Sample records for verisure pro hbv

  1. Hepatitis B virus maintains its pro-oncogenic properties in the case of occult HBV infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Pollicino; Giovanni Squadrito; Giovanni Cerenzia; Irene Cacciola; Giuseppina Raffa; Fabio Farinati; Gabriele Missale; Antonina Smedile; Claudio Tiribelli; Erica Villa; Giovanni Raimondo

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by persistence of HBV DNA into the tissue of hepatitis B surface antigen-negative individuals. The clinical relevance of this peculiar infection is still under debate. In particular, the impact of occult HBV infection in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncertain. We investigated the prevalence and molecular status of

  2. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Dealing With Anger Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A ...

  3. Adenoviral-vector mediated transfer of HBV-targeted ribonuclease can inhibit HBV replication in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya Zhao; Yinghui Li; Jun Liu; Zhongxiang Liu; Yuxiao Huang; Junchuan Lei; Shumei Li; Caifang Xue

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-targeted ribonuclease (HBV-TR) is a fused protein of HBV core protein and a ribonuclease, human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (hEDN). Our previous results showed that HBV-TR could effectively inhibit HBV replication in vitro. To test whether HBV-TR can inhibit HBV replication in vivo, we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing HBV-TR (Ad-TR) and used it to treat HBV-transgenic mice.

  4. Strategies to eliminate HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Rama; Kottilil, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Chronic HBV infection is a major public health concern affecting over 240 million people worldwide. Although suppression of HBV replication is achieved in the majority of patients with currently available newer antivirals, discontinuation of therapy prior to hepatitis B surface antigen loss or seroconversion is associated with relapse of HBV in the majority of cases. Thus, new therapeutic modalities are needed to achieve eradication of the virus from chronically infected patients in the absence of therapy. The basis of HBV persistence includes viral and host factors. Here, we review novel strategies to achieve sustained cure or elimination of HBV. The novel approaches include targeting the viral and or host factors required for viral persistence, and novel immune-based therapies, including therapeutic vaccines. PMID:25309617

  5. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  6. Postexposure Prophylactic Effect of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Active Antiretroviral Therapy against HBV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Hamada-Tsutsumi, Susumu; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Junji; Sugiura, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective study indicates that hepatitis B virus (HBV)-active nucleoside (nucleotide) analogues (NAs) used for antiretroviral therapy reduce the incidence of acute HBV infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Learning from HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), we explored the possibility of using NAs in PEP following HBV exposure, if preexposure prophylaxis is feasible clinically. Using freshly isolated primary human hepatocytes cultured in vitro, we analyzed the effect of HBV-active tenofovir and lamivudine in primary HBV infection and also the effect of treatment with these NAs after HBV infection. HBV-active NAs applied from 24 h before inoculation could not prevent the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen into the culture medium, and cessation of the NAs after inoculation allowed the cells to establish an apparent HBV infection. In contrast, hepatitis B immune globulin was able to prevent HBV infection completely. NA treatment before infection, however, can control the spread of HBV infection, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Practically, starting NA treatment within 2 days of primary HBV infection inhibited viral spread effectively, as well as preexposure treatment. We demonstrated that preexposure NA treatment was not able to prevent the acquisition of HBV infection but prevented viral spread by suppressing the production of mature progeny HBV virions. The effect of postexposure treatment within 2 days was similar to the effect of preexposure treatment, suggesting the possibility of HBV PEP using HBV-active NAs in HIV- and HBV-susceptible high-risk groups. PMID:25512419

  7. Distribution of HBV genotypes among HBV carriers in Benin:phylogenetic analysis and virological characteristics of HBV genotype E

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kei; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Orito, Etsuro; Ohno, Tomoyoshi; Kato, Takanobu; Sugihara, Kanji; Hasegawa, Izumi; Sakurai, Mayumi; Ito, Kiyoaki; Ozasa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuko; Arita, Isao; El-Gohary, Ahmed; Benoit, Agossou; Ogoundele-Akplogan, Sophie I; Yoshihara, Namiko; Ueda, Ryuzo; Mizokami, Masashi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the distribution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Benin, and to clarify the virological characteristics of the dominant genotype. METHODS: Among 500 blood donors in Benin, 21 HBsAg-positive donors were enrolled in the study. HBV genotypes were determined by enzyme immunoassay and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Complete genome sequences were determined by PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS: HBV genotype E (HBV/E) was detected in 20/21 (95.2%), and HBV/A in 1/21 (4.8%). From the age-specific prevalence of HBeAg to anti-HBe seroconversion (SC) in 19 HBV/E subjects, SC was estimated to occur frequently in late teens in HBV/E. The comparison of four complete HBV/E genomes from HBeAg-positive subjects in this study and five HBV/E sequences recruited from the database revealed that HBV/E was distributed throughout West Africa with very low genetic diversity (nucleotide homology 96.7-99.2%). Based on the sequences in the basic core promoter (BCP) to precore region of the nine HBV/E isolates compared to those of the other genotypes, a nucleotide substitution in the BCP, G1757A, was observed in HBV/E. CONCLUSION: HBV/E is predominant in the Republic of Benin, and SC is estimated to occur in late teens in HBV/E. The specific nucleotide substitution G1757A in BCP, which might influence the virological characteristics, is observed in HBV/E. PMID:16425408

  8. HBV and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection acquired in adult life is generally self-limited while chronic persistence of the virus is the prevalent outcome when infection is acquired perinatally. Both control of infection and liver cell injury are strictly dependent upon protective immune responses, because hepatocyte damage is the price that the host must pay to get rid of intracellular virus. Resolution of acute hepatitis B is associated with functionally efficient, multispecific antiviral T-cell responses which are preceded by a poor induction of intracellular innate responses at the early stages of infection. Persistent control of infection is provided by long-lasting protective memory, which is probably sustained by continuous stimulation of the immune system by trace amounts of virus which are never totally eliminated, persisting in an occult episomic form in the nucleus of liver cells even after recovery from acute infection. Chronic virus persistence is instead characterized by a lack of protective T-cell memory maturation and by an exhaustion of HBV-specific T-cell responses. Persistent exposure of T cells to high antigen loads is a key determinant of functional T-cell impairment but also other mechanisms can contribute to T-cell inhibition, including the tolerogenic effect of the liver environment. The degree of T-cell impairment is variable and its severity is related to the level of virus replication and antigen load. The antiviral T-cell function is more efficient in patients who can control infection either partially, such as inactive HBsAg carriers with low levels of virus replication, or completely, such as patients who achieve HBsAg loss either spontaneously or after antiviral therapy. Thus, understanding the features of the immune responses associated with control of infection is needed for the successful design of novel immune modulatory therapies based on the reconstitution of efficient antiviral responses in chronic HBV patients. PMID:25529097

  9. Epidemiology of HBV subgenotypes D.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Resat; Inanc Balkan, Ilker; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tabak, Fehmi

    2015-02-01

    The natural history of hepatitis B virus infection is not uniform and affected from several factors including, HBV genotype. Genotype D is a widely distributed genotype. Among genotype D, several subgenotypes differentiate epidemiologically and probably clinically. D1 is predominant in Middle East and North Africa, and characterized by early HBeAg seroconversion and low viral load. D2 is seen in Albania, Turkey, Brazil, western India, Lebanon, and Serbia. D3 was reported from Serbia, western India, and Indonesia. It is a predominant subgenotype in injection drug use-related acute HBV infections in Europe and Canada. D4 is relatively rare and reported from Haiti, Russia and Baltic region, Brazil, Kenya, Morocco and Rwanda. Subgenotype D5 seems to be common in Eastern India. D6 has been reported as a rare subgenotype from Indonesia, Kenya, Russia and Baltic region. D7 is the main genotype in Morocco and Tunisia. D8 and D9 are recently described subgenotypes and reported from Niger and India, respectively. Subgenotypes of genotype D may have clinical and/or viral differences. More subgenotype studies are required to conclude on subgenotype and its clinical/viral characteristics. PMID:25037178

  10. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) by LNA-mediated nuclear interference with HBV DNA transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhen [The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and The MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) [The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and The MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Xiang, Wenqing; Guo, Yajuan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Chen, Zhi [The State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease, Institute of Infectious Disease, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China)] [The State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease, Institute of Infectious Disease, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuwei666@zju.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Program in Molecular Cell Biology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Lu, Daru, E-mail: drlu@fudan.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and The MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and The MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} LNA-modified oligonucleotides can pass through the plasma membrane of cultured cells even without using transfection machinery. {yields} LNA-modified oligonucleotides passed efficiently across the cell membrane, and lipid-coating facilitated translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. {yields} LNA-oligonucleotide designed to target nuclear HBV DNA efficiently suppresses HBV replication and transcription in cultured hepatic cells. -- Abstract: Silencing target genes with small regulatory RNAs is widely used to investigate gene function and therapeutic drug development. Recently, triplex-based approaches have provided another attractive means to achieve targeted gene regulation and gene manipulation at the molecular and cellular levels. Nuclear entry of oligonucleotides and enhancement of their affinity to the DNA targets are key points of such approaches. In this study, we developed lipid-based transport of a locked-nucleic-acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA interference in human hepatocytes expressing HBV genomic DNA. In these cells, the LNA-modified oligonucleotides passed efficiently across the cell membrane, and lipid-coating facilitated translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The oligonucleotide specifically targeting HBV DNA clearly interfered with HBV DNA transcription as shown by a block in pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) production. The HBV DNA-targeted oligonucleotide suppressed HBV DNA replication and HBV protein production more efficiently than small interfering RNAs directed to the pgRNA. These results demonstrate that fusion with lipid can carry LNA-modified oligonucleotides to the nucleus where they regulate gene expression. Interfering with HBV DNA transcription by LNA-modified oligonucleotides has strong potential as a new strategy for HBV inhibition.

