (HBV) test: a novel automated real-time PCR assay for quantification of HBV DNA in plasma.  

PubMed

Success in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B is supported by highly sensitive PCR-based assays for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. Nucleic acid extraction from biologic specimens is technically demanding, and reliable PCR results depend on it. The performances of the fully automatic system COBAS AmpliPrep-COBAS TaqMan 48 (CAP-CTM; Roche, Branchburg, NJ) for HBV DNA extraction and real-time PCR quantification were assessed and compared to the endpoint PCR COBAS AMPLICOR HBV monitor (CAHBM; Roche). Analytical evaluation with a proficiency panel showed that CAP-CTM quantitated HBV DNA levels in one single run over a wide dynamic range (7 logs) with a close correlation between expected and observed values (r = 0.976, interassay variability below 5%). Clinical evaluation, as tested with samples from 92 HBsAg-positive patients, demonstrated excellent correlation with CAHBM (r = 0.966, mean difference in quantitation = 0.36 log(10) IU/ml). CAP-CTM detected 10% more viremic patients and longer periods of residual viremia in those on therapy. In lamivudine (LAM)-resistant patients, the reduction of HBV DNA after 12 months of Adefovir (ADF) was higher in the combination (LAM+ADF) schedule than in ADF monotherapy (5.1 logs versus 3.5 logs), suggesting a benefit in continuing LAM. CAP-CTM detected HBV DNA in liver biopsy samples from 15% of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBcAg-positive graft donors with no HBV DNA in plasma. The amount of intrahepatic HBV DNA was significantly lower in occult HBV infection than in overt disease. CAP-CTM can improve the management of HBV infection and the assessment of antiviral therapy and drug resistance, supporting further insights in the emerging area of occult HBV infection. PMID:17229858

Allice, Tiziano; Cerutti, Francesco; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Varetto, Silvia; Gabella, Silvia; Marzano, Alfredo; Franchello, Alessandro; Colucci, Giuseppe; Ghisetti, Valeria

2007-01-17

71

Republished paper: Managing HBV in patients with impaired immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. In patients with an impaired immune system the prevalence of HBsAg is even higher and the course of hepatitis B infection is often aggravated. In HIV\\/HBV co-infected patients, liver related morbidity and mortality can be reduced by implementing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) that contains substances active against

Karsten Wursthorn; Heiner Wedemeyer; Michael P Manns

2010-01-01

72

Long-Term Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Response to Lamivudine-Containing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-HBV Co-Infected Patients in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 4 million of people are co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV). In resource-limited settings, the majority of HIV-infected patients initiate first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy containing lamivudine (3TC-containing-HAART) and long-term virological response of HBV to lamivudine-containing HAART in co-infected patients is not well known. Methodology/Principal Finding HIV-HBV co-infected patients enrolled in the PHPT cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00433030) and initiating a 3TC-containing-HAART regimen were included. HBV-DNA, HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell counts and alanine transaminase were measured at baseline, 3 months, 12 months and then every 6 months up to 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the cumulative rates of patients who achieved and maintained HBV-DNA suppression. Of 30 co-infected patients, 19 were positive for HBe antigen (HBeAg). At initiation of 3TC-containing-HAART, median HBV DNA and HIV RNA levels were 7.35 log10 IU/mL and 4.47 log10 copies/mL, respectively. At 12 months, 67% of patients achieved HBV DNA suppression: 100% of HBeAg-negative patients and 47% of HBeAg-positive. Seventy-three percent of patients had HIV RNA below 50 copies/mL. The cumulative rates of maintained HBV-DNA suppression among the 23 patients who achieved HBV-DNA suppression were 91%, 87%, and 80% at 1, 2, and 4 years respectively. Of 17 patients who maintained HBV-DNA suppression while still on 3TC, 4 (24%) lost HBsAg and 7 of 8 (88%) HBeAg-positive patients lost HBeAg at their last visit (median duration, 59 months). HBV breakthrough was observed only in HBeAg-positive patients and 6 of 7 patients presenting HBV breakthrough had the rtM204I/V mutations associated with 3TC resistance along with rtL180M and/or rtV173L. Conclusions All HBeAg-negative patients and 63% of HBeAg-positive HIV-HBV co-infected patients achieved long-term HBV DNA suppression while on 3TC-containing-HAART. This study provides information useful for the management of co-infected patients in resource-limited countries where the vast majority of co-infected patients are currently receiving 3TC.

Khamduang, Woottichai; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Jourdain, Gonzague; Moreau, Alain; Luekamlung, Nuananong; Halue, Guttiga; Buranawanitchakorn, Yuwadee; Kunkongkapan, Sura; Buranabanjasatean, Sudanee; Lallemant, Marc; Sirirungsi, Wasna; Goudeau, Alain

2012-01-01

73

Recognition and management of HBV infection in a social context.  

PubMed

Chronic viral hepatitis B and C infection is three to five times more frequent than HIV in the USA, and chronically infected people are at risk for long-term sequelae including cirrhosis, liver decomposition, and hepatocellular carcinoma (Institute of Medicine, 2010). Socio-cultural factors are central to the way an individual constructs hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, perceives it as serious health problem, and moves on to appropriate health behavior (Lee et al., J Canc Educ 25:337-342, 2010; Kim, J Health Care Poor Underserved 5:170-182, 2004; Lee et al., Asian Nurs Res 1:1-11, 2007; Wu et al, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 8(1):127-234, 2007; Yang et al., J Korean Academy Nurs 40:662-675, 2010). The purpose of this study was to seek "real world" data about factors that influence the recognition and management of HBV infection in Korean Americans' socio-cultural contexts. The descriptive qualitative study used an interview informed by ethnography to collect data and was guided by the Network-Episode Model. (Pescosolido, Adv Med Sociol 2:161-184, 1991; Pescosolido, AJS 97:1096-1138, 1992; Pescosolido, Res Sociol Health Care 13A:171-197, 1996). The sample comprised 12 HBV patients and nine key informants. Six factors that influenced the management of HBV infection emerged from the interviews: recognition of disease within a social context, unrecognized disease in a hidden health system, the socio-cultural meaning of disease, lay construction of the cause of disease, misunderstandings and cultural learning styles, and personal and environmental barriers to health care. Each theme was associated with Korean American (KA) social contexts, participants' experiences, and the beliefs they held about the disease. The findings explored that the family network is "genetic code" for social networking among KAs and the network of patients was not geographically bound. Health management behaviors are mediated by an array of types and levels of social and personal networks, and this raises questions about current health education, management of HBV, and prevention of liver cancer. PMID:21347651

Lee, Haeok; Hann, Hie-Won; Yang, Jin Hyang; Fawcett, Jacqueline

2011-09-01

74

Differential regulation of host genes including hepatic fatty acid synthase in HBV-transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common of the hepatitis viruses that cause chronic liver infections in humans, and it is considered to be a major global health problem. To gain a better understanding of HBV pathogenesis, and identify novel putative targets for anti-HBV therapy, this study was designed to elucidate the differential expression of host proteins in liver tissue from HBV-transgenic mice. Liver samples from two groups, (1) HBV-transgenic (Tg) mice, (2) corresponding background normal mice, wild-type (WT) mice, were collected and subjected to iTRAQ and mass spectrometry analysis. In total, 1950 unique proteins were identified, and 68 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in HBV-Tg mice as compared with that in WT mice. Several differentially expressed proteins were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, the association of HBV replication with fatty acid synthase (FASN), one of the highly expressed proteins in HBV-Tg mice, was verified. Silencing of FASN expression in HepG2.2.15 cells suppressed viral replication through the IFN signaling pathway, and some downstream antiviral effectors. The implicated role of FASN in HBV replication provides an opportunity to test existing compounds against FASN for adjuvant therapy and/or treatment of HBV replication. PMID:23675653

Zhang, Hongmin; Li, Hong; Yang, Yixuan; Li, Sanglin; Ren, Hong; Zhang, Dazhi; Hu, Huaidong

2013-05-23

75

Current treatment of chronic HBV infection: An Asian-Pacific perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem with potential adverse sequelae including liver\\u000a cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Of more than 350 million chronic HBV carriers, 75% reside in the Asian-Pacific region,\\u000a where most countries have low-income economies. Better understanding of the natural history and immunopathogenesis of chronic\\u000a HBV infection and the invention of powerful antiviral

Rong-Nan Chien; Yun-Fan Liaw

2009-01-01

76

Primary hepatocellular carcinoma following nonspecific non-B hepatitis with tumor DNA negative for HBV DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An association between non-A, non-B hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma has been made on the basis of negative serological markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV); however, hepatocellular carcinomas have been found to contain hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) in individuals who lack serological markers of HBV infection. Therefore, reports which ascribed a hepatocellular carcinoma to non-A, non-B hepatitis

Evan B. Cohen; David L. Gang; Jerome B. Zeldis

1987-01-01

77

Inhibition of HBV infection by bovine lactoferrin and iron-, zinc-saturated lactoferrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the effect of bovine lactoferrin (BLf), lactoferrin hydrolysate, or iron-, zinc-saturated lactoferrin\\u000a on hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected HepG2 cells. Fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) was used to quantify\\u000a HBV-DNA copies. BLf, iron- or zinc-saturated lactoferrin significantly inhibited the amplification of HBV-DNA in a dose-dependent\\u000a manner in HBV-infected HepG2 cells. However, the inhibitive effect of

Songtao Li; Haibo Zhou; Guirong Huang; Ning Liu

2009-01-01

78

Incidence and characteristics of HBV reactivation in hematological malignant patients in south Egypt  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) implicated in HBV reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies receiving immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 53 patients with hematological malignancies negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) before the start of and throughout the chemotherapy course. HBV reactivation was diagnosed when the HBsAg status changed from negative to positive after the initiation of chemotherapy and/or when HBV DNA was detected by real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR). For detecting the serological markers of HBV infection, HBsAg as well as antibodies to the core antigen (anti-HBc) and to the surface antigen were measured in the sera by CEIA. Nucleic acids were extracted from sera, and HBV DNA sequences spanning the S gene were amplified by RTD-PCR. The extracted DNA was further subjected to PCR to amplify the complete genome as well as the specific genomic sequences bearing the enhancer II/core promoter/pre-core/core regions (nt 1628-2364). Amplicons were sequenced directly. RESULTS: Thirty-five (66%) of the 53 HBsAg-negative patients were found to be negative serologically for anti-HBc, and the remaining 18 (34%) patients were positive for anti-HBc. Five of the 53 (9.4%) patients with hematologic malignancies experienced HBV reactivation. Genotype D1 was detected in all five patients. Four types of mutant strains were detected in the S gene product of HBV strains and were isolated from 3 patients with HBV reactivation: T/S120, L143, and I126. HBV DNA was detected in the pretreatment HBsAg-negative samples in one of the five patients with HBV reactivation. In this patient, sequences encompassing the HBV full genome obtained from sera before the start of chemotherapy and at the time of de novo HBV hepatitis were detected and it showed 100% homology. Furthermore, in the phylogenetic tree, the sequences were clustered together, thereby indicating that this patient developed reactivation from an occult HBV infection. CONCLUSION: Past infection with HBV is a risk factor for HBV reactivation in Egypt. Mandatory anti-HBc screening prior to chemotherapy in patients with hematological malignancies is recommended.

Elkady, Abeer; Aboulfotuh, Sahar; Ali, Elsayed Mostafa; Sayed, Douaa; Abdel-Aziz, Nashwa M; Ali, Amany M; Murakami, Shuko; Iijima, Sayuki; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2013-01-01

79

Spectroscopic investigations of HBV 475 in optical regions  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution spectroscopic analyses of HBV 475 are presented based on emission-line profiles of H-alpha, H-gamma, He I 4921-A, He I 5016-A, forbidden O III 4959-A, 5007-A, Fe II 5018-A, and Fe II 4924-A. Radial-velocity analyses show that only a part of the line components coincides well with previous measurements. Other remarkable components are found which are shifted to either the violet or red sides, depending on the indicated phase. Highly resolved emission-line profiles reveal that they are not compatible with the calculated profiles of proposed theoretical models. 21 refs.

Tamura, Shinichi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan))

1989-03-01

80

Booster vaccination with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV\\/Hib vaccine in the second year of life is as safe as concomitant DTPa-IPV\\/Hib + HBV administered separately  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of GSK Biologicals’ hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV\\/Hib vaccine (N=4725) was compared with the separate administration of GSK Biologicals’ DTPa-IPV\\/Hib and HBV vaccines (N=4474) in two open, randomized multicenter studies (A and B). Solicited symptoms occurring within 4 days of vaccination were recorded on diary cards and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected throughout the

R. Saenger; G. Maechler; M. Potreck; F. Zepp; M. Knuf; P. Habermehl; L. Schuerman

2005-01-01

81

Adherence to the screening program for HBV infection in pregnant women delivering in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection (HBV) is a major Public Health Problem. Perinatal transmission can be prevented with the identification of HBsAg(+) women and administration of immunoprophylaxis to their newborns. A national prevention programme for HBV with universal screening of pregnant women and vaccination of infants is in effect since 1998 in Greece. METHODS: To evaluate adherence to the national guidelines,

Vassiliki Papaevangelou; Christos Hadjichristodoulou; Dimitrios Cassimos; Maria Theodoridou

2006-01-01

82

Analytical performance of and real sample analysis with an HBV gene visual detection chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene detection chip has been developed. The HBV-specific probes immobilized on glass slides were hybridized with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of different serum samples. The hybridization signal can be easily visualized upon a sandwich assay with nanoparticle amplification. The analytical performance (e.g., specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy) of this method has been evaluated. The

Ye-Fu Wang; Jun-Tao Shen; Hui-Hui Liu

2004-01-01

83

A new DTPa-HBV-IPV vaccine co-administered with Hib, compared to a commercially available DTPw-IPV/Hib vaccine co-administered with HBV, given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks following HBV at birth.  

PubMed

Three hundred and twenty eligible infants were enrolled in an open randomized clinical trial and allocated to one of two groups to receive either separate concomitant injections of a candidate combined DTPa-HBV-IPV and commercial Hib vaccine (candidate administration: DTPa-HBV-IPV+Hib) or separate concomitant injections of licensed DTPw-IPV mixed in the same syringe with Hib and HBV vaccines (comparator administration: DTPw-IPV/Hib+HBV). Vaccines were administered at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age preceded by a monovalent dose of HBV at birth. The candidate vaccine administration was shown to be at least as immunogenic (primary objective) as the candidate administration with respect to the diphtheria, tetanus, polio, HBs and PRP seroprotection rates (primary endpoints). Post vaccination, both vaccine administrations showed an equivalent level of seroprotection with nearly all subjects (>96%) acquiring seroprotective titers against diphtheria, tetanus, polioviruses, HBsAg and PRP antigens. A markedly higher anti-HBs response post dose 2 at week 14 in the group receiving the candidate vaccine, 98.6% of subjects had seroprotective titers (GMT of 505.7 mIU/ml) compared with only 88.7% (GMT of 107.5 mIU/ml) in the comparator group. There was a lower incidence of adverse events following the DTPa-based candidate administration compared with the DTPw-based comparator. Despite the early age and short interval between doses, both administrations were immunogenic, with the concomitant administration of DTPa-HBV-IPV and Hib vaccines showing an improved tolerability over the commercial vaccines DTPw-IPV/Hib and HBV. PMID:11115705

Gylca, R; Gylca, V; Benes, O; Melnic, A; Chicu, V; Weisbecker, C; Willems, P; Kaufhold, A

2000-11-22

84

The expression of hepatitis B virus polymerase in hepatocytes during chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

A recombinant protein corresponding to part of the amino-terminal domain of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase was expressed in Escherichia coli. Antisera raised against this protein stained hepatocytes, from human liver biopsies, predominantly in the nucleus but some cytoplasmic staining was also observed. No staining was observed in hepatocytes from uninfected patients. Liver biopsies, taken from patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as HBV showed more intense staining with these antisera than that seen in patients who were infected with HBV alone. The staining pattern suggests that either the whole HBV polymerase protein, or a portion encoding the amino-terminal domain, is translocated to the nucleus. This event may be an important early step in replication of the HBV genome. PMID:8811640

McGarvey, M J; Goldin, R D; Karayiannis, P; Thomas, H C

1996-03-01

85

Immunogenicity of HBV vaccine during stated shelf-life.  

PubMed

Thiomersal has been used as preservative in multi-dose vials of hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix-B). Due to safety concerns, thiomersal was replaced with 2-phenoxyethanol (2PE) as preservative in multi-dose vials. The potency of 2PE preserved hepatitis B vaccine multiple use vials was measured over the shelf-life in terms of immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety. This single-blind, randomized study was conducted with the assistance of employees of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, makers of the Engerix-B vaccine. Four hundred twenty subjects aged > or =18 years were randomized to receive three doses (0, 1, 6 months) of 2PE preserved hepatitis B vaccine kept on the shelf <12 months (2PE New group), 2PE preserved hepatitis B vaccine kept on the shelf >18 months (2PE Old group), or thiomersal preserved hepatitis B vaccine [HBV(Thio) group]. Anti-HBs was measured by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals post-vaccination; the reactogenicity and safety of the vaccines were assessed. Protective anti-HBs levels (> or =10 mIU/ml) were measured one month after dose 3. The results showed protective levels in 86.8% (2PE New), 89% (2PE Old) and 95.3% [HBV(Thio)]. There was no difference detected between the 2PE New and 2PE Old groups in terms of anti-HBs seroprotection rates and geometric mean concentrations one month after dose 3. However, both 2PE groups had significantly lower seroprotection rates than the HBV(Thio) group and the number of non-responders was higher in the 2PE groups than in the Thio group. A antibody response rates over time were similar between the 2PE New and Old groups. The reactogenicity profiles were acceptable and the ranges were similar for each group. The shelf-life of the vaccines had no impact on immunogenicity or reactogenicity and 2PE preserved hepatitis B vaccine can be considered stable over time. PMID:21073062

Gloriani, Nina G; Srinivasa, Karthik; Bock, Hans L; Hoet, Bernard

2010-07-01

86

Expanding motion in the ionized envelope of HBV 475  

SciTech Connect

Expansion velocities in the ionized envelope of HBV 475 are obtained from line profiles of H-alpha, He I 6678, 7065, and forbidden Fe VII 6087. Two components of forbidden Fe VII 6087 show evidence of outward gas motion with high velocities from the central star. H-alpha and He I 6678 profiles are very similar to those obtained from observations of forbidden O III and Ne III lines, and have gas motion velocities corresponding to full widths at half-maximum of the lines which do not exceed the velocities of Fe(+6). Through investigations of He(+) and Fe(+5) ionization structures, it is concluded that the interacting stellar winds model is favorable to explain the velocity fields suggested by the line profiles.

Tamura, S.

1981-01-01

87

ProVention Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ProVention Consortium is a "global coalition of governments, international organizations, academic institutions, the private sector and civil society organizations dedicated to increasing the safety of vulnerable communities and to reducing the impact of disasters in developing countries." Organized by the World Bank, the Consortium and its Web site are dedicated to disseminating materials and resources about how disaster risk management can be best applied to mitigate the effects of various potential disasters and events. From their Web site, visitors can read about the ongoing activities of the Consortium (such as identifying and analyzing global disaster risk hotspots), and read about the grant opportunities offered by the organization. The "Resources" section of the site is very helpful, as it contains a toolkit for disaster-risk assessment, along with conceptual background articles, such as "Innovations in Disaster Management" or "Megacities, Megarisk." Perhaps one of the best features of the site is the video archive of a recent conference, "The Future of Disaster Risk: Building Safer Cities," which took place in December 2002. All in all, this site will be quite intriguing for those with an interest in the mitigation of the effects of catastrophes and disasters around the world.

88

The Anti-hepatitis B Virus Activity of Boehmeria nivea Extract in HBV-viremia SCID Mice.  

PubMed

Boehmeria nivea extract (BNE) is widely used in southern Taiwan as a folk medicine for hepato-protection and hepatitis treatment. In previous studies, we demonstrated that BNE could reduce the supernatant hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in HBV-producing HepG2 2.2.15 cells. In the present study, we established an animal model of HBV viremia and used it to validate the efficacy of BNE in vivo. In this animal model, serum HBV DNA and HBsAg were elevated in accordance with tumor growth. To evaluate the anti-HBV activity of BNE, HBV-viremia mice were built up after one subcutaneous inoculation of HepG2 2.2.15 tumor cells in severe combined immunodeficiency mice over 13 days. The levels of serum HBV DNA were elevated around 10(5)-10(6) copies per milliliter. Both oral and intraperitoneal administration of BNE were effective at inhibiting the production of HBsAg and HBV DNA, whereas tumor growth was not affected by all test articles. Intraperitoneal administration of BNE appeared to have greater potential to inhibit serum HBV DNA levels compared with oral administration under the same dosage. Notably, reduced natural killer cell activity was also observed after high dosage of BNE administration, and this correlated with reduced serum HBV DNA. In conclusion, BNE exhibited potential anti-HBV activity in an animal model of HBV viremia. PMID:18955304

Chang, Jia-Ming; Huang, Kai-Ling; Yuan, Thomas Ta-Tung; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Hung, Le-Mei

2008-01-07

89

A longitudinal study on the incidence and transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV infection among drug users in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study data on the incidence of HBV and HCV were used to indicate the prevalence of and trends in risk behavior, assuming that drug users (DUs) who become infected with HBV or HCV are also at risk for infection with HIV. In addition, we determined to that extent the transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV differed.

E. J. C. Ameijden; J. A. R. Hoek; G. H. C. Mientjes; R. A. Coutinho

1993-01-01

90

A type-specific nested PCR assay established and applied for investigation of HBV genotype and subgenotype in Chinese patients with chronic HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have suggested that hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes show not only geographical distribution and race specificity, but also are associated with disease progression and response to interferon treatment. The objective of this study was to develop a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay for genotypes A-D and subgenotypes B1, B2, C1 and C2 of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and to investigate the distribution characteristics of HBV genotypes/subgenotype in China. Methods After redesigning the primers and optimizing the reaction conditions using common Taq polymerase, the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the method were evaluated using plasmids and serum samples. In total, 642 serum samples from patients with chronic HBV infection were applied to investigate the distribution of HBV genotype and subgenotype in China. Results The genotype and subgenotype could be identified when the HBV DNA load of a sample was ?102.3?IU/mL. For the 639 successfully genotyped samples, the sequencing results of 130 randomly selected samples (20.3%, 130/639) were consistent with those of the nPCR method. The present study showed that HBV genotype B (11.2%, 72/642), C (68.2%, 438/642) and D (7.2%, 46/642) were circulating in China, while genotype C was the dominant strain except for western region where genotype D was the prevalent strain. The main subgenotypes of genotypes B and C were B2 (87.5%, 63/72) and C2 (92.9%, 407/438), respectively. Conclusions The low-cost nPCR method would be a useful tool for clinical and epidemiological investigation in the regions where genotypes A-D are predominant.

2012-01-01

91

[Accidental asymptomatic infections with hephatitis B virus and testing on HBV markers of healthcare personnel].  

PubMed

Healthcare personnel is being highly exposed to the professional risk of Hephatitis B virus infection by accidental professional injuries, where direct contact with patients blood occurs. Number of researches indicate significance and role of accidental injuries, especially over injection needles, which is leading cause for professional HBV infections occurence. HBsAg has capability to provoke imune system if applied to a man, to HBs anti-bodies production achieving thus protection from Hephatitis B Virus. Recombinant vaccine against viruse Hephatitis B achieves high imunology protection. It is considered that appereance of anti-HBs titre >10 mlU/ml upon received three doses of vaccine provides reliable protection from HBV infection. Aim of the work is to prove rates of asymptomatic HBV infection amongst healthcare personnel and other employees in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution, and to research occurence and rate of anti-HBs titre at vaccinated Healthcare personnel in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution one month upon received third dose of vaccine. Out of 980 examinees 4, or 0.41%, had acute HBV infection within research period, 10 or 1.02% examinees had chronical accidental HBV infection, 18 or 1.83 % out of 980 examinees had previous asymptomatic HBV infection, as the consequence of accidental injury. Results of these researches indicated that 82.76 % or 96 healthcare workers has had reliable protection from HB virus infection one month upon third vaccine dose against HBV, since achieved titres where higher than 10 mlU/ml. PMID:18669231

Saci?, Enes; Saci?, Dzana

2008-01-01

92

Virological and clinical aspects of HBV-HCV coinfection in HIV positive patients.  

PubMed

In a long-term follow-up study the clinical and virological presentation of HBV/HCV coinfection in anti-HIV positive patients was evaluated. Plasma HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA, and HIV-RNA were determined by PCR in 5 HBsAg/anti-HCV/anti-HIV positive patients, in 4 HBsAg/anti-HIV positive patients and in 82 anti-HCV/anti-HIV positive patients first observed at a Unit of Infectious Diseases in Naples (Italy) from 1990 to 2000 (follow up 6-16 years). All five hepatitis B and C coinfected patients showed reciprocal inhibition of viral replication on admission and during the follow up. At the end of the follow up a clearance of HBsAg from serum was observed in four patients and a clearance of anti-HCV in one of them. In two patients after clearance of HBsAg, evidence of occult HBV infection was observed, at times associated with a hepatic flare. None of the four patients with HIV/HBV coinfection lost HBsAg and none of the 82 with HIV/HCV coinfection lost anti-HCV during the follow up. In anti-HIV positive patients HBV/HCV coinfection is characterized by reciprocal inhibition of viral replication, more evident in HBV expression in plasma and at times by progression to occult HBV infection. PMID:17854026

Filippini, Pietro; Coppola, Nicola; Pisapia, Raffaella; Martini, Salvatore; Marrocco, Cecilia; Di Martino, Filomena; Sagnelli, Caterina; Filippini, Alberico; Sagnelli, Evangelista

2007-11-01

93

HBV inhibits apoB production via the suppression of MTP expression  

PubMed Central

Background Liver dominates the production and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and evidence shows that liver malfunction induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could lead to apolipoprotein metabolism disorders. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of HBV on apoB expression. Methods Clinical examination: serum apoB levels in patients with chronic HBV infection and in healthy individuals were measured by immunoturbidimetry using biochemical analyzer Olympus 5400. Cell study: mRNA and protein expression levels of apoB in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Alternatively, HBV infectious clone pHBV1.3 or control plasmid pBlue-ks were tranfected into HepG2 cells, and mRNA and protein expression levels of apoB, as well as the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in tranfected HepG2 cells were also measured by RT-PCR and western blot. Results Serum apoB level was much lower in chronic HBV patients as compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Expression of apoB mRNA and protein was lower in HepG2.2.15 cells than in HepG2 cells. Similarly, expression of apoB mRNA and protein was lower in pHBV1.3 transfected HepG2 cells than in pBlue-ks transfected HepG2 cells. Expression of MTP mRNA and protein in pHBV1.3 transfected HepG2 cells was reduced in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusion HBV infection plays an inhibitory effect on apoB expression.

2011-01-01

94

Primary biliary cirrhosis in HBV and HCV patients: Clinical characteristics and outcome  

PubMed Central

AIM: To present the characteristics, management and outcome of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections concurrent with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). METHODS: Since January 2001 to September 2009, we retrospectively evaluated the medical records of all HBV (n = 1493) and HCV patients (n = 526) who are followed in our center for the presence of concurrent PBC. Seventeen patients identified with concurrent viral hepatitis and PBC (8 HCV and PBC; follow-up: 61 ± 37 mo and 9 HBV and PBC; follow-up: 57 ± 38 mo). PBC diagnosis was established if the patients met at least two of the following criteria: positivity for antimitochondrial antibody, elevated cholestatic enzymes and histological lesions of PBC. RESULTS: HCV or HBV diagnosis preceded that of PBC in most patients by many years. PBC diagnosis was based on the presence of antimitochondrial antibody and elevated cholestatic enzymes in all 17 patients, while one third (5/17; 29.4%) experienced severe pruritus many years before diagnosis. Patients with PBC and HBV were significantly younger at diagnosis of PBC compared to patients with PBC and HCV (56.1 ± 11.2 vs 68.5 ± 10.3, respectively, P < 0.05). At initial clinical and histological assessment the majority of patients were cirrhotics (10/17; 58.8%) with the group of PBC and HCV carrying the highest frequency (87.5% vs 33.3% in PBC and HBV; P < 0.05). The patients with HBV and concomitant PBC seem to have better outcome compared to those with HCV and PBC since none of the 6 non-cirrhotics with HBV and PBC developed cirrhosis during follow-up. CONCLUSION: PBC diagnosis in HBV or HCV patients is very difficult and usually delayed. Therefore, in any case, cholestasis should alert physicians to further search for PBC.

Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Zachou, Kalliopi; Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Papadamou, Georgia; Koukoulis, George K; Dalekos, George N

2013-01-01

95

The timing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and the risk of HBV infection following HIV diagnosis.  

PubMed

To assess associations between the timing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and vaccine effectiveness, US Military HIV Natural History Study cohort participants without HBV infection at the time of HIV diagnosis were grouped by vaccination status, retrospectively followed from HIV diagnosis for incident HBV infection, and compared using Cox proportional hazards models. A positive vaccine response was defined as hepatitis B surface antibody level ? 10 IU/L. Of 1,877 participants enrolled between 1989 and 2008, 441 (23%) were vaccinated prior to HIV diagnosis. Eighty percent of those who received vaccine doses only before HIV diagnosis had a positive vaccine response, compared with 66% of those who received doses both before and after HIV and 41% of those who received doses only after HIV (P < 0.01 for both compared with persons vaccinated before HIV only). Compared with the unvaccinated, persons vaccinated only before HIV had reduced risk of HBV infection after HIV diagnosis (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.75). No reduction in HBV infection risk was observed for other vaccination groups. These data suggest that completion of the vaccine series prior to HIV infection may be the optimal strategy for preventing this significant comorbid infection in HIV-infected persons. PMID:21051446

Landrum, Michael L; Hullsiek, Katherine Huppler; Chun, Helen M; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Ganesan, Anuradha; Weintrob, Amy C; Barthel, R Vincent; O'Connell, Robert J; Agan, Brian K

2010-11-04

96

Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains ?cta1, ?gsh1 and ?oye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in ?sod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

Ignea, Codru?a; Doroban?u, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

2013-06-29

97

A flavonoid from medicinal plants blocks hepatitis B virus-e antigen secretion in HBV-infected hepatocytes.  

PubMed

A flavonoid molecule that showed a unique anti-HBV function was isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria. The molecular formula was determined as C14H6O8 based on FAM-MS analysis and the structure was determined by NMR. The identified flavonoid molecule, ellagic acid, showed unique anti-HBV functions. Ellagic acid did not inhibit either HBV polymerase activity, HBV replication or block HBsAg secretion. Rather, ellagic acid blocks effectively HBeAg secretion in HepG2 2.2.15 cells (IC50=0.07 microg/ml). Since HBeAg is involved in immune tolerance during HBV infection, ellagic acid, a newly identified functional anti-HBV compound, may be a new candidate therapeutic against immune tolerance in HBV-infected individuals. PMID:16118024

Shin, Min Soo; Kang, Eun Hwa; Lee, Young Ik

2005-09-01

98

Knockdown of HBV surface antigen gene expression by a lentiviral microRNA-based system inhibits HBV replication and HCC growth.  

PubMed

Current options for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, a common liver cancer risk factor, are limited. While RNA interference (RNAi) technologies have been shown to inhibit HBV replication, the consequent effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of RNAi-mediated decrease in the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) gene on HBV replication and HCC growth. A lentiviral microRNA-based system expressing siRNAs targeting the HBsAg gene (LVshHBS) was developed and transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells (HBV stably expressing line). We found that LVshHBS significantly inhibited the HBsAg mRNA and protein levels in the HepG2.2.15 cells, while HBsAg secretion into the culture supernatant decreased by 70%. BALB/c (nu/nu) mice were injected with HepG2.2.15 cells transduced with LVshHBS or control vectors to investigate the effect of inhibiting the HBsAg on the development of tumour growth in a human HCC nude mice model. Compared with the control, the tumour growth in nude mice was significantly decreased after injection with LVshHBS. Microarray analysis of tumour-related genes in LVshHBS-transduced HepG2.2.15 cells showed that the expressions of genes involved in cell cycle, differentiation and oncogenesis such as ACP2, BHLHB2, CLK3, CTSC, FOS, NR1D1, PIM1 and SEPT6 genes were downregulated, while that of the E2F3 gene was upregulated. In conclusion, lentiviral microRNA-based RNAi against the HBsAg gene not only inhibits HBV replication but also inhibits the growth of HCC. Downregulation of growth-related genes is implicated in this mechanism of inhibition. PMID:20642484

Xiangji, L; Feng, X; Qingbao, C; Weifeng, T; Xiaoqing, J; Baihe, Z; Feng, S; Hongyang, W; Mengchao, W

2010-07-19

99

Nuclear receptor mRNA expression by HBV in human hepatoblastoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Recent studies have implicated nuclear receptors (NRs) in the development of hepatocarcinogenesis. We assumed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) alters the expression of NRs and coregulators, and compared the gene expression profiling for 84 NRs and related genes between HpeG2.2.15, which secretes complete HBV virion, and HepG2 by real-time RT-PCR with SyBr green. Forty (47.6%) genes were upregulated 2-fold or greater, and only 5 (5.9%) were downregulated 2-fold or more, in HepG2.2.15 compared to HepG2. These results suggest that HBV affects NRs and their related signal transduction, and that they play important roles in viral replication and HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:21903321

Wu, Shuang; Kanda, Tatsuo; Imazeki, Fumio; Nakamoto, Shingo; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

2011-08-22

100

[Nosocomial transfer of HBV and HCV by public health workers].  

PubMed

Transmission of HBV and HCV from people who work in medical professions to their patients is still an unsolved hygienic and legal problem. In Germany, cases of nosocomial hepatitis virus infection in health care units have received great public interest. Medical examinations of the employees according to occupational safety regulations aim at the employees only. Legal regulations including regulations of the European Union limit the purpose of these examinations on safety and health of the employees. These examinations do not serve the safety of patients. Protection against infections is regulated by the relevant German public health law, however regulations--especially those that concern the protection of the public--are incomplete. In Germany it is mandatory to inform the public health departments only in cases of acute hepatitis. Doctors do not need to give information about chronic liver infections. This may lead to the situation that a health care worker is unaware of a chronic, potentially infectious condition and his immunological status may remain unknown for a long period. Examinations in occupational medicine cannot solve this problem. In order to improve the protection of the public, there is a need to extend the regulations concerning the notification of chronic hepatitis and to implement solutions for this difficult and sensible problem in Germany. PMID:12751011

Fischer, F; Nauert, T

2003-04-01

101

The detection of HBV DNA with gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle gene probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA probes were prepared, and their application for HBV DNA measurement\\u000a was studied. Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the citrate reduction of tetra-chloroauric acid in the\\u000a presence of iron oxide nanoparticles which were added as seeds. With a fluorescence-based method, the maximal surface coverage\\u000a of hexaethiol 30-mer oligonucleotides and the

Dong Xi; XiaoPing Luo; QiangHua Lu; KaiLun Yao; ZuLi Liu; Qin Ning

2008-01-01

102

A novel HBV antisense RNA gene delivery system targeting hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To construct a novel HBV antisense RNA delivery system targeting hapatocellular carcinoma and study its inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: GE7,a 16-peptide specific to EGFR, and HA20, a homologue of N-terminus of haemagglutinin of influenza viral envelope protein, were synthesized and conjugated with polylysin. The above conjugates were organized into the pEBAF-as-preS2, a hepatocarcinoma specific HBV

Chun-Hong Ma; Wen-Sheng Sun; Pei-Kun Tian; Li-Fen Gao; Su-Xia Liu; Xiao-Yan Wang; Li-Ning Zhang; Ying-Lin Cao; Li-Hui Han; Xiao-Hong Liang

103

Rapid high-throughput genotyping of HBV DNA using a modified hybridization-extension technique.  

PubMed

China has the highest incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. HBV genotypes have variable impacts on disease pathogenesis and drug tolerance. We have developed a technically simple and accurate method for HBV genotyping that will be applicable to pre-treatment diagnosis and individualized treatment. Multiple sequence alignments of HBV genomes from GenBank were used to design primers and probes for genotyping of HBV A through H. The hybridization was carried out on nitrocellulose (NC) membranes with probes fixed in an array format, which was followed by hybrid amplification by an extension step with DNA polymerase to reinforce the double-stranded DNA hybrids on the NC membrane and subsequent visualization using an avidin-biotin system. Genotyping results were confirmed by DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis using the National Center for Biotechnology Information genotyping database, and compared with results from the line probe assay. The data show that multiple sequence alignment defined a 630 bp region in the HBV PreS and S regions that was suitable for genotyping. All genotyping significant single nucleotides in the region were defined. Two-hundred-and-ninety-one HBV-positive serum samples from Northwest Chinese patients were genotyped, and the genotyping rate from the new modified hybridization-extension method was 100% compared with direct sequencing. Compared with line probe assay, the newly developed method is superior, featuring reduced reaction time, lower risk of contamination, and increased accuracy for detecting single nucleotide mutation. In conclusion, a novel hybridization-extension method for HBV genotyping was established, which represents a new tool for accurate and rapid SNP detection that will benefit clinical testing. PMID:24065125

Bao, Han; Zhao, Wenliang; Ruan, Banjun; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jinrong; Lei, Xiaoying; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Yonglan; Sun, Jianbing; Xiang, An; Guo, Yanhai; Yan, Zhen

2013-10-01

104

The Application of Alkaline Phosphatase Labeled HBV Probe in Serum Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using non-radioactive material alkaline phosphatase to label HBV DNA as probe has been studied and used in clinical experiments to detect the HBV DNA in hepatitis serum. Alkaline phosphatase coupled with polyethyleneimine (PEI) using P-benzoquine as cross-linking reagent. The modified phosphatase was covalently linked to single strand DNA using glutraldehyde. Such single strand DNA enzyme complexes have been

Zhiming Tu; Li-Hua Ke; Guangyuan He

2004-01-01

105

CCR5 ? 32 mutation is not prevalent in Iranians with chronic HBV infection.  

PubMed

CCR5 is an important chemokine receptor involved in the recruitment of specific anti-viral immune cells (e.g., NK cells and T cytotoxic cells) to the liver. Previous studies indicated that the ? 32 mutation in CCR5 gene led to inactivation of CCR5. Several conflicting studies have suggested that this mutation may be associated with either recovery or persistence of HBV infection. The main purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of the ? 32 mutation within the CCR5 gene in a group of patients infected chronically with HBV with healthy individuals from South-East of Iran. Sixty patients with chronic HBV infection as well as 300 age-, and sex-match healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Gap-PCR was applied to determine the frequency of CCR5 ? 32 mutation in both groups. The results demonstrated that none of the patients infected with HBV carried the CCR5 ? 32 mutation while, 3 (1%) of the healthy individuals were found to be heterozygotic for this mutation. The CCR5 ? 32 mutation is not a prevalent mutation in either the patients infected chronically with HBV or their health counterparts in the South-East region of Iran. This may be attributed to either different genetic settings of the investigated population or lack of any significant correlation between this mutation and HBV pathogenicity. PMID:23588722

Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Hakimizadeh, Elham; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Rezayati, Mohammadtaghi; Sendi, Hossein; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

2013-06-01

106

Geographical and Ethnic Distribution of the HBV C/D Recombinant on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau  

PubMed Central

Two forms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) C/D recombinant have been identified in western China, but little is known about their geographical and ethnic distributions, and particularly the clinical significance and specific mutations in the pre-core region. To address these questions, a total of 624 chronic HBV carriers from four ethnic populations representing five provinces in western China were enrolled in this study. Genotypes were firstly determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and then confirmed by full or partial genome nucleotide sequencing. The distribution of HBV genotypes was as follows: HBV/B: 40 (6.4%); HBV/C: 221 (35.4%); HBV/D: 39 (6.3%); HBV/CD: 324 (51.9%). In the 324 HBV C/D recombinant infections, 244 (75.3%) were infected with the “CD1” and 80 (24.7%) were infected with the “CD2.” The distribution of HBV genotypes exhibited distinct patterns in different regions and ethnic populations. Geographically, the C/D recombinant was the most prevalent HBV strain on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Ethnically, the C/D recombinant had a higher prevalence in Tibetan patients than in other populations. Clinically, patients with HBV/CD1 showed significantly lower levels of serum total bilirubin than patients with HBV/C2. The prevalence of HBeAg was comparable between patients with HBV/CD1 and HBV/C2 (63.3% vs 50.0%, P?=?0.118) whether patients were taken together or stratified by age into three groups (65.6% vs 58.8% in <30 years, P?=?0.758; 61.9% vs 48.0% in 30–50 years, P?=?0.244; 64.3% vs 33.3%, P?=?0.336). Virologically HBV/CD1 had a significantly lower frequency of G1896A than HBV/C2. In conclusion, the HBV C/D recombinant is restricted to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in western China and is found predominantly in Tibetans. The predominance of the premature pre-core stop mutation G1896A in patients with the HBV C/D recombinant may account for the higher prevalence of HBeAg in these patients.