  11. Occult HBV infection among Egyptian hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Occult HBV infection accelerates the progression of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally leading to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study analyzed the occult HBV-genotypes in HCC patients. Methods To achieve our objective, matched serum and tissue samples were collected from 40 HCC patients. Three sets of primers were used for the HBV-DNA detection by nested-PCR, which cover the HBV-genome; Core, Surface and X genes. Genotyping system based on PCR using type-specific primers was applied on HBV-DNA positive samples. Results Intrahepatic occult HBV-DNA was detected in 62.5%, whereas; Serum occult HBV-DNA were detected in only 22.5% of HCC patients. In patients' positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc, 10% had occult HBV in serum. In serologically negative HCV patients, 63% had intrahepatic HBV-DNA, and 21% had HBV-DNA in serum samples. HBV-genotype D (32%) and B (24%) attributed predominantly to intrahepatic HBV infections in HCC patients, whereas HBV-genotype A (4%) and C (8%) infections were the least observed. Conclusion This is the first study to show the genotypes of occult HBV infection in HCC Patients. We suggest that B or D may influence the outcome of HBV infection which may lead to the development of HCC. PMID:21371325

  12. Lamivudine treatment for severe acute HBV hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Lisotti; Francesco Azzaroli; Federica Buonfiglioli; Marco Montagnani; Flavio Alessandrelli; Giuseppe Mazzella

    Treatment for acute hepatitis B is recommended in order to reduce the risk of progression to fulminant hepatitis and the need of OLT. We report our experience on treatment with high dose lamivudine, in patients with severe acute HBV infection. The diagnosis was based on clinical and virological findings and exclusion of other known causes of liver damage. The decision

  13. Risk stratification of HBV infection in Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jia-Horng

    2014-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major etiology of chronic liver disease worldwide and thus a global health problem, especially in Asia-Pacific region. The long-term outcomes of Asian HBV carriers vary widely; however, a significant proportion of them will finally develop end-stage liver disease. Over the past decade, several host and HBV factors predictive of clinical outcomes in Asian HBV carriers have been identified. The community-based REVEAL-HBV study illustrated the strong association between HBV-DNA level at study entry and risk of HCC over time, and male gender, older age, high serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, positive HBeAg, higher HBV-DNA level, HBV genotype C infection and core promoter mutation are independently associated with a higher hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk. Another hospital-based ERADICATE-B cohort further validated the HCC risk started to increase when HBV-DNA level was higher than 2,000 IU/mL. Of particular note, in patients with low viral load (HBV-DNA level <2,000 IU/mL), HBsAg level ?1,000 IU/mL was a new independent risk factor for HCC. With the results from REVEAL-HBV study, a risk calculator for predicting HCC in adult non-cirrhotic patients has been developed and validated by independent international cohorts (REACH-B). With the combination of HBV-DNA, HBsAg, and ALT levels, ERADICATE-B study proposed an algorithm to predict disease progression and categorize risk levels of HCC as well as corresponding management in Asian HBV carriers. The introduction of transient elastography may further enhance the predictive power. In conclusion, HBsAg level can complement HBV-DNA level for the risk stratification of disease progression in Asian adult patients with chronic HBV infection. PMID:25320724

  14. Steroid-free chemotherapy decreases risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in HBV-carriers with lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann-Lii Cheng; Chao A. Hsiung; Ih-Jen Su; Ming-Chih Chang; Chao-Jung Tsao; Woei-Yao Kao; Wu-Ching Uen; Chih-Hung Hsu; Hwei-Fan Tien; Tsu-Yi Chao; Li-Tzong Chen; Jacqueline Whang-Peng

    2003-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis is one of the most serious complications of chemotherapy in lymphoma patients who are carriers of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Glucocorticoids are linked to increased risk of HBV reactivation. This study seeks to clarify whether removal of glucocorticoids from chemotherapy regimens may decrease the risk of HBV reactivation. Eligible patients were seropositive for hepatitis B surface

  15. HBV reactivation in an occult HBV infection patient treated with prednisone for nephrotic syndrome: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV), characterized by increased levels of serum HBV DNA, abnormal liver function and hepatic failure, is a frequent complication of immunosuppressive therapy and chemotherapy in patients with HBV infection. However, reactivation of occult HBV infection with immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy is rare. Case presentation A 77-year-old man was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome and IgM nephropathy with unclear pathogenesis. Liver function was normal, HBV-related serum markers were negative and HBV DNA titer was below the upper limits of normal. Two months following the start of prednisone therapy for his nephrotic syndrome, laboratory tests revealed a substantial increase in serum transaminase levels (ALT: 490 IU/L; AST: 149 IU/L) and an elevation of HBV DNA level (3.42×106 copies/ml). We tested stored kidney tissue for HBsAg and HBcAg using immunohistochemistry and found the sample to be HBcAg positive, allowing us to confirm the etiology of nephropathy as an occult HBV infection. The cause of the hepatitis was thought to be HBV reactivation, so we immediately administered lamivudine. One month after the initiation of daily lamivudine treatment, laboratory tests revealed that serum levels of transaminases had improved (ALT: 35 IU/L; AST: 17 IU/L). Patient examination one year later showed that HBeAg had decreased with a concomitant increase of HBeAb, the quantity of HBV DNA was undetectable, and liver function and renal function had stabilized. Conclusion This is the first report describing HBV reactivation in an occult HBV infection patient treated with oral prednisone for nephrotic syndrome. HBV-associated antigen should be regularly tested for in patients with unknown etiological glomerulonephritis in areas with high HBV viral popular and even in those with no clinical evidence for diagnosis of HBV. PMID:23977980

  16. Managing HBV in patients with impaired immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Wursthorn; Heiner Wedemeyer; Michael P Manns

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. In patients with an impaired immune system the prevalence of HBsAg is even higher and the course of hepatitis B infection is often aggravated. In HIV\\/HBV co-infected patients, liver related morbidity and mortality can be reduced by implementing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) that contains substances active against

  17. Limited Effects of Fasting on Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Biosynthesis in HBV Transgenic Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lie; Oropeza, Claudia E.; Kaestner, Klaus H.; McLachlan, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear receptors have a unique role in governing hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription and replication. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) and retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) plus peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) have been shown to support viral biosynthesis in nonhepatoma cells in the absence of additional liver-enriched transcription factors. However, the in vivo importance of these nuclear receptors in HBV biosynthesis has been investigated only to a limited extent. Fasting has been shown to activate gluconeogenesis, in part, by activating PPAR? coactivator 1 ?, which in turn leads to activation of HNF4?- and RXR?/PPAR?-mediated transcription. As HBV pregenomic RNA synthesis is primarily believed to be regulated by HNF4? under normal physiological conditions, it was of interest to determine the effect of fasting on the levels of HBV RNA and DNA synthesis. Fasting was shown to rather modestly increase the levels of viral proteins, transcripts, and replication intermediates in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic viral infection, suggesting that caloric restriction may modulate viremia to some extent during natural infection. PMID:19073739

  18. HBV endemicity in Mexico is associated with HBV genotypes H and G.

    PubMed

    Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes have distinct genetic and geographic diversity and may be associated with specific clinical characteristics, progression, severity of disease and antiviral response. Herein, we provide an updated overview of the endemicity of HBV genotypes H and G in Mexico. HBV genotype H is predominant among the Mexican population, but not in Central America. Its geographic distribution is related to a typical endemicity among the Mexicans which is characterized by a low hepatitis B surface antigen seroprevalence, apparently due to a rapid resolution of the infection, low viral loads and a high prevalence of occult B infection. During chronic infections, genotype H is detected in mixtures with other HBV genotypes and associated with other co-morbidities, such as obesity, alcoholism and co-infection with hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus. Hepatocellular carcinoma prevalence is low. Thus, antiviral therapy may differ significantly from the standard guidelines established worldwide. The high prevalence of HBV genotype G in the Americas, especially among the Mexican population, raises new questions regarding its geographic origin that will require further investigation. PMID:24023487