Wang, Zhanhui; Chang, Ellen T.; Chen, Jinjun; Hou, Jinlin

2011-01-01

107

Relationship between MIF-173 G/C polymorphism and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B and HBV-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, played an important role in immune-mediated diseases. The promoter region of MIF, which had functional polymorphisms, controlled MIF expression. MIF polymorphism was associated with many inflammatory diseases. But the association of MIF polymorphism with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or HBV-induced liver cirrhosis (HC) had not yet been reported. In present study, polymorphism of MIF-173 was genotyped in 95 CHB patients, 73 HC patients and 90 healthy controls in southern China. The frequency of MIF-173 C/C genotype in patients with CHB or HC was statistically significantly higher than that in healthy controls, respectively. Moreover, difference in the distribution of MIF-173 C allele between CHB patients and healthy controls was statistically significant. However, there was no statistical relationship between MIF-173 genotype and clinical features in patients with CHB or HC. Our results suggest that MIF-173 C/C polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of CHB or HC in Chinese southern population. PMID:23770720

Zhang, Ka; Pan, Xingfei; Shu, Xin; Cao, Hong; Chen, Lubiao; Zou, Yong; Deng, Hong; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

2013-05-06

108

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in health care workers (HCWs): guidelines for prevention of transmission of HBV and HCV from HCW to patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission of viral hepatitis from health care workers (HCW) to patients is of worldwide concern. Since the introduction of serologic testing in the 1970s there have been over 45 reports of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission from HCW to patients, which have resulted in more than 400 infected patients. In addition there are six published reports of transmissions of

R. N Gunson; D Shouval; M Roggendorf; H Zaaijer; H Nicholas; H Holzmann; A de Schryver; D Reynders; J Connell; W. H Gerlich; R. T Marinho; D Tsantoulas; E Rigopoulou; M Rosenheim; D Valla; V Puro; J Struwe; R Tedder; C Aitken; M Alter; S. W Schalm; W. F Carman

2003-01-01

109

Long-Term Protection against HBV Chronic Carriage of Gambian Adolescents Vaccinated in Infancy and Immune Response in HBV Booster Trial in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) arising in childhood is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in adult life. Between 1986 and 1990, approximately 120,000 Gambian newborns were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of infant HBV vaccination on the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in adulthood. These children are now in adolescence and approaching adulthood, when the onset of sexual activity may challenge their hepatitis B immunity. Thus a booster dose in adolescence could be important to maintain long-term protection. Methods Fifteen years after the start of the HBV infant vaccination study, 492 vaccinated and 424 unvaccinated children were identified to determine vaccine efficacy against infection and carriage in adolescence. At the same time, 297 of the 492 infant-vaccinated subjects were randomly offered a booster dose of HBV vaccine. Anti-HBs was measured before the booster, and two weeks and 1 year afterwards (ISRCTN71271385). Results Vaccine efficacy 15 years after vaccination was 67.0% against infection as manifest by anti-HBc positivity (95% CI 58.2–74.6%), and 96.6% against HBsAg carriage (95% CI 91.5–100%). 31.2% of participants had detectable anti-HBs with a GMC of 32 IU/l. For 168 boosted participants GMC anti-HBs responses were 38 IU/l prior to vaccination, 524 IU/l two weeks after boosting, and 101 IU/l after 1 year. Conclusions HBV vaccination in infants confers very good protection against carriage up to 15 years of age, although a large proportion of vaccinated subjects did not have detectable anti-HBs at this age. The response to boosting persisted for at least a year. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN71271385

van der Sande, Marianne A.B.; Waight, Pauline A.; Mendy, Maimuna; Zaman, Syed; Kaye, Steve; Sam, Omar; Kahn, Abi; Jeffries, David; Akum, Aveika A.; Hall, Andrew J.; Bah, Ebrima; McConkey, Samuel J.; Hainaut, Pierre; Whittle, Hilton C.

2007-01-01

110

Serum neopterin levels in patients with replicative and nonreplicative HBV carriers  

PubMed Central

Background Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes complicated biochemical, immunological and histological changes in host immune response against the virus which can be specific or non-specific. Recent attention has focused on neopterin as a marker for the activation of cell mediated immunity. The aim of this study was to define the pattern of neopterin levels in replicative and nonreplicative HBV carriers. Methods Thirty HBV replicative carriers and 25 nonreplicative HBV carriers and 30 healthy adult patients were included this study. Hepatitis markers were determined by commercial kit based on chemilumminesans assay. HBV DNA was quantified by hybrid capture system. Serum neopterin levels were measured by the method of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and ranges. Results In the nonreplicative group, except for one patient, all the patients' HBeAg were negative and anti-HBe were positive. That particular patient was HBeAg positive and anti-HBe negative. In the replicative group, 23 out of 30 patients have positive HBeAg and negative anti-HBe; 7 out of 30 patients have negative HBeAg and positive anti-HBe. Serum neopterin concentrations were 14.5 ± 10.0 (4.2–41) nmol/L in replicative HBV carriers, 8.9 ± 4.3 (2.1–22) nmol/L in nonreplicative HBV carriers and 7.1 ± 2.2 (4.0–12) nmol/L in the control group. Serum neopterin levels and the rates of abnormal serum neopterin levels in the replicative group were higher than the control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). In the nonreplicative group, serum neopterin levels were not different from those of the control. There was a difference between replicative and nonreplicative groups in the respect of neopterin levels. Conclusion In the hepatitis B infected carriers, elevated neopterin levels may be an indicator of the presence of replication.

Kaleli, Ilknur; Demir, Melek; Cevahir, Nural; Y?lmaz, Mustafa; Demir, Suleyman

2006-01-01

111

Liver type I regulatory T cells suppress germinal center formation in HBV-tolerant mice.  

PubMed

The liver plays a critical role in inducing systemic immune tolerance, for example, during limiting hypersensitivity to food allergy and in rendering acceptance of allotransplant or even hepatotropic pathogens. We investigated the unknown mechanisms of liver tolerance by using an established hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse model, and found that these mice exhibited an antigen-specific tolerance toward peripheral HBsAg vaccination, showing unenlarged draining lymph node (DLN), lower number of germinal centers (GC), and inactivation of GC B cells and follicular T helper (Tfh) cells. Both in vivo and in vitro immune responses toward HBsAg were suppressed by mononuclear cells from HBV-carrier mice, which were CD4(+) Foxp3(-) type 1 regulatory T (Tr1)-like cells producing IL-10. Using recipient Rag1(-/-) mice, hepatic Tr1-like cells from day 7 of HBV-persistent mice acquired the ability to inhibit anti-HBV immunity 3 d earlier than splenic Tr1-like cells, implying that hepatic Tr1-like cells were generated before those in spleen. Kupffer cell depletion or IL-10 deficiency led to impairment of Tr1-like cell generation, along with breaking HBV persistence. The purified EGFP(+)CD4(+) T cells (containing Tr1-like cells) from HBV-carrier mice trafficked in higher numbers to DLN in recipient mice after HBsAg vaccination, and subsequently inactivated both Tfh cells and GC B cells via secreting IL-10, resulting in impaired GC formation and anti-HB antibody production. Thus, our results indicate Tr1-like cells migrate from the liver to the DLN and inhibit peripheral anti-HBV immunity by negatively regulating GC B cells and Tfh cells. PMID:24089450

Xu, Long; Yin, Wenwei; Sun, Rui; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

2013-10-02

112

Performance evaluation of ExiStation HBV diagnostic system for hepatitis B virus DNA quantitation.  

PubMed

The performance of a recently developed real-time PCR system, the ExiStation HBV diagnostic system, for quantitation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in human blood was evaluated. The detection limit, reproducibility, cross-reactivity, and interference were evaluated as measures of analytical performance. For the comparison study, 100 HBV-positive blood samples and 100 HBV-negative samples from Korean Blood Bank Serum were used, and the results of the ExiStation HBV system showed good correlation with those obtained using the Cobas TaqMan (r(2)=0.9931) and Abbott real-time PCR systems (r(2)=0.9894). The lower limit of detection was measured as 9.55IU/mL using WHO standards and the dynamic range was linear from 6.68 to 6.68×10(9)IU/mL using cloned plasmids. The within-run coefficient of variation (CV) was 9.4%, 2.1%, and 1.1%, and the total CV was 11.8%, 3.6%, and 1.7% at a concentration of 1.92log10IU/mL, 3.88log10IU/mL, and 6.84log10IU/mL, respectively. No cross-reactivity or interference was detected. The ExiStation HBV diagnostic system showed satisfactory analytical sensitivity, excellent reproducibility, no cross-reactivity, no interference, and high agreement with the Cobas TaqMan and Abbott real-time PCR systems, and is therefore a useful tool for the detection and monitoring of HBV infection. PMID:23892129

Cha, Young Joo; Yoo, Soo Jin; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Kim, Hyun Soo

2013-07-25

113

Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Vertical transmission of Hepatitis B virus HBV can result in a state of chronic HBV infection and its complications. HBV vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) prevents transmission of overt infection to the babies. However, whether it also prevents occult HBV infection in babies is not known. Consecutive pregnant women of any gestation found to be HBsAg positive were followed till delivery, and their babies were included in the study. Immediately after delivery, babies were randomized to receive either HBIG or placebo in addition to recombinant HBV vaccine (at 0, 6, 10 and 14 weeks). The primary end-point of the study, assessed at 18 weeks of age, was remaining free of any HBV infection (either overt or occult) plus the development of adequate immune response to vaccine. The babies were further followed up for a median of 2 years of age to determine their eventual outcome. Risk factors for HBV transmission and for poor immune response in babies were studied. Of the 283 eligible babies, 259 were included in the trial and randomized to receive either HBIG (n = 128) or placebo (n = 131) in addition to recombinant HBV vaccine. Of the 222 of 259 (86%) babies who completed 18 weeks of follow-up, only 62/222 (28%) reached primary end-point. Of the remaining, 6/222 (3%) developed overt HBV infection, 142/222 (64%) developed occult HBV infection, and 12/222 (5%) had no HBV infection but had poor immune response. All 6 overt infections occurred in the placebo group (P = 0.030), while occult HBV infections were more common in the HBIG group (76/106 [72%] vs. 66/116 [57%]; P = 0.025). This may be due to the immune pressure of HBIG. There was no significant difference between the two groups in frequency of babies developing poor immune response or those achieving primary end-point. The final outcome of these babies at 24 months of age was as follows: overt HBV infection 4%, occult HBV infection 42%, no HBV infection but poor immune response 8% and no HBV infection with good immune response 28%. Women who were anti-HBe positive were a low-risk group, and their babies were most likely to remain free of HBV infection (occult or overt) and had good immune response to the vaccine. Maternal HBeAg-positive status and negativity for anti-HBe predicted not only overt but also any infection (both overt and occult) in babies. In addition, high maternal HBV DNA and treatment with vaccine alone were significant factors for overt HBV infection in babies. The current practice of administration of vaccine with HBIG at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers is not effective in preventing occult HBV infection in babies, which may be up to 40%. Because the most important risk factors for mother-to-baby transmission of HBV infection are the replicative status and high HBV DNA level in mothers; it will be worthwhile investigating the role of antivirals and HBIG administration during pregnancy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HBV infection. PMID:24168259

Pande, C; Sarin, S K; Patra, S; Kumar, A; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Bhutia, K; Gupta, E; Mukhopadhyay, C K; Dutta, A K; Trivedi, S S

2013-04-23

114

Measuring pro-poor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measure the rate of pro-poor growth by the mean growth rate of the poor, which equals the rate of change in the Watts index of poverty normalized by the headcount index. Examples are given using data for China during the 1990s.

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

2003-01-01

115

Dealing with Pro Se Patrons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of the "pro se" patrons (people who are representing themselves in a legal dispute or transaction) has received significant attention in the legal information literature, and many excellent suggestions have been offered to aid law librarians in dealing with this population group. However, these suggestions can be usefully applied in…

Pettinato, Tammy R.

2008-01-01

116

The distribution of HBV genotypes and clinical significance in familial clustering in an infected population with unfavorable prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a nested-PCR genotyping system, we analyzed the viral genotypes in HBV-infected patients from HBV clustering infection\\u000a families (CIFs), as compared with HBV infected patients without familial infection history. The patients in the CIF group\\u000a showed significantly increased prevalence of genotype C infection, while genotype B was absent. Additionally, in the genotype\\u000a C carriers younger than 50 years old, the prevalence

Jinfeng Liu; Yongqin Li; Tianyan Chen; Yuan Yang; Ke Wang; Yingli He; Qian Yang; Feng Ye; Yan Jin; Ting Qiu; Shumei Lin; Min Liu; Yingren Zhao

2008-01-01

117

Changes in Innate and Permissive Immune Responses after HBV Transgenic Mouse Vaccination and lLong-Term-siRNA Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, no licensed therapy can thoroughly eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) from the body, including interferon ? and inhibitors of HBV reverse-transcription. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) seem to be a promising tool for treating HBV, but had no effect on the pre-existing HBV covalently closed circular DNA. Because it is very difficult to thoroughly eradicate HBV with unique siRNAs, upgrading the immune response is the best method for fighting HBV infection. Here, we aim to explore the immune response of transgenic mice to HBV vaccination after long-term treatment with siRNAs and develop a therapeutic approach that combines siRNAs with immunopotentiators. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the response of transgenic mice to hepatitis B vaccine, innate and acquired immunity were detected after long-term treatment with siRNAs and vaccination. Antiviral cytokines and level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (HBsAg-Ab) were measured after three injections of hepatitis B vaccine. Results Functional analyses indicated that toll-like receptor-mediated innate immune responses were reinforced, and antiviral cytokines were significantly increased, especially in the pSilencer4.1/HBV groups. Analysis of CD80+/CD86+ dendritic cells in the mouse liver indicated that dendritic cell antigen presentation was strengthened. Furthermore, the siRNA-treated transgenic mice could produce detectable HBsAg-Ab after vaccination, especially in the CpG oligonucleotide vaccine group. Conclusions/Significance For the first time, our studies demonstrate that siRNAs with CpG HBV vaccine could strengthen the immune response and break the immune tolerance status of transgenic mice to HBV. Thus, siRNAs and HBV vaccine could provide a sharp double-edged sword against chronic HBV infection.

Fang, Ying; Ma, Heng-Hao; Xu, Man-Chun; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Wei-Yun; Zhao, Ya-Gang; Sun, Da-Yong; Hu, Wen-Kui; Liu, Jian

2013-01-01

118

Use of digoxigenin-labelled probes for the quantitation of HBV-DNA in antiviral drug evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of digoxigenin-labelled probes was studied for quantitation of HBV-DNA during antiviral drug evaluation. Digoxigenin (dig)-labelled probes were generated either via incorporation of dig-dUTP in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or a random priming reaction. Using the PCR-labelled probe (delineating a 523 bp fragment in the core gene of the HBV) as little as 1 pg of immobilized HBV-DNA

C. Ying; J. Van Pelt; S. H. Yap; E. De Clercq; J. Neyts

1999-01-01

119

The Anti-hepatitis B Virus Activity of Boehmeria nivea Extract in HBV-viremia SCID Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boehmeria nivea extract (BNE) is widely used in southern Taiwan as a folk medicine for hepato- protection and hepatitis treatment. In previous studies, we demonstrated that BNE could reduce the supernatant hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in HBV-producing HepG2 2.2.15 cells. In the present study, we established an animal model of HBV viremia and used it to validate the efficacy

Jia-Ming Chang; Kai-Ling Huang; Thomas Ta-Tung Yuan; Yiu-Kay Lai; Le-Mei Hung

2008-01-01

120

Detection of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA at femtomolar concentrations using a silica nanoparticle-enhanced microcantilever sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA detection using a silica nanoparticle-enhanced dynamic microcantilever biosensor. A 243-mer nucleotide of HBV DNA precore\\/core region was used as the target DNA. For this assay, the capture probe on the microcantilever surface and the detection probe conjugated with silica nanoparticles were designed specifically for the target DNA. For efficient detection of the HBV

Byung Hak Cha; Sang-Myung Lee; Jae Chan Park; Kyo Seon Hwang; Sang Kyung Kim; Yoon-Sik Lee; Byeong-Kwon Ju; Tae Song Kim

2009-01-01

121

Liver-derived cell lines QSG-7701 and HepG2 support different HBV replication patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is currently still a worldwide heath concern. In our study, we compared HBV replication\\u000a patterns in two liver-derived cell lines, QSG-7701 and HepG2. Viral markers of HBV replication in culture medium and cells\\u000a were analyzed after transfection of these cells with plasmid pUC18-HBV1.2 into. We showed that QSG-7701 cells could support\\u000a more stable and a

X. B. Pan; L. Wei; H. S. Chen; F. Liu; Y. Gao

2007-01-01

122

Humanized Murine Model for HBV and HCV Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in heterogeneous outcomes from acute asymptomatic infection to chronic infection leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In vitro models using animal hepatocytes, human HCC cell lines, or in vivo transgenic mouse models have contributed invaluably to understanding the pathogenesis of HBV and HCV. A humanized mouse model made by reconstitution of human primary hepatocytes in the liver of the immunodeficient mouse provides a novel experimental opportunity which mimics the in vivo growth of the human hepatocytes. The limited access to primary human hepatocytes necessitated the search for other cellular sources, such as pluripotent stem cells. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the features of self-renewal and pluripotency and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, including hepatocytes. Humaninduced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the patient’s or individual’s own cells provide a novel opportunity to generate hepatocyte-like cells with the defined genetic composition. Here, we will review the current perspective of the models used for HBV and HCV study, and introduce the personalized mouse model using human iPSCs. This novel mouse model will facilitate the direct investigation of HBV and HCV in human hepatocytes as well as probing the genetic influence on the susceptibility of hepatocytes to HBV and HCV.

Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Sullivan, Gareth J.; Sun, Pingnan; Park, In-Hyun

2013-01-01

123

Soluble MICA and a MICA Variation as Possible Prognostic Biomarkers for HBV-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

MHC class I polypeptide-related chain A (MICA) molecule is induced in response to viral infection and various types of stress. We recently reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2596542 located in the MICA promoter region was significantly associated with the risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and also with serum levels of soluble MICA (sMICA). In this study, we focused on the possible involvement of MICA in liver carcinogenesis related to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and examined correlation between the MICA polymorphism and the serum sMICA levels in HBV-induced HCC patients. The genetic association analysis revealed a nominal association with an SNP rs2596542; a G allele was considered to increase the risk of HBV-induced HCC (P?=?0.029 with odds ratio of 1.19). We also found a significant elevation of sMICA in HBV-induced HCC cases. Moreover, a G allele of SNP rs2596542 was significantly associated with increased sMICA levels (P?=?0.009). Interestingly, HCC patients with the high serum level of sMICA (>5 pg/ml) exhibited poorer prognosis than those with the low serum level of sMICA (?5 pg/ml) (P?=?0.008). Thus, our results highlight the importance of MICA genetic variations and the significance of sMICA as a predictive biomarker for HBV-induced HCC.

Kumar, Vinod; Yi Lo, Paulisally Hau; Sawai, Hiromi; Kato, Naoya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Deng, Zhenzhong; Urabe, Yuji; Mbarek, Hamdi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Sugiyama, Masaya; Mizokami, Masashi; Muroyama, Ryosuke; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Omata, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko; Tanikawa, Chizu; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuda, Koichi

2012-01-01

124

.beta.-L-2'-deoxynucleosides for the treatment of resistant HBV strains and combination therapies  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

It has been discovered that .beta.-L-2'-deoxynucleosides are active against drug-resistant hepatitis B virus with mutations. A method for treating lamivudine resistant HBV (M552V) in a host is provided that includes administering a .beta.-L-2'-deoxynucleoside or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester or prodrug. In addition, a method for preventing lamivudine resistant HBV (M552V) mutation from occurring in a naive host is provided that includes administering a .beta.-L-2'-deoxynucleoside or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester or prodrug. A method for preventing and/or suppressing the emergence of the HBV double mutant (L528M/M552V) in a host is also provided that includes administering a .beta.-L-2'-deoxynucleoside or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester or prodrug.

2007-03-06

125

Occurrence of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme–Inhibiting Tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro in Different Cheese Varieties of Swiss Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of the 2 antihypertensive peptides Val- Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) were determined in 101 samples from 10 different Swiss cheese varieties using HPLC with subsequent triple mass spectrome- try. In the category of extra hard and hard cheeses, the Protected Denomination of Origin cheeses Berner Alpkase and Berner Hobelkase, L'Etivaz arebibes, Le Gruyere, Sbrinz, Emmentaler (organic and

U. Bütikofer; J. Meyer; R. Sieber; B. Walther; D. Wechsler

2008-01-01

126

Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

2009-01-01

127

Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

2009-01-01

128

Measuring Pro-Poor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 2001New tools allow one to study the incidence of economic growth by initial leveof income, and to measure the rate of pro-poor growth in an economy. An application is provided using data for China in the 1990s.It is important to know how aggregate economic growth or contraction was distributed according to initial levels of living. In particular, to what

Martin Ravallion; Shaohua Chen

1999-01-01

129

Role of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of KIF1B Gene in HBV-Associated Viral Hepatitis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Kinesin family member 1B (KIF1B) gene resides in the chromosomal region 1p36.22 and has been reported to have frequent deletions in a variety of human cancers. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) study conducted on a Chinese population has reported the involvement of a KIF1B genetic variant in Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aims to investigate the significance of KIF1B genetic variations in HBV-associated hepatitis in patients of Saudi Arabian ethnicity. Methods TaqMan genotyping assay was used to investigate the association of three SNPs (rs17401966, rs12734551, and rs3748578) in 584 normal healthy controls and 660 HBV-infected patients. The patients were categorized into inactive carriers (Case I), active carriers (Case II), Cirrhosis (Case III) and Cirrhosis-HCC (Case IV) sub-groups. Results Since SNPs rs12734551 and rs3748578 are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs17401966, only results for the latter SNP are reported. Therefore, the allele frequency of rs17401966 among HBV-infected patients and healthy controls were comparable and therefore, no significant association was observed (P?=?0.2811, Odds Ratio (OR) 0.897). A similar analysis was performed among the different sub-groups in order to determine whether KIF1B SNPs were associated with the advancement of the disease. No significant differences were observed in any of the comparisons performed. Conclusion Polymorphisms at KIF1B gene locus investigated in this study showed no significant association with HBV infection or with HBV-associated diseases such as liver cirrhosis or HCC.

Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Al-Anazi, Mashael; Viswan, Nisha A.; Khalaf, Nisreen; Abdo, Ayman A.; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Ashgar, Hamad; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed

2012-01-01

130

Prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Singapore men with sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection: role of sexual transmission in a city state with intermediate HBV endemicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES--To describe the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and to determine the role of sexual transmission of HBV infection in Singapore. DESIGN--A cross sectional study of all consecutive men presenting with a new episode of STD at a government outpatient clinic and all men

B H Heng; K T Goh; R Chan; S K Chew; S Doraisingham; G H Quek

1995-01-01

131

Are isolated anti-HBc blood donors in high risk group? The detection of HBV DNA in isolated anti-HBc cases with nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) based on transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) and HBV discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimHepatitis B virus (HBV) can be transmitted by blood transfusions even so using serological tests having high sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to detect HBV DNA in isolated Anti-HBc donors and show if they have transfusion risk or not.

Hüsnü Altunay; Erdogan Kosan; Ilhan Birinci; Armagan Aksoy; Kaan Kirali; Suat Saribas; Mustafa Aslan; Pelin Yuksel; Esra Alan; Osman Sadi Yenen; Bekir Kocazeybek

2010-01-01

132

Dynamics of HBV cccDNA expression and transcription in different cell growth phase  

PubMed Central

Background The covalently closed-circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with viral persistence in HBV-infected hepatocytes. However, the regulation of cccDNA and its transcription in the host cells at different growth stages is not well understood. Methods We took advantages of a stably HBV-producing cell line, 1.3ES2, and examine the dynamic changes of HBV cccDNA, viral transcripts, and viral replication intermediates in different cellular growth stages. Results In this study, we showed that cccDNA increased suddenly in the initial proliferation phase of cell growth, probably attributable to its nuclear replenishment by intracellular nucleocapsids. The amount of cccDNA then decreased dramatically in the cells during their exponential proliferation similar to the loss of extrachromosomal plasmid DNA during cell division, after which it accumulated gradually while the host cells grew to confluency. We found that cccDNA was reduced in dividing cells and could be removed when proliferating cells were subjected to long term of lamivudine (3TC) treatment. The amounts of viral replicative intermediates were rapidly reduced in these proliferating cells and were significantly increased after cells reaching confluency. The expression levels of viral transcripts were increased in parallel with the elevated expression of hepatic transcription factors (HNF4?, CEBP?, PPAR?, etc.) during cell growth confluency. The HBV transcripts were transcribed from both integrated viral genome and cccDNA, however the transcriptional abilities of cccDNA was less efficient then that from integrated viral genome in all cell growth stages. We also noted increases in the accumulation of intracellular viral particles and the secretion of mature virions as the cells reached confluency and ceased to grow. Conclusions Based on the dynamics of HBV replication, we propose that HBV replication is modulated differently in the different stages of cell growth, and can be divided into three phases (initial proliferation phase, exponential proliferation phase and growth confluency phase) according to the cell growth curve. The regulation of cccDNA in different cell growth phase and its importance regarding HBV replication are discussed.

2011-01-01

133

Effects of Pro-Gly-Pro Tripeptide on the Dopamine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro interacted with dopamine receptors in vitro and reduced behavioral manifestations of apomorphine-induced hyperfunction of the dopamine system in verticalization, stereotypy,\\u000a and yawning tests. Presumably, the behavioral effects of Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide were mediated through post- and presynaptic\\u000a D2 and D3 receptors.

V. K. Meshavkin; E. Yu. Batishcheva; N. V. Kost; O. Yu. Sokolov; A. V. Trufanova; G. E. Samonina

134

Effects of Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide on the dopamine system.  

PubMed

Tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro interacted with dopamine receptors in vitro and reduced behavioral manifestations of apomorphine-induced hyperfunction of the dopamine system in verticalization, stereotypy, and yawning tests. Presumably, the behavioral effects of Pro-Gly-Pro tripeptide were mediated through post- and presynaptic D(2)and D(3)receptors. PMID:22448358

Meshavkin, V K; Batishcheva, E Yu; Kost, N V; Sokolov, O Yu; Trufanova, A V; Samonina, G E

2011-08-01

135

HBV promotes the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via the PDGF-B/PDGFR-? signaling pathway in vitro.  

PubMed

The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is closely associated with liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to HSC activation remain unclear. It has been reported that the platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B)/PDGF receptor-? (PDGFR-?) signaling pathway is involved in this process. Thus, we investigated whether HBV and its protein contribute to HSC proliferation by the PDGF-B/PDGFR-? signaling pathway. HBV particles were purified from the supernatant of HepG2.2.15 cells by ultracentrifugation and the cell lines carrying HBV preS, e, c or x genes were obtained. After incubation with HBV particles or co-cultured with the cell lines expressed in the viral protein, the proliferation of LX-2 cells, an HSC cell line, were detected by flow cyto-metry and real-time PCR and the expression of molecules related to the PDGF-B/PDGFR-? signaling pathway were further measured. Our results indicated that HBV particles, c and x proteins promoted LX-2 proliferation and increased the mRNA levels of PDGF-B, PDGFR-?, collagen-I and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), as well as the phosphorylation of PDGFR-?; however, the expression protein levels of PDGF-B and PDGFR-? remained unchanged. In conclusion, HBV particles and HBV c and x proteins promote HSC proliferation and fibrogenesis in vitro and the PDGF-B/PDGFR-? signaling pathway is important in this process. PMID:23042547

Bai, Qixuan; An, Jing; Wu, Xiaoning; You, Hong; Ma, Hong; Liu, Tianhui; Gao, Na; Jia, Jidong

2012-10-04

136

Conformation of cyclo(Gly-L-Pro-L-Pro-Gly-L-Pro-L-Pro)(2)Mg complex crystallized from CH(3)CN solution.  

PubMed

The cyclic hexapeptides (Gly-L-Pro-L-Pro-Gly-L-Pro-L-Pro) in the (peptide-Mg-peptide)(2+) complex have nearly identical asymmetric conformations. Each has two cis Pro-Pro linkages and lacks any intraring hydrogen bonds. The Mg(2+) ion forms six ligands in a regular octahedral array with the carbonyl oxygen atoms of the two Gly residues and one Pro residue of each peptide. The "sandwich" complex has an approximate 2-fold rotation axis through the Mg(2+) relating the two peptide moieties. Cyclo(Gly-Pro-Pro-Gly-Pro-Pro)(2)Mg(ClO(4))(2). 4C(2)H(3)CN crystallizes in space group P3(1) with a = b = 15.744(4) A, c = 24.002(6) A, gamma = 120 degrees , and Z = 3. A highlight of the structure determination is the ready location of the Mg self-vector in a Harker section and the development of the entire structure by use of the tangent formula starting with the known position of the Mg atom. PMID:16592971

Karle, I L; Karle, J

1981-02-01

137

Improved rolling circle amplification (RCA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) relaxed-circular serum DNA (RC-DNA).  

PubMed

For functional analysis of HBV isolates, epidemiological studies and correct identification of recombinant genomes, the amplification of complete genomes is necessary. A method for completely in vitro amplification of full-length HBV genomes starting from serum RC-DNA is described. This uses in vitro completion/ligation of plus-strand HBV RC-DNA and amplification using Rolling-Circle Amplification, eventually followed by a genomic PCR. The method can amplify complete HBV genomes from sera with viral loads ranging from >1.0E+8IU/ml down to 1.0E+3IU/ml. The method can be applied to archived sera that have undergone long-term storage or to archived DNA serum extracts. The genomes can easily be cloned. HBV genotypes A-G can all be amplified with no apparent problems. A recombinant subgenotype A3/genotype E genome was identified and fully sequenced. PMID:23928222

Martel, Nora; Gomes, Selma A; Chemin, Isabelle; Trépo, Christian; Kay, Alan

2013-08-05

138

Serological diagnosis of hepatitis B and delta virus (HBV/HDV) coinfection.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of acute hepatitis B virus/hepatitis delta virus (HBV/HDV) coinfection is currently based on detection of anti-HD, however this antibody may be undetectable during the acute phase of hepatitis. To evaluate the entity of misdiagnosis of HBV/HDV coinfection in acute HBsAg-anti-HBc IgM positive hepatitis we examined sera from 245 consecutive patients obtained at admission and day 30, 60, 120, 210 and 400 of their follow-up. Anti-HD was detected in the serum of 26 out of 245 patients (10.6%). In 15% of cases it was present at admission, while in 92% it was found after 30 days. The combined detection of HDV-RNA, HDAg and IgM anti-HD in acute phase sera allowed a correct etiologic diagnosis in 69% of the cases. These findings suggest that the prevalence of HBV/HDV coinfection is underestimated when anti-HD is the only marker to be detected during the acute phase of disease. A correct etiologic diagnosis can only be made by testing acute phase sera for all the available markers of HDV. However, the best cost-effective procedure is to test any patient with HBV markers at presentation for anti-HD, 30-40 days after the onset of symptoms. PMID:2007765

Salassa, B; Daziano, E; Bonino, F; Lavarini, C; Smedile, A; Chiaberge, E; Rosina, F; Brunetto, M R; Pessione, E; Spezia, C

1991-01-01

139

Status of Health related Quality of life between HBV and HCV Patients of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to explore the factors those differentiate health related quality of life (HRQOL) among hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) patients. Different public and private hospitals of Sargodha district were visited and 120 patients of hepatitis B and C were interviewed. World health related quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was used to construct HRQOL

Masood Sarwar Awan; Muhammad Waqas; Mumtaz Ali; Muhammad Amir Aslam

2011-01-01

140

Henrylactones A-E and anti-HBV constituents from Illicium henryi.  

PubMed

Five new sesquiterpene lactones, henrylactones A-E ( 1- 5), together with ten known compounds: cycloparvifloralone ( 6), tashironin ( 7), tashironin A ( 8), neoanisatin ( 9), anisatin ( 10), anislactone B ( 11), 7- O-acetylanislactone B ( 12), merrillianolide ( 13), cyclomerrillianolide ( 14) and pseudomajucin ( 15), were isolated from the stems and roots of ILLICIUM HENRYI. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, henrylactone A ( 1) is a novel sesquiterpene with a dilactone moiety and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Sesquiterpene lactones 1- 15 were tested for their anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities. The most active compound, tashironin ( 7), exhibited an IC (50) value of 0.48 mM (SI = 6.3) inhibiting on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion and an IC (50) value of 0.15 mM (SI = 20.1) inhibiting on HBV e antigen (HBeAg) secretion using HBV transfected Hep G2.2.15 cell line. PMID:19670158

Liu, Ji-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Quan; Shi, Yao; Ma, Yun-Bao; Xie, Ming-Jin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

2009-08-10

141

Excerpt from PHS guideline for reducing HIV, HBV and HCV transmission through organ transplantation.  

PubMed

The intent of the PHS guideline is to improve organ transplant recipient outcomes by reducing the risk of unexpected HIV, HBV and HCV transmission, while preserving the availability of high-quality organs. An evidence-based approach was used to identify the most relevant studies and reports on which to formulate the recommendations. This excerpt from the guideline comprises (1) the executive summary; (2) 12 criteria for assessment of risk factors for recent HIV, HBV and HCV infection; (3) 34 recommendations on risk assessment (screening) of living and deceased donors; testing of living and deceased donors; informed consent discussion with transplant candidates; testing of recipients pre- and posttransplant; collection and/or storage of donor and recipient specimens; and tracking and reporting of HIV, HBV and HCV; and (4) 20 recommendations for further study. For the PHS guideline in its entirety, including the background, methodology and primary evidence underlying the recommendations, refer to the source document in Public Health Reports, accessible at http://www.publichealthreports.org/issuecontents.cfm?Volume=128&Issue=4. For more in-depth information on the evidence base, including tables of all study-level data, refer to Solid Organ Transplantation and the Probability of Transmitting HIV, HBV or HCV: A Systematic Review to Support an Evidence-Based Guideline, accessible at http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/12164/. PMID:23890284

Seem, D L; Lee, I; Umscheid, C A; Kuehnert, M J

2013-08-01

142

Antiviral Activity of Cardiospermum Halicacabum L. Extract against Coinfecting Agents HIV and HBV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current inadequate and inefficient market drugs used for the control and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with hepatitis viruses (HBV) poses serious threats to public health. The medicinal plant Cardiospermum halicacabum, having known anticancer and immunostimulatory activity was explored for their control in this study. The plant active principles extracted using five solvents were identified, and tested for

Kasi Murugan; Rengasami Venkatesh Prabu; Shanmugasamy Sangeetha; Saleh Al-Sohaibani

2011-01-01

143

Chemopreventive Effect of Silymarin on Liver Pathology in HBV X Protein Transgenic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are currently limited therapeutic regimens available for effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Silymarin is a naturally derived polyphenolic antioxidant with hepatoprotective properties and is very widely used in clinical application; however, effect of silymarin on spontaneous HCC has not been studied. Silymarin was evaluated for its efficacy against spontaneous carcinogenesis using the HBV X protein (HBx) transgenic model.

Yi-Fang Wu; Shu-Ling Fu; Cheng-Heng Kao; Chu-Wen Yang; Chao-Hsiung Lin; Ming-Ta Hsu; Ting-Fen Tsai

2008-01-01

144

Real time TaqMan PCR detection and quantitation of HBV genotypes A–G with the use of an internal quantitation standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Diagnostic assays for the accurate quantitation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels from patients undergoing antiviral therapy are useful for monitoring and tailoring therapy. Such assays should give accurate results with all HBV genotypes, including a seventh genotype of hepatitis B virus, genotype G, that has recently been identified in specimens from HBV-positive patients in the United States

J. Weiss; H. Wu; B. Farrenkopf; T. Schultz; G. Song; S. Shah; J. Siegel

2004-01-01

145

Convergent Synthesis of Repeating Peptides (Val-X-Leu-Pro-Pro-Pro)(8) Adopting a Polyproline II Conformation.  

PubMed

The N-terminal domain of maize gamma-zein has a repetitive structure (Val-His-Leu-Pro-Pro-Pro)(8) that has recently been shown to adopt an amphipathic polyproline II type conformation in aqueous solution. We report here the synthesis and conformational analysis of three model peptides (Val-X-Leu-Pro-Pro-Pro)(8) (X = Ala (1), Glu (2), Lys (3)). The three compounds have been synthesized in a very efficient way using a convergent solid-phase strategy. Circular dichroism shows unequivocally that the three model peptides adopt polyproline II (PPII) type conformations under a variety of experimental conditions and that neither the presence of histidine nor amphipathicity of the peptide is an absolute requirement for adopting the native conformation. These results open the door for the de novo design of compounds with PPII conformations and must be taken into account in the structure prediction of protein structures from sequence data banks. PMID:11667568

Dalcol, Ionara; Pons, Miquel; Ludevid, Maria-Dolors; Giralt, Ernest

1996-10-01

146

Ethnic Differences in Prevalence and Barriers of HBV Screening and Vaccination Among Asian Americans  

PubMed Central

Our study identifies the prevalence of HBV virus (HBV) screening and vaccination among Asian Americans, and ethnic differences for factors associated with screening and vaccination behaviors. In 2009–2010 we recruited 877 Korean, Chinese, and Vietnamese Americans 18 years of age and above through several community organizations, churches and local ethnic businesses in Maryland for a health education intervention and a self-administered survey. Prevalence of HBV screening, screening result and vaccinations were compared by each ethnic group. We used logistic regression analysis to understand how sociodemographics, familial factors, patient-, provider-, and resource-related barriers are associated with screening and vaccination behaviors, using the total sample and separate analysis for each ethnic group. Forty-seven percent of participants reported that they had received HBV screening and 38% had received vaccinations. Among the three groups, the Chinese participants had the highest screening prevalence, but lowest self-reported infection rate; Vietnamese has the lowest screening and vaccination prevalence. In multivariate analysis, having better knowledge of HBV, and family and physician recommendations was significantly associated with screening and vaccination behaviors. Immigrants who had lived in the US for more than a quarter of their lifetime were less likely to report ever having been screened (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.28–0.55) or vaccinated (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44–0.88). In ethnic-specific analysis, having a regular physician (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.62–12.25) and doctor's recommendation (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.05–4.22) are significantly associated with Korean's vaccination behaviors. Health insurance was associated with vaccination behaviors only among Vietnamese (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.21–5.83), but not among others.

Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Tanaka, Miho

2013-01-01

147

Ethnic differences in prevalence and barriers of HBV screening and vaccination among Asian Americans.  

PubMed

Our study identifies the prevalence of HBV virus (HBV) screening and vaccination among Asian Americans, and ethnic differences for factors associated with screening and vaccination behaviors. In 2009-2010 we recruited 877 Korean, Chinese, and Vietnamese Americans 18 years of age and above through several community organizations, churches and local ethnic businesses in Maryland for a health education intervention and a self-administered survey. Prevalence of HBV screening, screening result and vaccinations were compared by each ethnic group. We used logistic regression analysis to understand how sociodemographics, familial factors, patient-, provider-, and resource-related barriers are associated with screening and vaccination behaviors, using the total sample and separate analysis for each ethnic group. Forty-seven percent of participants reported that they had received HBV screening and 38% had received vaccinations. Among the three groups, the Chinese participants had the highest screening prevalence, but lowest self-reported infection rate; Vietnamese has the lowest screening and vaccination prevalence. In multivariate analysis, having better knowledge of HBV, and family and physician recommendations was significantly associated with screening and vaccination behaviors. Immigrants who had lived in the US for more than a quarter of their lifetime were less likely to report ever having been screened (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.28-0.55) or vaccinated (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44-0.88). In ethnic-specific analysis, having a regular physician (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.62-12.25) and doctor's recommendation (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.05-4.22) are significantly associated with Korean's vaccination behaviors. Health insurance was associated with vaccination behaviors only among Vietnamese (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.21–5.83), but not among others. PMID:22302652

Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Tanaka, Miho; Juon, Hee-Soon

2012-10-01

148

[Analgesic activity of dipeptide Tyr-Pro].  

PubMed

The effect of dipeptide Tyr-Pro, present in representatives of most families of opioid peptides, and two its analogs, Tyr-Pro-NH2 and Tyr-Pro-OMe, on analgesic activity was studied in different tests (tail-flick test, tail pinch (Haffner's) test, formalin test, and acetic acid writing test) describing different organization levels of pain sensitivity. Intraperitoneal administration of the dipeptide decreased the pain threshold in all above-mentioned tests. Coadministration of the dipeptide and naloxone or naloxone methiodide insignificantly decreased the dipeptide analgesic effect in the tail-flick and acetic acid writing tests. Its analogs Tyr-Pro-NH2 and Tyr-Pro-OMe demonstrated a similar analgesic activity in the tail-flick test and a higher activity in the acetic acid writing test. Administration of individual amino acids (Tyr or Pro) or their mixture had no effect on the pain threshold. PMID:18491563

Guzevatykh, L S; Voronina, T A; Emel'ianova, T G; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Iu; Seredenin, S B; Miasoedov, N F

149

Anti-HBV effect of individual traditional Chinese herbal medicine in vitro and in vivo: an analytic review.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. The systematic analysis of clinical research of TCHM against CHB revealed its potential but not confirmed its therapeutic effect. To understand the detailed antiviral effect of TCHM against HBV infection, we systematically analysed the anti-HBV effect of individual Chinese herbs on the basis of the research on individual TCHM in vitro and in vivo, which were published from 1995 to 2012. Among 171 herbal components isolated from 76 Chinese herbs, we found 13 compounds and 9 extracts isolated from 18 Chinese herbs showing strong inhibitory effect on HBV DNA, HBeAg or HBsAg release with low cytotoxicity in HepG2.2.15 cells, and agents from 12 Chinese herbs showing the highest inhibition rates of plasma DHBV DNA of more than 50% in DHBV-infected ducks. In addition, the two compounds chrysophanol 8-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Rheum palmatum and wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis were found to display strong anti-HBV activity. Interestingly, compounds isolated from 5 of these effective anti-HBV Chinese herbs were found to show strong antibacterial or antifungal activity also. This review summarizes and analyses the studies on the anti-HBV effect of individual TCHM in cell and animal models, providing potential perspective in the understanding of TCHM in the treatment of hepatitis B and the development of new anti-HBV drugs from TCHM. PMID:23730837

Chen, Y; Zhu, J

2013-07-01

150

Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan), Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons) and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey). To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa) or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3%) and two from 11 gorillas (18%) were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency), while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes. PMID:22432021

Lyons, Sinéad; Sharp, Colin; LeBreton, Matthew; Djoko, Cyrille F; Kiyang, John A; Lankester, Felix; Bibila, Tafon G; Tamoufé, Ubald; Fair, Joseph; Wolfe, Nathan D; Simmonds, Peter

2012-03-14

151

Strong Influence of HLA-DP Gene Variants on Development of Persistent Chronic HBV Carriers in the Han Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health issue, especially in Asia. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) has implicated genetic variants in the HLA-DP locus associated with chronic hepatitis B in Japanese and Thai populations. To confirm whether the polymorphisms at the HLA-DP genes are associated with persistent chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Han Chinese, we conducted an independent case-control study using 521 persistent chronic HBV carriers and 819 controls that included 571 persons with HBV natural clearance and 248 never HBV-infected (healthy) individuals. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a region including HLA-DPA and HLA-DPB and an adjacent SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a neighboring HLA-DR13 locus were genotyped using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Eleven variants at HLA-DP showed a strong association with persistent chronic HBV carrier status (p = 1.82×10?12 to 0.01). We also stratified the analysis by HBV clearance status to test the association between these polymorphisms and HBV natural clearance; similar results were obtained (p = 2.70×10?11 to 0.003). Included SNPs define highly structured haplotypes which were also strongly associated with HBV chronic infection (Block 1: odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, p = 8.73×10?7; block 2: OR = 1.98, p = 1.37×10?10). These results further confirm that genetic variants in the HLA-DP locus are strongly associated with persistent HBV infection in the Han Chinese population.

Guo, Xiuchan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ji; Ma, Jingchen; Wei, Zuli; Tan, Wenjie; O'Brien, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

152

Vilification and Social Movements: A Case Study of Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines vilification (a rhetorical strategy which discredits adversaries as ungenuine and malevolent advocates) in the rhetoric of pro-life and pro-choice movements in Minnesota between 1973 and 1980. (SR)

Vanderford, Marsha L.

1989-01-01

153

Synthesis and biological evaluation of nucleoside analogues than contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of acyclovir (ACV) as novel inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV).  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes major public health problems worldwide. Acyclovir (ACV) is mainly used to inhibit herpes simplex virus (HSV) rather than HBV. In this study, we used the combination principle to design and synthesize nucleoside analogues that contain silatrane on the basis of the structure of ACV. We found that the compounds were effective inhibitors of HBV, both in vitro and in vivo. All of the compounds showed suppressive activity on the expression of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 cell line with low cytotoxicity. One of compounds was studied in HBV transgenic mice model, and the test results showed its ability to reduce the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA by ELASE and qPCR. Furthermore, significant improvement of T lymphocyte was observed after treatment, as evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). PMID:23369536

Han, Anyue; Li, Lingna; Qing, Kuiyou; Qi, Xiaolu; Hou, Leping; Luo, Xintong; Shi, Shaohua; Ye, Faqing

2013-01-09

154

Potential risks of pro-eating disorder websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although dangers of pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) websites have recently been discussed in the popular press, no integration of research findings on this topic yet exists. After completing a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles about pro-ED websites, we identified three possible risks as themes: operation under the guise of “support,” reinforcement of disordered eating, and prevention of help-seeking and recovery. Pro-ED

Codie R. Rouleau; Kristin M. von Ranson

2011-01-01

155

Access to treatment for HBV infection and its consistency with 2008 European guidelines in a multicentre cross-sectional study of HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background A survey was performed in 2008 to evaluate the profiles of patients with chronic hepatitis B cared for by Italian Infectious Diseases Centers (IDCs). This analysis describes: i) factors associated with access to the anti-HBV treatment in a cohort of HIV/HBV co-infected patients cared for in tertiary centers of a developed country with comprehensive coverage under the National Health System (NHS); ii) consistency of current anti-HBV regimens with specific European guidelines in force at the time of the study and factors associated with the receipt of sub-optimal regimens. Methods The study focuses on 374 (87.6%) treated patients at some point in their life out of the 427 tested HIV/HBV positive. It is multicentre, cross-sectional in the design. To account for missing values, a Multiple Imputation method is used. Results Three hundred and thirty-four (89.3%) patients were currently treated. The most common current regimen was combination therapy of tenofovir (TDF) plus LAM/FTC (lamivudine/emtricitabine) (n?=?235, 70.4%), as part of antiretroviral treatment. In the multivariate analysis, an increased chance of getting treated was independently associated with increasing years since HBV diagnosis (2–10 years, p <0.001; >10 years, p <0.001). Patients consistently treated with European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) 2008 guidelines were 255 (76.6%), of whom 202 (79.2%) with an indication to an anti-HIV treatment, 30 (11.8%)without an indication, and 21 (8.2%) with cirrhosis. Among the 78 not-consistent patients, LAM mono-therapy (n?=?60, 76.9%) was the most common regimen, 34 (56.7%) of them showing HBV DNA load below 1x103 IU/mL. Previous anti-HBV treatment (p = 0.01) and a triple HDV co-infection (p = 0.03) reduced the chance of not-consistent regimens. Conversely, HCV co-infection was independently associated with an increased odds ratio of being inconsistently treated (p = 0.004). Conclusion Our study shows that Italian IDCs treat for HBV infection the vast majority of HIV/HBV co-infected patients with no disparities limiting access to antiviral therapy. In approximately two-thirds of the patients on treatment, anti-HBV regimens are consistent with 2008 EACS guidelines. Finally, our study identifies scenarios in which clinical practice deviates from recommendations, as in case of sub-optimal regimens with effective anti-HBV response.

2013-01-01

156

Pro-Poor Growth: A Primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

These days it seems that almost everyone in the development community is talking about ?pro-poor growth.? What exactly is it, and how can we measure it? Is ordinary economic growth always ?pro-poor growth? or is that some special kind of growth? And if it is something special, what makes it happen? Ravallion first reviews alternative approaches to defining and measuring

Martin Ravallion

2004-01-01

157

Decline of Serum HBV DNA and No Change Apportioned by the Same Hepatic Parenchyma Cell Volume from Hepatic Fibrosis Stage 1 to Stage 4 during the Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis B  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the initial phase of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, serum HBV DNA levels are high. Contrarily, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma have been found in patients with lower serum HBV DNA levels. The aim of this study is to clarify HBV DNA level dynamics of serum apportioned by the same hepatic parenchyma cell volume (HPCV) in hepatic fibrosis

Wei-Min Ke; Shi-Bin Xie; Li-Na Yu; Ting Liu; Jing Lai; Da-Qiu He; Xiao-He Li; Zhi-Liang Gao; Ying Ke; Pei-Jia Chen

2008-01-01

158

Status of NAT screening for HCV, HIV and HBV: experience in Japan.  

PubMed

The first nationwide nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) of voluntarily donated blood after serological pre-screening and before release of cellular components and plasma for fractionation was implemented by the Japanese Red Cross Blood Transfusion Services. The NAT screening assay using multiplex reagent is time-saving, cost effective, and labour-saving procedure for all blood and blood products including short-shelf life platelets. During the 50-mini-pool NAT screening of serologically negative donations (February 1, 2001-April 30, 2001), we were able to screen out 112 HBV-positive, 25 HCV-positive, and 4 HIV-1 positive units from blood and blood components. PMID:12220140

Tomono, T; Murokawa, H; Minegishi, K; Yamanaka, R; Lizuka, H Y; Miyamoto, M; Satoh, S; Nakahira, S; Murozuka, T; Emura, H; Doi, Y; Mine, H; Yokoyama, S; Ohnuma, H; Tanaka, T; Yoshikawa, A; Nishioka, K

2002-01-01

159

Predictors of HAV/HBV Vaccination Completion among Methadone Maintenance Clients  

PubMed Central

This randomized, controlled study (N = 256) was conducted to compare three interventions designed to promote hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination completion among clients undergoing methadone maintenance (MM) treatment. Participants were recruited from five MM treatment sites in Southern California and randomized into three groups: Motivational Interviewing-Single (MI-Single), Motivational Interviewing-Group (MI-Group); and Nurse-Led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP). All were offered the 3-series HAV/HBV vaccine. A total of 148 participants completed the vaccine. Groups did not differ in rate of vaccination completion (73.6%, HHP group, versus 65% and 69% for the MI-Single, and MI-Group, respectively). The equivalence of findings across groups suggests the value of including nurses with a comprehensive health focus in promoting vaccination completion.

Nyamathi, Adeline; Sinha, Karabi; Greengold, Barbara; Cohen, Allan; Marfisee, Mary

2011-01-01

160

Continued high prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among injecting and noninjecting drug users in Italy.  

PubMed

We estimated the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among injecting and noninjecting drug users treated within public drug-treatment centres in Italy to determine the correlates of infection. In the sample of 1330 drug users, the prevalence of HIV was 14.4% among drug injectors and 1.6% among non-injectors; the prevalence of HBV was 70.4% among injecting drug users and 22.8% among non-injectors and of HCV was 83.2% among injecting drug users and 22.0% among non-injectors. Old age, unemployment, and intravenous drug use were significantly correlated with each of the infections, as well as a longer history of injecting drug use. The results indicate that these infections continue to circulate among drug users, highlighting the need for monitoring of this group in Italy. PMID:20348620

Camoni, Laura; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Canuzzi, Pietro; Magliocchetti, Natalia; Rezza, Giovanni; Suligoi, Barbara

2010-01-01

161

HBV regulated RhoC expression in HepG2.2.15 cells by enhancing its promoter activity.  

PubMed

Many studies showed that RhoC-GTPases are central molecules in oncogenic transformation. The expression of RhoC is significantly increased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV is the major risk factor for HCC. However, it is unknown whether HBV regulating RhoC expression. In this study, we showed the RhoC expression was significantly higher in HepG2.2.15 than that in HepG2 cells. HBV could up-regulate RhoC expression through enhancing the activity of its promoter, and HBs and HBx may involve in this process. After silencing HBs and HBx expressions by using RNA interference, the expression of RhoC in HepG2.2.15 cells could be obviously inhibited. These results would provide useful information for understanding mechanism of HCC induced by HBV infection. PMID:22736547

Tian, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yunzhi; Qu, Jialin; Li, Kai; Qin, Dongdong; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua

2012-06-26

162

Adherence to the screening program for HBV infection in pregnant women delivering in Greece  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B infection (HBV) is a major Public Health Problem. Perinatal transmission can be prevented with the identification of HBsAg(+) women and administration of immunoprophylaxis to their newborns. A national prevention programme for HBV with universal screening of pregnant women and vaccination of infants is in effect since 1998 in Greece. Methods To evaluate adherence to the national guidelines, all women delivering in Greece between 17–30/03/03 were included in the study. Trained health professionals completed a questionnaire on demographic data, prenatal or perinatal screening for HBsAg and the implementation of appropriate immunoprophylaxis. Results During the study period 3,760 women delivered. Prenatal screening for HBsAg was documented in 91.3%. Greek women were more likely to have had prenatal testing. HBsAg prevalence was 2.89% (95%CI 2.3–3.4%). Higher prevalence of HBV-infection was noted in immigrant women, especially those born in Albania (9.8%). Other risk factors associated with maternal HBsAg (+) included young maternal age and absence of prenatal testing. No prenatal or perinatal HBsAg testing was performed in 3.2% women. Delivering in public hospital and illiteracy were identifiable risk factors for never being tested. All newborns of identified HBsAg (+) mothers received appropriate immunoprophylaxis. Conclusion The prevalence of HBsAg in Greek pregnant women is low and comparable to other European countries. However, immigrant women composing almost 20% of our childbearing population, have significant higher prevalence rates. There are still women who never get tested. Universal vaccination against HBV at birth and reinforcement of perinatal testing of all women not prenatally tested should be discussed with Public Health Authorities.

Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Cassimos, Dimitrios; Theodoridou, Maria

2006-01-01

163

Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection Among Hmong Immigrants in the San Joaquin Valley  

PubMed Central

Chronic hepatitis B infection (HBV) is the major cause of primary liver cancer worldwide and Asians are disproportionately affected. The prevalence of HBV among most Asian American groups has been well documented, except in Hmong immigrants in the United States. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV among Hmong immigrants in the San Joaquin Valley of California. A convenient sample of 534 Hmong age ?18 years was recruited at various locations throughout Fresno County. Blood samples from study participants were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by enzyme-immunoassay. Two hundred and eighty-nine females and 245 males of Hmong descent (mean age, 43.93) were screened. Eighty-nine (41 males and 48 females) were positive for HBsAg, which accounts for a prevalence of 16.7% (95% C.I. 13.5–19.9). The majorities of HBsAg positive patients were ?40 years (64.2%), married (66.7%), born in Laos (87.3%), and had lived in the United States ?20 years (62.5%). Only 37.5% of the participants reported having a primary care physician. Our study revealed that approximately one out of every six Hmong immigrants screened was infected with HBV. Based on our findings, more than one-third of these infected patients have no primary care physician to provide further treatment, surveillance for liver cancer, or vaccination of their families. This supports the Institute of Medicine’s recent recommendations to the Center for Disease Control to engage in a national Hepatitis B surveillance system.

Mouanoutoua, Mouatou; Walvick, Matthew D.; Khang, Leepao; Singh, Jasjit; Stoltz, Steven; Mills, Paul K.

2010-01-01

164

Serum GP73, a marker for evaluating progression in patients with chronic HBV infections.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the role of serum GP73 for diagnosing significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Two populations were enrollment. All subjects were patients with chronic HBV infections. First population included 761 patients, who received liver stiffness measurement; the second population included 633 patients, who undertaken liver biopsy, in which 472 patients with nearly normal ALT. All patients received serum GP73 test. The effect of GP73 recombinant protein to HepG2 cells and LX2 cells were observed in vitro. Results showed that serum GP73 concentration is correlated with liver stiffness (r?=?0.601). The area under ROC curve is 0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of GP73 for significant fibrosis (?F2) diagnosis were 62.81%, 80.05% respectively (cut off: 76.6 ng/ml). Serum GP73 concentration was significantly correlated with the grading of fibrosis (r?=?0.32, and 0.35, in 633 and 472 patients, respectively.) GP73 had a striking performance for diagnosing S2 in patients with chronic HBV infections. In 472 patients with nearly normal ALT, the sensitivity and specificity of GP73 for S2 diagnosis were 62.5% and 80.0% respectively, where the cut-off was set at 82 ng/ml. GP73 recombinant protein may prompt LX2 cells proliferation at the concentration 10-100 ng/ml. The present results indicated that GP73 may be a marker for diagnosing significant fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infections, and may be a new contributor to fibrogensis. PMID:23418424

Wei, Hongshan; Li, Boan; Zhang, Renwen; Hao, Xiaohua; Huang, Yubo; Qiao, Yong; Hou, Jun; Li, Xin; Li, Xingwang

2013-02-13

165

Host Response to Translocated Microbial Products Predicts Outcomes of Patients with HBV or HCV infection  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Chronic infection with hepatitis B or C virus (HBV or HCV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis, by unknown mechanisms of pathogenesis. Translocation of gut microbial products into the systemic circulation might increase because of increased intestinal permeability, bacterial overgrowth, or impaired clearance of microbial products by Kupffer cells. We investigated whether the extent and progression of liver disease in patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection are associated with microbial translocation and subsequent activation of monocytes. Methods In a retrospective study, we analyzed data from 16 patients with minimal fibrosis, 68 with cirrhosis, and 67 uninfected volunteers. We analyzed plasma levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), and interleukin (IL)-6 by ELISA, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by the limulus amebocyte lysate assay, at presentation and after antiviral treatment. Results Compared with uninfected individuals, HCV- and HBV-infected individuals had higher plasma levels of LPS, I-FABP (indicating enterocyte death), sCD14 (produced upon LPS activation of monocytes), and IL-6. Portal hypertension, indicated by low platelet counts, was associated with enterocyte death (P=.045 at presentation, P<.0001 after therapy). Levels of sCD14 correlated with markers of hepatic inflammation (P=.02 for AST, P=.002 for ferritin) and fibrosis (P<.0001 for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, P=.01 for alkaline phosphatase, P<.0001 for alpha-fetoprotein). Compared to subjects with minimal fibrosis, subjects with severe fibrosis at presentation had higher plasma levels of sCD14 (P=.01) and more hepatic CD14+ cells (P=.0002); each increased risk for disease progression (P=.0009 and P=.005, respectively). Conclusions LPS-induced local and systemic inflammation are associated with cirrhosis and predict progression to end-stage liver disease in patients with HBV or HCV infection.

Sandler, Netanya G.; Koh, Christopher; Roque, Annelys; Eccleston, Jason L.; Siegel, Rebecca B.; DeMino, Mary; Kleiner, David E.; Deeks, Steven G.; Liang, T. Jake; Heller, Theo; Douek, Daniel C.

2011-01-01

166

Anti-HBV neonatal immunization with recombinant vaccine. Part II. Molecular basis of the impaired alloreactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

HLA study was performed in 9 absolute non-responder (serum titre of anti-HBsAg < 2 mIU ml?1) and 8 hyporesponder (serum antibody level between 2 and 9.9 mIU ml?1) babies who underwent, in neonatal period, HBV vaccination with Engerix B recombinant vaccine. The investigation pointed out that many of these subjects carry HLA haplotypes classically involved in autoimmune diseases: namely HLADR7;DQ2,

M. Martinetti; M. Cuccia; C. Daielli; F. Ambroselli; C. Gatti; C. Pizzochero; C. Belloni; P. Orsolini; L. Salvaneschi

1995-01-01

167

Pregnant women as a sentinel population to target and implement hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage was assessed using serologic patterns of infection (HBsAg, anti HBc) and vaccine-induced immunity (isolated anti HBs) among 3318 pregnant women attending the Obstetrical Unit of the University Hospital in Palermo who were screened over 3 years (2001–2003). Three thousand and eight of them (90.6%) were born in Sicily, whereas 310 (9.4%) were immigrants from

Filippa Bonura; Marco Sorgi; Anna Maria Perna; Giuseppe Puccio; Fabio Tramuto; Cinzia Cajozzo; Nino Romano; Francesco Vitale

2005-01-01

168

The hydrological response of the Ourthe catchment to climate change as modelled by the HBV model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Meuse is an important river in Western Europe, which is almost exclusively rain-fed. Projected changes in precipitation characteristics due to climate change, therefore, are expected to have a considerable effect on the hydrological regime of the river Meuse. We focus on an important tributary of the Meuse, the Ourthe, measuring about 1600 km2. The well-known hydrological model HBV is

T. L. A. Driessen; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; W. Terink; P. Hazenberg; P. J. J. F. Torfs; R. Uijlenhoet

2010-01-01

169

The hydrological response of the Ourthe catchment to climate change as modelled by the HBV model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Meuse is an important river in western Europe, and almost exclusively rain-fed. Projected changes in precipitation characteristics due to climate change, therefore, are expected to have a considerable effect on the hydrological regime of the river Meuse. We focus on an important tributary of the Meuse, the Ourthe, measuring about 1600 km2. The well-known hydrological model HBV is forced

T. L. A. Driessen; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; W. Terink; P. Hazenberg; P. J. J. F. Torfs; R. Uijlenhoet

2009-01-01

170

Histologic Disease in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B, High HBV DNA, and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have presented new options as well as challenges. Serum\\u000a alanine aminotransferase (ALT) continues to be one of the three principal parameters used by all existing treatment guidelines\\u000a to identify candidates for antiviral therapy. Although there is little controversy that inactive carriers and young immune\\u000a tolerant patients can be monitored

Joseph K. Lim; Walid S. Ayoub; Mindie H. Nguyen

2010-01-01

171

Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: a global challenge for medicine.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious risk as a disease that can be spread through blood transfusion. Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined in a patient with the presence of HBV-DNA but a lack of HBsAg in the serum and hepatocytes. OBI can be considered as a high potential risk factor for inducing post transfusion hepatitis (PTH), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis, and reactivation of the HBV. Recently, several investigations from various regions of the world have reported PTH as well as HCC and cirrhosis among blood recipients with diseases such as thalassemia and other disorders requiring regular hemodialysis. This form of hepatitis also causes complications for individuals that are co-infected with other viruses such as HCV and HIV. Because of its extreme disease potential, OBI can be considered a high risk for PTH, HCC, and cirrhosis. Therefore, an understanding of the prevalence of OBI among blood donors is a critical strategy in most transfusion services. This review addresses the recent information regarding the prevalence of OBI worldwide, with an additional focus on Iranian blood donors. PMID:23289193

Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ahmadabadi, Behzad Nasiri; Salehi, Mansoor; Kennedy, Derek

2012-01-01

172

Differential expression of haptoglobin isoforms in chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC related to HBV infection  

PubMed Central

The three main complications of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are chronic active hepatitis (CAH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed serum proteins among the three liver complications in patients with HBV infection. Differentially expressed proteins have been shown to be potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy guidance. Two-dimensional polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (2DE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on sera from CAH, cirrhosis and HCC patients with HBV infection, as well as those obtained from healthy individuals. Of 54 differentially expressed (?1.5-fold and p<0.05) protein spots, 35 spots were identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified spots correlated to 13 proteins. The proteins included haptoglobolin ?-2 and ? isoforms, haptoglobin cleaved ? isoforms, retinol-binding protein, transthyretin, ficolin, leucine-rich-?-2-glycoprotein, ?-1-antitrypsin and clusterin. Of particular interest is the significant increase of haptoglobin ?-2 isoforms in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis ones. In contrast, a significant decrease of the isoforms was noted among cirrhosis patients.

Sarvari, Jamal; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed-Ali; Shamsi Shahrabadi, Mahmoud; Ghaderi, Abbas; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

2011-01-01

173

Effect of Trichinella spiralis Infection on the Immune Response to HBV Vaccine in a Mouse Model.  

PubMed

Abstract Vaccination is the most effective and cost-effective way to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Collective data suggest that helminth infections affect immune responses to some vaccines. Therefore, it is important to reveal the effects of helminth infections on the efficacy of protective vaccines in countries with highly prevalent helminth infections. In the present work, effects of Trichinella spiralis infection on the protective efficacy of HBV vaccine in a mouse model were investigated. This study demonstrated that the enteric stage of T. spiralis infection could inhibit the proliferative response of spleen lymphocytes to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and lead to lower levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies, interferon-?, and interleukin (IL)-2, along with higher levels of IL-4 and IL-5. However, these immunological differences are absent in the muscle stage of T. spiralis infection. The results suggest that the muscle stage of T. spiralis infection does not affect the immune response to HBV vaccination, while the enteric-stage infection results in a reduced immune response to HBsAg. PMID:23883369

Guan, Fei; Hou, Xiao; Nie, Ge; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Wen-Qi; Li, Yong-Long; Lei, Jia-Hui

2013-07-24

174

Differential expression of haptoglobin isoforms in chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC related to HBV infection.  

PubMed

The three main complications of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are chronic active hepatitis (CAH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed serum proteins among the three liver complications in patients with HBV infection. Differentially expressed proteins have been shown to be potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy guidance. Two-dimensional polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (2DE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on sera from CAH, cirrhosis and HCC patients with HBV infection, as well as those obtained from healthy individuals. Of 54 differentially expressed (?1.5-fold and p<0.05) protein spots, 35 spots were identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified spots correlated to 13 proteins. The proteins included haptoglobolin ?-2 and ? isoforms, haptoglobin cleaved ? isoforms, retinol-binding protein, transthyretin, ficolin, leucine-rich-?-2-glycoprotein, ?-1-antitrypsin and clusterin. Of particular interest is the significant increase of haptoglobin ?-2 isoforms in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis ones. In contrast, a significant decrease of the isoforms was noted among cirrhosis patients. PMID:22866143

Sarvari, Jamal; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed-Ali; Shamsi Shahrabadi, Mahmoud; Ghaderi, Abbas; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

2011-05-31

175

REASSESSMENT OF SELECTED HEALTHCARE ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS FOR HBV AND HCV INFECTIONS AMONG VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS, KARACHI, PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Epidemiologic studies conducted in the 1990s identified several independent healthcare associated risk factors for HBV and HCV infections in Pakistan. In 2002, we re-examined healthcare associated HBV and\\/or HCV infection risk factors in volunteer blood donors. In this case-control study , we collected data using a structured questionnaire on socioeconomic attributes, putative healthcare related risk factors, and other known

Muhammad Younus; Azfar-e-Alam Siddiqi; Saeed Akhtar

176

Genetic Variations in Plasma Circulating DNA of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Predict Recurrence after Liver Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecurrence prediction of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) present a great challenge because of a lack of biomarkers. Genetic variations play an important role in tumor development and metastasis.MethodsOligonucleotide microarrays were used to evaluate the genetic characteristics of tumor DNA in 30 HBV-related HCC patients who were underwent LT. Recurrence-related single-nucleotide polymorphism were

Jie Hu; Zheng Wang; Jia Fan; Zhi Dai; Yi-Feng He; Shuang-Jian Qiu; Xiao-Wu Huang; Jian Sun; Yong-Sheng Xiao; Kang Song; Ying-Hong Shi; Qi-Man Sun; Xin-Rong Yang; Guo-Ming Shi; Lei Yu; Guo-Huan Yang; Zhen-Bin Ding; Qiang Gao; Zhao-You Tang; Jian Zhou; Jörg D. Hoheisel

2011-01-01

177

The prevalence of HBV infection in the cohort of IDPs of war against terrorism in Malakand Division of Northern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hepatitis B is an important public health problem in the Pakistani population and is the major cause of chronic hepatitis,\\u000a cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. High prevalence of HBV infections has been observed especially in areas\\u000a of low economic status. In spite of effective immunization programs, no significant change has been observed in the epidemiology\\u000a of HBV in the rural

Fawad Khan; Haji Akbar; Muhammad Idrees; Hayat Khan; Khuram Shahzad; Mahmood A Kayani

2011-01-01

178

Risk of HBV liver disease in isolated antiHbc patients receiving immuno-chemotherapy for non Hodgkin lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 in order to clarify the risk of HBV-related liver disease in a large number of isolated anti-HBc positive patients undergoing chemo- immunosuppressive therapy for non-Hodgkin's lym- phoma. So far only limited case reports have been pub- lished about this issue and no data on HBV-related risk in this population was available. While the need of antiviral prophylaxis is well

C. Targhetta; M. G. Cabras; E. Angelucci

2008-01-01

179

Spontaneous clearance of high-titer serum HBV DNA and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers with high-titer viremia (>105 virions\\/ml) are at increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between clearance of high-titer viremia and subsequent risk of HCC. The study population was a prospective cohort of 114 adults from Haimen City, China, all HBV DNA(+) at study entry and

Rebecca A. Harris; Gang Chen; WenYao Lin; FuMin Shen; W. Thomas London; Alison A. Evans

2003-01-01

180

Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA  

PubMed Central

Summary Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMA at times maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placement to assess the ventilatory and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraoperatively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity.

Sharma, Bimla; Sood, Jayashree; Sahai, Chand; Kumra, V P

2009-01-01

181

Over-expression of uPA increases risk of liver injury in pAAV-HBV transfected mice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the relationship between over-expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver diseases in a transgenic mouse model. METHODS: Albumin-tetracycline reverse transcriptional activator and tetO-uPA transgenic mice were generated respectively through pronuclear injection and crossed to produce the double transgenic in-alb-uPA mice, for which doxycycline (Dox)-inducible and liver-specific over-expression of uPA can be achieved. Hydrodynamic transfection of plasmid adeno-associated virus (AAV)-1.3HBV was performed through the tail veins of the Dox-induced in-alb-uPA mice. Expression of uPA and HBV antigens were analyzed through double-staining immunohistochemical assay. Cytokine production was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and ?-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA level was evaluated through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Plasmid AAV-1.3HBV hydrodynamic transfection in Dox-induced transgenic mice not only resulted in severe liver injury with hepatocarcinoma-like histological changes and hepatic AFP production, but also showed an increased serum level of HBV antigens and cytokines like interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?, compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Over-expression of uPA plays a synergistic role in the development of liver injury, inflammation and regeneration during acute HBV infection.

Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Shi-Hui; Wang, Peng; Yu, Hong; Hu, Jing-Ya; Shang, Shi-Cheng; Zhou, Yu-Sen

2012-01-01

182

Characterization of Treatment-Naive HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients Attending ART Clinic of a Tertiary Healthcare Centre in Eastern India  

PubMed Central

Objective The study was designed to assess the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection scenario among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients attending a tertiary healthcare unit in eastern India. Additionally, clinical and virological characterization of these viruses, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was also done for better understanding of the disease profile. Methods Pool of ART-naive HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients, participating in two different studies, were included in this study. HBV DNA was detected by nested-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) region amplification and direct sequencing for detecting drug resistance. Results The prevalence of HBsAg (11.3%) was higher compared to anti-HCV (1.9%) among the HIV infected ART-naive patients. Moreover, majority of the HBeAg positive HIV/HBV co-infected patients (87.7%) had HBV DNA ?20,000 IU/ml with median HBV DNA significantly higher than that of HBeAg negative subjects (5.7 log10 IU/ml vs. 4.2 log10 IU/ml; p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis also showed that HBeAg-positive status was independently associated with higher HBV DNA level (p?=?<0.001). Notably, 60.9% of the HBeAg negative co-infected subjects had HBV DNA ?2,000 IU/ml of which 37.0% had HBV DNA ?20,000 IU/ml. Genotype HBV/D (68.2%) was the predominant genotype followed by HBV/A (24.3%) and HBV/C (7.5%). Anti-HBV drug resistant mutations were detected in two (3.8%) of the ART-naive patients. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection was relatively higher in our study subjects. HBeAg testing might provide clue for early treatment initiation. Furthermore, HBeAg negative patients are also associated with high HBV DNA levels and therefore require appropriate medical attention. Pre-treatment screening for anti-HBV drug resistant mutations is not necessary before ART initiation.

Biswas, Avik; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Sarkar, Neelakshi; Sarkar, Jayeeta; Pal, Manisha; Guha, Subhasish Kamal; Saha, Bibhuti; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Chakravarty, Runu

2013-01-01

183

[Tertiary structure of myelopeptides. II. Conformational analysis of Phe-Arg-Pro-Arg-Ile-Met-Thr-Pro, Val-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asp, and Val-Asp-Pro-Pro].  

PubMed

Theoretical conformational analysis was used to study the spatial structure and conformational properties of myelopeptides, bone marrow peptide mediators. The low-energy conformations of myelopeptides MP-4 (Phe-Arg-Pro-Arg-Ile-Met-Thr-Pro), MP-5 (Val-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asp), and MP-6 (Val-Asp-Pro-Pro) were found; the values of dihedral angles of backbone and side chains of the amino acid residues were determined; and the energies of intra- and interresidual interactions were estimated. PMID:15889787

Ismailova, L I; Akhmetov, N A; Abbasly, R M; Godzhaev, N M

184

Influencing Factors on the Outcome and Prognosis of Patients With HBV Infction: Seven Years Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most common chronic viral infections in the world. Iran has a low to intermediate HBV prevalence and approximately 1.5 million people are living with HBV infection. The impact of HBV in Iran is unknown and given the very low levels of alcohol consumption, this region provides an opportunity to examine the impact of isolated chronic HBV infection. Objectives To examine and evaluate outcome and prognosis of HBV in Iran. Patients and Methods A longitudinal cohort study dating from 2003-2010 was performed. The patients were assessed six months after their first visit and then during periodic visits for the subsequent seven years. The patients’ medical history, route of diagnosis of infection, family history, and liver diseases status including: carrier state of HBV, chronic HBV, cirrhosis, and HCC were recorded. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed, using SPSS software version 18. Results 275 HBsAg positive patients, who had completed a 7 year follow up period, were selected. The annual incidence rate for chronic hepatitis B in inactive carrier states and cirrhosis were 0.46% and 0.2% respectively. Over seven years, the rate of inactive carriers decreased by eight percent (They turned into chronic HBV or became HBSAg negative). No significant association was found between HBSAg seroclearance, HBeAg seroconversion and the outcome in the end of each year of follow up. Different treatment regimens did not have any statistically significant difference regarding HBeAg seroconversion. There was no significant association between the outcome and different habitual characteristics, especially smoking, as well as family history on HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, and Anti-HBeAg. Values of platelets and ALT showed a significant change during the follow ups. Annual incidence rate of HCC in the present study was in the range of other studies. Conclusions These data confirm and extend data from other populations showing a low incidence of significant change in chronic HBV infection in short term with good responses to currently available therapeutics.

Sali, Shahnaz; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Foster, Graham R; Keyvani, Hossein; Mehrnoosh, Leila; Mohammadi, Navid

2013-01-01

185

Title of Presentation Myriad Pro, Bold, Shadow, 28pt  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Most (50-70%) infections are asymptomatic ... awareness of needs for improved infection control ... Increasing frequency of HBV infection outbreaks ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

186

Pro Libra Makes the Impossible Happen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pro Libra Associates, Inc. in South Orange, New Jersey, is a cadre of some 200 carefully screened professionals and clerical workers who perform a variety of library tasks on a contract basis. (Author/LLS)|

Cherry, Susan Spaeth

1981-01-01

187

Potentially functional genetic variants in microRNA processing genes and risk of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Genetic variations in miRNA processing genes may affect the biogenesis of miRNA, hence risk of HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. In the present study, we hypothesized that potentially functional polymorphisms in 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of miRNA processing genes might contribute to susceptibility of HBV infection and HCC development. To test the hypothesis, we genotyped three selected SNPs (rs1057035 in DICER1, rs3803012 in RAN, and rs10773771 in PIWIL1) in a case-control study of 1300 HBV-positive HCC cancer cases, 1344 HBV persistent carriers, and 1344 HBV natural clearance subjects in Chinese. We observed that DICER1 rs1057035 CT/CC variant genotypes were associated with a significant decreased risk of HCC (adjusted OR?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.64-0.96) compared with wild-type TT and RAN rs3803012 AG/GG variant genotypes increased the risk of HBV persistent infection compared with AA genotype (adjusted OR?=?1.35, 95% CI?=?1.03-1.77). However, PIWIL1 rs10773771 CT/CC variant genotypes were associated with an approaching decreased risk of HCC (adjusted OR?=?0.86, 95% CI?=?0.73-1.01) and similar with RAN rs3803012 AG/GG (adjusted OR?=?0.80, 95% CI?=?0.61-1.06). Furthermore, reporter gene assays indicated that the three SNPs (rs1057035, rs3803012, and rs10773771) might change the binding ability of miRNAs to the 3'UTR of the three genes (DICER1, RAN, and PIWIL1), respectively. These findings indicated that DICER1 rs1057035, RAN rs3803012, and PIWIL1 rs10773771 might contribute to the risk of HBV-related HCC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23868705

Liu, Li; An, Jiaze; Liu, Jibin; Wen, Juan; Zhai, Xiangjun; Liu, Yao; Pan, Shandong; Jiang, Jie; Wen, Yang; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Yixin; Chen, Jianguo; Xing, Jinliang; Ji, Guozhong; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Fan, Zhining

2013-07-19

188

Simulation modeling using ProModel technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROMODEL's simulation modeling products are powerful yet easy-to-use simulation tools for modeling all types of systems and processes. ProModel is designed to model manufacturing systems ranging from small job shops and machining cells to large mass production, flexible manufacturing systems, and supply chain systems. Other simulation products available from PROMODEL Corporation include MedModel®, ServiceModel®, and our latest release, ProModel PI

C. R. Harrell; R. N. Price

2003-01-01

189

Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.  

PubMed

Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063]. PMID:11249748

Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

2000-12-01

190

The pro-life\\/pro-choice issue as sociocultural symbolism: A sociology of knowledge study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates different values orientations among Americans on the abortion rights pro-choice\\/pro-life continuum. The investigation includes historical context and current sociocultural phenomena. The many approaches to accommodation in a democratic society including those of realignment among orthodox\\/progressive communities across denominations are approached as changes in American society symbolized through the prochoice\\/pro-life issue. Investigation includes the questions of the symbolism

Helen Phillos Ravid

2008-01-01

191

Hepatitis B virus variants in an HIV-HBV co-infected patient at different periods of antiretroviral treatment with and without lamivudine  

PubMed Central

Background Lamivudine inhibits replication of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is commonly used as part of antiretroviral therapy. The main limitation in the use of lamivudine is resistant mutation selection. Most of these mutations affect the YMDD motif of the HBV DNA polymerase. The resistance occurs through M550V or M550I aminoacid replacements. The M550V variation may be accompanied by L526M mutation, notably in HIV-HBV co-infected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate mutations associated with lamivudine resistance in a hemodialysis patient chronically co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV, who was submitted to several antiretroviral treatments. Methods HBV isolates derived from three blood samples collected at different times of antiretroviral therapies with and without lamivudine, were titred and submitted to nucleotide sequencing. Results HBV isolate derived from a sample collected in 1999 during an antiretroviral treatment with lamivudine showed the lamivudine resistant double mutation (L526M, M550V). However, no mutation associated with lamivudine resistance was observed in the HBV genome derived from the sample collected during a period of treatment without lamivudine (2001). After reinstitution of lamivudine (2002), the predominant HBV population exhibited a rare triple mutation (V519L, L526M, M550V), which has previously been associated with an in vitro reduction of virus antigenicity (escape mutant). HBV DNA was detected at high levels (108–109 copies/ml) in the three blood samples. Conclusions Reintroduction of lamivudine as part of antiretroviral treatment in a patient who had developed lamivudine resistant HBV strains favored the predominance of an HBV isolate with reduced antigenicity. The absence of hepatitis acute exacerbation in this patient may be correlated to the absence of significant variations of the viral load, which was independent of the presence of mutations in the HBV DNA polymerase.

Santos, Eneida A; Sucupira, Michel VF; Arabe, Jucara; Gomes, Selma A

2004-01-01

192

Contribution of low level HBV replication to continuing inflammatory activity in patients with anti-HBe positive chronic hepatitis B virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the histological diagnosis and serological and tissue markers of HBV replication in 41 Greek and 29 British patients with chronic HBV infection were studied. All the nine Greek and 13 British patients who were HBeAg positive had HBV-DNA in serum and HBcAg expression in the hepatocytes. The majority (73%) of these patients had active liver disease. Forty

A S Lok; S J Hadziyannis; I V Weller; M G Karvountzis; J Monjardino; P Karayiannis; L Montano; H C Thomas

1984-01-01

193

Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences of hepatitis B virus from an Afro-Colombian community: presence of HBV F3/A1 recombinant strain  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most prevalent viral infections in humans and represents a serious public health problem. In Colombia, our group reported recently the presence of subgenotypes F3, A2 and genotype G in Bogotá. The aim of this study was to characterize the HBV genotypes circulating in Quibdó, the largest Afro-descendant community in Colombia. Sixty HBsAg-positive samples were studied. A fragment of 1306 bp (S/POL) was amplified by nested PCR. Positive samples to S/POL fragment were submitted to PCR amplification of the HBV complete genome. Findings The distribution of HBV genotypes was: A1 (52.17%), E (39.13%), D3 (4.3%) and F3/A1 (4.3%). An HBV recombinant strain subgenotype F3/A1 was found for the first time. Conclusions This study is the first analysis of complete HBV genome sequences from Afro-Colombian population. It was found an important presence of HBV/A1 and HBV/E genotypes. A new recombinant strain of HBV genotype F3/A1 was reported in this population. This fact may be correlated with the introduction of these genotypes in the times of slavery.