  19. Limited effects of fasting on hepatitis B virus (HBV) biosynthesis in HBV transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Lie; Oropeza, Claudia E; Kaestner, Klaus H; McLachlan, Alan

    2009-02-01

    Nuclear receptors have a unique role in governing hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription and replication. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) plus peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) have been shown to support viral biosynthesis in nonhepatoma cells in the absence of additional liver-enriched transcription factors. However, the in vivo importance of these nuclear receptors in HBV biosynthesis has been investigated only to a limited extent. Fasting has been shown to activate gluconeogenesis, in part, by activating PPARgamma coactivator 1 alpha, which in turn leads to activation of HNF4alpha- and RXRalpha/PPARalpha-mediated transcription. As HBV pregenomic RNA synthesis is primarily believed to be regulated by HNF4alpha under normal physiological conditions, it was of interest to determine the effect of fasting on the levels of HBV RNA and DNA synthesis. Fasting was shown to rather modestly increase the levels of viral proteins, transcripts, and replication intermediates in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic viral infection, suggesting that caloric restriction may modulate viremia to some extent during natural infection. PMID:19073739

  20. MicroRNAs Associated With HBV Infection And HBV-related HCC

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Yan-Ge; Liu, Jun; Zeng, Yong; Wu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global problem and a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a group of small noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression at the posttranslational level, thereby participating in fundamental biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the roles of miRNAs in HBV infection, the recently identified mechanism underlying dysregulation of miRNAs in HBV-associated HCC, and their association with hepatocarcinogenesis. Moreover, we discuss the recent advances in the use of circulating miRNAs in the early diagnosis of HCC as well as therapies based on these aberrantly expressed miRNAs. PMID:25285167

  1. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) binding factor in human serum: candidate for a soluble form of hepatocyte HBV receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Budkowska, A; Quan, C; Groh, F; Bedossa, P; Dubreuil, P; Bouvet, J P; Pillot, J

    1993-01-01

    A hepatitis B virus (HBV) binding factor (HBV-BF) was identified in normal human serum interacting with the pre-S1 and pre-S2 epitopes of the viral envelope located within the protein domains involved in recognition of hepatocyte receptor(s). This molecule was characterized as a 50-kDa glycoprotein showing an isoelectric point of 7.13 with a biological activity depending on its native molecular conformation and on intact sulfhydryl bonds. Monoclonal antibodies to HBV-BF recognized a membrane component of the normal human liver whereas they were unreactive with hepatocyte membranes of other species and with those of the HepG2 cell line. These results suggest that the HBV-BF represents a soluble fragment of the membrane component and can be related to the HBV receptor mediating attachment of HBV to human liver cells. Images PMID:8510225

  2. What college students should know about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    What college students should know about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) University Health Services | (608 caused by a virus that attacks the liver. About half the people who get hepatitis B infection develop is the hepatitis B virus spread? A. HBV is spread by direct contact with the blood or bodily fluids of an infected

  3. Bloodborne Pathogens: HIV and HBV Contagion Risks at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaros, Susan

    1996-01-01

    AIDS and hepatitis B are diseases caused by the viruses HIV and HBV, respectively, which are spread in blood and body fluids. HBV is 100 times more contagious than HIV. Diligent implementation of universal precautions, an exposure control plan, use of personal protective equipment, a vaccination program, and ongoing staff and camper education can…

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in HBV-Related Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dubuquoy, Laurent; Louvet, Alexandre; Hollebecque, Antoine; Mathurin, Philippe; Dharancy, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years after its discovery, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) still remains a major global public health problem. Worldwide, two billion subjects have been infected, 350 million have a chronic infection and more than 600 000 die annually of HBV-related liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma; new infections occur because of the presence of a large reservoir of chronic carriers of the virus. Since a decade several studies describe the interrelations between HBV and nuclear receptors and more particularly the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). After a brief introduction, this review will make a rapid description of HBV incidence and biology. Then a report of the literature on the role of PPARs on viral transcription and replication will be developed. Finally, the role of HBV on PPAR? expression and activity will be discussed. Concluding remarks and perspectives will close this review. PMID:19365584

  5. Circulating Tregs correlate with viral load reduction in chronic HBV-treated patients with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

    PubMed

    TrehanPati, Nirupma; Kotillil, Shyam; Hissar, Syed S; Shrivastava, Shikha; Khanam, Arshi; Sukriti, Sukriti; Mishra, Siddartha K; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Limited response to current hepatitis B virus (HBV) drugs is possibly due to inadequate host cytotoxic cellular responses. Circulating Tregs have been shown to be associated with chronicity of HBV infection, but their profile during antiviral therapy has not been studied. We analyzed the frequency and effect of Tregs on cellular immune responses against HBV in 35 chronic hepatitis B eAg-ve and eAg+ve patients treated with tenofovir 300 mg/day. Frequency of Tregs and their modulatory role in cytokine-secreting cells were determined after stimulation with HBsAg or HBcAg in the absence or presence of Tregs and after blockage of PD-1/PDL-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Prior to therapy, eAg-ve patients had lower HBV DNA levels, reduced CD8 T cells, increased Tregs, and T cells expressing PD1. After 12 weeks of therapy, >2 log HBV viral reduction was observed in both groups, along with an increase frequencies of CD8 T cells in eAg-ve patients and increased expression of chemokine receptors/Toll-like receptors in both groups. PD-1 expression on CD8 cells in PBMCs was decreased in both groups during therapy but not on Tregs. In eAg-ve group, sustained increase of Tregs was observed till week 12, which declined at week 24. In both groups, after 24 weeks, depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs from PBMCs enhanced HBV-specific T cell responses, and blockage of PD-1/PDL1 pathway did enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production in eAg+ve patients but not in eAg-ve. We conclude that Tregs induced by HBV replication in vivo are expanded in eAg-ve patients more. Reduction in HBV DNA by tenofovir partially restored adaptive immune responses and also reduced the Tregs. Blockage of PD-1/PDL1, enhanced cytokine production in eAg+ve patients but not in eAg-ve, suggests that distinctly different immunologic mechanisms are involved in eAg+ve and eAg-ve patients. PMID:21305387

  6. Tissue preferential expression of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen gene in two lines of HBV transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Burk, R D; DeLoia, J A; elAwady, M K; Gearhart, J D

    1988-01-01

    Two transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of the entire hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome as a 3.2-kilobase EcoRI DNA fragment into one-cell embryos. Each animal contained a single, unique locus of HBV sequence. One founder animal, G7, contained a partially deleted HBV genome lacking both putative HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) promoters. The other animal, G26, contained greater-than-genome-length HBV sequences organized as a partial head-to-tail dimer. Both transgenic animals transmitted the HBV sequences in a Mendelian fashion, and all subsequent transgenic animals had detectable HBsAg in the serum. Expression of HBV sequences in tissues from G7- and G26-derived mice showed preferential expression of the 2.1-kilobase HBsAg RNA transcript in liver and kidney tissues by Northern (RNA) blot analysis. These data are consistent with the notion that HBV DNA contains cis-acting regulatory sequences which are responsible for the predominant expression of HBsAg transcripts in the liver and kidney of transgenic mice. Images PMID:2826823

  7. Incidence and risk factors for incomplete HBV DNA suppression in HIV/HBV-co-infected patients initiating tenofovir-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Hafkin, J S; Osborn, M K; Localio, A R; Amorosa, V K; Kostman, J R; Stern, J J; De La Torre, P; Mounzer, K; Frank, I; Gross, R; Chang, K-M; Lo Re, V

    2014-04-01

    Suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA to undetectable levels is an important goal for HIV/HBV-co-infected patients receiving anti-HBV-active antiretroviral therapy (ART), and current guidelines recommend that this outcome should be reached by 1 year of treatment. However, the proportion of patients that fail to achieve an undetectable HBV DNA at this time point and its determinants remain unknown in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for incomplete HBV suppression following 1 year of tenofovir-based ART. We performed a cohort study among tenofovir-treated HIV/HBV-co-infected patients. Patients had HBV viraemia, initiated tenofovir-based ART and had HBV DNA measured at 1 year of therapy. The primary outcome was incomplete HBV suppression (HBV DNA ?2.6 log IU/mL) at 1 year. Logistic regression determined odds ratio (ORs) of incomplete HBV suppression for risk factors of interest. Among 133 patients, 54% (95% CI, 46-63%) had incomplete HBV suppression at 1 year. Incomplete suppression was associated with higher baseline HBV DNA (OR, 1.46 per log IU/mL increase; 95% CI, 1.1-1.94) and detectable HIV viraemia at 1 year (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.19-5.32). Among 66 patients with suppressed HIV RNA at 1 year, 28 (42%) failed to achieve an undetectable HBV DNA. Failure to suppress HBV DNA by 1 year occurred in a sizeable proportion of tenofovir-treated HIV/HBV-co-infected patients. Higher HBV DNA and detectable HIV viraemia were risk factors for incomplete HBV suppression. PMID:24597697