2012-01-01

194

Beyond HIV, HBV and HCV--how to deal with other viruses?  

PubMed

Transmission of viruses such as HBV, HIV and HCV by blood components and protein fractions are well documented and precautions based on donor selection and screening as well as processing are well established and effective. Other viruses, including small non-enveloped viruses, pose a greater challenge for removal, but are considered less hazardous clinically. While cell associated viruses such as HTLVI and CMV pose a risk to certain kinds of recipient of blood components the biggest single current issue is that of vCJD following the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom. PMID:12220138

Minor, P D

2002-01-01

195

HBV Infection in Relation to Consistent Condom Use: A Population-Based Study in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence are limited in developing countries. There is also limited information of consistent condom use efficacy for reducing HBV transmission at the population level. The study goal was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with HBV infection in Peru, and the relationship between anti-HBc positivity and consistent condom use. Methods and Findings Data from two different surveys performed in 28 mid-sized Peruvian cities were analyzed. Participants aged 18–29 years were selected using a multistage cluster sampling. Information was collected through a validated two-part questionnaire. The first part (face-to-face) concerned demographic data, while the second part (self-administered using handheld computers) concerned sexual behavior. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) was tested in 7,000 blood samples. Prevalences and associations were adjusted for sample strata, primary sampling units and population weights. Anti-HBc prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI 4.1%–5.9%), with the highest prevalence among jungle cities: 16.3% (95%CI 13.8%–19.1%). In the multivariable analysis, Anti-HBc positivity was directly associated with geographic region (highlands OR?=?2.05; 95%CI 1.28–3.27, and jungle OR?=?4.86; 95%CI 3.05–7.74; compared to coastal region); and inversely associated with age at sexual debut (OR?=?0.90; 95%CI 0.85–0.97). Consistent condom use, evaluated in about 40% of participants, was associated with reduced prevalence (OR?=?0.34; 95%CI 0.15–0.79) after adjusting for gender, geographic region, education level, lifetime number of sex partners, age at sexual debut and year of survey. Conclusion Residence in highlands or jungle cities is associated with higher anti-HBc prevalences, whereas increasing age at sexual debut were associated with lower prevalences. Consistent condom use was associated with decreased risk of anti-HBc. Findings from this study emphasize the need of primary prevention programs (vaccination) especially in the jungle population, and imply that condom use promotion might be a potential strategy to prevent HBV infection.

Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Scott, John D.; Hughes, James P.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Holmes, King K.

2011-01-01

196

Ectopic expression of microRNA-155 enhances innate antiviral immunity against HBV infection in human hepatoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background Host innate antiviral immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and is precisely regulated by thousands of genes at various stages, including microRNAs. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) was found to be up-regualted during viral infection, and influence the host immune response. Besides, the expression of miR-155, or its functional orthologs, may also contribute to viral oncogenesis. HBV is known to cause hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is evidence that attenuated intracellular immune response is the main reason for HBV latency. Thus, we assume miR-155 may affect the immune response during HBV infection in human hepatoma cells. Results We found that ectopic expression of miR-155 upregulated the expression of several IFN-inducible antiviral genes in human hepatoma cells. And over-expression of miR-155 suppressed suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) expression and subsequently enhanced signal transducers and activators of transcription1 (STAT1) and signal transducers and activators of transcription3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. We further demonstrate that ectopic expression of miR-155 inhibits HBV X gene expression to some extent in vitro. Conclusion MiR-155 enhances innate antiviral immunity through promoting JAK/STAT signaling pathway by targeting SOCS1, and mildly inhibits HBV infection in human hepatoma cells.

2011-01-01

197

[Acute liver injury with hepatic encephalopathy associated with gemcitabine administration for adjuvant chemotherapy in an HBV carrier with pancreatic cancer].  

PubMed

A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our department because of epigastric pain. Imagings revealed cancer of the head of the pancreas. She was an HBV carrier, although no liver dysfunction was observed. Her serum HBV-DNA level was lower than 2.6. We performed pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer. No postoperative complication was observed. The histopathological diagnosis was tubular adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. As a postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, gemcitabine hydrochloride (GEM) was injected at a dose of 800mg/m2 once a week. Disorientation and jaundice were observed after six doses of GEM. Blood chemistry revealed that total bilirubin and ammonia were abnormally elevated, and that blood coagulant factors were diminished. Serum HBV-DNA level was lower than 2.6. It showed no reactivation of HBV. Abdominal CT showed no recurrence but fatty liver. Fresh frozen plasma was supplied and branched chain amino acids were injected after GEM was administration discontinued. Lactulose was also given orally. With these conservative treatments, she recovered completely. Careful monitoring of liver function during GEM administration is required in a HBV carrier. PMID:20841947

Tanaka, Hiroshi; Takamori, Hiroshi; Eto, Shin-ichiro; Ozaki, Nobuyuki; Akaboshi, Shin-ichi; Nakahara, Osamu; Ida, Satoshi; Furuhashi, Satoshi; Abe, Shinya; Horino, Kei; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

2010-09-01

198

Two classifiers based on serum peptide pattern for prediction of HBV-induced liver cirrhosis using MALDI-TOF MS.  

PubMed

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is associated with the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis (LC) in China. Although liver biopsy is the reference method for evaluation of cirrhosis, it is an invasive procedure with inherent risk. The aim of this study is to discover novel noninvasive specific serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-induced LC. We performed bead fractionation/MALDI-TOF MS analysis on sera from patients with LC. Thirteen feature peaks which had optimal discriminatory performance were obtained by using support-vector-machine-(SVM-) based strategy. Based on the previous results, five supervised machine learning methods were employed to construct classifiers that discriminated proteomic spectra of patients with HBV-induced LC from those of controls. Here, we describe two novel methods for prediction of HBV-induced LC, termed LC-NB and LC-MLP, respectively. We obtained a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 94.9%, and overall accuracy of 93.8% on an independent test set. Comparisons with the existing methods showed that LC-NB and LC-MLP held better accuracy. Our study suggests that potential serum biomarkers can be determined for discriminating LC and non-LC cohorts by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These two classifiers could be used for clinical practice in HBV-induced LC assessment. PMID:23509784

Cao, Yuan; He, Kun; Cheng, Ming; Si, Hai-Yan; Zhang, He-Lin; Song, Wei; Li, Ai-Ling; Hu, Cheng-Jin; Wang, Na

2013-02-19

199

Serum hepatitis B surface antigen is correlated with intrahepatic total HBV DNA and cccDNA in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B but not in patients with HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate correlations between intrahepatic hepatitis B virus total DNA, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), and serum HBsAg in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B and HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver tissues were taken from 42 HBV related HCC and 36 patients with chronic hepatitis B. A fraction of DNA extracted from liver tissue was digested with a plasmid-safe ATP-dependent DNase and used for HBV cccDNA detection. The remaining DNA was used for the detection of HBV total DNA and ?-globin, the latter of which is a housekeeping gene and quantified for normalization by real-time PCR. Quantitation of serum HBsAg was performed by a chemiluminescence assay. Serum HBsAg had positive correlations with serum HBV DNA (r?=?0.636, P?HBV total DNA (r?=?0.519, P?=?0.001) and cccDNA (r?=?0.733, P?HBV cccDNA and total DNA were significantly higher in liver tissue from chronic hepatitis B than in tumor and non-tumor of HCC (P?HBV DNA were also higher in chronic hepatitis B than in HCC (P?

Wang, Meirong; Qiu, Ning; Lu, Shichun; Xiu, Dianrong; Yu, Jianguo; Wang, Xing Tai; Lu, Fengmin; Li, Tong; Liu, Xueen; Zhuang, Hui

2012-11-20

200

Overexpression of HGF Promotes HBV-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Is an Effective Indicator for Met-Targeting Therapy  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well-known cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the regulators effectively driving virus production and HCC progression remain unclear. By using genetically engineered mouse models, we show that overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) accelerated HCC progression, supporting the genomic analysis that an up-regulated HGF signature is associated with poor prognosis in HBV-positive HCC patients. We show that for both liver regeneration and spontaneous HCC development there is an inclusive requirement for MET expression, and when HGF induces autocrine activation the tumor displays sensitivity to a small-molecule Met inhibitor. Our results demonstrate that HGF is a driver of HBV-induced HCC progression and may serve as an effective biomarker for Met-targeted therapy. MET inhibitors are entering clinical trials against cancer, and our data provide a molecular basis for targeting the Met pathway in hepatitis B–induced HCC.

Su, Yanli; Dykema, Karl; Johnson, Jennifer; Koeman, Julie; De Giorgi, Valeria; Huang, Alan; Schlegel, Robert; Essenburg, Curt; Kang, Liang; Iwaya, Keiichi; Seki, Shuhji; Khoo, Sok Kean; Zhang, Boheng; Buonaguro, Franco; Marincola, Francesco M.; Furge, Kyle; Vande Woude, George F.

2013-01-01

201

Prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV): a comparison of two prophylactic schedules.  

PubMed

Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from HBsAg carrier mothers who were HBeAg+, antiHBe+, or negative for both HBe markers, was interrupted using either 4 doses of vaccine, or one dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) at birth, combined with 4 doses of vaccine. In those infants who received HBIG at birth, the antiHBs titre was significantly higher at 1 and 2 months old, but at 6, 9, and 18 months old, there was no significant difference. Among the infants of carrier mothers who did not display HBeAg (i.e., were antiHBe+, or negative for both HBe markers), a transient subclinical infection would have been expected in around 10% had there been no intervention. No evidence of such infection was detected, and no difference in outcome was found between the two treatment groups. Amongst infants born to HBeAg+ carrier mothers, infection occurred in 1 out of 8 who had received HBIG and vaccine, and in 3 of 8 who had received vaccine only. The difference in outcome was not statistically significant, but the numbers analysed were small. The infections which occurred in spite of prophylaxis may be attributable to in utero infection, poor response to vaccine by the infant, or to the mother having a particularly high HBV-DNA level. HBIG given at birth to infants of HBeAg+ carrier mothers may enhance the protection of infants who are destined to be poor responders to vaccine. PMID:1839553

Wheeley, S M; Jackson, P T; Boxall, E H; Tarlow, M J; Gatrad, A R; Anderson, J; Bissenden, J

1991-11-01

202

Prevalence of HBV, HDV and HCV hepatitis markers in HIV-positive patients.  

PubMed

Since HIV infection could condition the natural history of parenterally transmitted viral hepatitis (HBV, HCV, HDV), with possibly differing effects in different risk groups, we decided to retrospectively examine sera from a cohort of 637 HIV seropositive patients in different stages of infection, seen from 1985 to 1992, to study the prevalence and temporal course of these infections. Virological markers of HBV, HCV and HDV were determined by ELISA and RIBA methods. The severity of HIV infection was higher in homosexuals than in drug addicts. Prevalence of antiHBc antibodies was 82% in drug addicts and 77% in homosexuals, whereas antiHCV antibodies prevalence was 72% in drug addicts and only 7% in homosexuals (p < 0.000001). When only antiHBc-positive patients were considered, there was a significant difference in antiHBs antibodies between drug addicts (DA) and homosexuals (OR for DA 0.29, 95% CI 0.08/0.83, p = 0.02), suggesting that drug addicts are less able to produce a protective response. This fact cannot be explained by the severity of HIV infection (which was higher among the homosexual group) and suggests some immunodepressive effect of drug abuse. Delta infection was only detected in the drug addict group, and the prevalence was low. Finally, we cannot confirm the interference of HCV infection with the speed of HBsAg clearance: in this study the prevalence of HBsAg was almost the same in HCV-positive and negative patients. PMID:7672063

Francisci, D; Baldelli, F; Papili, R; Stagni, G; Pauluzzi, S

1995-04-01

203

Correlation Between Viral Load of HBV in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients and Precore and Basal Core Promoter Mutations  

PubMed Central

Background More than two billion people have been exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Furthermore, four hundred million of them are infected with chronic HBV infection. The predominant mutation of the precore region involves a G to A change at nucleotide1896, which creates a premature stop codon at codon 28. Two mutations of A1762T and G1764A are reported as the most prevalent mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP). Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mutations in precore (PC) and basal core promoter regions, and the viral load. Patients and Methods Fifty serum samples from patients with hepatitis B were used. Levels of liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured at the same time of serological markers of hepatitis B by ELISA. HBV-DNA was extracted from the sera, and then PCR performed on the HBV-DNA extracted with the use of specific primer of gene C. HBV viral load was determined by real-time PCR. The PC/ BCP mutations were determined by applying Line Probe Assay technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 20. Results Only 82% of the patients were HBeAb positive and 76% of the patients had basal core/ precore mutations and mean viral load was 3/7 × 106 ± 9/7 × 105 IU/ml. Prevalence of mutations in the precore and basal core promoter regions were 46% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions Our data indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between HBV viral load and mutations in precore region (P < 0.05).

Ghabeshi, Soad; Sharifi, Zohreh; Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Mahmoodian Shooshtari, Mahmood

2013-01-01

204

CoursePro 0.7.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No doubt there are students (and teachers) who will find Course Pro 0.7.0 quite a helpful application to have around. The application allows users to keep track of courses, course data, assignments and grades. Within each of these areas, users can define assignment types, assign weights to each assignment, create new assignments, and add indicators to keep abreast of when various assignments are due. The website for the program also features some nice screenshots, a help forum, and contact information. This version of Course Pro 0.7.0 is compatible with all systems running Windows 95 and above, and for the Palm OS as well.

Meehl, Keith

205

Hepatitis B virus infection and immunization status in a new generation of injection drug users in San Francisco: HBV infection and immunization in young IDU  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common among injection drug users (IDU). Younger IDU, however, may be less susceptible to infection due to the implementa- tion of public health interventions, such as universal immunization programs and syringe exchange programs. To investigate the current epidemiology of HBV infection and control among a new generation of drug users in the United

P. J. Lum; J. A. Hahn; K. P. Shafer; J. L. Evans; P. J. Davidson; E. Stein; A. R. Moss

2007-01-01

206

Downregulation of the AU-Rich RNA-Binding Protein ZFP36 in Chronic HBV Patients: Implications for Anti-Inflammatory Therapy  

PubMed Central

Inflammation caused by chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, the mechanisms by which HBV infection induces inflammation and inflammatory cytokine production remain largely unknown. We analyzed the gene expression patterns of lymphocytes from chronic HBV-infected patients and found that the expression of ZFP36, an AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein, was dramatically reduced in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from chronic HBV patients. ZFP36 expression was also reduced in CD14+ monocytes and in total PBMCs from chronic HBV patients. To investigate the functional consequences of reduced ZFP36 expression, we knocked down ZFP36 in PBMCs from healthy donors using siRNA. siRNA-mediated silencing of ZFP36 resulted in dramatically increased expression of multiple inflammatory cytokines, most of which were also increased in the plasma of chronic HBV patients. Furthermore, we found that IL-8 and RANTES induced ZFP36 downregulation, and this effect was mediated through protein kinase C. Importantly, we found that HBsAg stimulated PBMCs to express IL-8 and RANTES, resulting in decreased ZFP36 expression. Our results suggest that an inflammatory feedback loop involving HBsAg, ZFP36, and inflammatory cytokines may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic HBV and further indicate that ZFP36 may be an important target for anti-inflammatory therapy during chronic HBV infection.

Liao, Hui-Yu; Gong, Lu-Lu; Yuan, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Ding; Feng, Xia; Liu, Jing-Jun; Wang, Yu; Chen, Guo-Feng; Yan, Hui-Ping; He, You-Wen

2012-01-01

207

CGK733 enhances multinucleated cell formation and cytotoxicity induced by taxol in Chk1-deficient HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly human cancers. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the predominant risk factors associated with the development of HCC and complicates the treatment of HCC. In this study, we demonstrate that a HBV-positive HCC cell line HepG2.2.15, was more resistant to chemotherapy agents than its parental HBV-negative cell line HepG2. HBV-positive HCC cells exhibited defective Chk1 phosphorylation and increased chromosomal instability. CGK733, a small molecule inhibitor reportedly targeting the kinase activities of ATM and ATR, significantly enhanced taxol-induced cytotoxicity in HBV-positive HepG2.2.15 cells. The mechanism lies in CGK733 triggers the formation of multinucleated cells thus promotes the premature mitotic exit of taxol-induced mitotic-damaged cells through multinucleation and mitotic catastrophe in HBV-positive HepG2.2.15 cells. These results suggest that CGK733 could potentially reverse the taxol resistance in HBV-positive HCC cells and may suggest a novel strategy to treat HBV-infected HCC patients. PMID:22564734

Wang, Huan; Zuo, Bin; Wang, Haibin; Ren, Laifeng; Yang, Peng; Zeng, Ming; Duan, Dan; Liu, Cong; Li, Mingyuan

2012-04-30

208

High Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV and Co-Infection and Associated Risk Factors among Injecting Drug Users in Yunnan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV and co-infection with 2 or 3 viruses and evaluate risk factors among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan province, China. Methods 2080 IDUs were recruited from 5 regions of Yunnan Province, China to detect the infection status of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate risk factors related to HIV, HCV and HBV infections. Results The infection rates among all participants were 25.5% for HIV, 77.7% for HCV, 19.2% for HBV, 15% for HIV/HCV, 0.3% for HIV/HBV, 7.8% for HCV/HBV and 7.1% for HIV/HCV/HBV. The prevalence of virus infection varied widely by region in Yunnan of China. Statistical analyses indicated that high prevalence of HIV and HCV among IDUs was positively associated with the duration of drug injection and sharing needles/syringes; besides, HCV infection was associated with the frequency of drug injection. Conclusions HIV, HCV, HBV infections and co-infections were still very prevalent among IDUs in Yunnan province because of drug use behaviors.

Liu, Feng-Liang; Li, Hong; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jia-Wu; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2012-01-01

209

Application of nested PCR and mass spectrometry for DNA-based virus detection: HBV-DNA detected in the majority of isolated anti-HBc positive sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA preparations from three different groups of serum samples were examined for HBV-DNA via a nested polymerase chain reaction assay (lower detection limit: 10 viral genomes in 100 ?l serum): Group I consisted of 11 uninfected control sera, group II consisted of sera obtained from 11 HBV infected patients and group III consisted of 21 isolated anti-HBc positive samples. The

Christian Jurinke; Bernhard Zöllner; Heinz-Hubert Feucht; Dirk van den Boom; Anette Jacob; Susanne Polywka; Rainer Laufs; Hubert Köster

1998-01-01

210

Integrations of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) into the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene in liver and cervical cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic infections with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cervical cancer (CC), respectively. HBV and HPV are DNA viruses that almost invariably integrate into the host genome in invasive tumors. The viral integration sites occur throughout the genome, leading to the presumption that there are no preferred

M J Ferber; D P Montoya; C Yu; I Aderca; A McGee; E C Thorland; D M Nagorney; B S Gostout; L J Burgart; L Boix; J Bruix; B J McMahon; T H Cheung; T K H Chung; Y F Wong; D I Smith; L R Roberts

2003-01-01

211

The G1613A Mutation in the HBV Genome Affects HBeAg Expression and Viral Replication through Altered Core Promoter Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis and is closely associated with the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we demonstrated that the G1613A mutation in the HBV negative regulatory element (NRE) is a hotspot mutation in HCC patients. In this study, we further investigated the functional consequences of this mutation in the context

Man-Shan Li; Terrence Chi-Kong Lau; Sophie Ka-Ping Chan; Chi-Hang Wong; Patrick Kwok-Shing Ng; Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung; Henry Lik-Yuen Chan; Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui

2011-01-01

212

Myristoylation signal transfer from the large to the middle or the small HBV envelope protein leads to a loss of HDV particles infectivity.  

PubMed

A myristate linked to the N-terminus of the large hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope protein was found to be required for infectivity of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). Myristoylation of the large HBV envelope protein being known as indispensable for HBV infectivity, this result further demonstrates the similarities between the HBV and HDV entry pathways. In addition, the transfer of the N-myristoylation signal from the large to the middle or the small HBV envelope protein led in both cases to a loss of HDV infectivity. Hence, it is suggested that viral entry could depend on a physical link, or a spatial association, between the N-terminal receptor-binding polypeptide of the large protein and the myristoyl anchor linked to glycine-2. PMID:17462692

Abou-Jaoudé, Georges; Molina, Sonia; Maurel, Patrick; Sureau, Camille

2007-04-25

213

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children: 25 years' experience.  

PubMed

Whereas e-seroconversion represents the loss of hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) followed by gain of antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe), 'inactive chronic infection' extends this concept to include e-seroconversion with decreased serum viral load and biochemical remission. These events must be well-characterized before treatment outcomes can be evaluated. We examined the rates of e-seroconversion and achievement of inactive chronic infection among children with chronic HBV infection. Children who were HBsAg positive >6 months were identified retrospectively between 1983 and 2008 from the Hospital for Sick Children Liver Clinic. Inactive chronic infection was defined as loss of HBeAg, serum ALT ?40 IU/mL, and HBV DNA <10(6 ) IU/mL. Both e-seroconversion and achievement of inactive chronic infection were characterized using survival analysis. The effect of transmission route, treatment, age at diagnosis, ethnicity, gender and baseline ALT on these rates was evaluated with univariate and multiple regression. Of 252 HBeAg-positive cases, 59.9% had HBV-infected mothers, 77% were Asian, and 33 received interferon-?. Untreated children were younger at last follow-up (mean 14.5 vs 17.6 years), had lower ALT (median 60 vs 116 IU/mL) and had shorter follow-up (6.6 vs 9.1 years, all P < 0.002) compared to treated children. Crude e-seroconversion rate was 41.7% over 0.5-19.1 years of follow-up, and this was not affected by transmission route (P = 0.93), gender (P = 0.62) nor treatment (P = 0.08). 49% achieved inactive chronic infection by age 19 years. Being non-Asian, age at diagnosis<3 years, and ALT ?40 IU/mL were associated with a higher rate of e-seroconversion and achieving inactive chronic infection (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of children achieved inactive chronic infection by early adulthood. PMID:23490385

Popalis, C; Yeung, L T F; Ling, S C; Ng, V; Roberts, E A

2012-11-19

214

Communicating Stigma: The Pro-Ana Paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype,

Daphna Yeshua-Katz; Nicole Martins

2012-01-01

215

Winning Pro-Choice Women for Bush  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bush campaign adopted a Big Tent strategy that emphasized that national security and the war on terrorism were the most important issues facing voters. By using pro-choice surrogates to deliver this message and by scaring white married women with children through traditional and new media techniques, many of these security moms voted for Bush because they felt safer with

Tanya Melich

216

(Pro)Renin Receptor Peptide Inhibitor \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a new component the renin-angiotensin system, was cloned recently. The (P)RR promotes direct mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and nonproteolytic prorenin activation. We investigated the role of a (P)RR blocker, a peptide consisting of 10 amino acids from the prorenin prosegment called the \\

Dominik N. Muller; Bernd Klanke; Sandra Feldt; Nada Cordasic; Andrea Hartner; Roland E. Schmieder; Friedrich C. Luft; Karl F. Hilgers

217

Pro-senescence therapy for cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant evidence points to a crucial physiological role for cellular senescence in combating tumorigenesis. Thus, the engagement of senescence may represent a key component for therapeutic intervention in the eradication of cancer. In this Opinion article, we focus on concepts that are relevant to a pro-senescence approach to therapy and we propose potential therapeutic strategies that aim to enhance the

Caterina Nardella; John G. Clohessy; Andrea Alimonti; Pier Paolo Pandolfi

2011-01-01

218

Network of hydrogen bonds in Pro-Ala-Pro and Pro-Phe-Pro diamides: A first principles study of Ala-->Phe point mutation in proline environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the Pro-Ala-Pro and Pro-Phe-Pro tripeptides has been characterized using Bader's atoms in molecule (AIM) analyses of relevant electron density topologies. The properties of hydrogen bonds with corresponding ring strains were investigated. Good correlations along the decrease in electron densities at ring critical points were examined from five- to ten-membered hydrogen-bound ring sizes; seven-membered rings being the most energetically favored. AIM analysis confirms the logical conclusion that the molecule has to become very compact to form as many hydrogen bonds as possible. The relatively large hydrogen bond stabilization attributed to the pronounced network of interactions comes at the ``energetic expense'' of a relatively large internal repulsion due to the compactness of the structures. The net balanced result was a very modest increase in the zero point corrected conformation energy (?EZPEC). These findings aid in establishing hydrogen bonding rules in reductionist ``bottoms-up'' approaches to peptide and protein folding.

Wang, Hui; Csizmadia, Imre G.; Marsi, Istvan; Chasse, Gregory A.; Fang, Decai; Viskolcz, Bela

2009-07-01

219

Pro-inflammatory mechanisms in sepsis.  

PubMed

Sepsis is characterised by a hyper-inflammatory response due to microbial infection. We here review our current understanding of host mechanisms employed to mediate this hyper-inflammatory response, drawing together current knowledge pertaining to pathogen recognition and host pro-inflammatory response. Recognition of microbial derived ligands by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key step in initiating pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. Examples of PRRs linked to the aetiology of sepsis include Toll-like, C-type lectin, RIG-1-like and also Nod-like receptors, which are involved in the formation of the inflammasome, crucial for the maturation of some pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bacterial superantigens have evolved to exploit host MHC class II and T cell receptors (normally considered part of the adaptive immune response) as innate PRRs to propagate a so-called 'cytokine storm', while synergy between different microbial ligands and host-derived alarmins can augment the inflammatory response still further through as yet poorly understood interactions. The host pro-inflammatory response results in the characteristic features of inflammation: rubor, calor, dolor, and tumor. We will review herein the key mediators of inflammation in sepsis, identifying their overlapping and intersecting roles in vascular changes in tone, endothelial permeability, coagulation and contact activation, leukocyte mobilisation and activation. PMID:21659748

Chong, Deborah L W; Sriskandan, Shiranee

2011-06-09

220

A Novel Inhibitor of Human La Protein with Anti-HBV Activity Discovered by Structure-Based Virtual Screening and In Vitro Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Over 350 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current therapeutic agents are highly effective, but are also associated with development of viral resistance. Therefore, strategies for identifying other anti-HBV agents with specific, but distinctive mechanisms of action are needed. The human La (hLa) protein, which forms a stabilizing complex with HBV RNA ribonucleoprotein to promote HBV replication, is a promising target of molecular therapy. Aims This study aimed to discover novel inhibitors of hLa that could inhibit HBV replication and expression. Methods A multistage molecular docking approach was used to screen a Specs database and an in-house library against hLa binding sites. Sequential in vitro evaluations were performed to detect potential compounds with high scores in HepG2.2.15 cells. Results Of the 26 potential compounds with high scores chosen for experimental verification, 12 had HBV DNA inhibition ratios of less than 50% with P<0.05. Six had significant inhibition of HBV e antigen (HBeAg) levels, and 13 had significant inhibition of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) levels by in vitro assays. Compounds HBSC-11, HBSC-15 and HBSC-34 (HBSC is system prefix for active compounds screened by the library) were selected for evaluation. HBSC-11 was found to have an obvious inhibitory effect on hLa transcription and expression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that anti-HBV activity of HBSC-11 may be mediated by a reduction in hLa levels. In addition, our data suggest the potential clinical use of hLa inhibitors, such as HBSC-11, for treating HBV infection.

Tang, Jing; Huang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Ying-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Gao-Lin; Zhang, Jian

2012-01-01

221

Sequence conservation of the region targeted by the Abbott RealTime HBV viral load assay in clinical specimens.  

PubMed

The Abbott RealTime HBV assay targets the N-terminal region of the S gene. Here we analyzed the sequence variability of the assay target region from >2,100 clinical specimens. Thermodynamic modeling of the percentage of bound primer/probe at the assay annealing temperature was performed to assess the potential effect of sequence variability. PMID:23345287

Cloherty, Gavin A; Rhoads, James; Young, Thomas P; Parkin, Neil T; Holzmayer, Vera; Yuen, Lilly; Mullen, Carolyn

2013-01-23

222

Risks for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections among male injection drug users in northern Vietnam: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection drug use (IDU) and HIV infection are important public health problems in Vietnam. The IDU population increased 70% from 2000 to 2004 and is disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS – the country's second leading cause of death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share transmission routes with HIV and cause serious medical consequences. This study

Vu Minh Quan; Vivian F. Go; Le Van Nam; Anna Bergenstrom; Nguyen Phuong Thuoc; Jonathan Zenilman; Carl Latkin; David D. Celentano

2009-01-01

223

Sequence Conservation of the Region Targeted by the Abbott RealTime HBV Viral Load Assay in Clinical Specimens  

PubMed Central

The Abbott RealTime HBV assay targets the N-terminal region of the S gene. Here we analyzed the sequence variability of the assay target region from >2,100 clinical specimens. Thermodynamic modeling of the percentage of bound primer/probe at the assay annealing temperature was performed to assess the potential effect of sequence variability.

Rhoads, James; Young, Thomas P.; Parkin, Neil T.; Holzmayer, Vera; Yuen, Lilly; Mullen, Carolyn

2013-01-01

224

HBx-induced androgen receptor expression in HBV-associated hepatocarcinoma is independent of the methylation status of its promoter.  

PubMed

A remarkable feature of HBV-associated HCC is male predominance. The cooperation of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) with androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway has been documented to contribute to this dominance. HBx, a multifunctional viral regulator, has been documented to induce promoter hypermethylation and low expression of tumor suppressor genes via activation of DNA methyl-transferase (DNMT) in hepatocarcinogenesis. In prostate cancer, hypermethylation of AR promoter is associated with loss of AR expression. However, the relationship among HBx, DNMTs, the methylation status of AR and AR expression in HBV-associated HCC is still unknown. In this report, we found that HBx correlated with high levels of AR in HCC cases and induced AR expression by stimulating its transcription in liver cell lines. HBx correlated with high expression of DNMTs in HCC cases too. Both in vivo and in vitro, however, the expression of AR was not associated with its promoter methylation status, and the methylation status of AR was not regulated by DNMTs. AR expression is higher in peritumoral tissues than in tumors, as well as being higher in HBV-associated HCC than in HBV-negative cases. Therefore, HBx-induced high expression of AR plays a role during hepatocarcinogenesis, but is not involved with its promoter methylation or DNMTs. HBx-mediated DNMT deregulation is gene-specific, and the expression and methylated regulation of AR is tissue-specific. PMID:21117024

Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Jian-Sheng; Zhu, Ya-Zhen; Fan, Jia; Mao, Yi; Chen, Qi; Zhu, Hong-Guang

2011-01-01

225

Immune Exhaustion and Immune Senescence - Two Distinct Pathways for HBV Vaccine Failure during HCV and/or HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Given the shared risk factors for transmission, co-infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is quite common, and may lead to increases in morbidity and mortality. As such, HBV vaccine is recommended as the primary means to prevent HBV super-infection in HCV- and/or HIV-infected individuals. However, vaccine response (sero-conversion with a hepatitis B surface antibody titer >10 IU/L) in this setting is often blunted, with poor response rates to standard HBV vaccinations in virally infected individuals when compared to the healthy subjects. This phenomenon also occurs to other vaccines in adults, such as pneumococcal and influenza vaccines, in other immunocompromised hosts who are really at risk for opportunistic infections, such as individuals with hemodialysis, transplant, and malignancy. In this review, we summarize the underlying mechanisms involving vaccine failure in these conditions, focusing on immune exhaustion and immune senescence - two distinct signaling pathways regulating cell function and fate. We raise the possibility that blocking these negative signaling pathways might improve success rates of immunizations in the setting of chronic viral infection.

Yao, Zhi Q.; Moorman, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

226

Chimaeric HBV core particles carrying a defined segment of Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid protein evoke protective immunity in an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hantaviruses are rodent-born agents which are pathogenic in humans causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. To induce a protective immunity against a European hantavirus (Puumala) we constructed chimaeric hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles carrying defined fragments of the Puumala virus nucleocapsid protein. After immunisation of bank voles, the natural host of Puumala virus, with core

Rainer Ulrich; Åke Lundkvist; Helga Meisel; Diana Koletzki; Katarina Brus Sjölander; Hans R. Gelderblom; Galina Borisova; Paul Schnitzler; Gholamreza Darai; Detlev H. Krüger

1998-01-01

227

Resistance to adefovir dipivoxil therapy associated with the selection of a novel mutation in the HBV polymerase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims:Adefovir dipivoxil effectively inhibits both hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and disease activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Resistance to treatment was not observed in 2 recent large placebo-controlled 48-week studies with this drug. The aim of this study was to characterize adefovir resistance in a patient who developed clinical and virologic evidence of breakthrough during a

Peter Angus; Rhys Vaughan; Shelly Xiong; Huiling Yang; William Delaney; Craig Gibbs; Carol Brosgart; Danielle Colledge; Rosalind Edwards; Anna Ayres; Angeline Bartholomeusz; Stephen Locarnini

2003-01-01

228

Simultaneous screening for HBV DNA and HCV RNA genomes in blood donations using a novel TaqMan PCR assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of contracting hepatitis from blood transfusions is estimated to be 1 in 63?000 in the case of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 1 in 103?000 in the case of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In some countries (Germany, USA and England, for example), molecular protocols are evaluated to detect viral genomes in blood donations in order to reduce the

Bernard Mercier; Laetitia Burlot; Claude Férec

1999-01-01

229

CLMA position on HIV/HBV testing of health-care workers. Clinical Laboratory Management Association.  

PubMed

In February 1991, CLMA's National Affairs Committee (NAC) developed a proposed position statement on mandatory HIV/HBV testing of health-care workers. The proposed statement was submitted to the 24-member National Affairs Reactor Panel and, based on their input, appropriate revisions were made. In May 1991, CLMA surveyed the full membership, and, as a result, the following position was adopted. Ninety-six percent of the members responding agreed with principles 1, 2, and 3; 88% agreed with 4, 5, and 6. NAC members include Royal A. Crystal, Chair; Linda D. Bielitzki, J.D., Vice Chair; Michael G. Bissell, M.D., Ph.D.; Earl C. Buck; Michael A. Maffetone, D. A.; Timothy Murray; Laurence J. Peterson; Marianne C. Watters; and Martha A. Feichter, National Affairs Analyst. PMID:10128723

230

Factors Associated with Elevated ALT in an International HIV/HBV Co-Infected Cohort on Long-Term HAART  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk for ALT elevations in HIV-HBV co-infected patients during the first year of HAART; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of ALT elevations with prolonged HAART in this patient group. Methods/Principal findings To identify factors associated with ALT elevations in an HIV-HBV co-infected cohort receiving prolonged HAART, data from 143 co-infected patients on HAART enrolled in an international HIV-HBV co-infected cohort where ALT measurements were obtained every 6 months was analysed. A person-visit analysis was used to determine frequency of ALT elevation (?2.5×ULN) at each visit. Factors associated with ALT elevation were determined using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for correlated data. The median time on HAART at the end of follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.4–13.3) years. During follow-up, median ALT was 36 U/L with 10.6% of person-visits classified as having ALT elevation. Most ALT elevations were grade 2 (86.5%), with only 13.5% of all ALT elevations grade 3 or higher. Univariate associations with ALT elevation (p<0.05) included history of AIDS, HBV DNA ?2,000 IU/ml, HBeAg positive, study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml and nadir CD4 <200 cells/ml. In the multivariate analysis, only study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.04–4.11, p?=?0.04) and HBeAg positive status (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.03–4.79, p?=?0.04) were independently associated with ALT elevation. Conclusions In this HIV-HBV co-infected cohort, elevated ALT after >1 year of HAART was uncommon, and severe ALT elevations were rare. HIV-HBV co-infected patients on long-term HAART who are either HBeAg positive or have a CD4 count of <200 cells/ml are at increased risk for ALT elevations.

Audsley, Jennifer; Seaberg, Eric C.; Sasadeusz, Joe; Matthews, Gail V.; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Fairley, Kit; Finlayson, Robert; Hwang, Hyon S.; Littlejohn, Margaret; Locarnini, Stephen; Dore, Gregory J.; Thio, Chloe L.; Lewin, Sharon R.

2011-01-01

231

Eight-Year Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV in Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital  

PubMed Central

Distribution of HBV, HCV and HIV results of the inpatients or outpatients, who had been treated for various diagnoses in Diyarbak?r Training and Research Hospital between 2005 and 2012, among years was investigated. Files of the patients, who had been treated as inpatient or outpatient 992. to any diagnosis between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2012 in the clinics or policlinics of Diyarbak?r 581 due Training and Research Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed using patient file database. Serum samples (235.534 for HBsAg, 196.727 for Anti-HBs antibody, 98.497 for HBeAg, 97.417 for Anti-HBe antibody, 225.483 for HCV and 138.923 for HIV) of these patients, which had been processed in microbiology laboratory, were studied by chemiluminescence technique using Roche E-170 (Modular Analytics System) device. Prevalence rates between 2005 and 2012 were as follows: 15.9%-9% for HBsAg, 32.9%-52.3% for Anti-HBs, 2.5%-1.8% for HBeAg, 30.4%-25.2% for Anti-HBe, 1%-0.7% for Anti-HCV, and 0.1%-1% for Anti-HIV. Increase in Anti-HBs prevalence is the successful outcome of routine immunization in population. This suggests that, governmental policies focused on this subject have resulted in successful outcomes and that people also take care about this. A prevalence rate decreasing to 9% from 15.9% for HBsAg and prevalence rate increasing to 52.3% from 32.9% for Anti-HBs antibody positivity in 8-year period in our region is quite meaningful. Such favorable developments in our region are of great valuable in terms of indicating to what extent could struggle against HBV is controlled by education and awareness.

Turhanoglu, Mine; Onur, Arzu; Bilman, Fulya Bay?nd?r; Ayayd?n, Zeynep; Aktar, Gulseren Samanc?

2013-01-01

232

Eight-Year Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV in Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital.  

PubMed

Distribution of HBV, HCV and HIV results of the inpatients or outpatients, who had been treated for various diagnoses in Diyarbak?r Training and Research Hospital between 2005 and 2012, among years was investigated. Files of the patients, who had been treated as inpatient or outpatient 992. to any diagnosis between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2012 in the clinics or policlinics of Diyarbak?r 581 due Training and Research Hospital, were retrospectively reviewed using patient file database. Serum samples (235.534 for HBsAg, 196.727 for Anti-HBs antibody, 98.497 for HBeAg, 97.417 for Anti-HBe antibody, 225.483 for HCV and 138.923 for HIV) of these patients, which had been processed in microbiology laboratory, were studied by chemiluminescence technique using Roche E-170 (Modular Analytics System) device. Prevalence rates between 2005 and 2012 were as follows: 15.9%-9% for HBsAg, 32.9%-52.3% for Anti-HBs, 2.5%-1.8% for HBeAg, 30.4%-25.2% for Anti-HBe, 1%-0.7% for Anti-HCV, and 0.1%-1% for Anti-HIV. Increase in Anti-HBs prevalence is the successful outcome of routine immunization in population. This suggests that, governmental policies focused on this subject have resulted in successful outcomes and that people also take care about this. A prevalence rate decreasing to 9% from 15.9% for HBsAg and prevalence rate increasing to 52.3% from 32.9% for Anti-HBs antibody positivity in 8-year period in our region is quite meaningful. Such favorable developments in our region are of great valuable in terms of indicating to what extent could struggle against HBV is controlled by education and awareness. PMID:24046538

Turhano?lu, Mine; Onur, Arzu; Bilman, Fulya Bay?nd?r; Ayayd?n, Zeynep; Aktar, Gülseren Samanc?

2013-09-12

233

Solution structure of the pro-hormone convertase 1 pro-domain from Mus musculus.  

PubMed

The solution structure of the mouse pro-hormone convertase (PC) 1 pro-domain was determined using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy and is the first structure to be obtained for any of the domains in the convertase family. The ensemble of NMR-derived structures shows a well-ordered core consisting of a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet with two alpha-helices packed against one side of this sheet. Sequence homology suggests that the other eukaryotic PC pro-domains will have the same overall fold and most of the residues forming the hydrophobic core of PC1 are highly conserved within the PC family. However, some of the core residues are predicted by homology to be replaced by polar amino acid residues in other PC pro-domains and this may help to explain their marginal stability. Interestingly, the folding topology observed here is also seen for the pro-domain of bacterial subtilisin despite little or no sequence homology. Both the prokaryotic and eukaryotic structures have hydrophobic residues clustered on the solvent-accessible surface of their beta-sheets although the individual residue types differ. In the bacterial case this region is buried at the binding interface with the catalytic domain and, in the eukaryotic PC family, these surface residues are conserved. We therefore propose that the hydrophobic patch in the PC1 pro-domain is involved in the binding interface with its cognate catalytic domain in a similar manner to that seen for the bacterial system. The PC1 pro-domain structure also reveals potential mechanisms for the acid-induced dissociation of the complex between pro- and catalytic domains. PMID:12095256

Tangrea, Michael A; Bryan, Philip N; Sari, Nese; Orban, John

2002-07-19

234

Optimisation of Prime-Boost Immunization in Mice Using Novel Protein-Based and Recombinant Vaccinia (Tiantan)-Based HBV Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Background A therapeutic vaccine for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection that enhances virus-specific cellular immune responses is urgently needed. The “prime–boost” regimen is a widely used vaccine strategy against many persistence infections. However, few reports have addressed this strategy applying for HBV therapeutic vaccine development. Methodology/Principal Findings To develop an effective HBV therapeutic vaccine, we constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (Tiantan) containing the S+PreS1 fusion antigen (RVJSS1) combined with the HBV particle-like subunit vaccine HBVSS1 to explore the most effective prime–boost regimen against HBV. The immune responses to different prime–boost regimens were assessed in C57BL/C mice by ELISA, ELISpot assay and Intracellular cytokine staining analysis. Among the combinations tested, an HBV protein particle vaccine priming and recombinant vaccinia virus boosting strategy accelerated specific seroconversion and produced high antibody (anti-PreS1, anti-S antibody) titres as well as the strongest multi-antigen (PreS1, and S)-specific cellular immune response. HBSS1 protein prime/RVJSS1 boost immunization was also generated more significant level of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses for Th1 cytokines (TNF-? and IFN-?). Conclusions The HBSS1 protein-vaccine prime plus RVJSS1 vector boost elicits specific antibody as well as CD4 and CD8 cells secreting Th1-like cytokines, and these immune responses may be important parameters for the future HBV therapeutic vaccines.

Deng, Yao; Wen, Bo; Wang, Wen; Xiong, Shaoqing; Ruan, Li; Tan, Wenjie

2012-01-01

235

Hot topic: Changes in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and concentrations of the tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro during ripening of different Swiss cheese varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and the concentration of the 2 ACE-inhibiting tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) were studied during cheese ripening in 7 Swiss cheese varieties. The semi-hard cheeses Tilsiter, Appenzeller 1\\/4 fat, Tête de Moine, and Vacherin fribourgeois and the extra-hard and hard cheeses Berner Hobelkäse, Le Gruyère, and Emmentaler were investigated. Three loaves of each

J. Meyer; U. Bütikofer; B. Walther; D. Wechsler; R. Sieber

2009-01-01

236

PLZF and the (pro)renin receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, angiotensin II with its respective receptors was considered to be the only effector molecule within the renin–angiotensin\\u000a system. Nevertheless, several studies indicated that renin (the enzyme catalyzing the generation of angiotensin I) and its\\u000a enzymatically inactive precursor prorenin may have an angiotensin-II-independent (patho)physiological significance. In 2002,\\u000a a specific (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR)) which increases the enzymatic activity of

Jan H. Schefe; Thomas Unger; Heiko Funke-Kaiser

2008-01-01

237

PRO-POOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN VIETNAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remarkable pro-poor growth has been a salient feature of Vietnam's outstanding success in economic development in the last two decades. During the period 1993-2004, poverty incidence reduced by almost 39 percentage points from 58.1% to 19.5%. In annual terms, a growth rate of GDP per capita of nearly 5.9% was associated with a reduction in poverty by roughly 9.4 percent,

DOAN HONG QUANG

238

Pro-Life nurses uniting for service.  

PubMed

The Missouri Pro-Life Nurses claim that nurses have lost the ethical basis of their profession. Nurses need to reexamine their attitudes at a time when 1 in 5 physician-members of the American Society of Internal Medicine admits to deliberately helping a patient end his or her life, and when many physicians and nurses favor euthanasia and abortion. Former Georgia nurse Joseph Dewey Akin was sentenced in October 1992 to life imprisonment for injecting Robert Price, a quadriplegic, with a lethal dose of lidocaine. Hospice nurse Darlene Leon of California is on trial for injecting 17 of her patients with lethal doses of morphine. A nurse from Georgia was indicted on one count of aggravated assault for attempting to kill her 87-year-old patient with an injection of potassium. Georgia nurse Jenny Serbes was charged with murder in the death of her husband with a lethal injection of insulin. The fierce argument about abortion and euthanasia now raging in America is this century's civil war. 20 years ago, in an effort to combat this tide, the National Association of Pro-Life Nurses (NAPN) was started, and its 1000 members want to demonstrate positive concern for all human life. NAPN attempts to educate nurses and the health care community on the legal and medical aspects of the ethical issues facing the profession. In October 1993 the first meeting of Illinois Pro-Life Nurses was held in suburban Chicago. The nurse-patient relationship can be viewed as a contract. Implicit in this relationship is the understanding that the nurse will do no harm. If the relationship is broken, the foundation on which nursing and medicine rest is shaken. Pro-life nursing organizations are trying to steer the nursing profession back on the right course. PMID:8006780

Sutherland, K

1994-01-01

239

IN VITRO INHIBITION OF THE ACTIVATION OF PRO-MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1 (PRO-MMP-1) AND PRO-MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9 (PRO-MMP-9) BY RICE AND SOYBEAN BOWMAN - BIRK INHIBITORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor (rBBI), or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (sBBI), against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metallogroteinase 1 or 9 (pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9), respectively, was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining, heparin...

240

Results of the PRoVisG Summer School 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2011 a Summer School inviting students and post docs as part of the EU FP7 project PRoVisG is taking place at the Technische Universität Berlin (TUB). Results of this Summer School are presented at EPSC 2011 and the current capabilities of the developed PRoVisG software, PRoViP, and project results are discussed.

Willner, K.; Barnes, D.; Paar, G.; Waugh, L.; Oberst, J.

2011-10-01

241

Chimeric Pro-Caspases and Methods of Using Same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a chimeric pro-caspase, which contains a pro-caspase domain and an oligomerizing domain. The invention also relates to an antibody that reacts specifically with a chimeric pro-caspase. In addition, the invention further re...

D. Baltimore H. Y. Chang X. Yang

2005-01-01

242

c[D-pro-Pro-D-pro-N-methyl-Ala] adopts a rigid conformation that serves as a scaffold to mimic reverse-turns.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring cyclic tetrapeptides (CTPs) such as tentoxin (Halloin et al., Plant Physiol 1970, 45, 310-314; Saad, Phytopathology 1970, 60, 415-418), ampicidin (Darkin-Rattray, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147), HC-toxin (Walton, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84, 8444-8447), and trapoxin (Yoshida and Sugita, Jpn J Cancer Res 1992, 83, 324-328; Itazaki et al., J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1990, 43, 1524-1532) have a wide range of biological activity and potential use ranging from herbicides (Walton, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84, 8444-8447; Judson, J Agric Food Chem 1987, 35, 451-456) to therapeutics (Loiseau, Biopolymers 2003, 69, 363-385) for malaria (Darkin-Rattray, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147) and cancer (Yoshida and Sugita, Jpn J Cancer Res 1992, 83, 324-328). To elucidate scaffolds that have few low-energy conformations and could serve as semirigid reverse-turn mimetics, the flexibility of CTPs was determined computationally. Four analogs of cyclic tetraproline c[Pro-pro-Pro-pro] with alternating L- and D-prolines, namely c[pro-Pro-pro-NMe-Ala], c[pip-Pro-pip-Pro], c[pro-Pip-pro-Pro], and c[Ala-Pro-pip-Pro] were synthesized and characterized by NOESY NMR. Both molecular mechanics and Density Functional Theory quantum calculations found these head-to-tail CTPs to be constrained to one or two relatively stable conformations. NMR structures, while not always yielding the same lowest energy conformation as expected by in silico predictions, confirmed only one or two highly populated solution conformations for all four peptides examined. c[pro-Pro-pro-NMe-Ala] was shown to have a single all trans-amide bond conformation from both in silico predictions and NMR characterization, and to be a reverse-turn mimetic by overlapping four Calpha-Cbeta bonds with those for approximately 6.5% (Tran, J Comput Aided Mol Des 2005, 19, 551-566) of reverse-turns in the Protein Data Bank PDB with a RMSD of 0.57 A. PMID:17941003

Arbor, Sage; Kao, Jeff; Wu, Yun; Marshall, Garland R

2008-01-01

243

Identification of novel 5-hydroxy-1 H -indole-3-carboxylates with anti-HBV activities based on 3D QSAR studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.\\u000a In our previous studies, we identified indole derivatives that have anti-HBV activities. In this study, we optimize a series\\u000a of 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylates, which exhibited potent anti-HBV activities, using three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity\\u000a relationship (3D QSAR) studies with comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and

Hui-fang Chai; Xin-xia Liang; Lin Li; Chun-shen Zhao; Ping Gong; Zhong-jie Liang; Wei-liang Zhu; Hua-liang Jiang; Cheng Luo

244

Potential risks of pro-eating disorder websites.  

PubMed

Although dangers of pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) websites have recently been discussed in the popular press, no integration of research findings on this topic yet exists. After completing a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles about pro-ED websites, we identified three possible risks as themes: operation under the guise of "support," reinforcement of disordered eating, and prevention of help-seeking and recovery. Pro-ED websites tend to be perceived as supportive by users, but instead appear to exacerbate or maintain users' eating disorder symptoms. We discuss research and clinical implications of these dangers. Future research should clarify how specific features of pro-ED websites contribute to the development, exacerbation, and maintenance of eating pathology, e.g., by employing experimental techniques and prospective designs with clinical samples and various ages. Despite limited empirical research on the topic, existing findings should prompt clinicians, parents, and researchers to remain vigilant about potential negative influences of pro-ED websites on users. PMID:21272967

Rouleau, Codie R; von Ranson, Kristin M

2010-12-28

245

Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

2006-08-01

246

HIV, HBV, and HCV Infections Among Drug-Involved, Inner-City, Street Sex Workers in Miami, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the rates of HIV, HBV, and HCV seropositivity among drug-involved, female street sex workers in low-income, inner-city sections of Miami, Florida; further, their sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed; and predictors of infection were reported. A sample of 586 sex workers was recruited through targeted sampling methods, interviewed, and counseled and tested for

James A. Inciardi; Hilary L. Surratt; Steven P. Kurtz

2006-01-01

247

Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV co-infection in selected individuals from state of São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Few studies are available on hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in populations living in small and medium-sized Brazilian cities. We evaluated the seroprevalence of these viruses in selected individuals from a clinic of infectology, who were referred to the University Regional Hospital of the West Region of state of São Paulo, Brazil. Among a total of 7,021 individuals seen in the clinic following receipt of preliminary ELISA results or having the suggested clinical signs of viral hepatitis or HIV, 1,228 were systematically screened. Isolated or associated HBsAg, HCV and HIV antibodies were found in 44.9% of the subjects. Anti-HIV antibodies were found in 24.7% of the patients, 20.3% of whom had an HIV monoinfection and 4.4% of whom were co-infected with hepatitis viruses (HCV: 4%; HBV: 0.4%). Anti-HCV antibodies were found in 14% of the patients and 5.9% had anti-HBsAg antibodies. HCV infection affected males more than females (p < 0.05) and individuals > 50-years old had an increased prevalence of anti-HCV compared to HIV (p = 0.0001) or HBV (p = 0.0063). HCV-RNA was detected in 73.5% of the samples with a predominance of genotype 1 (72.5%). A significant percentage (44.9%) of the selected individuals was positive for antibodies against HBV, HCV and/or HIV; these patients would otherwise have remained undiagnosed. PMID:20027460

Portelinha Filho, Alexandre Martins; Nascimento, Charles Ulloffo do; Tannouri, Talita Nicastro; Troiani, Charlene; Ascêncio, Eloah Lopes; Bonfim, Renata; D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida Zampieri; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel

2009-11-01

248

People with Multiple Tattoos and\\/or Piercings Are Not at Increased Risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and\\/or piercings in the Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in the Netherlands and\\/or abroad.MethodsTattoo artists,

Anouk T. Urbanus; Anneke van den Hoek; Albert Boonstra; Robin van Houdt; Lotte J. de Bruijn; Titia Heijman; Roel A. Coutinho; Maria Prins

2011-01-01

249

The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.  

PubMed

Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements. PMID:12389329

Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

250

Liver cancer: descriptive epidemiology and risk factors other than HBV and HCV infection.  

PubMed

The incidence of liver cancer is high in all low-resource regions of the world, with the exception of Northern Africa and Western Asia. The estimated worldwide number of new cases of liver cancer in 2002 is 600,000, of which 82% are from developing countries. Given the poor survival from this disease, the estimated number of deaths is similar to that of new cases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main form of liver cancer. A part from chronic infections with Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses, which are the main causes of HCC, contamination of foodstuff with aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an important contributor to HCC burden in many low-income country. Alcoholic cirrhosis is an important risk factor for HCC in populations with low prevalence of HBV and HCV infection, and the association between tobacco smoking and HCC is now established. Diabetes is also related to an excess risk of HCC and the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity likely contributes to it. The second most important type of liver cancer is cholangiocarcinoma, whose main known cause is infestation with the liver flukes, Opistorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, which is frequent in some areas in South-East Asia. Angiosarcoma is a rare form of liver cancer whose occurence is linked to occupational exposure to vinyl chloride. PMID:19091458

Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

2008-12-16

251

[Seroconversion and immune response after anti-HBV vaccination in patients on chronic hemodialysis: comparison of two vaccines].  

PubMed

ESRD patients on hemodialysis (HD) have a high risk of HBV infections. Primary prevention through vaccination is a first choice to reduce the morbidity from HBV. Prevention can be accomplished by two types of vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serological response to HBV vaccination in a population of HD patients who were randomized to Fendrix or Engerix B according to common administration protocols. Ninety-two HD patients were randomized to Fendrix or Engerix B immunization protocols. Patients in the Fendrix arm received four intramuscular administrations of 20 micron g, while patients in the Engerix arm received three intramuscular administrations of 40 micron g with an optional booster dose at two months from the last administration in nonresponders. The seroconversion rates were higher in the Fendrix group than the Engerix group, with faster responses, higher titers and longer duration of immune memory. Fendrix seems to be more effective than the older vaccine, Engerix, especially in patients at high infection risk like those making up our study population. Other crucial factors for good outcomes in patient immunization were biological and dialysis age. This underlines the importance of early immunization protocols such as already discussed by many nephrologists. PMID:22028266

Polito, Pasquale; Di Lullo, Luca; Iannacci, Giuseppe Roberto; Cecilia, Annalisa; Galderisi, Cristina; Gorini, Antonio

252

Toll-like receptor 3 genetic variants and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive cancer with few treatment options. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays a key role in innate immunity and may affect the development of cancers. This study aimed to investigate whether TLR3 polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to HCC. Two polymorphisms in the TLR3 gene, -976T/A and +1234C/T, were tested by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 466 HCC patients and 482 healthy controls. Results showed that the prevalence of +1234CT genotype and +1234TT genotype were significantly increased in the HCC cases than in controls (odds ratio [OR]?=1.51; 95 % confidence interval [CI]; 1.22-1.93; p=0.004 and OR=3.19; 95 % CI, 1.82-5.39; p=1.99 × 10(-5), respectively). The -976T/A polymorphism did not reveal any differences between cases and controls. When analyzing the TLR3 +1234C/T polymorphism with different clinical parameters in HCC patients, the cases who were hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers had higher number of +1234CT genotype and +1234T allele than those without HBV infection (p=0.032 and p=0.043). These data indicate that TLR3 +1234C/T polymorphism could be a novel risk factor for HCC, especially the HBV-related HCC. PMID:23404408

Li, Guanggang; Zheng, Zhendong

2013-02-13

253

Relationship of human leukocyte antigen class II genes with the susceptibility to hepatitis B virus infection and the response to interferon in HBV-infected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: To study the relationship of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles with the genetic susceptibility to HBV infection and the response to interferon (IFN) in HBV-infected patients. METHODS: Low-resolution DNA typing kit was used to determine HLA-DR-1 and -DQB1 genes in 72 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and HLA-DRB1 in 200 healthy people

Yong-Nian Han; Jin-Long Yang; Shui-Gen Zheng; Qun Tang; Wei Zhu; Han YN; Yang JL; Zheng SG

254

Can preoperative diffusion-weighted MRI predict postoperative hepatic insufficiency after curative resection of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma? A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver fibrosis determines the functional liver reserve. Several studies have reported that the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) can assess liver fibrosis. We investigated whether DW-MRI predicts postoperative hepatic insufficiency and liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-six patients with HBV-related HCC who received preoperative DW-MRI on a

Seung Up Kim; Young Chul Kim; Ji Soo Choi; Kyung Sik Kim; Gi Hong Choi; Jin Sub Choi; Jun Yong Park; Do Young Kim; Sang Hoon Ahn; Eun Hee Choi; Young Nyun Park; Chae Yoon Chon; Kwang-Hyub Han; Myeong-Jin Kim

2010-01-01

255

Autophagy and the (Pro)renin Receptor  

PubMed Central

The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a newly reported member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS); a hormonal cascade responsible for regulating blood pressure. Originally, identification of PRR was heralded as the next drug target of the RAS, of which such therapies would have increased benefits against target-organ damage and hypertension. However, in the years since its discovery, several conditional knockout mouse models of PRR have demonstrated an essential role for this receptor unrelated to the RAS and blood pressure. Specific deletion of PRR in podocytes or cardiomyocytes resulted in the rapid onset of organ failure and subsequently animal mortality after only a matter of weeks. In both cell types, loss of PRR resulted in the intracellular accumulation of autophagosomes and misfolded proteins, indicating a disturbance in autophagy. In light of the fact that the majority of PRR is located intracellularly, this molecular function appears to be more relevant than its ability to bind to high, non-physiological concentrations of (pro)renin. This review will focus on the role of PRR in autophagy and its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Understanding the link between PRR, autophagy and how its loss results in cell death will be essential for deciphering its role in physiology and pathology.

Binger, Katrina J.; Muller, Dominik N.

2013-01-01

256

Communicating stigma: the pro-ana paradox.  

PubMed

This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype, and e-mail. Participants were motivated to blog because they found social support, a way to cope with a stigmatized illness, and means of self-expression. Participants described blogging as a cathartic experience and perceived the social support they received from other members of the pro-ana community as a benefit. The fear that the eating disorder will be revealed if the blog is exposed and the concern that the blog encourages disordered eating were the perceived negative consequences of maintaining such a blog. Thus, blogging about anorexia serves to both alleviate and trigger anxiety about living with this stigmatized illness. Recommendations for future research are made. PMID:22873763

Yeshua-Katz, Daphna; Martins, Nicole

2012-08-08

257

IRRIGATOR PRO 1.0 VS. IRRIGATOR PRO 2.0  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigator Pro is an expert system marketed by the Peanut Foundation for scheduling irrigation and certain pest control practices for peanut production. Version 1.0 was developed using new concepts and different strategies for each of the 2 yield potentials, 3 variety (maturity) groups, 3 soil grou...

258

Correlates of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among prison inmates and officers in Ghana: A national multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Background Prisons are known to be high-risk environments for the spread of bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. Prison officers are considered to have an intermittent exposure potential to bloodborne infectious diseases on the job, however there has been no studies on the prevalence of these infections in prison officers in Ghana. Methods A national multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken on correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis infections in sample of prison inmates and officers from eight of ten regional central prisons in Ghana. A total of 1366 inmates and 445 officers were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects completed personal risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum; and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg). These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Results Almost 18% (1336) of 7652 eligible inmates and 21% (445) of 2139 eligible officers in eight study prisons took part. Median ages of inmates and officers were 36.5 years (range 16–84) and 38.1 years (range 25–59), respectively. Among inmates, HIV seroprevalence was 5.9%, syphilis seroprevalence was 16.5%, and 25.5% had HBsAg. Among officers tested, HIV seroprevalence was 4.9%, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7%, syphilis seroprevalence was 7.9%, and 11.7% had HBsAg. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among inmates were age between 17–46, being unmarried, being illiterate, female gender, being incarcerated for longer than median time served of 36 months, history of homosexuality, history of intravenous drug use, history of sharing syringes and drug paraphernalia, history of participation in paid sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among officers were age between 25–46, fale gender, being unmarried, being employed in prison service for longer than median duration of employment of 10 years, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion The comparably higher prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in prison inmates and officers in Ghana suggests probable occupational related transmission. The implementation of infection control practices and risk reduction programs targeted at prison inmates and officers in Ghana is urgently required to address this substantial exposure risk.

Adjei, Andrew A; Armah, Henry B; Gbagbo, Foster; Ampofo, William K; Boamah, Isaac; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Asare, Isaac; Hesse, Ian FA; Mensah, George

2008-01-01

259

Epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in 223 HIV co-infected patients: a French multi-centre collaborative study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a clinical concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals due to substantial prevalence, difficulties to treat, and severe liver disease outcome. A large nationwide cross-sectional multicentre analysis of HIV-HBV co-infected patients was designed to describe and identify parameters associated with virological and clinical outcome of CHB in HIV-infected individuals with detectable HBV viremia. Methods A multicenter collaborative cross-sectional study was launched in 19 French University hospitals distributed through the country. From January to December 2007, HBV load, genotype, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 223 HBV-HIV co-infected patients with an HBV replication over 1000 IU/mL were investigated. Results Patients were mostly male (82%, mean age 42 years). Genotype distribution (A 52%; E 23.3%; D 16.1%) was linked to risk factors, geographic origin, and co-infection with other hepatitis viruses. This genotypic pattern highlights divergent contamination event timelines by HIV and HBV viruses. Most patients (74.7%) under antiretroviral treatment were receiving a drug with anti-HBV activity, including 47% receiving TDF. Genotypic lamivudine-resistance detected in 26% of the patients was linked to duration of lamivudine exposure, age, CD4 count and HIV load. Resistance to adefovir (rtA181T/V) was detected in 2.7% of patients. Advanced liver lesions were observed in 54% of cases and were associated with an older age and lower CD4 counts but not with viral load or genotype. Immune escape HBsAg variants were seldom detected. Conclusions Despite the detection of advanced liver lesions in most patients, few were not receiving anti-HBV drugs and for those treated with the most potent anti-HBV drugs, persistent replication suggested non-optimal adherence. Heterogeneity in HBV strains reflects epidemiological differences that may impact liver disease progression. These findings are strong arguments to further optimize clinical management and to promote vaccination in HIV-infected patients.

2013-01-01

260

Progesterone withdrawal I: pro-convulsant effects.  

PubMed

Pro-convulsant withdrawal properties have been reported for a variety of GABA-modulatory drugs, such as the benzodiazepines (BDZs, [S.E. File, The history of BDZ dependence: a review of animal studies, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 14 (1990) 135-146; P.R. Finley, P. E. Nolan, Precipitation of BDZ withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam, DICP 23 (1989) 151-152]), barbiturates and ethanol [N. Kokka, D.E. Sapp, U. Witte, R.W. Olsen, Sex differences in sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol but not in GABAA receptor binding, Pharm. Biochem. Behav. 43 (1992) 441-447]. In this report, we test the hypothesis that pro-convulsant effects are produced by withdrawal from the GABA-modulatory neurosteroid 3alpha-OH-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) after sustained exposure to elevated circulating levels of its parent compound progesterone (P). Seizure activity was precipitated by picrotoxin or with the BDZ inverse agonist n-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (beta-CC), and a seizure rating determined 24 h after abrupt discontinuation of P following a multiple withdrawal/chronic administration paradigm. In some cases, a pseudopregnant rat model was employed to produce increased ovarian production of P prior to withdrawal (ovariectomy). Rats undergoing P withdrawal exhibited greater seizure-like activity than vehicle-treated controls, and received seizure scores in the same range as rats undergoing BDZ withdrawal. Administration of a 5alpha-reductase blocker, MK-906, along with P, prevented this pro-convulsant effect of P withdrawal, suggesting that the GABA-modulatory 3alpha,5alpha-THP is the active compound responsible for this withdrawal effect. Combined administration of P and diazepam produced synergistic effects upon withdrawal and produced a seizure score higher than observed after withdrawal from either agent alone. These results suggest that P exhibits withdrawal properties via the neuroactive steroid 3alpha, 5alpha-THP, that include exacerbation of seizure activity. These results may have clinical relevance, as increased incidence and severity of seizures has been reported in susceptible women during times of declining circulating levels of P across the menstrual cycle [T. Backstrom, B. Zetterlund, S. Blom, M. Romano, Effects of intravenous progesterone infusions on the epileptic discharge frequency in women with partial epilepsy, Acta Neurol. Scand. 69 (1984) 240-248; A.G. Herzog, Progesterone therapy in women with complex partial and secondary generalized seizures, Neurology 45 (1995) 1660-1662]. PMID:9757004

Moran, M H; Smith, S S

1998-10-01

261

Pro-eating disorder websites: users' opinions.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of 'pro-eating disorder' websites remains relatively unexplored by researchers in published formats. Supporters of the sites claim beneficial effects but health professionals worry that the sites propagate disordered behaviours. The present study addressed visitor characteristics and perceived impact of visits. A 24-item questionnaire supplemented with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was developed and posted on the website of the UK mental health charity SANE. Participants who interacted with others on the sites and sought emotional support reported improved mental state after visiting, and for them, evidence was found of reduced impact from potentially damaging content. 'Silent browsing' in order to sustain a disorder was found to be mainly harmful. 'Silent browsers' may be particularly vulnerable to a worsening of their symptoms in the absence of beneficial effects from emotional support, but those who interact and find support could face a danger of a different sort. PMID:17676689

Csipke, Emese; Horne, Outi

2007-05-01

262

French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ? 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

2011-10-01

263

The G1613A Mutation in the HBV Genome Affects HBeAg Expression and Viral Replication through Altered Core Promoter Activity  

PubMed Central

Infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis and is closely associated with the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we demonstrated that the G1613A mutation in the HBV negative regulatory element (NRE) is a hotspot mutation in HCC patients. In this study, we further investigated the functional consequences of this mutation in the context of the full length HBV genome and its replication. We showed that the G1613A mutation significantly suppresses the secretion of e antigen (HBeAg) and enhances the synthesis of viral DNA, which is in consistence to our clinical result that the G1613A mutation associates with high viral load in chronic HBV carriers. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of the mutation, we performed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay with the recombinant RFX1 protein, a trans-activator that was shown to interact with the NRE of HBV. Intriguingly, RFX1 binds to the G1613A mutant with higher affinity than the wild-type sequence, indicating that the mutation possesses the trans-activating effect to the core promoter via NRE. The trans-activating effect was further validated by the enhancement of the core promoter activity after overexpression of RFX1 in liver cell line. In summary, our results suggest the functional consequences of the hotspot G1613A mutation found in HBV. We also provide a possible molecular mechanism of this hotspot mutation to the increased viral load of HBV carriers, which increases the risk to HCC.

Chan, Sophie Ka-Ping; Wong, Chi-Hang; Ng, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Sung, Joseph Jao-Yiu; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing

2011-01-01

264

ProTherm and ProNIT: thermodynamic databases for proteins and protein-nucleic acid interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProTherm and ProNIT are two thermodynamic data- bases that contain experimentally determined ther- 15 modynamic parameters of protein stability and protein-nucleic acid interactions, respectively. The current versions of both the databases have consid- erably increased the total number of entries and enhanced search interface with added new fields, 20 improved search, display and sorting options. As on September 2005, ProTherm

M. D. Shaji Kumar; K. Abdulla Bava; M. Michael Gromiha; Ponraj Prabakaran; Koji Kitajima; Hatsuho Uedaira; Akinori Sarai

2006-01-01

265

Pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties of Human Defensin 5.  

PubMed

Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immunity by primarily acting against microbes. Their antimicrobial properties have been widely studied and are well understood. Defensins contribute to regulation of host immunity also. Their effects on cells of the host however are less well understood. Here, we report on the pro-inflammatory and apoptotic properties of Human Defensin 5, the major antimicrobial peptide of ileal Paneth cells. We find that HD-5 up-regulates expression of genes involved in cell survival and inflammation in a NF-kB-dependent fashion in epithelial cells. Further, we find that HD-5 has pro-apoptotic effects on intestinal epithelial cells as well as primary CD4+ T cells. PMID:23770364

Lu, Wuyuan; de Leeuw, Erik

2013-06-11

266

Hepatitis B virus: molecular genotypes and HBeAg serological status among HBV-infected patients in the southeast of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of HBV genotype is very important for clinical treatment. Studies have suggested possible pathogenic and therapeutic differences among HBV genotypes. The aim of this study was to determine HBV subtypes and genotypes in HBV-infected patients in our region (southeast Brazil) and to correlate results with clinical and histopathological data. Methods One hundred and thirty-nine HBsAg-positive patients were included in the study. All patients were anti-HCV and anti-HIV negative (64% male; mean age 42 ± 14.5 years; range 7-80 years; 84% Caucasian) and were followed up at the University Hospital. A method for genotyping and subtyping HBV by partial HBsAg gene sequencing with primers common to all known genotypes was used. The viral load was measured by Amplicor Monitor assay (Roche). Results HBV genotype A was the most prevalent (55%), while genotypes C, D and F were found in 3%, 38% and 4% of HBV-infected patients, respectively. Among the patients infected by genotype A, 18.3% (14/76) were African descendents and, among the patients infected by genotype D, 11.3% (6/53) were also African descendents. In the four patients infected with genotype C, 2 were Asian descendents and 2 were Caucasians. All (7) genotype F infected patients were Caucasians. Seventy percent of our HBsAg-positive patients were HBeAg negative (62% genotypes A; 26.2% D; 7.1% C and 4.7%F). The viral load of HBV-DNA was about 5 times higher in HBeAg-positive than in HBeAg-negative patients. About 40% of these patients had alanine aminotransferase of up to 1.5 times the normal level. The mean stage of fibrosis in genotype A patients (2.8) was significantly higher than the mean stage of fibrosis in genotype D patients (2.0) (P = 0.0179). Conclusion The genotypes encountered in our HBV-infected patients were apparently a consequence of the types of immigration that occurred in our region, where European and African descendents predominate. The HBeAg-negative status predominated, possibly due to the length of time of infection. The viral load in HBeAg-positive patients was higher than in HBeAg-negative individuals. The fibrosis grade in genotype A-infected patients was more advanced than genotype D-infected patients.

2009-01-01

267

THE ANA SANCTUARY: WOMEN'S PRO-ANOREXIA NARRATIVES IN CYBERSPACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I explore cyberspace as a space where women who are struggling with anorexia can potentially find sanctuary from the surveillance and regulatory mechanisms of control in the public sphere. I explore the narratives of women who create and visit pro-anorexia or pro-ana websites in order to listen to these women's experiences of anorexia and rationale for inhabiting

Karen Dias

268

Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable

Leslie Curtis; Les Johnson

2002-01-01

269

31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro...

2013-07-01

270

Pro-Cite: A Tool for Creating and Updating Bibliographies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Pro-Cite database management system and its uses in searching RLIN, OCLC, DIALOG, BRS, etc.; downloading results on a floppy or hard disk; converting downloaded records into Pro-Cite databases; and editing, selecting, indexing, and printing out the selected records in a variety of bibliographic styles. (DMM)|

Aluri, Rao; Bosch, Steve

1987-01-01

271

Tenofovir (TDF) has stronger antiviral effect than adefovir (ADV) against lamivudine (LAM) - resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  We retrospectively compared the antiviral effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with that of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)\\u000a for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed resistance to lamivudine (LAM).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  One hundred nine patients (86 males), all Asian-American except 1 Caucasian male, with LAM resistance received TDF or ADV.\\u000a HBV DNA levels were measured every 3 months. The HBeAg

Hie-Won Hann; Hee Bok Chae; Stephen R. Dunn

2008-01-01

272

TGF-?1 Down-Regulation of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP Expression on Human NK Cells Contributes to HBV Persistence  

PubMed Central

The mechanism underlying persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear. We investigated the role of innate immune responses to persistent HBV infection in 154 HBV-infected patients and 95 healthy controls. The expression of NKG2D- and 2B4-activating receptors on NK cells was significantly decreased, and moreover, the expression of DAP10 and SAP, the intracellular adaptor proteins of NKG2D and 2B4 (respectively), were lower, which then impaired NK cell-mediated cytotoxic capacity and interferon-? production. Higher concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) were found in sera from persistently infected HBV patients. TGF-?1 down-regulated the expression of NKG2D and 2B4 on NK cells in our in vitro study, leading to an impairment of their effector functions. Anti-TGF-?1 antibodies could restore the expression of NKG2D and 2B4 on NK cells in vitro. Furthermore, TGF-?1 induced cell-cycle arrest in NK cells by up-regulating the expression of p15 and p21 in NK cells from immunotolerant (IT) patients. We conclude that TGF-?1 may reduce the expression of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP, and those IT patients who are deficient in these double-activating signals have impaired NK cell function, which is correlated with persistent HBV infection.

Sun, Cheng; Fu, Binqing; Gao, Yufeng; Liao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

2012-01-01

273

Differentially Expressed Proteins in Chronic Active Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, and HCC Related to HCV Infection in Comparison With HBV Infection: A proteomics study  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly progressive cancer in the case of late diagnosis which is frequently associated with HBV and HCV viral infections. Objectives To identify differentially expressed serum proteins among three main stages of HCV infection and healthy individuals, and their comparisons with sera from patients with the same stage of HBV infection. Patients and Methods Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed on 47 sera from healthy volunteers, those with chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC patients associated with HBV and HCV infections. Results Among these, 62 spots were differentially expressed (? 1.5 fold; P < 0.05), of which 42 spots that corresponded to 15 proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CD5-like antigen (CD5L) was differentially expressed between cirrhosis and HCC patients with HCV infection. Leucine-rich ?2-glycoprotein (LRG) and haptoglobin (HP) ?2 isoforms differed in the HCC that was associated with either HCV or HBV infections. Conclusions CD5L might be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of HCC in HCV cirrhotic patients. LRG and HP ?2 isoforms could be potential markers for distinguishing viral HCC. Our results also further support the presence of varying molecules involved in hepatocarcinogenesis in HBV when compared with HCV infection.

Sarvari, Jamal; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Taghavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Shamsi Shahrabadi, Mahmoud; Ghaderi, Abbas; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

274

Lack of association between the GRP78 polymorphisms in the promoter and 3' UTR and susceptibility to chronic HBV infection in a Chinese Han population  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes large amount of unfolding or false-folding protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn induces the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). The aim in the present study was to analyse the potential association between GRP78 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of HBV infection. Methods The associations between seven common GRP78 polymorphisms in the promoter (rs391957, rs17840762, rs17840761, rs11355458) and in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) (rs16927997, rs1140763, rs12009) and possible risk of chronic HBV infection were assessed in a case-control study. 496 cases and 539 individually matched healthy controls were genotyped. Results Overall, no associations were observed in genotypic analyses. In addition, haplotypes and diplotypes combining those SNPs in the promoter or in the 3' UTR in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) were also not associated with HBV risk. Conclusion These observations do not support a role for GRP78 polymorphisms in HBV infection in a predominantly Chinese Han population.

2010-01-01

275

Subunit Composition of Pro-phenol Oxidase from Manduca sexta: Molecular Cloning of Subunit ProPO-p1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenol oxidase (PO) is known to play an important role in defense mechanisms in insect immunity. It is present as a zymogen in insect hemolymph, and can be activated by a specific proteolytic reaction that is stimulated by microbial cell wall components. The pro-phenol oxidase (pro-PO) purified from the larval hemolymph of Manduca sexta contains two polypeptides in equal amounts

Haobo Jiang; Yang Wang; Congcong Ma; Michael R. Kanost

1997-01-01

276

Nontreatment of Newborns with Severe Handicaps: A Survey of Attitudes of Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Advocates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When presented with hypothetical cases of newborns with a range of correctable and uncorrectable medical conditions, 10 pro-life respondents recommended treatment in virtually all cases, while 10 pro-choice respondents were more likely to recommend withholding nourishment and food, recommend limited or no medical treatment, and change initial…

McDaniel, Elizabeth A.

1989-01-01

277

Pro-inflammatory genetic markers of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic, progressive, multifactorial disease mostly affecting large and medium-sized elastic and muscular arteries. It has formerly been considered a bland lipid storage disease. Currently, multiple independent pathways of evidence suggest this pathological condition is a peculiar form of inflammation, triggered by cholesterol-rich lipoproteins and influenced both by environmental and genetic factors. The Human Genome Project opened up the opportunity to dissect complex human traits and to understand basic pathways of multifactorial diseases such as AS. Population-based association studies have emerged as powerful tools for examining genes with a role in common multifactorial diseases that have a strong environmental component. These association studies often estimate the risk of developing a certain disease in carriers and non-carriers of a particular genetic polymorphism. Dissecting out the influence of pro-inflammatory genes within the complex pathophysiology of AS and its complications will help to provide a more complete risk assessment and complement known classical cardiovascular risk factors. The detection of a risk profile will potentially allow both the early identification of individuals susceptible to disease and the possible discovery of potential targets for drug or lifestyle modification; i.e. it will open the door to personalized medicine. PMID:23591672

Incalcaterra, Egle; Accardi, Giulia; Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Caimi, Gregorio; Candore, Giuseppina; Caruso, Marco; Caruso, Calogero

2013-06-01

278

Pro and contra IBR-eradication.  

PubMed

Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections such as infectious rhinotracheitis (IBR), infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV, balanoposthitis (IBP), and abortion. Despite of a pronounced immune response, the virus is never eliminated from an infected host but establishes life-long latency and may be reactivated at intervals. Europe has a long history of fighting against BoHV-1 infections, yet, only a small number of countries has achieved IBR-eradication. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to review the reasoning pro and contra such a task. Clearly, the goal can indeed be achieved as has been demonstrated by a number of European countries. However, detection and stamping out of seemingly healthy virus carriers is inevitable in the process. Unfortunately, the use of vaccines is only of temporary and limited value. Therefore, there are numerous considerations to be put forward against such plans, including the high costs, the great risks, and the unsatisfactory quality of tools. If either control or eradication of IBR is nonetheless a goal, then better vaccines are needed as well as better companion tests. Moreover, better tools for the characterization of viral isolates are required. Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous. PMID:16337098

Ackermann, Mathias; Engels, Monika

2005-12-05

279

Are Investors Influenced by Pro Forma Emphasis and Reconciliations in Earnings Announcements?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of an experiment that examines how two underlying characteristics of pro forma earnings announcements, pro forma emphasis and the presence of a quantitative reconciliation, influence nonprofessional investors' and analysts' reliance on pro forma disclosures. The results indicate that the emphasis management places on pro forma earnings, not the mere presence of pro forma earn- ings,

W. Brooke Elliott

2006-01-01

280

TGF-?-miR-34a-CCL22 Signaling-Induced Treg Cell Recruitment Promotes Venous Metastases of HBV-Positive Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is strongly correlated to a poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we uncovered a causative link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and development of PVTT. Mechanistically, elevated TGF-? activity, associated with the persistent presence of HBV in the liver tissue, suppresses the expression of microRNA-34a, leading to enhanced production of chemokine CCL22, which recruits regulatory T (Treg) cells to facilitate immune escape. These findings strongly suggest that HBV infection and activity of the TGF-?-miR-34a-CCL22 axis serve as potent etiological factors to predispose HCC patients for the development of PVTT, possibly through the creation of an immune-subversive microenvironment to favor colonization of disseminated HCC cells in the portal venous system.

Yang, Pengyuan; Li, Qi-Jing; Feng, Yuxiong; Zhang, Yun; Markowitz, Geoffrey J.; Ning, Shanglei; Deng, Yuezhen; Zhao, Jiangsha; Jiang, Shan; Yuan, Yunfei; Wang, Hong-Yang; Cheng, Shu-Qun; Xie, Dong; Wang, Xiao-Fan

2012-01-01

281

Evaluation of the effects of human leukocyte IFN-alpha on the immune response to the HBV vaccine in healthy unvaccinated individuals.  