  8. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Egyptian pediatric cancer patients with acute and chronic active HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Hafez, Mohamed M; Mohamed, Nahed I; Hassan, Zeinab K; El-Sayed, Manal H; Khaled, Mohsen M; Mansour, Tarek

    2007-01-01

    Background There are eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (A-H) and subgenotypes are recognized. Genotyping can be accomplished based on a partial sequence of HBV genome such as the pre-S or S gene. Several methods have been developed and used for HBV genotyping. This study was undertaken to determine the HBV genotypes in Egyptian pediatric cancer patients with acute and chronic liver disease. Methods HBV genotypes were determined in 22 patients who had acute forms of liver disease (AH) and in 48 patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). A type-specific primer based the nested-PCR method was employed in the HBV genotyping. Results This study showed that HBV infections in pediatric cancer patients are attributed predominantly to viral genotypes D and B that constituted 37.1% and 25.7%, respectively of the total infections. In addition, there was a relatively high prevalence of mixed infections of 15.7% among the studied group especially mixed A/D genotype infections. Genotype D was found significantly more often in patients with CAH than in patients with AH [23/48(47.9%) v 3/22 (13.6%)]. Conclusion These findings show the distribution of HBV A-D genotypes in pediatric cancer Egyptian patients. Furthermore, our results indicate a markedly high prevalence of mixed A/D genotype infections in subjects with CAH and a possible association of mixed infections with the severity of liver diseases. PMID:17631684

  9. An overview of molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibnarayan Datta

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major global public health problems. In India, HBsAg prevalence among general population ranges from 2% to 8%, placing India in intermediate HBV endemicity zone and the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be 50 million, forming the second largest global pool of chronic HBV infections. India is a vast country, comprised

  10. Trained immunity in newborn infants of HBV-infected mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Michelle; Sandalova, Elena; Low, Diana; Gehring, Adam J.; Fieni, Stefania; Amadei, Barbara; Urbani, Simonetta; Chong, Yap-Seng; Guccione, Ernesto; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The newborn immune system is characterized by an impaired Th1-associated immune response. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmitted from infected mothers to newborns is thought to exploit the newborns’ immune system immaturity by inducing a state of immune tolerance that facilitates HBV persistence. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate here that HBV exposure in utero triggers a state of trained immunity, characterized by innate immune cell maturation and Th1 development, which in turn enhances the ability of cord blood immune cells to respond to bacterial infection in vitro. These training effects are associated with an alteration of the cytokine environment characterized by low IL-10 and, in most cases, high IL-12p40 and IFN-?2. Our data uncover a potentially symbiotic relationship between HBV and its natural host, and highlight the plasticity of the fetal immune system following viral exposure in utero. PMID:25807344

  11. Trained immunity in newborn infants of HBV-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Michelle; Sandalova, Elena; Low, Diana; Gehring, Adam J; Fieni, Stefania; Amadei, Barbara; Urbani, Simonetta; Chong, Yap-Seng; Guccione, Ernesto; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The newborn immune system is characterized by an impaired Th1-associated immune response. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmitted from infected mothers to newborns is thought to exploit the newborns' immune system immaturity by inducing a state of immune tolerance that facilitates HBV persistence. Contrary to this hypothesis, we demonstrate here that HBV exposure in utero triggers a state of trained immunity, characterized by innate immune cell maturation and Th1 development, which in turn enhances the ability of cord blood immune cells to respond to bacterial infection in vitro. These training effects are associated with an alteration of the cytokine environment characterized by low IL-10 and, in most cases, high IL-12p40 and IFN-?2. Our data uncover a potentially symbiotic relationship between HBV and its natural host, and highlight the plasticity of the fetal immune system following viral exposure in utero. PMID:25807344

  12. The ultraviolet variability of the symbiotic star HBV 475. III - The periodicity of HBV 475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, H.; Vogel, M.; Schmutz, W.

    1986-11-01

    The symbiotic star HBV 475 (= V1329 Cyg) shows periodic variations in its spectrum, both in flux and in the wavelength positions of the emission lines. New IUE observations, extending to the October 1985 flux maximum, allow an improved period and phase determination. The periodic variation of the line profiles are interpreted as being due to illumination effects from a hot star on a stellar wind around a cool star, the hot star moving on an elliptical orbit. This model is consistent with the line flux variations observed in this object.

  13. Identification of a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype from Brazil that expresses HBV surface antigen subtype adw4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Naumann; Stephan Schaefer; C. F. T. Yoshida; A. M. C. Gaspar; R. Repp; W. H. Gerlich

    1993-01-01

    The complete genome of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) from Brazil that expressed the subtype adw4 of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was cloned and sequenced. The genome, termed w4B, consists of 3215 bp. The overall genetic organization of typical hepadnaviruses with four open reading frames including the preC region was found to be conserved. When comparing the w4B sequence with

  14. Reestablishment of Active Immunity against HBV Graft Reinfection after Liver Transplantation for HBV-Related End Stage Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Dao-Bing; Li, Chuan-Yun; Wang, Meng-Long; Lin, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Yue; Li, You-Ping; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to establish a hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination protocol among orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) recipients under the coverage of a low-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) combined with an antiviral agent prophylaxis protocol. Method. Two hundred OLT recipients were included in this study. The vaccine was injected at months 0, 1, 2, and 6. Low-dose HBIG combined with antiviral agent prophylaxis protocol was continued before reestablishment of active immunity against HBV in order to maintain a steady anti-HBs titer. Results. Active immunity against HBV was reestablished in 50 patients, for an overall response rate of 25%. Of the 50 patients, 24 discontinued HBIG without any HBV graft reinfection during a follow-up period of 26.13 ± 7.05 months. 21 patients discontinued both HBIG and antiviral agents during a follow-up period of 39.86 ± 15.47 months, and 4 patients among them appeared to be HBsAg positive. There was no recipient death or graft loss because of HBV reinfection. Conclusions. Vaccination preventing HBV reinfection for OLT recipients is feasible. The strategy withdrawal of HBIG with induction of active immunity against hepatitis B is reasonable for long-term survivors of OLT; however, discontinuation nucleoside analogues should be cautious.

  15. Virologic and Clinical Outcomes of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in HIV-HBV Coinfected Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Coffin, C.S.; Stock, P.G.; Dove, L.M.; Berg, C.L.; Nissen, N.N.; Curry, M.P.; Ragni, M.; Regenstein, F.G.; Sherman, K.E.; Roland, M.E.; Terrault, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for endstage liver disease, but is controversial in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Using a prospective cohort of HIV-HBV coinfected patients transplanted between 2001–2007; outcomes including survival and HBV clinical recurrence were determined. Twenty-two coinfected patients underwent LT; 45% had detectable HBV DNA pre-LT and 72% were receiving anti-HBV drugs with efficacy against lamivudine-resistant HBV. Post-LT, all patients received hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) plus nucleos(t)ide analogues and remained HBsAg negative without clinical evidence of HBV recurrence, with a median follow-up 3.5 years. Low-level HBV viremia (median 108 IU/ml, range 9–789) was intermittently detected in 7/13 but not associated with HBsAg detection or ALT elevation. Compared with 20 HBV monoinfected patients on similar HBV prophylaxis and median follow-up of 4.0 years, patient and graft survival were similar: 100% vs. 85% in HBV mono- vs coinfected patients (p=0.08, log rank test). LT is effective for HIV-HBV coinfected patients with complications of cirrhosis, including those who are HBV DNA positive at the time of LT. Combination HBIG and antivirals is effective as prophylaxis with no clinical evidence of HBV recurrence but low level HBV DNA is detectable in ~50% of recipients. PMID:20346065

  16. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene expression and replication by HBx gene silencing in a hydrodynamic injection mouse model with a new clone of HBV genotype B

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that different hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes may have distinct virological characteristics that correlate with clinical outcomes during antiviral therapy and the natural course of infection. Hydrodynamic injection (HI) of HBV in the mouse model is a useful tool for study of HBV replication in vivo. However, only HBV genotype A has been used for studies with HI. Methods We constructed 3 replication-competent clones containing 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 fold overlength of a HBV genotype B genome and tested them both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, A HBV genotype B clone based on the pAAV-MCS vector was constructed with the 1.3 fold HBV genome, resulting in the plasmid pAAV-HBV1.3B and tested by HI in C57BL/6 mice. Application of siRNA against HBx gene was tested in HBV genotype B HI mouse model. Results The 1.3 fold HBV clone showed higher replication and gene expression than the 1.1 and 1.2 fold HBV clones. Compared with pAAV-HBV1.2 (genotype A), the mice HI with pAAV-HBV1.3B showed higher HBsAg and HBeAg expression as well as HBV DNA replication level but a higher clearance rate. Application of two plasmids pSB-HBxi285 and pSR-HBxi285 expressing a small/short interfering RNA (siRNA) to the HBx gene in HBV genotype B HI mouse model, leading to an inhibition of HBV gene expression and replication. However, HBV gene expression may resume in some mice despite an initial delay, suggesting that transient suppression of HBV replication by siRNA may be insufficient to prevent viral spread, particularly if the gene silencing is not highly effective. Conclusions Taken together, the HI mouse model with a HBV genotype B genome was successfully established and showed different characteristics in vivo compared with the genotype A genome. The effectiveness of gene silencing against HBx gene determines whether HBV replication may be sustainably inhibited by siRNA in vivo. PMID:23805945