PubMed

HBV vaccine needs 3 injections over 6 months to induce immunity. Thus, the use of adjuvants capable of inducing earlier immune protection would be highly desirable. Most adjuvants may act by inducing cytokines, and among them, type I interferons (IFNs), deserve a special attention in view of the potent immunomostimulatory activity observed in mouse models and on dendritic cell functions. The aim of the present trial was to evaluate the effects of IFN-alpha administered as an adjuvant of HBV vaccine in healthy unvaccinated individuals. No significant enhancing effect on the antibody response was observed, in spite of an early and transient upregulation of costimulatory molecule expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which may be suggestive of an IFN-mediated activation of antigen presenting cells. We conclude that, under the conditions used in this trial, natural IFN-alpha does not act as an adjuvant of the HBV vaccine in healthy unvaccinated individuals. PMID:18249478

Rizza, Paola; Capone, Imerio; Urbani, Francesca; Montefiore, Enrica; Rapicetta, Maria; Chionne, Paola; Candido, Angela; Tosti, Maria Elena; Grimaldi, Maria; Palazzini, Ernesto; Viscomi, Giuseppe; Cursaro, Carmela; Margotti, Marzia; Scuteri, Alessandra; Andreone, Pietro; Taylor, Elisabeth; Haygreen, Elisabeth A; Tough, David F; Borrow, Persephone; Selleri, Marina; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria; Belardelli, Filippo

2008-01-18

282

TGF-?-miR-34a-CCL22 signaling-induced Treg cell recruitment promotes venous metastases of HBV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is strongly correlated to a poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we uncovered a causative link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and development of PVTT. Mechanistically, elevated TGF-? activity, associated with the persistent presence of HBV in the liver tissue, suppresses the expression of microRNA-34a, leading to enhanced production of chemokine CCL22, which recruits regulatory T (Treg) cells to facilitate immune escape. These findings strongly suggest that HBV infection and activity of the TGF-?-miR-34a-CCL22 axis serve as potent etiological factors to predispose HCC patients for the development of PVTT, possibly through the creation of an immune-subversive microenvironment to favor colonization of disseminated HCC cells in the portal venous system. PMID:22975373

Yang, Pengyuan; Li, Qi-Jing; Feng, Yuxiong; Zhang, Yun; Markowitz, Geoffrey J; Ning, Shanglei; Deng, Yuezhen; Zhao, Jiangsha; Jiang, Shan; Yuan, Yunfei; Wang, Hong-Yang; Cheng, Shu-Qun; Xie, Dong; Wang, Xiao-Fan

2012-09-11

283

The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

Davis, Blair J.

2010-01-01

284

The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

Davis, Blair J.

2010-01-01

285

New HBV subgenotype D9, a novel D/C recombinant, identified in patients with chronic HBeAg-negative infection in Eastern India.  

PubMed

Genome diversity is a hallmark of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which allowed its classification into 10 genotypes (A-J) and numerous subgenotypes. Among them, Genotype D is currently segregated into eight subgenotypes (D1-D8). Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel subgenotype within genotype D of HBV from chronic hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative patients of Eastern India. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on complete genome sequences revealed that six of 39 HBV/D isolates formed a distinct cluster supported by high bootstrap value and had nucleotide divergence >4% relative to the known D subgenotypes (D1-D8), justifying their assignment into a new subgenotype (D9). By comparing the amino acid sequences of the four ORFs of HBV/D9 with D1-D8, 36 specific residues, including a unique one (E(112) in the core region), were identified that could be considered as a signature of D9. Further analysis by Simplot, BootScan and jpHMM demonstrated that D9 resulted from a discrete recombination with genotype C over the precore-core region. This type of recombination has not been described previously as all C/D recombinants reported so far possessed genotype C backbones with mosaic fragments derived from HBV/D. Interestingly, compared to other subgenotypes of HBV/D, D9 isolates had a higher frequency of mutations (A1762T and G1764A) in the basal core promoter region that had been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigations are needed to determine the overall prevalence and clinical significance of these newly characterized D9 strains and to assess the impact of inter-genotypic recombination on viral properties. PMID:23383660

Ghosh, S; Banerjee, P; Deny, P; Mondal, R K; Nandi, M; Roychoudhury, A; Das, K; Banerjee, S; Santra, A; Zoulim, F; Chowdhury, A; Datta, S

2012-09-04

286

Predictive Effect of Serial Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels on Spontaneous HBeAg Seroconversion in Chronic Genotype B and C HBV-Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study aimed to investigate the association between serial serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and spontaneous hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion age in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)–infected children. Patients and Methods One hundred four HBeAg-positive chronic genotype B or C HBV–infected patients were included in this long-term prospective cohort study (mean initial age 7.20 years). Serial serum ALT levels and HBV serology markers were measured every 6 to 12 months. The 104 subjects made a total of 2525 visits during the study period, and the majority (93.6%) of visits were within a 1-year interval apart from previous visits. Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates was used in the survival analysis of HBeAg in these subjects. Results During the chronic course of HBV infection, the median remaining times to spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion were 8.35, 5.14, 4.25, 3.95, and 2.80 years after the ALT levels crossed 20, 30, 40, 60, and 150 IU/L, respectively. The incidence rate of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion within 6 months when a subject entered the phase of ALT between 60 and 150 IU/L was 5.57 times that of the phase with ALT <60 IU/L. The incidence rate of HBeAg seroconversion once ALT levels were above 150 IU/L was 9.87 times that of the phase of ALT <60 IU/L. Conclusions The ALT levels above 30 IU/L served as a cutoff of the inflammatory phase in chronic genotype B and C HBV–infected patients. Serial ALT levels in chronic HBV–infected subjects offer a predicted effect on the occurrence of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion.

Wu, Jia-Feng; Su, Yu-Ru; Chen, Chen-Hsin; Chen, Huey-Ling; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Hsu, Hong-Yuan; Wang, Jane-Ling; Chang, Mei-Hwei

2012-01-01

287

Effect of the G1896A precore mutation on drug sensitivity and replication yield of lamivudine-resistant HBV in vitro.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is frequently caused by a mutation (G1896A) in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) precore (PC) reading frame that creates a stop codon, causing premature termination of the PC protein. During lamivudine treatment, drug resistance develops at a similar rate in HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative CHB. Lamivudine-resistant HBV mutants have been shown to replicate inefficiently in vitro in the absence of PC mutations, but it is unknown whether the presence of PC mutations affects replication efficiency or antiviral sensitivity. This study utilized the recombinant HBV baculovirus system to address these issues. HBV baculoviruses encoding the G1896A PC stop codon mutation were generated in wild-type (WT) and lamivudine-resistant (rtM204I and rtL180M + rtM204V) backgrounds, resulting in a panel of 6 related recombinant baculoviruses. In vitro assays were performed to compare the sensitivities of the PC mutant viruses with lamivudine and adefovir and to compare relative replication yields. The PC mutation did not significantly affect sensitivities to either adefovir or lamivudine. WT HBV and PC mutant HBV showed similar replication yields, whereas the replication yields of the lamivudine-resistant mutants were greatly reduced in HBeAg positive HBVs, confirming previous observations. However, the presence of the PC mutation was found to compensate for the replication deficiency in each of the lamivudine-resistant mutants, increasing the replication yields of each virus. In conclusion, the PC stop codon mutation appears to increase the replication efficacy of lamivudine-resistant virus but does not affect in vitro drug sensitivity. PMID:12500185

Chen, Robert Y m; Edwards, Ros; Shaw, Tim; Colledge, Danni; Delaney, William E; Isom, Harriet; Bowden, Scott; Desmond, Paul; Locarnini, Stephen A

2003-01-01

288

Pro/con a precessional geodynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a common belief, often expressed explicitly, that precession is incapable of energizing a geodynamo, a la Loper. We will present a critique of Loper’s 1975 paper and briefly discuss the common practice and belief that the geodynamo must be energized by thermal and/or compositional driven convection (motion). We note here that there is no observational evidence for existence of thermal or compositional convection within the liquid core or for growth of the solid core. Although there has been considerable success in adapting data in thermal/compositional models to yield near realistic solutions, that does not constitute a proof that those models apply to the Earth. There is absolute observational evidence for mantle precession, an Earth feature that is unique, along with the Earth’s magnetic field, among the terrestrial planets. We argue that great difficulty experienced in analysis and computation of precessional flow is a major explanation for its absence in current models of the geodynamo.

Vanyo, J.

2003-04-01

289

N-terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) Concentrations in Hemodialysis Patients: Prognostic Value of Baseline and Follow-up Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Increased N-terminal pro-B-type natri- uretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations are asso- ciated with increased cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Previous studies fo- cused on prevalent dialysis patients and examined sin- gle measurements of NT-proBNP in time. METHODS: We measured NT-proBNP concentrations in 2990 incident hemodialysis patients to examine the risk of 90-day and 1-year mortality associated with baseline NT-proBNP

Orlando M. Gutierrez; Hector Tamez; Ishir Bhan; James Zazra; Marcello Tonelli; Myles Wolf; James L. Januzzi; Yuchiao Chang; Ravi Thadhani

290

17 CFR 229.914 - (Item 914) Pro forma financial statements: selected financial data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (Item 914) Pro forma financial statements: selected financial data... (Item 914) Pro forma financial statements: selected financial data...and no separate pro forma financial statements are required. (c)...

2013-04-01

291

Pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic responses of TNF-? stimulated bovine mammary endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Coliform mastitis may be severe in periparturient cows due to enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? is implicated with the severity of coliform mastitis by provoking inflammatory responses in affected tissues. The endothelium is an integral organ in regulating inflammatory responses and loss of endothelial integrity may be fatal. Studies in humans suggest that endothelial cell apoptosis may be a consequence of TNF-? exposure and contributes to the development of sepsis, however, its impact on bovine mammary endothelial cells (BMEC) is unknown. We sought to determine the inflammatory and apoptotic responses of primary BMEC exposed to TNF-? in vitro. Stimulation of endothelial monolayers with TNF-? resulted in significant increase of toll-like receptor 4, interleukin-6 and -8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 gene expression in a time-dependent manner. Caspase-8 and caspase-3 mRNA expression, as well as caspase enzyme activity, also increased significantly following TNF-? stimulation. Cell viability assessed by ATP activity and BMEC apoptosis determined by flow cytometry revealed no significant changes across time with TNF-? stimulation. Results suggest that TNF-? stimulation, at the dose used in this study, can elicit a pro-inflammatory response in BMEC, but not induce apoptosis. The impact of TNF-? on mammary vascular function and the subsequent impact on the pathophysiology of severe coliform mastitis warrant further investigation. PMID:21349589

Aitken, Stacey L; Corl, Christine M; Sordillo, Lorraine M

2011-02-04

292

ProDom and ProDom-CG: tools for protein domain analysis and whole genome comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProDom contains all protein domain families auto- matically generated from the SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL sequence databases (http:\\/\\/www.toulouse. inra.fr\\/prodom.html ). ProDom-CG results from a similar domain analysis as applied to completed genomes (http:\\/\\/www.toulouse.inra.fr\\/prodomCG.html ). Recent improvements to the ProDom database and its server include: scaling up to include sequences from TrEMBL, addition of Pfam-A entries to the set of expert validated

Florence Corpet; Florence Servant; Jérôme Gouzy; Daniel Kahn

2000-01-01

293

Examining the relationship of place attachment with pro ...  

Treesearch

This study examines the relationship between place attachment and pro- environment ... Additionally, place attachment positively predicted individuals' planned ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official ...

294

Television and Children: A Pro/Con Reading List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists books, audiovisual materials, newspaper articles, pamphlets, government documents, and periodical articles on the effects of television on children. Divided into sections on pro and con sources, the 53 annotated items are arranged by type of material. (BK)

Erbeck, Diane M.

1980-01-01

295

25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro rata requirement. All monies provided by a contract...

2011-04-01

296

25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro rata requirement. All monies provided by a contract...

2013-04-01

297

Pro-Anorexia Websites: Content, Impact, and Explanations of Popularity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa is a major concern in contemporary society. Anorexia has been linked to forms of media such as television, and examined in relation to Internet-based methods of treatment. However, research about Internet sites actively promoting anorexia, known as 'pro-ana sites', is minimal. This literature review amassed articles about pro-ana sites, using psychology databases such as

Grace Overbeke

2008-01-01

298

Processing of proSAAS in neuroendocrine cell lines.  

PubMed

ProSAAS, a recently discovered granin-like protein, potently inhibits prohormone convertase (PC)1, and might also perform additional functions. In the present study, the processing of proSAAS was compared in two neuroendocrine cell lines overexpressing this protein: the AtT-20 mouse pituitary corticotrophic line and the PC12 rat adrenal phaeochromocytoma line. The processing of proSAAS was examined by pulse-chase analysis using [(3)H]leucine, by MS, and by chromatography and radioimmunoassay. Various smaller forms of proSAAS were detected, including peptides designated as little SAAS, PEN and big LEN. Because the PC-12 cells used in the present study do not express either PC1 or PC2, the finding that these cells efficiently cleave proSAAS indicates that these cleavages do not require either enzyme. Two of the peptides identified in AtT-20 media represent novel C-terminally truncated forms of PEN. In both cell lines, the secretion of the small proSAAS-derived peptides is stimulated by secretagogues. However, long-term treatment of wild-type AtT-20 cells with two different secretagogues (8-bromo-cAMP and a phorbol ester) does not affect levels of proSAAS mRNA; this treatment significantly increases PC1 mRNA by approx. 60-80%. The lack of co-regulation of proSAAS and PC1 mRNA implies that enzyme activity can be induced without an accompanying increase in the inhibitor. In addition, the finding that the peptides are secreted via the regulated pathway is consistent with the proposal that they may function as neuropeptides. PMID:11742530

Mzhavia, Nino; Qian, Yimei; Feng, Yun; Che, Fa-Yun; Devi, Lakshmi A; Fricker, Lloyd D

2002-01-01

299

When Is Growth Pro-Poor? Cross-Country Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth is pro-poor if the poverty measure of interest falls. This implies three potential sources of pro-poor growth: (a) a high rate of growth of average incomes; (b) a high sensitivity of poverty to growth in average incomes; and (c) a poverty-reducing pattern of growth in relative incomes. I empirically decompose changes in poverty in a large sample of developing

Aart Kraay

2004-01-01

300

Lumbar spine arthroplasty using the ProDisc II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ProDisc was developed by Thierry Marnay, a French orthopedic surgeon, in the late 1980s. Marnay and his associate implanted ProDiscs into 64 patients from 1990 to 1993. Demonstrating remarkable intellectual restraint, he let this cohort of patients “incubate” so he could see their progress before performing any additional implantations. In 1998, 61 of these patients were still alive, and

Jack E. Zigler

2004-01-01

301

ProACT™ for Stress Urinary Incontinence after Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Stress urinary incontinence is a bothersome complication of radical prostatectomy. Surgical treatment consists of the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS), the male sling and bulk injections. This study presents the results of the first series of implantations of ProACTTM in the Netherlands. Materials and Methods: A non-validated questionnaire was sent to 29 male patients implanted with ProACT to determine Stamey

F. M. J. Martens; M. I. Lampe; J. P. F. A. Heesakkers

2009-01-01

302

The People's Budget? Politics, Participation and Pro-poor Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent moves towards ‘participatory’ budgeting have raised hopes and expectations that spending and revenue generation can be made more pro-poor if informed citizens and their non-traditional political organizations participate directly in budgeting decisions. This article reviews experiences of participatory budgeting and pro-poor policy-making in Brazil, Ireland, Chile, Mauritius, and Costa Rica. It draws attention to several important issues: Who participates?

Deborah Bräutigam

2004-01-01

303

Potent antioxidant dendrimers lacking pro-oxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants, including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities, may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical-scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with

Choon Young Lee; Ajit Sharma; Rebecca L. Uzarski; Jae Eun Cheong; Hao Xu; Rich A. Held; Samik K. Upadhaya; Julie L. Nelson

2011-01-01

304

Political ideology of pro? and anti?ERA women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored political ideology, religiosity and attitudes toward women among six pro?ERA and six anti?ERA women, all of whom are politically active. In?depth interviews were used to assess multi?dimensionality of political ideology in our sample. Standardized inventories were used to assess religiosity and attitudes toward women. Predicted differences were found between pro? and anti?ERA women in this sample in

Iva E. Deutchman

1982-01-01

305

Pro-market educational governance: is Argentina a black swan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of the article analyses the

Jason Beech; Ignacio Barrenechea

2011-01-01

306

The survival of the pro-choice movement.  

PubMed

In the US, the pro-choice movement has not only survived but grown stronger in the 25 years since the legalization of abortion provided its greatest victory. This longevity is explained through an examination of the internal organizational changes which have taken place in the movement as well as the external changes which have taken place in the political environment surrounding the movement. After providing a theoretical basis for this investigation, the history of the pro-choice movement in the US is traced in light of these elements. In the pre-1973 era, the movement lacked formal organization but was bolstered by external political factors provided by the protest cycle of the 1960s. During 1973-76, the actions of anti-abortion groups forced pro-choice groups to develop the more formalized organizational structures which helped the pro-choice movement survive its initial success and the decline of the era of protests. In the period 1976-83, the anti-abortion movement achieved passage of the Hyde Amendment banning federal funding of abortions. This victory by the opposition led to an expansion in the pro-choice movement which included the formation of many local reproductive rights organizations. Many of these organizations failed to create formalized structures and, therefore, failed to maintain their impetus to survive. However, NARAL (the National Association for Repeal of Abortion Laws) had adopted a more formalized structure and professional leadership following the Hyde legislation and developed strong, formal connections with its state affiliates while continuing to strengthen grassroots actions. The visible threats to abortion laws mounted by the anti-abortion groups added to NARAL's strength. During 1983-89, the pro-choice movement gained some key victories which threatened its survival. Continued activity on the part of the anti-abortion groups (such as release of the movie "The Silent Scream") generated enough pro-choice support, however, to weather this period. The activities of Operation Rescue also stimulated pro-choice reactions. In the period 1989-92, the Supreme Court gave pro-choice groups a victory in its Webster vs. Reproductive Health decision. Thus, NARAL's membership grew to an unprecedented 400,000 in 1990 and allowed the group to pump money into local grassroots activities. By the time the Court issued its Casey decision in 1992, neither group was willing to claim victory, although the ruling was a great victory for pro-choice forces because although the Court allowed states to impose new restrictions to abortion, it refused to overturn Roe vs. Wade. 1992 also saw the election of a pro-choice President who was able to appoint a pro-choice Justice to the Supreme Court in 1993. The ability of the pro-choice movement to survive victory (the creation of a favorable political opportunity structure) will be decided by the critical battles surrounding attempts to limit access to abortion providers as well as the accessibility of drug-induced abortion. State legislatures will remain major battlefields because of the Court-allowed restrictions. The pro-choice movement will also have to resolve conflicts over strategy such as whether to appeal to mainstream Americans or use the favorable climate to push for rights. The pro-choice movement will likely survive because the anti-abortion groups continue to pose threats and because formal organizations with professional leadership will keep the issues before the membership. PMID:12346343

Staggenborg, S

1995-01-01

307

Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-vasopressin to predict severity and prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most important clinical infection. Therefore, the CAP competence network CAPNETZ\\u000a was instituted in Germany. The aim of this substudy was to evaluate the value of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP)\\u000a and pro-vasopressin (CT-proAVP) for severity assessment and outcome prediction in CAP.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective observational study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  German CAP competence network CAPNETZ.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We enrolled 589 patients (age 61?±?18

Stefan Krüger; Jana Papassotiriou; Reinhard Marre; Klaus Richter; Christian Schumann; Heike von Baum; Nils G. Morgenthaler; Norbert Suttorp; Tobias Welte

2007-01-01

308

Infection status and risk factors of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis among drug users in Guangdong, China - a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: China has witnessed a remarkable increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. The study is to assess the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis and related risk factors among drug users in mandatory detoxification center Qingyuan, Guangdong, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study on drug use behaviors, sex behaviors, and presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV, Treponema pallidum,

Jie Wu; Jinying Huang; Duorong Xu; Ciyong Lu; Xueqing Deng; Xiaolan Zhou

2010-01-01

309

Character of HBV (hepatitis B virus) polymerase gene rtM204V/I and rtL180M mutation in patients with lamivudine resistance  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between HBV (hepatitis B virus) polymerase gene 180 and 204 sites mutation and lamivudine resistance. Methods: One hundred forty-one patients with lamivudine resistance after lamivudine treatment and 60 chronic hepatitis B patients without lamivudine treatment were enrolled in this study. The serum HBV DNA mutation was analyzed by sequence detection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences of the same patient were analyzed before and after lamivudine treatment. Results: One hundred and nine lamivudine resistance patients had HBV YMDD (tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate) mutation. Among them, 45 patients had rtL180M/M204V mutation (41.28%), 28 patients had rtL180M/M204I mutation (25.70%) and 36 patients had rtM204I mutation (33.02%). There were 6 patients with rtL180M mutation in 32 lamivudine resistance patients. Sixty chronic hepatitis patients without lamivudine treatment had no mutations. Conclusions: HBV mutations, which play an important role in lamivudine resistance usually locate at polymerase gene 204 site; 180 site mutation was also observed in these patients. Evaluation of the anti-virus therapy by surveillance of the two sites mutations is of importance.

Li, Min-wei; Hou, Wei; Wo, Jian-er; Liu, Ke-zhou

2005-01-01

310

Prognostic value of preoperative peripheral neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma after radical hepatectomy.  

PubMed

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammation index, is considered a prognostic predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative peripheral NLR in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC after radical hepatectomy. Clinical data were collected from patients with HBV-associated HCC who underwent radical hepatectomy. NLR was calculated from lymphocyte and neutrophil counts on preoperative routine blood tests. Demographics, laboratory analyses, and histopathological data were analyzed. A total of 282 patients were selected and divided by the cutoff NLR value of 2. Multivariate analysis showed that NLR > 2 was an independent prognostic predictor of poor disease-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.362; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.025-1.811; P = 0.033] and overall survival (HR = 1.434; 95 % CI 1.044-1.970; P = 0.023). NLR had a good predictive value for prognosis in patients with HBV-associated HCC who had normal serum AFP level. These results suggested that NLR is an independent indicator of both disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with HBV-associated HCC after radical hepatectomy, including AFP-normal patients. PMID:24026659

Fu, Shun-Jun; Shen, Shun-Li; Li, Shao-Qiang; Hua, Yun-Peng; Hu, Wen-Jie; Liang, Li-Jian; Peng, Bao-Gang

2013-09-13

311

HBV transmission from an occult carrier with five mutations in the major hydrophilic region of HBsAg to an immunosuppressed plasma recipient.  

PubMed

We describe the case of transmission of an HBsAg-negative hepatitis B infection to an immunosuppressed patient by plasma donation from an HBsAg-negative subject, but with very low serum HBV DNA (about 50 IU/ml) and five mutations in the major hydrophilic region of HBsAg. PMID:23856167

Coppola, Nicola; Loquercio, Giovanna; Tonziello, Gilda; Azzaro, Rosa; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Di Costanzo, Gaetano; Starace, Mario; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Cacciapuoti, Carmela; Petruzziello, Arnolfo

2013-07-12

312

Study of the expression levels of Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and 3 beta in patients with different outcome of HBV infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte nuclear factors 4 alpha (HNF4?) and 3 beta (HNF3?) are members of a group of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) that play important roles in regulating the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver inflammation. However, the relationship of the level of HNF4? and HNF3? with the severity of HBV-infected liver diseases is unclear. In this study, liver tissue samples from different types of HBV patients were collected, and HNF4? and HNF3? expression were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of HNF4? was significant higher in patients with severe hepatitis B(SHB) than those with chronic hepatitis B(CHB) and liver cirrhosis(LC) (both P < 0.05), but similar between patients with CHB and LC (P > 0.05). And the expression of HNF3? was similar among patients with CHB, LC and SHB (P > 0.05 for all pairwise comparison). This suggests that the expression level of HNF4? was different in patients with different outcome of HBV infection, high expression level of HNF4? may correlate with occurrence of SHB

2012-01-01

313

Restoring the Treg cell to Th17 cell ratio may alleviate HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of T helper 17 cells (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODS: We enrolled 79 patients with HBV infection into the study, 50 patients with HBV-related ACLF and 29 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), from the First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College from January 2009 to June 2012. The ACLF patients were diagnosed according to the criteria recommended by The 19th Conference of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver in 2009. Twenty healthy individuals with a similar gender and age structures to the two patient groups were also included as the normal controls (NC). Of the 50 ACLF patients, 28 were subsequently classified as non-survivors: 19 patients died from multi-organ failure, 3 underwent liver transplantation, and 6 discontinued therapy during follow-up because of financial reasons. The remaining 22 ACLF patients whose liver and anticoagulation function recovered to nearly normal levels within the next 6 mo were classified as survivors. The number of circulating Treg and Th17 cells was determined upon diagnosis and during the 8th week of follow-up through flow cytometry. RESULTS: The percentage of circulating Treg cells in the ACLF group was significantly higher than that in the CHB group (5.50% ± 1.15% vs 3.30% ± 1.13%, P < 0.01). The percentages of circulating Th17 cells in the ACLF and the CHB groups were significantly higher than that in the NC group (6.32% ± 2.22% vs 1.56% ± 0.44%, P < 0.01; 3.53% ± 1.65% vs 1.56% ± 0.44%, P < 0.01). No significant difference in Treg cell to Th17 cell ratio was observed between the ACLF group and the CHB group (0.98 ± 0.44 vs 1.12 ± 0.64, P = 0.991), whereas those in the two HBV infection groups were significantly lower than that in the NC group (1.85 ± 1.22; both P < 0.01). The percentage of Treg cells in the survivors during the 8th week of follow-up was significantly lower than that during peak ACLF severity [total bilirubin (TBIL) peak] (3.45% ± 0.97% vs 5.18% ± 1.02%, P < 0.01). The percentage of Th17 cells in survivors during the 8th week of follow-up was significantly lower than that during the peak TBIL (2.89% ± 0.60% vs 5.24% ± 1.46%; P < 0.01). The Treg cell to Th17 cell ratio during the 8th week of follow-up was significantly higher than that during the TBIL peak (1.22 ± 0.36 vs 1.10 ± 0.54; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Restoring the Treg cell to Th17 cell ratio during the follow-up phase of ACLF could maintain the immune system at a steady state, which favours good prognosis.

Niu, Ying-Hua; Yin, Dong-Lin; Liu, Hong-Li; Yi, Rui-Tian; Yang, Yu-Cong; Xue, Hong-An; Chen, Tian-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Lin; Lin, Shu-Mei; Zhao, Ying-Ren

2013-01-01

314

The Pro115Gln and Pro12Ala PPAR gamma gene mutations in obesity and type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR ?), is a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and energy balance. Two naturally occurring mutations in the PPAR ? gene, Pro115Gln and Pro12Ala, have recently been shown to impair the function of the PPAR?2 isoform of the receptor and to be associated with obesity or diabetes- related phenotypes in different populations.SUBJECTS: We studied the occurrence

K Clement; S Hercberg; B Passinge; P Galan; M Varroud-Vial; AR Shuldiner; BA Beamer; G Charpentier; B Guy-Grand; P Froguel; C Vaisse

2000-01-01

315

Enhanced Activity of Meprin-?, a Pro-Migratory and Pro-Angiogenic Protease, in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Meprin-? is a metalloprotease overexpressed in cancer cells, leading to the accumulation of this protease in a subset of colorectal tumors. The impact of increased meprin-? levels on tumor progression is not known. We investigated the effect of this protease on cell migration and angiogenesis in vitro and studied the expression of meprin-? mRNA, protein and proteolytic activity in primary tumors at progressive stages and in liver metastases of patients with colorectal cancer, as well as inhibitory activity towards meprin-? in sera of cancer patient as compared to healthy controls. We found that the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)- induced migratory response of meprin-transfected epithelial cells was increased compared to wild-type cells in the presence of plasminogen, and that the angiogenic response in organ-cultured rat aortic explants was enhanced in the presence of exogenous human meprin-?. In patients, meprin-? mRNA was expressed in colonic adenomas, primary tumors UICC (International Union Against Cancer) stage I, II, III and IV, as well as in liver metastases. In contrast, the corresponding protein accumulated only in primary tumors and liver metastases, but not in adenomas. However, liver metastases lacked meprin-? activity despite increased expression of the corresponding protein, which correlated with inefficient zymogen activation. Sera from cancer patients exhibited reduced meprin-? inhibition compared to healthy controls. In conclusion, meprin-? activity is regulated differently in primary tumors and metastases, leading to high proteolytic activity in primary tumors and low activity in liver metastases. By virtue of its pro-migratory and pro-angiogenic activity, meprin-? may promote tumor progression in colorectal cancer.

Noel, Agnes; Blacher, Silvia; Huguenin, Maya; Nievergelt, Alexandra; Niggli, Verena; Kern, Alexander; Muller, Stefan; Seibold, Frank; Friess, Helmut; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Stocker, Walter; Sterchi, Erwin E.

2011-01-01

316

microRNA-122 Abundance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Non-Tumor Liver Tissue from Japanese Patients with Persistent HCV versus HBV Infection  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms of hepatic carcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C are incompletely defined but often assumed to be similar and related to immune-mediated inflammation. Despite this, several studies hint at differences in expression of miR-122, a liver-specific microRNA with tumor suppressor properties, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) versus hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Differences in the expression of miR-122 in these cancers would be of interest, as miR-122 is an essential host factor for HCV but not HBV replication. To determine whether the abundance of miR-122 in cancer tissue is influenced by the nature of the underlying virus infection, we measured miR-122 by qRT-PCR in paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from cohorts of HBV- and HCV-infected Japanese patients. miR-122 abundance was significantly reduced from normal in HBV-associated HCC, but not in liver cancer associated with HCV infection. This difference was independent of the degree of differentiation of the liver cancer. Surprisingly, we also found significant differences in miR-122 expression in non-tumor tissue, with miR-122 abundance reduced from normal in HCV- but not HBV-infected liver. Similar differences were observed in HCV- vs. HBV-infected chimpanzees. Among HCV-infected Japanese subjects, reductions in miR-122 abundance in non-tumor tissue were associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL28B gene that predicts poor response to interferon-based therapy (TG vs. TT genotype at rs8099917), and correlated negatively with the abundance of multiple interferon-stimulated gene transcripts. Reduced levels of miR-122 in chronic hepatitis C thus appear to be associated with endogenous interferon responses to the virus, while differences in miR-122 expression in HCV- versus HBV-associated HCC likely reflect virus-specific mechanisms contributing to carcinogenesis. The continued expression of miR-122 in HCV-associated HCC may signify an important role for HCV replication late in the progression to malignancy.

Spaniel, Carolyn; Honda, Masao; Selitsky, Sara R.; Yamane, Daisuke; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Lanford, Robert E.; Lemon, Stanley M.

2013-01-01

317

microRNA-122 Abundance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Non-Tumor Liver Tissue from Japanese Patients with Persistent HCV versus HBV Infection.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of hepatic carcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C are incompletely defined but often assumed to be similar and related to immune-mediated inflammation. Despite this, several studies hint at differences in expression of miR-122, a liver-specific microRNA with tumor suppressor properties, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) versus hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Differences in the expression of miR-122 in these cancers would be of interest, as miR-122 is an essential host factor for HCV but not HBV replication. To determine whether the abundance of miR-122 in cancer tissue is influenced by the nature of the underlying virus infection, we measured miR-122 by qRT-PCR in paired tumor and non-tumor tissues from cohorts of HBV- and HCV-infected Japanese patients. miR-122 abundance was significantly reduced from normal in HBV-associated HCC, but not in liver cancer associated with HCV infection. This difference was independent of the degree of differentiation of the liver cancer. Surprisingly, we also found significant differences in miR-122 expression in non-tumor tissue, with miR-122 abundance reduced from normal in HCV- but not HBV-infected liver. Similar differences were observed in HCV- vs. HBV-infected chimpanzees. Among HCV-infected Japanese subjects, reductions in miR-122 abundance in non-tumor tissue were associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL28B gene that predicts poor response to interferon-based therapy (TG vs. TT genotype at rs8099917), and correlated negatively with the abundance of multiple interferon-stimulated gene transcripts. Reduced levels of miR-122 in chronic hepatitis C thus appear to be associated with endogenous interferon responses to the virus, while differences in miR-122 expression in HCV- versus HBV-associated HCC likely reflect virus-specific mechanisms contributing to carcinogenesis. The continued expression of miR-122 in HCV-associated HCC may signify an important role for HCV replication late in the progression to malignancy. PMID:24130799

Spaniel, Carolyn; Honda, Masao; Selitsky, Sara R; Yamane, Daisuke; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Lanford, Robert E; Lemon, Stanley M

2013-10-09

318

Chitosan-modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres for plasmid DNA delivery and HBV gene-silencing.  

PubMed

Gene silencing using small interfering RNA (siRNA) has several potential therapeutic applications. In the present study, we investigated nanoparticles (NS) formulated using the biodegradable polymer, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) for plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery. A cationic polymer, Chitosan (CHS), was incorporated in the PLGA matrix to improve pDNA loading efficiency and cellular uptake ability. PLGA-CHS NS were prepared by a spontaneous emulsion diffusion (SED) method, and various formulation factors were investigated. Spherical nanoparticles with particle size of around 60 nm were obtained under optimum formulation condition. The effectiveness of pDNA-loaded PLGA-CHS nanoparticles in expressing the indicative enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) and in slicing Hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene were examined in HepG2.2.15 cells. CHS-modified PLGA NS exhibited much higher loading efficiency than unmodified PLGA NS. CHS-PLGA NS showed a positive zeta potential, while plain-PLGA NS were negatively charged. EGFP expression studies by observation with confocal leaser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that pDNA-loaded CHS-PLGA NS were more effectively taken up by the cells than plain-PLGA NS. The corresponding results showed that the HBV gene-silencing efficiency of CHS-PLGA NS was higher than those of plain-PLGA NS and naked pDNA. Thus, CHS-PLGA NS containing pDNA could provide an effective pDNA delivery system in vitro, showing that such an approach could be useful in the treatment of viral diseases in vivo. PMID:21645597

Zeng, Ping; Xu, Yi; Zeng, Chunhua; Ren, Hong; Peng, Mingli

2011-05-27

319

Synthesis, DNA recognition and cleavage studies of novel tetrapeptide complexes, Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New tetrapeptide complexes Cu(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (1) and Zn(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (2) were synthesized from the reaction of tetrapeptide, Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro and CuCl2/ZnCl2 and were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H and 13C NMR (in case of 2), ESI-MS, UV and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study was carried out employing UV-vis absorption titrations over a broad range of pH which suggested the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA was studied employing UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroic and viscometry studies. To throw insight into molecular binding event at the target site, UV-vis titrations of 1 and 2 with mononucleotides of interest viz.; 5'-GMP and 5'-TMP were carried out. Cleavage activity of the complexes with pBR322 plasmid DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and, the electrophoresis pattern demonstrated that both the complexes 1 and 2 are efficient cleavage agents. Further, the Cu(II) complex displayed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA while various reactive oxygen species are responsible for the cleavage in Zn(II) complex.

Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.; Mohapatra, D. K.

2013-05-01

320

Rapid screening and identification of dominant B cell epitopes of HBV surface antigen by quantum dot-based fluorescence polarization assay  

PubMed Central

A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future.

2013-01-01

321

Rapid screening and identification of dominant B cell epitopes of HBV surface antigen by quantum dot-based fluorescence polarization assay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future.

Meng, Zhongji; Song, Ruihua; Chen, Yue; Zhu, Yang; Tian, Yanhui; Li, Ding; Cui, Daxiang

2013-03-01

322

GeoPro: Technology to Enable Scientific Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Development of the ground-water flow model for the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System (DVRFS) required integration of numerous supporting hydrogeologic investigations. The results from recharge, discharge, hydraulic properties, water level, pumping, model boundaries, and geologic studies were integrated to develop the required conceptual and 3-D framework models, and the flow model itself. To support the complex modeling process and the needs of the multidisciplinary DVRFS team, a hardware and software system called GeoPro (Geoscience Knowledge Integration Protocol) was developed. A primary function of GeoPro is to manage the large volume of disparate data compiled for the 100,000-square-kilometer area of southern Nevada and California. The data are primarily from previous investigations and regional flow models developed for the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain projects. GeoPro utilizes relational database technology (Microsoft SQL Server{trademark}) to store and manage these tabular point data, groundwater flow model ASCII data, 3-D hydrogeologic framework data, 2-D and 2.5-D GIS data, and text documents. Data management consists of versioning, tracking, and reporting data changes as multiple users access the centralized database. GeoPro also supports the modeling process by automating the routine data transformations required to integrate project software. This automation is also crucial to streamlining pre- and post-processing of model data during model calibration. Another function of GeoPro is to facilitate the dissemination and use of the model data and results through web-based documents by linking and allowing access to the underlying database and analysis tools. The intent is to convey to end-users the complex flow model product in a manner that is simple, flexible, and relevant to their needs. GeoPro is evolving from a prototype system to a production-level product. Currently the DVRFS pre- and post-processing modeling tools are being re-engineered to improve their versatility, ease-of-deployment, and integration with GeoPro and current GIS technology. For instance, a Microsoft Access application used to analyze and develop model head observations from water-level data is being re-engineered to use SQL Server{trademark} and ArcMap. At present, GeoPro improves the modeling process by (1) reducing data discovery time, (2) automating routine data manipulations, and (3) integrating and sharing analysis and visualization tools. When fully developed, it is envisioned that GeoPro will also (1) provide consistency between reports, databases, models, and archives, and (2) provide a means to develop and share best work practices with future projects.

C. Juan

2004-02-09

323

WNT signaling in activated microglia is pro-inflammatory  

PubMed Central

Microglia activation is central to the neuroinflammation associated with neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, particularly since activated microglia are often a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite decades-long research, the molecular cascade of pro-inflammatory transformation of microglia in vivo remains largely elusive. Here, we report increased ?–catenin expression, a central intracellular component of WNT signaling, in microglia undergoing a pro-inflammatory morphogenic transformation under pathogenic conditions associated with neuroinflammation, such as Alzheimer’s disease. We substantiate disease-associated ?–catenin signaling in microglia in vivo by showing age-dependent ?–catenin accumulation in mice with Alzheimer’s-like pathology (APdE9). In cultured mouse microglia expressing the WNT receptors Frizzled (FZD)4, 5, 7, 8 and LDL related protein 5/6 (LRP5/6), we find that WNT-3A can stabilize ?–catenin. WNT-3A dose-dependently induces LRP6 phosphorylation with downstream activation of disheveled, ?-catenin stabilization and nuclear import. Gene expression profiling reveals that WNT-3A stimulation specifically increases the expression of pro-inflammatory immune response genes in microglia, and exacerbates the release of de novo IL-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor ?. In sum, our data suggest that the WNT family of lipoglycoproteins can instruct pro-inflammatory microglia transformation and emphasize the pathogenic significance of ?–catenin signaling networks in this cell type.

Halleskog, Carina; Mulder, Jan; Dahlstrom, Jenny; Mackie, Ken; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tanila, Heikki; Puli, Lakshman Kumar; Farber, Katrin; Harkany, Tibor; Schulte, Gunnar

2010-01-01

324

CanProVar: A Human Cancer Proteome Variation Database  

PubMed Central

Identification and annotation of mutated genes or proteins involved in oncogenesis and tumor progression are crucial for both cancer biology and clinical applications. We have developed a human Cancer Proteome Variation Database (CanProVar) by integrating information on protein sequence variations from various public resources, with a focus on cancer-related variations. We have also built a user-friendly interface for querying the database. The current version of CanProVar comprises 8,570 cancer-related variations in 2,921 proteins derived from existing genome variation databases and recently published large-scale cancer genome re-sequencing studies. It also includes 41,541 non-cancer specific variations in 30,322 proteins derived from the dbSNP database. CanProVar provides quick access to known cancer-related variations in protein sequences along with related cancer samples, relevant publications, data sources, and functional information such as Gene Ontology annotations for the proteins, protein domains in which the variation occurs, and protein interaction partners with cancer-related variations. CanProVar also helps reveal functional characteristics of cancer-related variations and proteins bearing these variations. Our analysis showed that cancer-related variations were enriched in certain protein domains. We also showed that proteins bearing cancer-related variations were more likely to interact with each other in the protein interaction network. CanProVar can be accessed from http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/canprovar.

Li, Jing; Duncan, Dexter T.; Zhang, Bing

2009-01-01

325

Presence of pro-tobacco messages on the Web.  