  17. Antiviral Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infections†

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, Erik; Férir, Geoffrey; Kaptein, Suzanne; Neyts, Johan

    2010-01-01

    While 25 compounds have been formally licensed for the treatment of HIV infection (AIDS), only seven licensed products are currently available for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: interferon-?, pegylated interferon-?, lamivudine, adefovir (dipivoxil), entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir (disoproxil fumarate). In contrast to the treatment of HIV infections where the individual drugs are routinely used in combination, for the treatment of chronic HBV infection the individual drugs are generally used in monotherapy. In principle, combination drug therapy should allow reducing the likelihood of drug-resistant development. PMID:21994680

  18. Full-genome sequence analyses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains recovered from chimpanzees infected in the wild: implications for an origin of HBV.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Brotman, B; Usuda, S; Mishiro, S; Prince, A M

    2000-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) belongs to the genus Orthohepadnavirus of the family Hepadnaviridae. Having been found in various animals (duck, heron, woodchuck, ground squirrel, and primates), hepadnaviruses must have undergone a long history of evolution and may comprise more members than currently recognized. Chimpanzees may also have their own hepadnavirus, even if it might be very close to HBV. We analyzed HBV-like sequences from three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were most likely infected during their life in Africa in the wild. Two chimpanzees (Ch256 and Ch258) possessed a viral genome of 3182 nt in length with a 33-nt deletion in the preS1 region, which could not be classified into any of the six genotypes (A-F) of human HBV but was very homologous to a previously reported isolate from a London Zoo chimpanzee. Phylogenetically distinct from the HBV-like sequences from gibbons, orangutans, and a gorilla so far reported, the Ch256 and Ch258 isolates would represent an indigenous chimpanzee HBV (tentatively ChHBV). A third chimpanzee (Ch195) had a 3212-nt genome, classifiable into the genotype E of HBV. Because HBV-E has been found mostly in Africans, Ch195 may have been infected from a human source in Africa. However, an inverse scenario is also possible: a spread of HBV-E might have occurred from chimpanzees to humans a long time ago in Africa. Analysis of the arginine-rich C-terminal region of the core protein, which is well conserved among mammalian hepadnaviruses, indicated that HBV-E/F and nonhuman primate hepadnaviruses are much closer than HBV-A/B/C/D to the hepadnaviruses of woodchuck and ground squirrel. Our results support an "ex-nonhuman primate" hypothesis for the origin of HBV. PMID:10648183

  19. Expression and immunoreactivity of HCV/HBV epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xin-Yu; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Yuan-Ding

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To develop the epitope-based vaccines to prevent Hepatitis C virus?(HCV)?/?Hepatitis B virus?(HBV) infections. METHODS: The HCV core epitopes C1 STNPKPQRKTKRNTNRRPQD (residuals aa2-21) and C2 VKFPGGGQIVGGVYLLPRR (residuals aa22-40), envelope epitope E GHRMAWDMMMNWSP (residuals aa315-328) and HBsAg epitope S CTTPAQGNSMFPSCCCTKPTDGNC (residuals aa124-147) were displayed in five different sites of the flock house virus capsid protein as a vector, and expressed in E. coli cells (pET-3 system). Immunoreactivity of the epitopes with anti-HCV and anti-HBV antibodies in the serum from hepatitis C and hepatitis B patients were determined. RESULTS: The expressed chimeric protein carrying the HCV epitopes C1, C2, E (two times), L3C1-I2E-L1C2-L2E could react with anti-HCV antibodies. The expressed chimeric protein carrying the HBV epitopes S, I3S could react with anti-HBs antibodies. The expressed chimeric proteins carrying the HCV epitopes C1, C2, E plus HBV epitope S, L3C1-I2E-L1C2-L2E-I3S could react with anti-HCV and anti-HBs antibodies. CONCLUSION: These epitopes have highly specific and sensitive immunoreaction and are useful in the development of epitope-based vaccines. PMID:16425413

  20. Reactivation of HBV infection in low grade lymphoma patient.

    PubMed

    Aram?, Victoria; Munteanu, Daniela; Olaru, Ioana; R?dulescu, Mihaela; Mih?ilescu, Raluca; Vl?d?reanu, Ana-Maria; Onisâi, Minodora; Vintilescu, Anamaria; Dobrea, Camelia; Olariu, M; Aram?, S S

    2011-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus is a complication of chronic or HBV infection in patients with malignancies, especially hematological disorders, under cytotoxic or immunosuppressive therapy. The immunosuppression favors HBV replication with the massive infection of hepatocytes. Once immunity is restored when chemotherapy therapy is discontinued, a rapid, immune-mediated destruction of the infected hepatocytes ensues, clinically manifested as hepatitis, liver failure or even death. We report a case of HBV reactivation in a patient with B cells non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with HBsAg negative and protective titre of anti-HBs, after 5 months of combined chemotherapy. Currently, there are no data to support routine pre-emptive anti-HBV therapy in patients with negative HBsAg and undetectable viremia before the initiation of chemotherapy. The case presented in this paper is included in the group of patients that is studied in LIMFOVIR Grant (convention no 41012/2007). This research grant is funded by the National Center of Programs Management, program 4 - Partnerships in Priority Fields. The grant is coordinated by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases Prof. Dr. Matei Bals, Bucharest. The grant team include also the Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, Hematology Department, the "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, the "Victor Babe?" National Institute of Research and Development, the Institute of Electrotechnical Research, Bucharest and the Polytechnic University, Bucharest. The manager of the grant is Associated Professor dr. Victoria Aram?. PMID:22026255

  1. Serum Sphingolipids Reflect the Severity of Chronic HBV Infection and Predict the Mortality of HBV-Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Wu, Cai-Sheng; Duan, Zhong-Ping; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Patients with HBV-acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) have high mortality and frequently require liver transplantation; few reliable prognostic markers are available. As a class of functional lipids, sphingolipids are extensively involved in the process of HBV infection. However, their role in chronic HBV infection remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the serum sphingolipid profile in a population of patients with chronic HBV infection, paying special attention to exploring novel prognostic markers in HBV-ACLF. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to examine the levels of 41 sphingolipids in 156 serum samples prospectively collected from two independent cohorts. The training and validation cohorts comprised 20 and 28 healthy controls (CTRL), 29 and 23 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 30 and 26 patients with HBV-ACLF, respectively. Biometric analysis was used to evaluate the association between sphingolipid levels and disease stages. Multivariate analysis revealed difference of sphingolipid profiles between CHB and HBV-ACLF was more drastic than that between CTRL and CHB, which indicated that serum sphingolipid levels were more likely to associate with the progression HBV-ACLF rather than CHB. Furthermore, a 3-month mortality evaluation of HBV-ACLF patients showed that dhCer(d18?0/24?0) was significantly higher in survivors than in non-survivors (including deceased patients and those undergoing liver transplantation, p<0.05), and showed a prognostic performance similar to that of the MELD score. The serum sphingolipid composition varies between CTRL and chronic HBV infection patients. In addition, dhCer(d18?0/24?0) may be a useful prognostic indicator for the early prediction of HBV-ACLF. PMID:25136927

  2. Prevalence and significance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) pre-S mutants in serum and liver at different replicative stages of chronic HBV infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Fen Fan; Cheng-Chan Lu; Wen-Chi Chen; Wei-Jen Yao; Hui-Ching Wang; Ting-Tsung Chang; Huan-Yao Lei; Ai-Li Shiau; Ih-Jen Su

    2001-01-01

    Several types of naturally occurring pre-S mutants in sera or liver tissues in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been identified. To clarify the prevalence and significance of emergence of pre-S mutants, 140 sera and 18 resected livers from patients with HBV were studied. Replicative status was designated as high, intermediate, and low based on the HBV-DNA

  3. Association of Periodontal Diseases and Liver Fibrosis in Patients With HCV and/or HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Yumiko; Kawahigashi, Yuji; Sata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease and systemic health are closely associated. However, there is no data supporting the association between periodontal disease and patients with liver diseases associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between periodontitis and progression of liver diseases in patients with HCV and/or HBV infection. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, 351 patients with HCV- and/or HBV-related liver diseases underwent screening for periodontal disease using the Salivaster® salivary occult blood test from February 2010 to June 2014. Furthermore, we examined the prevalence of fimbrillin (fimA) genotype of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in 28 HCV-infected patients visited at our hospital between January 2013 and June 2014. P. gingivalis with fimA genotype with types I to V was further detected using a PCR method. Results: Of 351 patients, 76 patients (group 1) had a strong positive result for salivary occult blood test and 275 patients (group 2) had weak positive or negative test results. Significant factors between the groups were obesity, level of AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, Alb, D.Bil, T.cho, AFP, platelets (Plt), IRI, HOMA-IR, current interferon (IFN) treatment and the daily frequency of tooth brushing. Between-groups analysis indicated that total protein (T.pro) level and liver fibrosis were significant factors. According to multivariate analysis, five factors were associated with periodontal disease as Plt count below 80000, brushing teeth only once a day, current IFN treatment, aged 65 years or older and obesity. The adjusted odds ratios for these five factors were 5.80, 3.46, 2.87, 2.50 and 2.33, respectively, and each was statistically significant. Twenty-eight saliva specimens had positive results for P. gingivalis with fimA genotype types I to V. The prevalence of fimA genotype II was higher in 14 patients with liver cirrhosis or a history of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment (group B, 50.00%) than 14 patients with only hepatitis C (group A, 21.43%). Conclusions: Periodontitis might be associated with progression of viral liver disease; hence, controlling oral disease is essential for the prevention and management of liver fibrosis. PMID:25737729

  4. HBV Outreach Programs Significantly Increase Knowledge and Vaccination Rates Among Asian Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, Tresa; Wang, Winnie; Dao, Doan; Wojciechowski, Helena; Lee, William M; Do, Son; Singal, Amit G

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100 % (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75 % (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64 %, p < 0.001). Outreach campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations. PMID:25476035

  5. HBV life cycle is restricted in mouse hepatocytes expressing human NTCP.

    PubMed

    Li, Hanjie; Zhuang, Qiuyu; Wang, Yuze; Zhang, Tianying; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Junfang; Lin, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ningshao; Han, Jiahuai

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1 or NTCP) is a functional cellular receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether human NTCP can support HBV infection in mouse hepatocyte cell lines has not been clarified. Because an HBV-permissible mouse model would be helpful for the study of HBV pathogenesis, it is necessary to investigate whether human NTCP supports the susceptibility of mouse hepatocyte cell lines to HBV. The results show that exogenous human NTCP expression can render non-susceptible HepG2 (human), Huh7 (human), Hepa1-6 (mouse), AML-12 (mouse) cell lines and primary mouse hepatocyte (PMH) cells susceptible to hepatitis D virus (HDV) which employs HBV envelope proteins. However, human NTCP could only introduce HBV susceptibility in human-derived HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not in mouse-derived Hepa1-6, AML-12 or PMH cells. These data suggest that although human NTCP is a functional receptor that mediates HBV infection in human cells, it cannot support HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Our study indicated that the restriction of HBV in mouse hepatocytes likely occurs after viral entry but prior to viral transcription. We have excluded the role of mouse hepatocyte nuclear factors in the restriction of the HBV life cycle and showed that knockdown or inhibition of Sting, TBK1, IRF3 or IRF7, the components of the anti-viral signaling pathways, had no effect on HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Therefore, murine restriction factors that limit HBV infection need to be identified before a HBV-permissible mouse line can be created. PMID:24509445

  6. Activity of HBV475 from its Spectral Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, S.

    Spectroscopic analyses on HBV 475 are presented. From the data in the term between 1974-1978, it is found that (i) variations in the emission lines are caused by temperature variations of the exciting star, T*, which extend over the range 120,000?T*?180,000 K; (ii) the dimensions of the Fe+6 and He+ zones are estimated to be 7 × 1016-18 cm on the assumption that the radius of the central star is equal to the solar one. We prefer a single star model for HBV 475 in order to interpret our observational data. This hypothesis is supported by the data of line profiles which are qualitatively consistent with the interacting stellar winds model.

  7. HBV influence on Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in Horizontally HIV-HBV Coinfected Patient during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Niculescu, Irina; Cup?a, A.M.; Stoian, Andreea Cristina; Dumitrescu, FLorentina; Giubelan, L.I.; Alexandru, D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are few studies on pediatric HIV-HBV coinfection, so evidences about relationships between the two viruses are scarce. Objectives: influence of HBV infection on virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in antiretroviral-naïve horizontally HIV-HBV coinfected subjects during early childhood. Material and methods: observational study on 826 HIV+ subjects in evidence of Craiova Regional Centre (CRC); we analyzed the immunological and virological response at 6-12 months after starting first antiretroviral regimens compared in 2 groups: horizontally HIV-HBV coinfected subjects during early childhood (CoS) versus horizontally HIV infected subjects during early childhood without HBV infection (non-CoS). Results: Number of subjects: CoS-66 subjects, non-CoS-132 subjects. Demographic data: CoS-gender ratio F:M=0.886, the majority lived in rural area (57.58%), mean age on diagnosis-9.288±4.607 years, non-CoS-gender ratio F:M=0.859, the majority lived in urban area (53.79%), mean age on diagnosis-10.742±5.107 years. At baseline, HIV category was: CoS-A-1.52%, B-80.30%, C-18.18%, non-CoS-A-2.27%, B-70.45%, C-27.27% (p Chi2=0.332), the mean CD4+ cell count was: CoS-148.33±148.10 cells/ml, non-CoS-163.17±155.39 cells/ml (p Student=0.521) and the mean HIV viral load (HIV VL) was: CoS-5.06±0.80 lgcopies/ml (for 29 subjects), non-CoS-5.04±0.84 lgcopies/ml (for 61 subjects) (p Student=0.978). At the end of the studied period, the mean increase in CD4+ cell count was: CoS-177.068±141.676 cells/ml, non-CoS-176.015±191.751 cells/ml (p Student=0.969) and the mean decrease in HIV VL was: CoS-5.04±0.79 lgcopies/ml, non-COS-4.69±2.04 lgcopies/ml (p Student=0.911). Conclusions: The presence of HBV coinfection does not influence immunological or virological response to ART. PMID:24778861

  8. HBV vaccine and dermatomyositis: is there an association?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arie Altman; Martine Szyper-Kravitz; Yehuda Shoenfeld

    2008-01-01

    The etiology of dermatomyositis is unknown, but immune mechanisms play an important role. Several dermatological manifestations\\u000a have been reported among carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen, and after vaccination with the HBV vaccine. Almost all the\\u000a skin reactions described were peculiar skin eruptions suggestive of an immune complex reaction. Some authors described the\\u000a occurrence of dermatomyositis after BCG and influenza

  9. IUE and TIRGO observations of the symbiotic star HBV 475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, H.; Vogel, M.

    1991-08-01

    IUE has observed the symbiotic star HBV 475 since 1979, and the TIRGO long-term IR survey has done so since 1986. The star displays a strikingly regular periodic variation in the fluxes of the emission lines and of their wavelength positions. Observational results are presented in conjunction with an outline of the spectroscopic evolution of this symbiotic nova. The physical characteristics of the system are derived.

  10. Infrared photometry of HBV 475 (V 1329 Cyg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, S.

    Photometric results of HBV 475 in infrared region are presented. These can be fitted to the blackbody radiation whose temperature is 2,500 K. An attempt was made to explain the spectrum from radio to optical regions. The sizes of the IR radiation source and the ionized gaseous envelope were estimated under some assumptions. It is supposed that the ionizing radiation source is extremely compact compared with the other components.

  11. Republished paper: Managing HBV in patients with impaired immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Wursthorn; Heiner Wedemeyer; Michael P Manns

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. In patients with an impaired immune system the prevalence of HBsAg is even higher and the course of hepatitis B infection is often aggravated. In HIV\\/HBV co-infected patients, liver related morbidity and mortality can be reduced by implementing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) that contains substances active against

  12. Occult HBV Infection: A Faceless Enemy in Liver Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Romero, Jaime; Vargas, Gustavo; García-Román, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents a worldwide public health problem; the virus is present in one third of the global population. However, this rate may in fact be higher due to occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI). This condition is characterized by the presence of the viral genome in the liver of individuals sero-negative for the virus surface antigen (HBsAg). The causes of the absence of HBsAg in serum are unknown, however, mutations have been identified that produce variants not recognized by current immunoassays. Epigenetic and immunological host mechanisms also appear to be involved in HBsAg suppression. Current evidence suggests that OBI maintains its carcinogenic potential, favoring the progression of fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. In common with open HBV infection, OBI can contribute to the establishment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Epidemiological data regarding the global prevalence of OBI vary due to the use of detection methods of different sensitivity and specificity. In Latin America, which is considered an area of low prevalence for HBV, diagnostic screening methods using gene amplification tests for confirmation of OBI are not conducted. This prevents determination of the actual prevalence of OBI, highlighting the need for the implementation of cutting edge technology in epidemiological surveillance systems. PMID:24717680