PubMed

Ignored in the finalized Master Settlement Agreement (National Association of Attorneys General, 1998), the unmonitored, unregulated World Wide Web (Web) can operate as a major vehicle for delivering pro-tobacco messages, images, and products to millions of young consumers. A content analysis of 318 randomly sampled pro-tobacco Web sites revealed that tobacco has a pervasive presence on the Web, especially on e-commerce sites and sites featuring hobbies, recreation, and "fetishes." Products can be ordered online on nearly 50% of the sites, but only 23% of the sites included underage verification. Further, only 11% of these sites contain health warnings. Instead, pro-tobacco sites frequently associate smoking with "glamorous" and "alternative" lifestyles, and with images of young males and young (thin, attractive) females. Finally, many of the Web sites offered interactive site features that are potentially appealing to young Web users. Recommendations for future research and counterstrategies are discussed. PMID:12356288

Hong, Traci; Cody, Michael J

326

ProCure21+ should speed scheme starts.  

PubMed

This October saw the launch of the new ProCure21+ National Framework under which, the Department of Health (DH) team behind the new scheme claims, the NHS can potentially save a further pound 200 million of public money on top of the substantial sums saved under predecessor, ProCure21, via faster, more streamlined procurement, design, planning, and construction, of publicly-funded healthcare schemes. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discussed, with the DH's senior responsible officer (SRO) and P21+ team leader Peter Sellars, the background to the new Framework's introduction, the success of its forerunner, and the additional benefits that ProCure21 + (which is backed by organisations incuding HM Treasury, the National Audit Office, and the Office of Government Commerce) should bring to the entire healthcare building supply chain. PMID:21141235

Baillie, Jonathan

2010-11-01

327

Hepatitis B virus X protein induces hypermethylation of p16(INK4A) promoter via DNA methyltransferases in the early stage of HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to authenticate the involvement of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) in the process of HBx induced p16(INK4A) promoter hypermethylation in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their corresponding noncancerous liver tissues. Eighty-eight fresh tissue specimens of surgically resected HBV-associated HCC and their corresponding noncancerous liver tissues were studied. The methylation status of the p16(INK4A) promoter was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). Reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed the expression of DNMTs, MBD2 and HBx. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used for the protein analysis of HBx, DNMT1, DNMT3A and P16. Tissue HBV-DNA levels were determined by RT-PCR. HBV genotype was examined by nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). In the corresponding noncancerous liver tissues, higher HBx expression was associated with the hypermethylation of the p16(INK4A) promoter. HBx was positively correlated with the DNMT1 and DNMT3A at both the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, HBx, DNMT1 and DNMT3A protein expression were negatively correlated with p16 protein expression. In HCC tissues, HBx was positively correlated with DNMT1 and DNMT3A at both mRNA and protein level, but HBx expression did not correlate with hypermethylation of the p16(INK4A) promoter or p16 protein expression. The methylation status of the p16(INK4A) promoter did not correlate with clinicopathological characteristics. DNMT1 and DNMT3A may play important roles in the process of HBx inducing hypermethylation of the p16(INK4A) promoter in the early stages of HBV-associated HCC. HBx-DNMTs-p16(INK4A) promoter hypermethylation may constitute a mechanism for tumorigenesis during HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:19732323

Zhu, Y-Z; Zhu, R; Fan, J; Pan, Q; Li, H; Chen, Q; Zhu, H-G

2009-09-02

328

Pro-2-PAM therapy for central and peripheral cholinesterases.  

PubMed

Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using (a) surgically implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG), (b) neurohistopathology of brain, (c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and (d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro-2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for the deleterious effects of OP poisoning by reactivating CNS AChE. PMID:20156430

Demar, James C; Clarkson, Edward D; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Campbell, Amy J; Thangavelu, Sonia G; Herdman, Christine A; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A; Ku, Therese C; Evans, Sarah A; Khan, Farhat A; Owens, Roberta R; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K

2010-02-13

329

Plasma pro-opiomelanocortin, pro-adrenocorticotropin hormone, and pituitary adenoma size in dogs with Cushing's disease.  

PubMed

It is difficult to predict the size of pituitary corticotroph tumors in dogs with Cushing's disease (pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [PDH]) without pituitary imaging techniques. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) precursor concentration and pituitary size in dogs with Cushing's disease. Plasma concentrations of ACTH precursors (pro-opiomelanocortin [POMC]/pro-ACTH) and pituitary tumor height/brain area were measured in 36 dogs with pituitary corticotroph adenomas of various sizes. There was a correlation between tumor size (measured as the pituitary tumor height/brain area ratio [P/B]) and POMC/pro-ACTH concentration (r = .70; P < .0001). Dogs with P/B > or = 0.40 x 10(-2) mm(-1) had higher concentrations of ACTH precursors than dogs with P/B < 0.40 x 10(-2) mm(-1) (median concentration 85 pmol/L, range 15-1,350 pmol/L, n = 14 versus 15 pmol/L, range 15-108 pmol/L, n = 22; P < .0001). With a threshold of 35 pmol/L of POMC/pro-ACTH concentration, the estimated sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79-100%) and 86% (95% CI, 73-100%), respectively. We interpret these data as indicating that measurement of POMC and pro-ACTH might be of value in the characterization of tumor size in dogs with Cushing's disease. Low POMC/pro-ACTH concentrations make it unlikely that a large pituitary tumor exists in dogs with PDH. PMID:15715043

Granger, Nicolas; de Fornel, Pauline; Devauchelle, Patrick; Segond, Sophie; Delisle, Françoise; Rosenberg, Dan

330

Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (?2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p?HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29 years age group. There was no statistically significant association between age or other socio-demographic risk factors and HBsAg status. Numerous risk factors for HBV acquisition exists in our settings, but amongst these, only a history of a contact with hepatitis B infection was found to be significantly associated with HBsAg positivity (OR 1.63, 95% C.I 1.15-2.30). Finally, the coinfection rate of HBV/HIV was 0.74%. Conclusion The prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant women in Cameroon is high, and the pattern tends towards high infectivity and therefore increased risk of perinatal HBV transmission. These highlight the need to step up preventive efforts against hepatitis B infection and perinatal HBV transmission in our community.

2013-01-01

331

[Seroprevalence of HBV and HCV in blood donors at the Blood Transfusion Center of Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital in Rabat Morocco].  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to present the findings of a retrospective study (2008-2009) to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in blood donors at the Blood Transfusion Center of Military Teaching Hospital Mohammed V in Rabat, Morocco. Samples from 19,801 consecutive blood donors were analyzed by the immuno-enzymatic method (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, third generation). The overall seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. A total of 98 units were rejected because of elevated alanine transaminase. No case of co-infection was found. From 1991 to 2010, HBV and HCV seropositivity showed a significant declining trend. In spite of the low prevalence observed, this study confirms that the risk of transfusion transmitted infection exists and thus underlines the need to implement preventive strategies to improve blood transfusion safety. PMID:22235634

Zohoun, A; Hadef, R; Zahid, H; Benkirane, M

2011-10-01

332

QSAR STUDY OF MOSQUITO REPELLENTS USING CODESSA PRO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protection times provided by 31 synthetic repellents against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were correlated with the chemical structures of these repellents using Codessa Pro software. Two statistically significant quantitative models with R2 values of ca 0.80 are presented and discussed....

333

Prospects for 'Pro-Poor' Growth in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines trends in income distribution and its linkages to economic growth and poverty reduction in order to understand the prospects for achieving poverty reduction in Africa. We examine the levels and trends in income distribution in some African countries and calculate pro-poor growth indices. Different growth patterns are simulated for Ethiopia, Uganda, Mozambique, and South Africa. We conclude

Arne Bigsten; Abebe Shimeles

2004-01-01

334

Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

2010-01-01

335

Cervical arthroplasty using ProDisc-C Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cervical disc replacement is an emerging motion-preserving technology in the surgical treatment of the cervical degenerative disc disorders used as an alternative to the classic interbody fusion. We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with C6-7 right disc herniation who underwent anterior discectomy and received a total disc replacement using ProDisc C artificial disc prosthesis.

Nica, DA; Copaciu, R

2013-01-01

336

Misleading Disclosure of Pro Forma Earnings: An Empirical Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sarbanes–Oxley (SOX) Act was passed in 2002 in response to various instances of corporate malfeasance. The Act, designed to protect investors, led to wide-ranging regulation over various actions of managers, auditors and investment analysts. Part of SOX, and the focus of this study, targeted the disclosure by firms of “pro forma” earnings, an alternate (from GAAP earnings), flexible and

Gary Entwistle; Glenn Feltham; Chima Mbagwu

2006-01-01

337

Variables Related to Pro-Choice Attitudes among Undergraduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used self-administered questionnaires to assess pro-choice attitudes of 840 undergraduates just prior to the 1984 presidential election. Students were asked whether they would approve or disapprove of abortion under four different circumstances. Results indicated that the majority of both males and females were in favor of allowing abortion under…

Wright, Loyd S.; Rogers, Robyn R.

1987-01-01

338

WS_FTP Pro v6.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WS_FTP Pro v6.0, from Ipswitch, Inc., is the latest version of the venerable WS_FTP client. WS_FTP Pro is one of the best and most well-known FTP clients available, and version 6.0 should only enhance its reputation. Outstanding among the improvements is the "Explorer Interface," which allows navigation and use of FTP sites via the familiar Windows file interface; sites are arranged as folders and icons, and remote files can be seamlessly drag-and-dropped onto the local hard drive. Other enhancements include new utilities that allow scripting, file synchronization, and file finding; a bookmark-like FTP site manager to organize frequently used FTP sites; and several other improvements. For anyone needing more advanced FTP capabilities than current browsers provide, WS_FTP Pro v6.0 is an excellent choice. WS_FTP Pro v6.0 is free to download and use for 30 days, after which time it can be purchased for $37.50 (previous users may upgrade for $9.95).

339

Potent Antioxidant Dendrimers Lacking Pro-oxidant Activity  

PubMed Central

It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens and electron donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical quenching property. In order to minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity towards Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A.; Upadhaya, Samik K.; Nelson, Julie L.

2010-01-01

340

Potent antioxidant dendrimers lacking pro-oxidant activity.  

PubMed

It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants, including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities, may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical-scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens, and electron-donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical-quenching properties. To minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal-chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical-scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme, and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity toward Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:20977937

Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A; Upadhaya, Samik K; Nelson, Julie L

2010-10-23

341

In vitro pro- and antioxidant properties of estrogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pro- and antioxidant properties of estrogens are subject of debate. The apparent discrepancy is largely caused by the chemical heterogeneity in the estrogen family and by their concentration and the environment in which they are found. To gain some insight into this debate, we determined whether estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), the 2-, 4- and 16?-hydroxyestrogens and also the 2-

Paul A Thibodeau; Rémy Kachadourian; Rosalie Lemay; Martine Bisson; Brian J Day; Benoit Paquette

2002-01-01

342

WestProPlus: a stochastic spreadsheet program for the ...  

Treesearch

Description: WestProPlus is an add-in program developed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate ... Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013 .

343

PRO-ART: Enabling Requirements Pre-Traceability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Requirements traceability is essential for developing software systems of high quality Whereas the traceability of the refinement, deployment, and use of a requirement is called post - traceability, the traceability of a requirement back to its origin is named pre - traceability In this contribution we present a requirements engineering environment, called PRO - ART , which enables requirements

Klaus Pohl; RWTH Aachen

1996-01-01

344

Why does the velocity of money move pro?cyclically?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The velocity of money usually rises in expansions and falls in recessions This paper explains this pro?cyclical movement of velocity using two ideas: (i) during business cycles the movement of investment and consumption of durable goods has a larger amplitude than consumption of non?durable goods and services; (ii) the velocity associated with expenditure on investment and durable goods is much

PEDRO LEÃO

2005-01-01

345

Anti-cancer activity of targeted pro-apoptotic peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed short peptides composed of two functional domains, one a tumor blood vessel 'homing' motif and the other a programmed cell death-inducing sequence, and synthesized them by simple peptide chemistry. The 'homing' domain was designed to guide the peptide to targeted cells and allow its internalization. The pro-apoptotic domain was designed to be nontoxic outside cells, but toxic

H. Michael Ellerby; Wadih Arap; Lisa M. Ellerby; Renate Kain; Rebecca Andrusiak; Gabriel Del Rio; Stanislaw Krajewski; Christian R. Lombardo; Rammohan Rao; Erkki Ruoslahti; Dale E. Bredesen; Renata Pasqualini

1999-01-01

346

Mexican American Adolescents' Perceptions of a Pro-College Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three focus groups of ninth-grade Mexican American students explored the factors contributing to a pro-college culture. The students participated in the federal initiative program called "Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs." Analysis revealed specific student, family, peer, and school personnel influences toward a…

Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; Cepeda, Lisa M.; Ivy, Karen K.; Archuleta, Debra J.

2010-01-01

347

Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

2010-01-01

348

Pro-Forms as Projective Devices in Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cataphoric pronouns have been characterized as being co-referential with a word that comes later. Considering that talk is produced in real time, with little benefit of knowing what is yet to come, participants understand cataphoric pro-forms to be projecting more talk. Projection is a crucial interactive resource, as it enables speakers to align…

Keevallik, Leelo

2011-01-01

349

ProSAT2--Protein Structure Annotation Server.  

PubMed

ProSAT2 is a server to facilitate interactive visualization of sequence-based, residue-specific annotations mapped onto 3D protein structures. As the successor of ProSAT (Protein Structure Annotation Tool), it includes its features for visualizing SwissProt and PROSITE functional annotations. Currently, the ProSAT2 server can perform automated mapping of information on variants and mutations from the UniProt KnowledgeBase and the BRENDA enzyme information system onto protein structures. It also accepts and maps user-prepared annotations. By means of an annotation selector, the user can interactively select and group residue-based information according to criteria such as whether a mutation affects enzyme activity. The visualization of the protein structures is based on the WebMol Java molecular viewer and permits simultaneous highlighting of annotated residues and viewing of the corresponding descriptive texts. ProSAT2 is available at http://projects.villa-bosch.de/mcm/database/prosat2/. PMID:16845114

Gabdoulline, R R; Ulbrich, S; Richter, S; Wade, R C

2006-07-01

350

Pro-eating disorder websites: facts, fictions and fixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Pro-eating disorder websites are online communities of individuals who do not consider eating disorders to be serious mental illnesses requiring treatment. People visit these websites to meet other like-minded individuals, to share tips and tricks on how to lose weight and how to otherwise maintain the symptomatology of the disorder. This paper aims to review what is actually

Helen Sharpe; Peter Musiat; Olivia Knapton; Ulrike Schmidt

2011-01-01

351

Association between vitamin D receptor, CCR5, TNF-a and TNF-b gene polymorphisms and HBV infection and severity of liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D is involved in immunomodulation. Expression of vitamin-D receptors in hepatocytes suggests its role in hepatocellular injury. We studied the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in immunoregulatory functions of vitamin-D with susceptibility, severity and persistence of HBV infection. Methods: Five polymorphisms in VDR, CCR5, TNF-a and TNF-b were studied in 214 chronic hepatitis B patients and

Pothakamuri Venkata Suneetha; Shiv Kumar Sarin; Ankur Goyal; Gollapudi Tharun Kumar; Deepak Kumar Shukla; Syed Hissar

2006-01-01

352

Infection status and risk factors of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis among drug users in Guangdong, China - a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background China has witnessed a remarkable increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. The study is to assess the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis and related risk factors among drug users in mandatory detoxification center Qingyuan, Guangdong, China. Method A cross-sectional study on drug use behaviors, sex behaviors, and presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV, Treponema pallidum, and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) was conducted among drug users recruited from 3 detoxification centers in Qingyuan, Guangdong, China. Risk factors for each of four infections were analyzed with logistic regression model. Results A total of 740 subjects were recruited, the median age was 31 years old (range 24-38). The seroprevalence rates of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis were 4.6%, 19.3%, 71.6% and 12.6%, respectively. Risk factors for HIV were intravenous drug use and co-infection with syphilis. Having a regular sexual partner who was a drug user was considered to be a risk factor for HBV. Intravenous drug use was a risk factor for HCV. However, the consistent use of condoms with commercial sex partners was protective for HCV infection. Compared to drug users living in urban area, those living in rural areas were more likely to be infected with syphilis, and there was an association between commercial sex and syphilis. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were high among drug users in detoxification centers in Qingyuan, thus, risk reduction programs for the drug user population is urgently required.

2010-01-01

353

Randomised controlled trial of interferon alfa 2A (rbe) (Roferon-A) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: factors that influence response  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomised controlled trial recombinant interferon alpha 2A (Roferon-A, rIFN alfa A) given at a dosage of 10 million units (MU)\\/m2 thrice weekly for six months was significantly better (p less than 0.02) than no treatment in producing a sustained loss of hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic carriers. Although lower doses (5 MU\\/m2 and

M G Brook; J A McDonald; P Karayiannis; L Caruso; G Forster; J R Harris; H C Thomas

1989-01-01

354

A Phase II, Randomized Study on an Investigational DTPw-HBV\\/Hib-MenAC Conjugate Vaccine Administered to Infants in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCombining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV\\/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana.Methods and FindingsIn this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were

Abraham Hodgson; Abudulai Adams Forgor; Daniel Chandramohan; Zarifah Reed; Fred Binka; Cornelia Bevilacqua; Dominique Boutriau; Brian Greenwood; David Goldblatt

2008-01-01

355

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) pX transactivates the c-fos promoter through multiple cis-acting elements.  

PubMed

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (pX) stimulates transcription regulated by cis-acting elements that control many viral and cellular genes, including the c-myc and the c-fos proto-oncogenes. Using several c-fos promoter deletion mutants, we found the serum-responsive element (SRE) located at -315, the modified TPA-responsive element located at -296 (fos-AP-1 binding site, FAP) and the region spanning from nucleotide -220 to -120, which contains an NF1-like site and several stretches of sequence homologous to the AP-2 consensus binding sites, to be responsive to pX. pX does not modify the pattern of the retarded complexes bound to the SRE/FAP region which, in our system, appears to be occupied by SRE-binding factors. The activation of the SRE does not involve complex formation between SRE-binding factors and pX, it is not associated with an increase in serum response factor binding to the SRE and it does not determine changes in SRE mobility-shift pattern. PMID:8502480

Avantaggiati, M L; Natoli, G; Balsano, C; Chirillo, P; Artini, M; De Marzio, E; Collepardo, D; Levrero, M

1993-06-01

356

On-treatment monitoring of HBV DNA levels: predicting response and resistance to oral antiviral therapy at week 24 versus week 48.  

PubMed

The suppression of hepatitis B viral (HBV) load correlates with favorable histologic, biochemical, and serologic responses in clinical trials of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The ability to identify patients who will not experience durable viral suppression in response to a specific antiviral regimen affords the opportunity for early treatment modification to optimize outcomes and avoid the development of antiviral resistance. Substantial evidence demonstrates that on-treatment serum HBV DNA levels are predictive of virologic response and risk of resistance. Regional clinical practice guidelines for the management of CHB universally recommend monitoring serum HBV DNA levels at treatment week 24. However, the value of this time point as a predictor of long-term success may not be applicable to all types of antiviral therapy. Indeed, each oral nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) antiviral therapy has a unique profile of potency, genetic barriers to resistance, and viral kinetics that may affect the optimal time point for on-treatment monitoring. This review discusses available data for appropriate predictors for long-term response and antiviral resistance for patients receiving specific oral NA antiviral therapy. Guidelines for on-treatment monitoring are also discussed. PMID:19669242

Chang, Ting-Tsung

2009-07-30

357

Inactivated Orf Virus Shows Antifibrotic Activity and Inhibits Human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Replication in Preclinical Models  

PubMed Central

Inactivated orf virus (iORFV), strain D1701, is a potent immune modulator in various animal species. We recently demonstrated that iORFV induces strong antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections. In addition, we found D1701-mediated antifibrotic effects in different rat models of liver fibrosis. In the present study, we compare iORFV derived from two different strains of ORFV, D1701 and NZ2, respectively, with respect to their antifibrotic potential as well as their potential to induce an antiviral response controlling infections with the hepatotropic pathogens hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Both strains of ORFV showed anti-viral activity against HCV in vitro and against HBV in a transgenic mouse model without signs of necro-inflammation in vivo. Our experiments suggest that the absence of liver damage is potentially mediated by iORFV-induced downregulation of antigen cross-presentation in liver sinus endothelial cells. Furthermore, both strains showed significant anti-fibrotic activity in rat models of liver fibrosis. iORFV strain NZ2 appeared more potent compared to strain D1701 with respect to both its antiviral and antifibrotic activity on the basis of dosages estimated by titration of active virus. These results show a potential therapeutic approach against two important human liver pathogens HBV and HCV that independently addresses concomitant liver fibrosis. Further studies are required to characterize the details of the mechanisms involved in this novel therapeutic principle.

Paulsen, Daniela; Urban, Andreas; Knorr, Andreas; Hirth-Dietrich, Claudia; Siegling, Angela; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Mercer, Andrew A.; Limmer, Andreas; Schumak, Beatrix; Knolle, Percy; Ruebsamen-Schaeff, Helga; Weber, Olaf

2013-01-01

358

A hepatitis A, B, C and HIV prevalence and risk factor study in ever injecting and non-injecting drug users in Luxembourg associated with HAV and HBV immunisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In Luxembourg, viral hepatitis and HIV infection data in problem drug users (PDUs) are primarily based on self-reporting.\\u000a Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV infections in ever injecting (IDUs) and non-injecting\\u000a drug users (nIDUs) including inherent risk factors analysis for IDUs. Secondary objectives were immunisation against HAV and\\u000a HBV, referral to care and

Nathalie Removille; Alain Origer; Sophie Couffignal; Michel Vaillant; Jean-Claude Schmit; Marie-Lise Lair

2011-01-01

359

Introduction of pro-interleukin-16 inhibits T-lymphoblastic leukemia growth in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Pro-interleukin-16 (pro-IL-16) is the precursor to mature interleukin-16 (IL-16) protein. Previous studies have demonstrated\\u000a that pro-IL-16 can function as a regulator of cell cycle. A number of human T-cell leukemia and lymphoma cell lines are pro-IL-16\\u000a deficient. Intracellular expression of pro-IL-16 causes these cell lines to become quiescent, implicating loss of pro-IL-16\\u000a as a contributory step in T-cell malignancy. Therefore,

Jillian Richmond; Michael Finkel; Anna Studwell; Frederic Little; William Cruikshank

360

Platelet Adhesion and Degranulation Induce Pro-Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Signalling in Ovarian Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Thrombosis is common in ovarian cancer. However, the interaction of platelets with ovarian cancer cells has not been critically examined. To address this, we investigated platelet interactions in a range of ovarian cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials [HIO-80, 59M, SK-OV-3, A2780, A2780cis]. Platelets adhered to ovarian cancer cells with the most significant adhesion to the 59M cell line. Ovarian cancer cells induced platelet activation [P-selectin expression] in a dose dependent manner, with the most significant activation seen in response to the 59M cell line. The platelet antagonists [cangrelor, MRS2179, and apyrase] inhibited 59M cell induced activation suggesting a P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptor mediated mechanism of platelet activation dependent on the release of ADP by 59M cells. A2780 and 59M cells potentiated PAR-1, PAR-4, and TxA2 receptor mediated platelet activation, but had no effect on ADP, epinephrine, or collagen induced activation. Analysis of gene expression changes in ovarian cancer cells following treatment with washed platelets or platelet releasate showed a subtle but valid upregulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-autophagy pro-angiogenic, pro-cell cycle and metabolic genes. Thus, ovarian cancer cells with different metastatic potential adhere and activate platelets differentially while both platelets and platelet releasate mediate pro-survival and pro-angiogenic signals in ovarian cancer cells.

Smyth, Paul; O'Toole, Sharon; Spillane, Cathy; Martin, Cara; Gallagher, Michael; Canney, Aoife; Norris, Lucy; Conlon, Niamh; McEvoy, Lynda; Ffrench, Brendan; Stordal, Britta; Keegan, Helen; Finn, Stephen; McEneaney, Victoria; Laios, Alex; Ducree, Jens; Dunne, Eimear; Smith, Leila; Berndt, Michael; Sheils, Orla; Kenny, Dermot; O'Leary, John

2011-01-01

361

Development of a Novel, Ultra-rapid Biosensor for the Qualitative Detection of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Antigens and Anti-HBV, Based on "Membrane-engineered" Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens  

PubMed Central

A novel miniature cell biosensor detection system for the detection of Hepatis B virus (HBV)-associated antigens and anti-HBV is described. The biosensor is based on “membrane-engineered” Vero fibroblast cells immobilized in an alginate matrix. The membrane-engineering process involved the electroinsertion of anti-HBV specific antibodies (anti-HBs, anti-HBe) or antigens (HBsAg) in the membranes of the Vero cells. The attachment of a homologous antigen to the electroinserted antibody (or, respectively, of the antibody to the electroinserted antigen) triggered specific changes to the cell membrane potential that were measured by appropriate microelectrodes, according to the principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The sensor was used for screening 133 clinical blood serum samples according to a double-blind protocol. Considerably higher sensor responses were observed against HBV-positive samples, compared with responses against negative samples or samples positive for heterologous hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV) virus. Detection of anti-HBs antibodies was made possible by using a biosensor based on immobilized Vero cells bearing the respective antigen (HBsAg). The observed response was rapid (45 sec) and quite reproducible. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that attachment of HBV particles to cells membrane-engineered with anti-HBs was associated with a decrease of [Ca2+]cyt. The perspectives for using the novel biosensor as a qualitative, rapid screening, high throughput assay for HBV antigens and anti-HBs in clinical samples is discussed.

Perdikaris, Antonios; Alexandropoulos, Nikos; Kintzios, Spiridon

2009-01-01

362

Glycosylation and Processing of Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide in Cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its related peptides are biomarkers for the diagnosis of heart failure. Recent studies identified several O-glycosylation sites, including Thr-71, on human pro-BNP but the functional significance was unclear. In this study, we analyzed glycosylation and proteolytic processing of pro-BNP in cardiomyocytes. Human pro-BNP wild-type (WT) and mutants were expressed in HEK 293 cells and murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Pro-BNP and BNP were analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Glycosidases and glycosylation inhibitors were used to examine carbohydrates on pro-BNP. The effects of furin and corin expression on pro-BNP processing in cells also were examined. We found that in HEK 293 cells, recombinant pro-BNP contained significant amounts of O-glycans with terminal oligosialic acids. Mutation at Thr-71 reduced O-glycans on pro-BNP and increased pro-BNP processing. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, residue Thr-71 contained little O-glycans, and pro-BNP WT and T71A mutant were processed similarly. In HEK 293 cells, pro-BNP was processed by furin. Mutations at Arg-73 and Arg-76, but not Lys-79, prevented pro-BNP processing. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, which express furin and corin, single or double mutations at Arg-73, Arg-76 and Lys-79 did not prevent pro-BNP processing. Only when all these three residues were mutated, was pro-BNP processing completely blocked. Our data indicate that pro-BNP glycosylation in cardiomyocytes differed significantly from that in HEK 293 cells. In HEK 293 cells, furin cleaved pro-BNP at Arg-76 whereas in cardiomyocytes corin cleaved pro-BNP at multiple residues including Arg-73, Arg-76 and Lys-79.

Peng, Jianhao; Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Wei; Qi, Xiaofei; Sun, Xue-Long; Wu, Qingyu

2011-01-01

363

The increase of serum Bcl-2 concentration in moderate head injury outcome: The role of ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10  

PubMed Central

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability. Apoptosis after TBI contributes significantly to the final extent of tissue damage. The Bcl-2 family proteins are important apoptosis modulators which increased in injured neurons. Bcl-2 has shown an antiapoptotic effect in rats and mice. ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 is a synthetic short fragment of ACTH devoid of hormonal effects and has neuromodulatory properties. ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 has been shown to increase levels of Bcl-2 and BDNF in vitro as well as in vivo. It has been postulated that ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 will result in improved clinical outcome and reduce hospital length of stay. The goal of this study is to compare the effect of standard therapy only with standard therapy and ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10, the increase of Bcl-2, and clinical outcome with reduction of hospital stay. Materials and Methods: Subjects of moderate head injury (MHI) with no indication of surgery were taken consecutively (n = 40) and separated into two groups: standard treatment only and standard treatment combined with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10. Blood samples were taken on day 1 and day 5 from each subject for measurements of Bcl-2 concentration. Barthel Index and MMSE were measured, at discharge and hospital length of stay was noted. Results: Forty subjects have been involved in this study, three subjects died in the standard therapy group, and one subject in ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 group. Bcl-2 serum level in standard therapy was 1.39 ± 0.75 ng/mL on day 1 and 1.48 ± 0.77 ng/mL on day 5. After treatment with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10, Bcl-2 level was 1.39 ± 0.70 ng/mL on day 1 and 3.70 ± 1.02 ng/mL on day 5. The serum Bcl-2 concentration was significantly increased with ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 therapy with shorter hospital length of stay (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ACTH4-10Pro8-Gly9-Pro10 increased serum Bcl-2 levels and reduced hospital length of stay significantly compared with standard therapy alone.

Indharty, Rr Suzy

2013-01-01

364

Knowledge-Based User-Computer Interface Design, Prototyping and Evaluation - the Design Pro Advisory System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the development of the DesignPro interactive computer-based advisory system for user-computer interface (UCI) design, prototyping and evaluation. DesignPro permits designers of user computer interfaces to represent requirements, to bui...

S. J. Andriole C. A. Monsanto L. S. Ehrhart

1998-01-01

365

Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.  

PubMed

Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

2010-01-01

366

Lymphocytes in cancer development: polarization towards pro-tumor immunity  

PubMed Central

The classic view that the role of immune cells in cancer is primarily one of tumor rejection has been supplanted by a more complex view of leukocytes having both pro-and anti-tumor properties. This shift is due to the now well recognized capabilities of several myeloid cell types that foster pro-tumor programming of premalignant tissue, as well as the discovery that subsets of leukocytes also suppress development and effector functions of lymphocytes important for mediating anti-tumor immunity. In this review, we focus on the underappreciated role that T lymphocytes play in promoting tumor development. This includes, in addition to the role of T regulatory cells, a role for natural killer T cells and CD4+ T helper cells in suppressing anti-tumor immunity and promoting cancer growth and metastasis.

Ruffell, Brian; DeNardo, David G.; Affara, Nesrine I.; Coussens, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

367

'I Love You to the Bones': Constructing the Anorexic Body in 'Pro-Ana' Message Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

With reference to an \\\\'online ethnography\\\\' (Ward, 1999) carried out in the \\\\'Anagrrl\\\\' pro-anorexic (ana) asynchronous web based community, I explore the radical, underground web-based pro-ana movement. The \\\\'pro-ana\\\\' movement challenges established biomedical ideas surrounding the treatment of anorexia, based on the \\\\'normalisation\\\\' of the body shape and weight. For participants of the pro-ana movement, the anorexic condition represents a

Katie J. Ward

2007-01-01

368

Stuck with Virtue in Our Pro-Life Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callahan is wrong to be pro-death, but he’s right to say that to live well—or for society to have a real future—we have to\\u000a care about more than mere life. Futile attempts to stop the pursuit of extreme personal prolongevity are contrary to our rights-based\\u000a way of life. It’s also contrary to human love and dignity to regard the old

Peter Augustine Lawler

2009-01-01

369

Effects of MagPro™ on muscle performance.  

PubMed

Athletes are on an endless quest to enhance performance and are frequently barraged by products that purport to contribute to various components of athletic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if MagPro™ influenced muscle flexibility or muscle endurance. This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study using a repeated-measures design. The Institutional Review Board approved consent was obtained. The participants were healthy, physically active adults (n = 38 for phase 1; n = 18 for phase 2). Two creams were used: MagPro™ (Mg cream) and a placebo. In phase 1, each cream was applied to the gastroc-soleus muscles. A stretching protocol was completed, and ankle dorsiflexion was compared. In phase 2, 1 cream was applied to both quadriceps muscles. An endurance protocol using a Life Fitness bicycle was completed. The procedure was repeated with the other cream on the quadriceps muscle 1 week later. For the flexibility phase, an analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed no difference between the 2 creams (p = 0.50), but there was a change in the flexibility over time (p = 0.00). For the endurance phase, paired t-tests revealed that there was no significant difference between the first (p = 0.26) or second (p = 0.35) cycling bouts of either cream. Likewise, there were no differences between the first and second cycling bouts of both the creams (MagPro™ p = 0.46; Placebo p = 0.08). Despite previous studies demonstrating improved performance with Mg supplements, MagPro™ did not enhance the outcome measures of this study. Examination of alternative application techniques and other outcome measures would be appropriate. PMID:22067254

Gulick, Dawn T; Agarwal, Melinda; Josephs, Jeremy; Reinmiller, Amanda; Zimmerman, Becky

2012-09-01

370

Pro-survival signalling from the NMDA receptor.  

PubMed

Ca2+ influx through the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors plays a Jekyll and Hyde role in the mammalian central nervous system. While it mediates excitotoxic death triggered by stroke and other acute trauma, there is growing evidence that physiological levels of NMDA receptor activity promote survival. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie these opposing effects may lead to strategies to selectively block pro-death signalling, which could have considerable clinical benefits. PMID:17052231

Hardingham, G E

2006-11-01

371

Hot topic: Changes in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and concentrations of the tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro during ripening of different Swiss cheese varieties.  

PubMed

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and the concentration of the 2 ACE-inhibiting tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) were studied during cheese ripening in 7 Swiss cheese varieties. The semi-hard cheeses Tilsiter, Appenzeller 1/4 fat, Tête de Moine, and Vacherin fribourgeois and the extra-hard and hard cheeses Berner Hobelkäse, Le Gruyère, and Emmentaler were investigated. Three loaves of each variety manufactured in different cheese factories were purchased at the beginning of commercial ripeness and investigated at constant intervals until the end of the usual sale period. Good agreement was found between ACE-inhibitory activity and the total concentration of VPP and IPP at advanced ripening stages. In most of the investigated varieties ACE-inhibitory activity and the concentration of the 2 tripeptides initially increased during the study period. A decline in the concentration of VPP and IPP was obtained toward the end of the investigated period for Tilsiter and Gruyère. The ratio of VPP/IPP decreased during ripening in all varieties with the exception of Emmentaler. However, large variations were observed among the cheese varieties as well as the individual loaves of the same variety. Chemical characterization of the investigated cheeses revealed that qualitative differences in the proteolysis pattern, not quantitative differences in the degree of proteolysis, are responsible for the observed variations in the concentrations of VPP and IPP. The presence of Lactobacillus helveticus in the starter culture was associated with elevated concentrations of VPP and IPP. The results of the present study show that concentrations of VPP and IPP above 100 mg/kg are attainable in semi-hard cheese varieties after ripening periods of about 4 to 7 mo and that stable concentrations of the 2 antihypertensive tripeptides can be expected over several weeks of cheese ripening. PMID:19233775

Meyer, J; Bütikofer, U; Walther, B; Wechsler, D; Sieber, R

2009-03-01

372

Acquired biodegradability of polyethylenes containing pro-oxidant additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegrability of high density polyethylene film (HDPE) and low density polyethylene film (LDPE) both containing a balance of antioxidants and pro-oxidants was studied with defined microbial strains particularly with Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Nocardia asteroides in mineral medium. After an abiotic pre-treatment consisting of photooxidation and thermo-oxidation corresponding to about 3 years of outdoor weathering the samples were inoculated, incubated up

Marek Koutny; Martine Sancelme; Catherine Dabin; Nicolas Pichon; Anne-Marie Delort; Jacques Lemaire

2006-01-01

373

Pro-social behavior in a natural setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence is provided for the importance of pro-social behavior of individuals in an anonymous, n-person public good setting. A unique panel data set of 136,000 observations is matched with an extensive survey. Even under anonymous conditions, a large number of individuals are prepared to donate quite a significant sum of money. Cooperation conditional on giving by specific other persons

Bruno S. Frey; Stephan Meier

2004-01-01

374

A Pro-Employee Supreme Court? -- The Retaliation Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Pro-Employee Supreme Court? – The Retaliation Decisions\\u000aBy Michael J. Zimmer\\u000aIn its first three terms, the Roberts Court decided three cases involving retaliation by an employer because the plaintiff complained of discrimination. In each case, the employee won. In 2006, in Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railroad Co. v. White, the Court reached two decisions. First, the antiretaliation

Michael J Zimmer

2008-01-01

375

Characterization of Ricinus communis phloem profilin, RcPRO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mature, functional sieve tube, which forms the conduit for assimilate distribution in higher plants, is dependent upon protein import from the companion cells for maintenance of the phloem long-distance translocation system. Using antibodies raised against proteins present in the sieve-tube exudate of Ricinus communis (castor bean) seedlings, a cDNA was cloned which encoded a putative profilin, termed RcPRO1. Expression

Christian Schobert; Maren Gottschalk; David R. Kovar; Christopher J. Staiger; Byun-Chun Yoo; William J. Lucas

2000-01-01

376

ProFusion*: Intelligent Fusion from Multiple, Distributed Search Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosive growth of the World Wide Web, and the resulting information overload, has led to a mini-explosion in World Wide Web search engines. This mini-explosion, in turn, led to the development of ProFusion, a meta search engine. Educators, like other users, do not have the time to evaluate multiple search engines to knowledgeably select the best for their uses.

Susan Gauch; Guijun Wang; Mario Gomez

1996-01-01

377

Prospects for economic governance: resilient pro-poor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential of the present drivers of economic governance, trade and investment, and also to envision their intersections and cross-cutting impacts on poverty and human development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A general review is employed to highlight scenarios shaping Africa's economic governance and the magnitude of their impact on pro-poor growth. Potential

William Lyakurwa

2009-01-01

378

Pro-antibiotic Substrates for the Identification of Enantioselective Hydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new growth-based screening method for the identification of enantioselective hydrolases, such as lipases and esterases, using pro-antibiotic substrates was devised. An enantioselective hydrolase could be identified by measuring growth rates of cells in liquid media containing (R)- or (S)-2–phenylbutyric chloramphenicol esters. This method can be applied to the screening of novel enantioselective microbes and to the high-throughput screening for

Bum-Yeol Hwang; Jong-Min Oh; Juhan Kim; Byung-Gee Kim

2006-01-01

379

ProSurf technology road map – a summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In August 2007, the European Institute of Printed Circuits produced a Technology Roadmap for the industry for the period 2007-2017. The purpose of this paper is to give details of the roadmap, the aim of which is to provide information which underpins the aims of the EU-funded ProSurf project, which are to strengthen European small-to-medium enterprises (SME) competitiveness

John Ling; Peter Starkey; Michael Weinhold

2008-01-01

380

HardCopy Pro 3.2.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The HardCopy Pro program is a great way to capture screens of interest that might be of later use in a professional or recreational setting. Visitors can use the program to capture rectangular screen areas, and then manipulate the images via a cropping tool. Additionally, they can use the application to save the images in a variety of file formats. This version is free for 30 days, and it is compatible with computers running Windows XP and newer.

2010-06-22

381

B and T lymphocyte attenuator is highly expressed on intrahepatic T cells during chronic HBV infection and regulates their function.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: T cell antiviral function is impaired during chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Programmed death-1 (PD-1) impairs antiviral T cell responses, but dysfunction is not always reversed by blockade of PD-1 pathway. Whether distinct T cell populations expressing different sets of inhibitory molecules exist has not been determined. METHODS: We studied the expression of the B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) on both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and intrahepatic lymphocytes, and the effects of blocking BTLA on circulating and intrahepatic T cells in CHB patients. Sixty-three CHB patients who underwent liver biopsy were enrolled. The expression of BTLA and PD-1 on PBMC and intrahepatic T cells was assessed by flow cytometry with antibodies to T cell differentiation molecules. Functional recovery was evaluated by analyzing production of interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2 after incubation of T cells with anti-CD3 and irradiated mature dendritic cells in the presence of anti-BTLA, anti-PD-1, or both. RESULTS: Intrahepatic T cells expressed higher levels of BTLA than their peripheral counterparts. A significant fraction of intrahepatic T cells coexpressed BTLA and PD-1 and showed deep exhaustion of T cell responses. Blockade of the BTLA pathway enhanced both intrahepatic and PBMC T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, and exhibited an additive effect upon blockage of PD-1. CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of inhibitory receptor BTLA restricts T cell responses in CHB. T cell exhaustion by high antigen concentrations exacerbates dysfunction of peripheral and intrahepatic T cells. Blockage of BTLA is a potential therapeutic approach for chronic HBV infection that may act by restoring antiviral T cell responses. PMID:23532637

Cai, Gang; Nie, Xiaomeng; Li, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wu, Beiying; Lin, Jiafei; Jiang, Cen; Wang, Huaizhou; Wang, Xuefeng; Shen, Qian

2013-03-27

382

Pro-inflammatory biomakers in depression: treatment with venlafaxine.  

PubMed

High levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers have been reported in depression. In the present study, five pro-inflammatory biomarkers were measured in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Biomarker levels were compared to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Patients with MDD had significantly higher baseline levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha, P=0.04), interleukin-1beta (IL1beta, P=0.03), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; P=0.02) compared to controls. There were no differences between groups in levels of cell determinant-40 ligand (CD40L) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A subset of the MDD patients consented to undergo treatment with venlafaxine (an SNRI: at lower doses a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; at higher doses also a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) for 8 weeks. By week 8, all treatment completers had responded therapeutically. However, levels of TNFalpha, IL1beta, and MCP-1 remained elevated. A concave quadratic equation described the associations between plasma venlafaxine concentrations and IL1beta (P=0.03), TNFalpha (P=0.09), and MCP-1 (P=0.02), suggesting that these biomarkers may have become selectively lowered in the serotonergic dose range of venlafaxine. This is the first report of venlafaxine's possible effect on pro-inflammatory biomarkers. PMID:19921973

Piletz, John E; Halaris, Angelos; Iqbal, Omer; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Zhu, He; Sinacore, James; Devane, C Lindsay

2009-01-01

383

Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators  

PubMed Central

The popular view that all lipid mediators are pro-inflammatory arises largely from the finding that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The resolution of inflammation was widely held to be a passive event until recently, with the characterization of novel biochemical pathways and lipid-derived mediators that are actively turned on in resolution possessing potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. A lipid mediator informatics approach was employed to systematically identify new families of endogenous local-acting mediators from omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in resolving exudates in addition to the lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins generated from arachidonic acid. These new chemical mediator families were coined resolvins and protectins, given their potent bioactions. In this annual review, we present recent advances on the biosynthesis and stereospecific actions of these new pro-resolving mediators, which have also proven to be organ protective and anti-fibrotic.

Serhan, Charles N.; Yacoubian, Stephanie; Yang, Rong

2009-01-01

384

Proteomic characterization of human early pro-angiogenic cells.  

PubMed

Early pro-angiogenic cells (EPCs) have been shown to be involved in neovascularization, angiogenesis and re-endothelialization and cathepsin L inhibition blunted their pro-angiogenic effect. In the present study, we have analysed and mapped the proteome and secretome of human EPCs, utilizing a combination of difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and shotgun proteomics. A population of 206 protein spots were analysed, with 171 being identified in the cellular proteome of EPCs. 82 proteins were identified in their conditioned medium, including the alternative macrophage markers C-C motif chemokine 18 (CCL18) and the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 as well as platelet factor 4 (CXCL4) and platelet basic protein (CXCL7) with "platelet alpha granule" being returned as the top category according to the Gene Ontology Annotation. Apart from cathepsin L, the cathepsin L inhibitor also attenuated the release of a wide range of other cathepsins and lysosomal proteins such as legumain, but stimulated the secretion of members of the S100 protein family. The data presented here are the most comprehensive characterization of protein expression and secretion in human EPCs to date and highlight the potential importance of cysteine proteases in the processing of platelet factors for their pro-angiogenic potential. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited". PMID:21147123

Urbich, Carmen; De Souza, Ayesha I; Rossig, Lothar; Yin, Xiaoke; Xing, Qiuru; Prokopi, Marianna; Drozdov, Ignat; Steiner, Marianne; Breuss, Johannes; Xu, Qingbo; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Mayr, Manuel

2010-12-13

385

Structure and activity of D-Pro14 melittin.  

PubMed

D-Pro14 melittin was synthesized to investigate the effect of increasing the angle of the bend in the hinge region between the helical segments of the molecule. Structural analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that, in methanol, the molecule consisted of two helices separated at Pro14, as in melittin. However, the two helices in D-Pro14 melittin were laterally displaced relative to each other by approximately 7 A, and in addition, there was a small rotation of the carboxyl-terminal helix relative to the amino-terminal helix around the long axis of the molecule. The peptide had less than 5% of the cytolytic activity of melittin. Modification of Arg22 with the 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-chroman-6-sulphonyl (pmc) group restored hemolytic activity to close to that of unmodified melittin. Replacement of Arg22 with Phe was less effective in restoring hemolytic activity. Electron-paramagnetic resonance studies suggest that there is a positive correlation between hemolytic activity of the peptides and interaction with phospholipid bilayers. PMID:12168695

Hewish, Dean R; Barnham, Kevin J; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Kirkpatrick, Alan; Bartone, Nicola; Liu, Su Ting; Norton, Raymond S; Curtain, Cyril; Rivetta, Donald E

2002-05-01

386

Search for the Mechanism of Genetic Variation in the pro Gene of Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the mechanism of evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease gene (pro), we analyzed a database of 213 pro sequences isolated from 11 HIV type 1-infected patients who had not been treated with protease inhibitors. Variation in pro is restricted to rare variable bases which are highly diverse and differ in location among individuals; an average variable

I. M. ROUZINE; J. M. COFFIN

1999-01-01

387

NetPro: Methodologies and Tools for Project Based Learning in Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The mission of the NetPro European project is to develop project-based learning through the Internet. The NetPro project is creating tools and services to facilitate communication and collaboration between distant students, and to manage access and control of project deliverables. NetPro project teams form cross-institutional learning…

Markkanen, Hannu; Donzellini, Giuliano; Ponta, Domenico

388

Pro forma disclosure and investor sophistication: External validation of experimental evidence using archival data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insights on how ordinary, less-sophisticated investors interpret and process management-issued pro forma earnings numbers are useful to regulators because of concerns that pro forma disclosures are misleading to ordinary investors. Two recent experimental studies [Frederickson, J. R., & Miller, J. S. (2004). The effects of pro forma earnings disclosures on analysts’ and nonprofessional investors’ equity valuation judgments. The Accounting Review,

Kristian D. Allee; Nilabhra Bhattacharya; Ervin L. Black; Theodore E. Christensen

2007-01-01

389

14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. 212.5 Section...DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a...

2010-01-01

390

14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. 212.5 Section...DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a...

2009-01-01

391

Searching for thinspiration: the nature of internet searches for pro-eating disorder websites.  

PubMed

Pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) Websites are widespread and easily accessible. The risks associated with these Websites (e.g., reinforcing and encouraging eating disordered behaviors) have received interest from researchers, media, and mental health professionals. However, little is known about how these Websites are found, which may provide insight into prevention and intervention initiatives. Using Google AdWords Keywords in February 2011, a series of search terms (based on previous research) were entered to generate search-related data regarding actual pro-ED terms used in Google, including the corresponding search results, which were coded for degree of potential harm. Results indicated that Pro-ED search terms are sought out more than 13 million times annually, with pro ana receiving the most searches monthly. Overall, different terms are associated with varying numbers of monthly searches and regional interest. Search terms with references to thinspiration and thinspo are associated with the most harmful Website content. To provide those who seek pro-ED content with helpful, research-supported resources, it may be important to intervene before the point of access by targeting the search results corresponding with pro-ED search terms. Efforts may need to pay particular attention to terms such as thinspiration and thinspo. PMID:22335543

Lewis, Stephen P; Arbuthnott, Alexis E

2012-02-15

392

Improved model quality assessment using ProQ2  

PubMed Central

Background Employing methods to assess the quality of modeled protein structures is now standard practice in bioinformatics. In a broad sense, the techniques can be divided into methods relying on consensus prediction on the one hand, and single-model methods on the other. Consensus methods frequently perform very well when there is a clear consensus, but this is not always the case. In particular, they frequently fail in selecting the best possible model in the hard cases (lacking consensus) or in the easy cases where models are very similar. In contrast, single-model methods do not suffer from these drawbacks and could potentially be applied on any protein of interest to assess quality or as a scoring function for sampling-based refinement. Results Here, we present a new single-model method, ProQ2, based on ideas from its predecessor, ProQ. ProQ2 is a model quality assessment algorithm that uses support vector machines to predict local as well as global quality of protein models. Improved performance is obtained by combining previously used features with updated structural and predicted features. The most important contribution can be attributed to the use of profile weighting of the residue specific features and the use features averaged over the whole model even though the prediction is still local. Conclusions ProQ2 is significantly better than its predecessors at detecting high quality models, improving the sum of Z-scores for the selected first-ranked models by 20% and 32% compared to the second-best single-model method in CASP8 and CASP9, respectively. The absolute quality assessment of the models at both local and global level is also improved. The Pearson’s correlation between the correct and local predicted score is improved from 0.59 to 0.70 on CASP8 and from 0.62 to 0.68 on CASP9; for global score to the correct GDT_TS from 0.75 to 0.80 and from 0.77 to 0.80 again compared to the second-best single methods in CASP8 and CASP9, respectively. ProQ2 is available at http://proq2.wallnerlab.org.

2012-01-01

393

Emergence of lamivudine resistance hepatitis B virus mutations in pregnant women infected with HBV and HIV receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-infant transmission in Malawi.  

PubMed

HIV/HBV co-infection is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine if the use of triple combination lamivudine-containing prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-infant HIV transmission was associated with the emergence of lamivudine HBV mutations. The study included 21 pregnant co-infected women in Malawi who received either zidovudine or stavudine plus lamivudine and nevirapine from week 25 of gestation until 6 months after delivery or indefinitely if they met the criteria for treatment (CD4+ <350/mm(3)). HBV-DNA was determined using the Roche COBAS assay. Resistance mutations were assessed by the Trugene assay (Siemens Diagnostics). At baseline 33% of the women were HBeAg positive and had HBV-DNA > 10(4) IU/ml. Median CD4 count was 237 cells/mm(3) and median HIV-RNA was 3.8 log(10) copies/ml. After a median of 259 days of treatment, HBV-DNA was detectable in 9 out of 21 patients (42.8%). In three cases the HBV-DNA level was >10(4) IU/ml. Resistance mutations (M204I in five cases and L180M + M204I/V in one case) were present in 6 (28.6%) patients. Women with a resistant virus had significantly higher baseline HBV-DNA levels than those not developing resistance (1.1 × 10(7) IU/ml vs. 20.8 IU/ml, P = 0.022). Levels of ALT and AST were higher in women with resistant viruses compared to those retaining a wild-type virus. A high rate of lamivudine resistance was seen in this cohort of pregnant women. Follow-up of these patients will clarify if the presence of resistance has a significant impact on liver disease. PMID:22930502

Galluzzo, Clementina; Liotta, Giuseppe; Andreotti, Mauro; Luhanga, Richard; Jere, Haswell; Mancinelli, Sandro; Maulidi, Martin; Sagno, Jean-Baptiste; Pirillo, Maria; Erba, Fulvio; Amici, Roberta; Ceffa, Susanna; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Vella, Stefano; Palombi, Leonardo; Giuliano, Marina

2012-10-01

394

Allosteric Modulation of the Dopamine Receptor by Conformationally Constrained Type VI ?-Turn Peptidomimetics of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2  

PubMed Central

A peptidomimetic of Pro-Leu-Pro-NH2, 7, possessing an indolizidinone type VI ?-turn mimic was synthesized via improved high-yielding protocols for the preparation and Cbz-protection of ?-allyl proline. Bicyclic peptidomimetic 7 and spirobicylic peptidomimetic 8 enhanced the binding of [3H]N-propylnorapomorphine to dopamine receptors indicating that a type VI ?-turn is a possible bioactive conformation of the homochiral Pro-Leu-Pro-NH2 and Pro-Pro-Pro-NH2 analogues of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 at the dopamine receptor allosteric regulatory site.

Vartak, Ashish; Skoblenick, Kevin; Thomas, Nancy; Mishra, Ram K.; Johnson, Rodney L.

2008-01-01

395

Mutations in the Corynebacterium glutamicum proline biosynthetic pathway: a natural bypass of th proA step.  

PubMed Central

Two chromosomal loci containing the Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 17965 proB and proC genes were isolated by complementation of Escherichia coli proB and proC auxotrophic mutants. Together with a proA gene described earlier, these new genes describe the major C. glutamicum proline biosynthetic pathway. The proB and proA genes, closely linked in most bacteria, are in C. glutamicum separated by a 304-amino-acid open reading frame (unk) whose predicted sequence resembles that of the 2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenases. C. glutamicum mutants that carry null alleles of proB, proA, and proC were constructed or isolated from mutagenized cultures. Single proC mutants are auxotrophic for proline and secrete delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, which are the expected phenotypes of bacterial proC mutants. However, the phenotypes or proB and proA mutants are unexpected. A proB mutant has a pleiotropic phenotype, being both proline auxotrophic and affected in cell morphology. Null proA alleles still grow slowly under proline starvation, which suggests that a proA-independent bypass of this metabolic step exists in C. glutamicum. Since proA mutants are complemented by a plasmid that contains the wild-type asd gene of C. glutamicum, the asd gene may play a role in this bypass.

Ankri, S; Serebrijski, I; Reyes, O; Leblon, G

1996-01-01

396

A Phase II, Randomized Study on an Investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC Conjugate Vaccine Administered to Infants in Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Combining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana. Methods and Findings In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were primed with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC or DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. At 12 months of age, children in each group received a challenge dose of serogroup A+C polysaccharides. Antibody responses were assessed pre, and one month-post dose 3 of the priming schedule and pre and 1 month after administration of the challenge dose. One month post-dose 3, 87.8% and 88.2% of subjects in the study group had bactericidal meningococcal serogroup A (SBA-MenA) and meningococcal serogroup C (SBA-MenC) antibody titres ?1?8 respectively. Seroprotection/seropositivity rates to the 5 antigens administered in the routine EPI schedule were non-inferior in children in the study group compared to those in the control group. The percentages of subjects in the study group with persisting SBA-MenA titres ? 1?8 or SBA-MenC titres ?1?8 at the age of 12 months prior to challenge were significantly higher than in control group (47.7% vs 25.7% and 56.4% vs 5.1% respectively). The administration of 10 ?g of serogroup A polysaccharide increased the SBA-MenA GMT by 14.0-fold in the DTPW-HBV/HibMenAC-group compared to a 3.8 fold increase in the control-group. Corresponding fold-increases in SBA-MenC titres following challenge with 10 ?g of group C polysaccharide were 18.8 and 1.9 respectively. Reactogenicity following primary vaccination or the administration of the challenge dose was similar in both groups, except for swelling (Grade 3) after primary vaccination which was more frequent in children in the vaccine than in the control group (23.7%; 95%CI [19.6–28.1] of doses vs 14.1%; 95% CI [10.9–17.8] of doses). Fifty-nine SAEs (including 8 deaths), none of them related to vaccination, were reported during the entire study. Conclusions Three dose primary vaccination with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC was non-inferior to DTPw-HBV/Hib for the 5 common antigens used in the routine EPI schedule and induced bactericidal antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis of serogroups A and C in the majority of infants. Serogroup A and C bactericidal antibody levels had fallen below titres associated with protection in nearly half of the infants by the age of 12 months confirming that a booster dose is required at about that age. An enhanced memory response was shown after polysaccharide challenge. This vaccine could provide protection against 7 important childhood diseases (including meningococcal A and C) and be of particular value in countries of the African meningitis belt. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35754083

Hodgson, Abraham; Forgor, Abudulai Adams; Chandramohan, Daniel; Reed, Zarifah; Binka, Fred; Bevilacqua, Cornelia; Boutriau, Dominique; Greenwood, Brian

2008-01-01

397

Relationships between translation of pro alpha1(I) and pro alpha2(I) mRNAs during synthesis of the type I procollagen heterotrimer.  

PubMed

Final assembly of the procollagen I heterotrimeric molecule is initiated by interactions between the carboxyl propeptide domains of completed, or nearly completed nascent pro alpha chains. These interactions register the chains for triple helix folding. Prior to these events, however, the appropriate nascent chains must be brought within the same compartments of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesize that the co-localization of the synthesis of the nascent pro alpha1(I) and pro alpha2(I) chains results from an interaction between their translational complexes during chain synthesis. This has been investigated by studying the polyribosomal loading of the pro alpha-chain messages during in vitro translation in the presence and absence of microsomal membranes, and in cells which have the ability to synthesize the pro alpha1 homotrimer or the normal heterotrimer. Recombinant human pro alpha1(I) and pro alpha2(I) cDNAs were inserted into plasmids and then transcribed in vitro. The resulting RNAs were translated separately and in mixture in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate +/- canine pancreatic microsomes. Cycloheximide (100 mu g/ml) was added and the polysomes were collected and fractionated on a 15-50% sucrose gradient. The RNA was extracted from each fraction and the level of each chain message was determined by RT-PCR. Polysomes from K16 (heterotrimer-producing), W8 (pro alpha1(I) homotrimer), and A2' (heterotrimer + homotrimer) cells were similarly analyzed. Translations of the pro alpha1(I) and pro alpha2(I) messages proceeded independently in the cell-free, membrane-free systems, but were coordinately altered in the presence of membrane. The cell-free + membrane translation systems mimicked the behavior of the comparable cell polysome mRNA loading distributions. These data all suggest that there is an interaction between the pro alpha chain translational complexes at the ER membrane surface which temporally and spatially localize the nascent chains for efficient heteromeric selection and folding. PMID:8904316

Hu, G; Tylzanowski, P; Inoue, H; Veis, A

1995-10-01

398

Phylogenetic analysis of torque teno virus genome from Pakistani isolate and incidence of co-infection among HBV/HCV infected patients  

PubMed Central

Background Torque Teno Virus (TTV) was the first single stranded circular DNA virus to be discovered that infects humans. Although there have been numerous reports regarding the prevalence of TTV from other countries of South Asia, there is severe lack of information regarding its prevalence in Pakistan. Thus the present study compiles the first indigenous report to comprehensively illustrate the incidence of the virus in uninfected and hepatitis infected population from Pakistan. Another aim of the study was to present the sequence of full length TTV genome from a local isolate and compare it with the already reported genome sequences from other parts of the world. Methods TTV DNA was screened in the serum of 116, 100 and 40 HBV infected, HCV infected and uninfected individuals respectively. Nearly full length genome of TTV was cloned from a HBV patient. The genome sequence was subjected to in-silico analysis using CLC Workbench, ClustalW, ClustalX and TreeView. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS v17.0. Results Our results report that 89.7%, 90.0% and 92.5% of HBV, HCV patients and healthy control population were positive for TTV infection. TTV genome of 3603 bp was also cloned from a local isolate and given the identity of TPK01. The TTV genome sequence mentioned in this paper is submitted in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under the accession number JN980171. Phylogenetic analysis of TPK01 revealed that the Pakistani isolate has sequence similarities with genotype 23 and 22 (Genogroup 2). Conclusion The results of the current study indicate that the high frequency of TTV viremia in Pakistan conforms to the reports from other areas of the world, wherever screening of TTV DNA was performed against 5?-UTR of the genome. The high sequence diversity among TTV genome sequences and the high frequency of prevalence makes it harder to study this virus in cellular systems.

2012-01-01

399

RPS3a Over-Expressed in HBV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Enhances the HBx-Induced NF-?B Signaling via Its Novel Chaperoning Function  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is known to play a key role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several cellular proteins have been reported to be over-expressed in HBV-associated HCC tissues, but their role in the HBV-mediated oncogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we explored the effect of the over-expressed cellular protein, a ribosomal protein S3a (RPS3a), on the HBx-induced NF-?B signaling as a critical step for HCC development. The enhancement of HBx-induced NF-?B signaling by RPS3a was investigated by its ability to translocate NF-?B (p65) into the nucleus and the knock-down analysis of RPS3a. Notably, further study revealed that the enhancement of NF-?B by RPS3a is mediated by its novel chaperoning activity toward physiological HBx. The over-expression of RPS3a significantly increased the solubility of highly aggregation-prone HBx. This chaperoning function of RPS3a for HBx is closely correlated with the enhanced NF-?B activity by RPS3a. In addition, the mutational study of RPS3a showed that its N-terminal domain (1–50 amino acids) is important for the chaperoning function and interaction with HBx. The results suggest that RPS3a, via extra-ribosomal chaperoning function for HBx, contributes to virally induced oncogenesis by enhancing HBx-induced NF-?B signaling pathway.

Lim, Keo-Heun; Kim, Kyun-Hwan; Choi, Seong Il; Park, Eun-Sook; Park, Seung Hwa; Ryu, Kisun; Park, Yong Kwang; Kwon, So Young; Yang, Sung-Il; Lee, Han Chu; Sung, In-Kyung; Seong, Baik L.

2011-01-01

400

Hepatitis B (HBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... or steroid users who have the virus, or tattoo needles that haven't been properly sterilized. And ... t share things like toothbrushes or razors research tattoo and piercing places carefully to be sure they ...

401

Infection Regulates Pro-Resolving Mediators that Lower Antibiotic Requirements  

PubMed Central

Underlying mechanisms for how bacterial infections contribute to active resolution of acute inflammation are unknown1-4. Here, we performed exudate leukocyte trafficking and mediator-metabololipidomics of murine peritoneal Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections with temporal identification of pro-inflammatory (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) and specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). In self-resolving E. coli exudates (105 CFU), the dominant SPM identified were resolvin (Rv) D5 and protectin D1 (PD1), which at 12 h were significantly greater than levels in exudates from higher titer E. coli (107 CFU) challenged mice. Germ-free mice displayed endogenous RvD1 and PD1 levels higher than in conventional mice. RvD1 and RvD5 (ng/mouse) each reduced bacterial titers in blood and exudates, E. coli-induced hypothermia and increased survival, demonstrating the first actions of RvD5. With human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and macrophages, RvD1, RvD5, and PD1 each directly enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli, and RvD5 counter-regulated a panel of pro-inflammatory genes, including NF-?B and TNF-?. RvD5 activated the RvD1 receptor, GPR32, to enhance phagocytosis. With self-limited E. coli infections, RvD1 and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin accelerated resolution, each shortening resolution intervals (Ri). Host-directed RvD1 actions enhanced ciprofloxacin’s therapeutic actions. In 107 CFU E. coli infections, SPM (RvD1, RvD5, PD1) together with ciprofloxacin also heightened host antimicrobial responses. In skin infections, SPM enhanced vancomycin clearance of Staphylococcus aureus. These results demonstrate that specific SPM are temporally and differentially regulated during infections and that they are anti-phlogistic, enhance containment and lower antibiotic requirements for bacterial clearance.

Chiang, Nan; Fredman, Gabrielle; Backhed, Fredrik; Oh, Sungwhan F.; Vickery, Thad; Schmidt, Birgitta A.; Serhan, Charles N.

2012-01-01

402

Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization  

PubMed Central

Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the “global workspace” theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher network integration.

Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M.

2012-01-01

403

Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization.  

PubMed

Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the "global workspace" theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher network integration. PMID:22973209

Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M

2012-08-28

404

Opioids Disrupt Pro-Nociceptive Modulation Mediated by Raphe Magnus  

PubMed Central

In anesthetized rats, opioid analgesia is accompanied by a specific pattern of tonic activity in two neuronal populations within the medullary raphe magnus (RM): opioids silence pain-facilitatory ON cells and produce sustained discharge in pain-inhibitory OFF cells. These tonic activity patterns, hypothesized to generate a tonic analgesic state, have not been observed in recordings made without anesthesia. Therefore, we recorded ON and OFF cell activity before and after an analgesic dose of morphine in unanesthetized mice. The tonic activity of ON and OFF cells was unchanged by morphine. Rather, morphine suppressed the phasic ON cell excitation and OFF cell inhibition evoked by noxious stimulation. Before morphine, the magnitude of the noxious stimulus-evoked burst in ON cells correlated with motor withdrawal magnitude, suggesting that ON cells facilitate nocifensive motor reactions. Contrary to model prediction, OFF cell activity was greater before stimulus trials that evoked withdrawals than those without withdrawals. Since withdrawals only occurred when OFF cell activity was suppressed, a decrease in OFF cell activity appears to serve as a pro-nociceptive signal that synchronizes and therefore strengthens the ensuing motor reaction. We further propose that morphine acts in RM to suppress ON and OFF cell phasic responses and thereby disable RM's pro-nociceptive output. Thus, RM cells produce antinociception by failing to exert the pro-nociceptive effects normally engaged by noxious stimulation. These findings revise the conventional understanding of supraspinal opioid analgesia and demonstrate that RM produces on demand rather than state modulation, allowing RM cells to serve other functions during pain-free periods.

Hellman, Kevin M.

2012-01-01

405

Making Women the Subjects of the Abortion Debate: A Class Exercise that Moves beyond "Pro-Choice" and "Pro-Life"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors describe a classroom exercise designed to put women (and children and men) back at the center of the abortion debate, avoiding the standard rhetoric and engaging reflection on how everyone might find common political goals among the so-called pro-life and pro-choice sides. The exercise the authors offer in this…

Crawley, Sara L.; Willman, Rebecca K.; Clark, Leisa; Walsh, Clare

2009-01-01

406

Aminoterminal Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) Levels for Monitoring Interventions in Paediatric Cardiac Patients with Stenotic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Background. Serum concentration of NT-proBNP correlates well with the severity of cardiac disease in adults. Few studies have been performed on the applicability of NT-proBNP for monitoring children with congenital heart disease. Objective. To assess the potential of NT-proBNP for monitoring the success of interventions in children with stenotic cardiac lesions. Methods. NT-proBNP was measured in 42 children aged 1 day to 17 years (y) before and 6 to 12 weeks after surgical or interventional correction of obstructive lesions of the heart. Comparison is made with the clinical status and echocardiographic data of the child. Results. NT-proBNP levels (median 280, range 10–263,000?pg/mL) were above the reference value in all but 6 patients (pts) prior to the intervention. Higher levels were found in more compromised patients. The 35 children with clinical improvement after the procedure showed a decline of their NT-proBNP level in all but 4 patients, whose levels remained unchanged. Five patients with unchanged gradients despite a therapeutic intervention also demonstrated unchanged NT-proBNP levels after the intervention. Thus, the success rate of the procedure correlated well to clinical and echocardiographic findings. Conclusion. NT-proBNP can be used to assess the efficiency of an intervention.

Welisch, Eva; Kleesiek, Knut; Haas, Nikolaus; Norozi, Kambiz; Rauch, Ralf; Filler, Guido

2009-01-01

407

The International Reference Sphere of the Earth: PRO and CONTRA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Gravitostatics, Electrostatics and Magnetostatics the scalar-valued potential external to the Earth Reference Body is expanded in scalar-valued external spherical harmonics. Such a harmonic space L^2(S^2_R) with respect to the International Reference Sphere S^2_R is analyzed. We review the physical theory of how to determine the Mean Sphere of the Earth. In particular, we discuss the PRO and CONTRA of such a reference sphere which thanks to Earth rotation is physically not admissible. A physical admissible reference figure is the International Reference Ellipsoid, an equipotential surface in the Somigliana-Pizzetti reference potential field.

Grafarend, E. W.

2003-04-01

408

PRoViScout: a planetary scouting rover demonstrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile systems exploring Planetary surfaces in future will require more autonomy than today. The EU FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (2010-2012) establishes the building blocks of such autonomous exploration systems in terms of robotics vision by a decision-based combination of navigation and scientific target selection, and integrates them into a framework ready for and exposed to field demonstration. The PRoViScout on-board system consists of mission management components such as an Executive, a Mars Mission On-Board Planner and Scheduler, a Science Assessment Module, and Navigation & Vision Processing modules. The platform hardware consists of the rover with the sensors and pointing devices. We report on the major building blocks and their functions & interfaces, emphasizing on the computer vision parts such as image acquisition (using a novel zoomed 3D-Time-of-Flight & RGB camera), mapping from 3D-TOF data, panoramic image & stereo reconstruction, hazard and slope maps, visual odometry and the recognition of potential scientifically interesting targets.

Paar, Gerhard; Woods, Mark; Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Labrosse, Frédéric; Medina, Alberto; Tyler, Laurence; Barnes, David P.; Fritz, Gerald; Kapellos, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

409

Involvement of GRP78 in inhibition of HBV secretion by Boehmeria nivea extract in human HepG2 2.2.15 cells.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that the root extract of Boehmeria nivea (BNE) can significantly suppress the production of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. In this study, viral core and large-surface proteins accompanied with their encapsidated viral DNA were observed to accumulate within the cells. Notably, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) was found to be suppressed by BNE, and stimulation of the GRP78 expression by thapsigargin could rescue virus production initially inhibited by BNE. The antiviral effect of BNE was reversible, which also coincided with the level of GRP78. Furthermore, we synthesized the GRP78 siRNA to knockdown the expression of GRP78 protein, and the production of supernatant HBV DNA was reduced simultaneously. Moreover, combined treatment of BNE and 3TC exhibited an additive anti-hepatitis B virus effect. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of BNE on blocking assembled virion secretion might be via the reduction of GRP78. PMID:19228285

Huang, K-L; Lai, Y-K; Lin, C-C; Chang, J-M

2009-02-17

410

Bone tissue, lyophilized and stored at room temperature for 15 days or more, is not capable of transmitting HIV, HCV or HBV.  

PubMed

Over the past 57 years, 17 recipients of frozen bone have been infected with: HIV (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Morb Mortal Wkly Rep MMWR 37(39):597-599, 1988; Li et al. in J Formos Med Assoc 100(5):350-351, 2001; Simonds et al. in NEJM 326(11):726-732, 1992; Schratt et al. in Unfallchirurg 99(9):679-684, 1996); HCV (Eggen and Nordbo in NEJM 326(6):411, 1992; Conrad et al. in J Bone Joint Surg Am 77:214-224, 1995; Trotter in J Bone Joint Surg Am 851(11):2215-2217, 2003; Tugwell et al. in Ann of Internal Med 143(9):648-654, 2005); or HBV (Shutkin in J Bone Joint Surg Am 36:160-162, 1954). However, bone, lyophilized and stored at room temperature, has never transmitted these viral diseases. A literature review was undertaken to determine whether there is any evidence that lyophilized bone is capable of transmitting HIV, HCV and HBV. PMID:20361356

Salvucci, John T

2010-04-02

411

Astragalus polysaccharides enhance immune responses of HBV DNA vaccination via promoting the dendritic cell maturation and suppressing Treg frequency in mice.  

PubMed

Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), an extract from a kind of Chinese traditional herb Astragalus membranaceus, was proved to have strong immunoregulatory properties. In this study, APS was employed as an adjuvant of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine (pcDS2) and its' effects on immune system of mice were investigated. Our data demonstrated that APS as an adjuvant could increase the HBsAg-specific antibody level as well as the proliferating activity of T cells. APS also could induce CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-4, IL-2 and IFN-? and enhance IFN-? expression of CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, APS could induce the robust activity of the cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL). Additionally, APS could stimulate the dendritic cells (DC) maturation which is characterized by up-regulation of MHC I/II, CD40, CD80 and CD86, and decreased the frequency of the regulatory T cells (nTreg). Collectively, these findings suggest that APS is a potent adjuvant for the hepatitis B DNA vaccine and can enhance the immune responses of HBV DNA vaccine via promoting DC maturation and inhibit the Treg frequency. PMID:23006659

Du, Xiaogang; Zhao, Bing; Li, Jinyao; Cao, Xiaohan; Diao, Mingkun; Feng, Haibo; Chen, Xiaobing; Chen, Zhiyu; Zeng, Xianyin

2012-09-21

412

[Proportion of drug users in treatment who have never undergone serological testing for HIV, HBV and HCV and correlates of failure to undergo testing: Italy, 2005-2007].  

PubMed

In Italy, although the most recent guidelines stress the importance of screening for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) those subjects considered to be at high risk (e.g., injecting drug users), not all drug users being treated at public drug dependency centres are regularly tested for these infections. The results of the present study show that 7.2%, 13.0%, and 7.4% of injecting drug users seeking treatment at public drug dependency centres are not tested for, respectively, HIV, HBV and HCV infections and while corresponding figures for drug users who do not inject drugs are 20.3%, 25.1% and 16.2%. The failure to undergo testing among injectors was associated with a shorter history of drug use and with drug centres in central or southern Italy; these associations were also found among non-injectors, with the addition of low level of education. The results stress the importance of facilitating access to testing, of providing the drug dependency centres with the necessary resources for taking blood samples at the centres themselves, of making access to (and performance of) testing uniform throughout the country, and of removing obstacles that can lead to the drug user's refusal to undergo testing. PMID:19798908

Camoni, L; Federico, B; Capelli, G; Salfa, M C; Regine, V; Nicoletti, G; Canuzzi, P; Magliocchetti, N; Suligoi, B

413

A 3? UTR SNP in COL18A1 Is Associated with Susceptibility to HBV Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chinese: Three Independent Case-Control Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulated evidences indicate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis related genes are associated with risk of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). COL18A1 encodes the precursor of endostatin, which is a broad-spectrum angiogenesis inhibitor, and we speculate that SNPs in COL18A1 may be associated with susceptibility to HCC. Methods and Findings We carried out a 2-stage association study in 3 independent case-control groups in a total of 1067 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 808 hepatitis B virus (HBV) related HCC patients in Han Chinese. Four SNPs which can represent all potential functional SNPs with MAF>0.1 recorded in HapMap database were genotyped using TaqMan methods. Levels of total COL18A1 mRNA were also examined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We found that rs7499 located in 3?-UTR to be strongly associated with HBV related HCC (Pcombined?=?0.0000005, OR?=?0.72, 95%CI?=?0.63–0.82). COL18A1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased as the disease progressed (P?=?0.000026). Conclusion These findings indicate that COL18A1 rs7499 may contribute to the risk of HCC in Han Chinese.

Wu, Xiaopan; Wu, Jia; Xin, Zhenhui; Wang, Huifen; Zhu, Xilin; Pan, Liping; Li, Zhuo; Li, Hui; Liu, Ying

2012-01-01

414

Interaction of Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Cathepsin Protease Progenitor (proV-CATH) with Insect Baculovirus Chitinase as a Mechanism for proV-CATH Cellular Retention?†  

PubMed Central

The insect baculovirus chitinase (CHIA) and cathepsin protease (V-CATH) enzymes cause terminal host insect liquefaction, enhancing the dissemination of progeny virions away from the host cadavers. Regulated and delayed cellular release of these host tissue-degrading enzymes ensures that liquefaction starts only after optimal viral replication has occurred. Baculoviral CHIA remains intracellular due to its C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motif. However, the mechanism for cellular retention of the inactive V-CATH progenitor (proV-CATH) has not yet been determined. Signal peptide cleavage occurs upon cotranslational ER import of the v-cath-expressed protein, and ER-resident CHIA is needed for the folding of proV-CATH. Although this implies that CHIA and proV-CATH bind each other in the ER, the putative CHIA–proV-CATH interaction has not been experimentally verified. We demonstrate that the amino-terminal 22 amino acids (aa) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) preproV-CATH are responsible for the entry of proV-CATH into the ER. Furthermore, the CHIA–green fluorescent protein (GFP) and proV-CATH-red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion proteins colocalize in the ER. Using monomeric RFP (mRFP)-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), we determined that CHIA and proV-CATH interact directly with each other in the ER during virus replication. Moreover, reciprocal Ni/His pulldowns of His-tagged proteins confirmed the CHIA–proV-CATH interaction biochemically. The reciprocal copurification of CHIA and proV-CATH suggests a specific CHIA–proV-CATH interaction and corroborates our BiFC data. Deletion of the CHIA KDEL motif allowed for premature CHIA secretion from cells, and proV-CATH was similarly prematurely secreted from cells along with ?KDEL-CHIA. These data suggest that CHIA and proV-CATH interact directly with each other and that this interaction aids the cellular retention of proV-CATH.

Hodgson, Jeffrey J.; Arif, Basil M.; Krell, Peter J.

2011-01-01

415

A hepatitis A, B, C and HIV prevalence and risk factor study in ever injecting and non-injecting drug users in Luxembourg associated with HAV and HBV immunisations  

PubMed Central

Background In Luxembourg, viral hepatitis and HIV infection data in problem drug users (PDUs) are primarily based on self-reporting. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV infections in ever injecting (IDUs) and non-injecting drug users (nIDUs) including inherent risk factors analysis for IDUs. Secondary objectives were immunisation against HAV and HBV, referral to care and treatment facilities as well as reduction in risk behaviour. Methods A nationwide, cross-sectional multi-site survey, involving 5 in-, 8 out-treatment and 2 prison centres, included both an assisted questionnaire (n = 368) and serological detection of HIV and Hepatitis A, B, C (n = 334). A response rate of 31% resulted in the participation of 310 IDUs and 58 nIDUs. Risk factors such as drug use, sexual behaviour, imprisonment, protection and health knowledge (HAV, HBV status and immunisations, HCV, HIV), piercing/tattoo and use of social and medical services were studied by means of chi2 and logistic models. Results Seroprevalence results for IDUs were 81.3% (218/268, 95%CI=[76.6; 86.0]) for HCV, 29.1% (74/254, 95%CI=[25.5;34.7 ]) for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection), 2.5% (5/202, 95%CI=[0.3; 4.6]) for HIV-1 and 57.1% (108/189, 95%CI=[50.0; 64.1]) for HAV (cured infections or past vaccinations). Seroprevalence results for nIDUs were 19.1% (9/47, 95%CI=[7.9;30.3]) for HCV, 8.9% (4/45, 95%CI=[0.6;17.2]) for HBV (acute/chronic infection or past cured infection), 4.8% (2/42, 95%CI=[-1.7;11.3]) for HIV-1 and 65.9% (27/41, 95%CI=[51.4;80.4]) for HAV. Prisoners showed the highest rates for all infections. Age, imprisonment and setting of recruitment were statistically associated with HCV seropositivity. Age, speedball career and nationality were significantly associated with HBV seropositivity. Only 56% of the participants in outpatient centres collected their serology results and 43 doses of vaccine against HAV and/or HBV were administered. Conclusions Despite the existing national risk-reduction strategies implemented since 1993, high prevalence of HCV and HBV infections in injecting drug users is observed. Our study showed that implementing risk-prevention strategies, including immunisation remains difficult with PDUs. Improvement should be looked for by the provision of field healthcare structures providing tests with immediate results, advice, immunisation or treatment if appropriate.

2011-01-01

416

SO(2) inhalation modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic genes in rat heart and lung.  

PubMed

SO(2) is a common air pollutant, and human exposure to SO(2) has become increasingly widespread due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The epidemiological studies have linked SO(2) exposure not only with many respiratory responses, but also with cardiovascular diseases. Also, its possible toxicity has been implicated by determining oxidative stress, DNA damage and membrane channel alteration in rat heart and lung. However, its detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, rats were treated with 7, 14 and 28 mg/m(3) SO(2) for 6h/day for 7 days, and the mRNA levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, iNOS, ICAM-1, Bax and Bcl-2 and subsequent insults were determined in the heart and lung. The results indicate that SO(2) inhalation markedly elevated TNF-? and IL-1? mRNA levels and secretions, enhanced iNOS and ICAM-1 mRNA levels and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in a concentration-dependent manner, and induced occurrence of apoptosis. This suggests that SO(2) inhalation induced an inflammatory response and subsequent insults via modulating pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic genes in the heart and lung, which contributed to the increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20951496

Yun, Yang; Hou, Li; Sang, Nan

2010-09-24

417

ProSAAS and prohormone convertase 1 are broadly expressed during mouse development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ProSAAS (encoded by mouse gene Pcsk1n) is a recently described neuroendocrine secretory pathway protein that is cleaved into smaller peptides that may function in cell–cell signalling. ProSAAS and its processing intermediates are also potent inhibitors of prohormone convertase 1 (PC1), which is encoded by mouse gene Pcsk1. In order to gain insight into the function of proSAAS, we have examined

Yun Feng; Sandra E Reznik; Lloyd D Fricker

2002-01-01

418

Pro-cyclicality of capital regulation: is it a problem? How to fix it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a macroeconomic euro area model with a bank sector to study the pro-cyclical effect of the capital regulation, focusing on the extra pro-cyclicality induced by Basel II over Basel I. Our results suggest that this incremental effect is modest. We also find that regulators could offset the extra pro-cyclicality by a countercyclical capital-requirements policy. Our results also suggest

Paolo Angelini; Andrea Enria; Stefano Neri; Fabio Panetta; Mario Quagliariello

2010-01-01

419

PRO: A Profile-Based Routing Protocol for Pocket Switched Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol, PRO, for profile-based routing in pocket switched networks. Differing from previous routing protocols, PRO treats node encounters as periodic patterns and uses them to predict the times of future encounters. Exploiting the regularity of human mobility profiles, PRO achieves fast (low-delivery-latency) and efficient (low-message-overhead) routing in intermittently connected pocket switched networks.

Murat Ali Bayir; Murat Demirbas

2010-01-01

420

Pro-sequence of subtilisin can guide the refolding of denatured subtilisin in an intermolecular process  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUBTILISIN E, an alkaline serine protease consisting of a single polypeptide chain of 275 amino acids is produced from a pre-pro-protein1. The pre-sequence functions as the signal peptide for protein secretion across the membrane2. Deletion of the pro-sequence yields mature but inactive subtilisin3: the 77-amino acid pro-sequence must precede the mature subtilisin to guide the latter into an active conformation.

Xueli Zhu; Yoshiji Ohta; Frank Jordan; Masayori Inouye

1989-01-01