  13. An overview of molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sibnarayan

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major global public health problems. In India, HBsAg prevalence among general population ranges from 2% to 8%, placing India in intermediate HBV endemicity zone and the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be 50 million, forming the second largest global pool of chronic HBV infections. India is a vast country, comprised of multiracial communities with wide variations in ethnicity and cultural patterns, which is attributable to its geographical location, gene influx due to invasion and/or anthropological migrations in the past. Moreover, recent increase in trade, trafficking and use of illicit drugs has also considerably influenced the epidemiology of HBV, specifically in the eastern and north eastern parts of India. However, data on the molecular epidemiology of HBV in India is scanty. HBV genotypes A and D have been well documented from different parts of mainland India. Interestingly, in addition to genotypes A and D, genotype C having high nucleotide similarity with south East Asian subgenotype Cs/C1 strain, have been detected exclusively from eastern Indian HBV carriers, suggesting a recent introduction. Thus, compared to other parts of India, the molecular epidemiology of HBV is naturally distinct in eastern India. Very recently, taking the advantage of circulation of three distinct HBV genotypes within the population of eastern India, different aspects of HBV molecular epidemiology was studied that revealed very interesting results. In this study, the clinical significance of HBV genotypes, core promoter and precore mutations, possible routes of introduction of HBV genotype C in eastern India, the clinical implications of x gene variability, prevalence of the AFB1 induced p53 gene codon 249 mutation, the transmission potentiality of HBV among asymptomatic/inactive or occult HBV carriers and the genetic variability of HBV persisting in the PBL was investigated. In this manuscript, the information available on the molecular epidemiology of HBV in India has been reviewed and the results of studies among the eastern Indian population have been summarised. PMID:19099581

  14. Spectropolarimetry and nebular geometry of the symbiotic star HBV 475.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, H.; Schmid, H. M.

    1997-08-01

    We present and discuss spectropolarimetry of the Raman scattered emission features at ?6825 and ?7082 of the symbiotic nova HBV 475. Meaningful interpretation in relation to the orbital phase requires an improved ephemeris and we first review available photometry and deduce a new period of 956.5d and minimum epoch at JD 2444890. The flux of the ?6825 line varies with photometric phase by about a factor 2.5. The profile normally is triple-peaked with the blue component showing the largest orbital amplitude. The polarization in the Raman lines depends strongly on the wavelength. At quadrature, it is about 19% and 10% in the blue and red line wings of ?6825 respectively with polarization angles perpendicular to each other. The percentage polarization in all parts of the profile exhibits phase-locked variations with highest values at quadrature and values close to zero at conjunction. The polarization angle shows hardly any rotation as expected for eclipsing systems. The inclination of the system is found to be i=86+/-2° and the position angle of the orbital plane is 11°. Polarization measurements are sensitive indicators of the symmetries prevailing in a scattering arrangement. In HBV 475, the Raman scattering geometry has an up-down symmetry with respect to the orbital plane. Near conjunction, a weak line polarization perpendicular to the orbital plane indicates that the scattering geometry is not rotationally symmetric with respect to the binary axis. The observations are compatible with a spherically expanding wind from the cool giant which has a density enhancement in the orbital plane. We have retrieved an HST image of HBV 475 from the archive which shows extended [OIII]?5007 emission. The main nebulosity is aligned with the orbital plane and has a size of ~0.4".

  15. Should chronic HBV infected patients with normal ALT treated: debate.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2008-06-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have traditionally been used for treatment decisions in chronic hepatitis B virus (CHBV) infected patients. But recent data have raised doubts on this wisdom, as a significant proportion of CHBV infected patients with normal ALT have high HBVDNA levels and significant liver injury at presentation especially in areas of intermediate to high endemicity. A normal ALT value only identifies patients less likely to respond to current treatments, rather than patients who are not in need of the treatment. Patients with CHBV infection with normal ALT should be considered for treatment based on the HBV DNA levels and histological injury. PMID:19669302

  16. Spectroscopic investigations of HBV 475 in optical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Shin'ichi

    1989-03-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic analyses of HBV 475 are presented based on emission-line profiles of H-alpha, H-gamma, He I 4921-A, He I 5016-A, forbidden O III 4959-A, 5007-A, Fe II 5018-A, and Fe II 4924-A. Radial-velocity analyses show that only a part of the line components coincides well with previous measurements. Other remarkable components are found which are shifted to either the violet or red sides, depending on the indicated phase. Highly resolved emission-line profiles reveal that they are not compatible with the calculated profiles of proposed theoretical models.

  17. Clinical evaluation of the COBAS Amplicor HBV monitor test for measuring serum HBV DNA and comparison with the Quantiplex branched DNA signal amplification assay in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Dai, C-Y; Yu, M-L; Chen, S-C; Lin, Z-Y; Hsieh, M-Y; Wang, L-Y; Tsai, J-F; Chuang, W-L; Chang, W-Y

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the performance characteristics and clinical usefulness of the COBAS Amplicor HBV monitor (COBAS-AM) test in Taiwan and to examine its correlation with the Quantiplex branched DNA signal amplification (bDNA) assay for measuring serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA concentrations. Methods: HBV DNA was measured by the COBAS-AM test in 149 sera from chronic HBV infected patients that had previously been analysed by the bDNA assay. Results: The COBAS-AM test showed good reproducibility, with acceptable intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation (1.6% and 0.9%, respectively) and good linearity (r2 ?=? 0.98). The overall sensitivity of the COBAS-AM test was significantly higher than that of the bDNA assay (95.3% v 83.2%): 69.6% of samples with HBV DNA below the detection limit of the bDNA assay could be measured by the COBAS-AM test. There was a significant correlation between the results of the two assays (r ?=? 0.901; p < 0.0001). On average, the results derived from the COBAS-AM test were 0.55 log lower than those of the bDNA assay. HBV DNA concentrations were significantly higher among HBV e antigen (HBeAg) positive patients than negative ones, and higher among patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations than those with normal ALT concentrations (p ?=? 0.0003). Conclusions: The COBAS-AM assay, more sensitive in HBeAg negative samples than the bDNA assay, can effectively measure HBV DNA concentrations in Taiwanese patients. HBV DNA values measured by the COBAS-AM test and bDNA assay correlate significantly. PMID:14747437

  18. C-Terminal Substitution of HBV Core Proteins with Those from DHBV Reveals That Arginine-Rich 167RRRSQSPRR175 Domain Is Critical for HBV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeung; Shin, Bo-Hye; Park, Gil-Soon; Park, Sun; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the contributions of carboxyl-terminal nucleic acid binding domain of HBV core (C) protein for hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, chimeric HBV C proteins were generated by substituting varying lengths of the carboxyl-terminus of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) C protein for the corresponding regions of HBV C protein. All chimeric C proteins formed core particles. A chimeric C protein with 221–262 amino acids of DHBV C protein, in place of 146–185 amino acids of the HBV C protein, supported HBV pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) encapsidation and DNA synthesis: 40% amino acid sequence identity or 45% homology in the nucleic-acid binding domain of HBV C protein was sufficient for pgRNA encapsidation and DNA synthesis, although we predominantly detected spliced DNA. A chimeric C protein with 221–241 and 251–262 amino acids of DHBV C, in place of HBV C 146–166 and 176–185 amino acids, respectively, could rescue full-length DNA synthesis. However, a reciprocal C chimera with 242–250 of DHBV C (242RAGSPLPRS250) introduced in place of 167–175 of HBV C (167RRRSQSPRR175) significantly decreased pgRNA encapsidation and DNA synthesis, and full-length DNA was not detected, demonstrating that the arginine-rich 167RRRSQSPRR175 domain may be critical for efficient viral replication. Five amino acids differing between viral species (underlined above) were tested for replication rescue; R169 and R175 were found to be important. PMID:22911745

  19. A fatal case of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during long-term, very-low-dose steroid treatment in an inactive HBV carrier

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Joong Ho; Lee, Hye Soon; Park, Hye Sun; Hyun, Yil Sik; Kim, Tae Yeob; Eun, Chang Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Han, Dong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) may be reactivated after chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy, and therefore administration of antiviral agents before such treatment is recommended. Most reported cases of reactivation are associated with high doses of immunosuppressive agents or combination therapy. We present a case of a previously inactive HBV carrier with an acute severe flare-up during a long-term, very-low-dose (2.5 mg/day) steroid treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. We suggest that even a minimal dose of single-regimen oral steroid can cause reactivation of indolent, inactive HBV. PMID:22893874

  20. [Etanercept and chronic infection by HCV and HBV].

    PubMed

    Bordas, X; Martín-Sala, S

    2010-05-01

    Both psoriasis and chronic infections by HBV and HCV have high prevalence. Thus, it is relatively easy for them to coincide in the same patient. If the psoriasis requires systemic treatment, the dermatologist should consider the hepatic comorbidity when selecting an appropriate treatment. Cyclosporine, in addition to other well-known side effects, is an immunosuppressant that may condition worse evolution of the viral hepatitis. On the other hand, retinoids, psoralens and, above all, methotrexate may worsen the liver function. The anti-TNF-|A biological agents are not hepatotoxic and their theoretical contraindication in this context would be because of their action on the immune response and risk of reactivation of the hepatic infection. However, several studies have demonstrated that neither the viral load nor the hepatic inflammation parameters are generally modified negatively when they are used in hepatitis due to HCV. Their use in this context, with correct monitoring, seems, therefore, very reasonable. On the contrary, in chronic hepatitis B virus, there are cases of worsening, even with fatal outcome in some cases, and the use of these biological agents should be reserved for cases having greater need, and always be associated to antiviral treatment and strict monitoring. The review of the recent literature seems to allow the conclusion that the concomitant use of lamivudine would greatly reduce the risk of viral reactivation and, with this condition, the use of etanercept in some HBV+ patients may also be contemplated. PMID:20492886

  1. Integration of tumour and viral genomic characterisations in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Amaddeo, Giuliana; Cao, Qian; Ladeiro, Yannick; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Nault, Jean-Charles; Jaoui, Daphne; Gaston Mathe, Yann; Laurent, Christophe; Laurent, Alexis; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Calderaro, Julien; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer. We characterised HCC associated with infection compared with non-HBV-related HCC to understand interactions between viral and hepatocyte genomic alterations and their relationships with clinical features. Methods Frozen HBV (n=86) or non-HBV-related (n=90) HCC were collected in two French surgical departments. Viral characterisation was performed by sequencing HBS and HBX genes and quantifying HBV DNA and cccDNA. Nine genes were screened for somatic mutations and expression profiling of 37 genes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis was studied. Results HBX revealed frequent non-sense, frameshift and deletions in tumours, suggesting an HBX inactivation selected in HCC. The number of viral copies was frequently lower in tumour than in non-tumour tissues (p=0.0005) and patients with low HBV copies in the non-tumour liver tissues presented additional risk factor (HCV, alcohol or non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, p=0.006). P53 was the most frequently altered pathway in HBV-related HCC (47%, p=0.001). Furthermore, TP53 mutations were associated with shorter survival only in HBV-related HCC (p=0.02) whereas R249S mutations were identified exclusively in migrants. Compared with other aetiologies, HBV-HCC were more frequently classified in tumours subgroups with upregulation of genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and a progenitor phenotype. Finally, in HBV-related HCC, transcriptomic profiles were associated with specific gene mutations (HBX, TP53, IRF2, AXIN1 and CTNNB1). Conclusions Integrated genomic characterisation of HBV and non-HBV-related HCC emphasised the immense molecular diversity of HCC closely related to aetiologies that could impact clinical care of HCC patients. PMID:25021421

  2. Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits HBV DNA synthesis in a viral replication - inducible cell line

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Li, Li-Xia; Liao, Qing-Jiao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the antiviral mechanism of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) against hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. METHODS: In this research, the HBV-replicating cell line HepG2.117 was used to investigate the antiviral mechanism of EGCG. Cytotoxicity of EGCG was analyzed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in the supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Precore mRNA and pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) levels were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The effect of EGCG on HBV core promoter activity was measured by dual luciferase reporter assay. HBV covalently closed circular DNA and replicative intermediates of DNA were quantified by real-time PCR assay. RESULTS: When HepG2.117 cells were grown in the presence of EGCG, the expression of HBeAg was suppressed, however, the expression of HBsAg was not affected. HBV precore mRNA level was also down-regulated by EGCG, while the transcription of precore mRNA was not impaired. The synthesis of both HBV covalently closed circular DNA and replicative intermediates of DNA were reduced by EGCG treatment to a similar extent, however, HBV pgRNA transcripted from chromosome-integrated HBV genome was not affected by EGCG treatment, indicating that EGCG targets only replicative intermediates of DNA synthesis. CONCLUSION: In HepG2.117 cells, EGCG inhibits HBV replication by impairing HBV replicative intermediates of DNA synthesis and such inhibition results in reduced production of HBV covalently closed circular DNA. PMID:21472112

  3. Worldwide genetic diversity of HBV genotypes and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Flor Helene; Navas, Maria-Cristina; Hainaut, Pierre; Chemin, Isabelle

    2009-12-01

    Hepatitis B viruses (HBV) are responsible for over 50% of the worldwide attributable risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and this figure increases even further in regions of high endemicity. Systematic sequencing of HBV genomes has identified that this common virus existed as eight distinct genotypes (denoted A-H), each regrouping variants with less than 8% divergence in their DNA sequence. These genotypes differ by their geographic distribution in populations around the globe. There is evidence that HBV genotypes also differ by their pathogenic properties, including their risk of persistence as chronic infection and their capacity to induce precursor disease or cancer. On the other hand, HBV genes may undergo mutations that become selected during the course of chronic infection and progressive liver disease. The most significant of these mutations in the context of HCC are those occurring in the pre-core (Pre-C) and basal core promoter (BCP) regions. These mutations may upregulate HBV expression and increase its virulence. These mutations may occur in all HBV genotypes but are more common in genotypes associated with more severe disease and cancer, in particular genotype C. Understanding the molecular basis of pathological variations between HBV variants is critical for prediction of disease severity. It will also be important to determine whether differences among genotypes may have an impact on the long-term protective efficacy of universal HBV vaccination. PMID:19683385

  4. Chancellor's Memorandum CM-25 LSUHSC Policy on AIDS (HIV) and Hepatitis Virus (HBV)

    E-print Network

    Chancellor's Memorandum CM-25 ­ LSUHSC Policy on AIDS (HIV) and Hepatitis Virus (HBV) To: Vice Orleans Chancellor May 15, 2002 Individuals Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) It is a policy of LSUHSC to encourage preventive and early care

  5. Injecting and sexual risk correlates of HBV and HCV seroprevalence among new drug injectors

    PubMed Central

    Neaigus, Alan; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Miller, Maureen; Frajzyngier, Veronica M.; Zhao, Mingfang; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2007-01-01

    We examine injecting and sexual risk correlates of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) seroprevalence among new injecting drug users (IDUs) (age 18–30 years, injecting ?6 years). Participants were interviewed/serotested (HIVab, HBVcAb, HCVab) in New York City, 2/1999–2/2003. Gender-stratified, multivariate logistic regression was conducted. Participants (N=259) were: 68% male; 81% white. Women were more likely to test HCV seropositive (42% vs. 27%) and men HBV seropositive (24% vs. 12%); HIV seroprevalence was low (3%). Among both men and women, HBV seropositivity was associated with ever selling sex, and HCV seropositivity with ever having had infected (HIV, HBV or HCV) sex partners (among those ever sharing injecting equipment). Among women only, HBV seropositivity was associated with ever having had infected sex partners (regardless of ever sharing injecting equipment), and HCV seropositivity with ?300 lifetime drug injections. Among men only, HCV seropositivity was associated with ?40 lifetime number of sex partners (among those never sharing injecting equipment). In this new IDU sample, HBV and HCV seroprevalence differed by gender and were considerably higher than HIV seroprevalence. Early interventions, targeting injecting and sexual risks and including HBV vaccination, are needed among new IDUs to prevent HBV, HCV and, potentially, HIV epidemics. PMID:17289298

  6. Adherence to the screening program for HBV infection in pregnant women delivering in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassiliki Papaevangelou; Christos Hadjichristodoulou; Dimitrios Cassimos; Maria Theodoridou

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection (HBV) is a major Public Health Problem. Perinatal transmission can be prevented with the identification of HBsAg(+) women and administration of immunoprophylaxis to their newborns. A national prevention programme for HBV with universal screening of pregnant women and vaccination of infants is in effect since 1998 in Greece. METHODS: To evaluate adherence to the national guidelines,

  7. Modeling Runoff on the North Slope of Alaska Using the HBV Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Youcha; E. Trochim; D. L. Kane

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic fresh water hydrologic cycle is dominated by the melting of the seasonal snow cover and scattered precipitation events during the summer months. The HBV model has been applied in the Imnavait and Upper Kuparuk basins, located in the headwaters of the Kuparuk River on the North Slope, to examine runoff during spring and summer months. HBV is a

  8. Proteomics Based Identification of Cell Migration Related Proteins in HBV Expressing HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huixing; Li, Xi; Chan, Vincent; Chen, Wei Ning

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics study was performed to investigate the specific protein expression profiles of HepG2 cells transfected with mutant HBV compared with wildtype HBV genome, aiming to identify the specific functions of SH3 binding domain (proline rich region) located in HBx. In addition to the cell movement and kinetics changes due to the expression of HBV genome we have observed previously, here we further targeted to explore the specific changes of cellular proteins and potential intracellular protein interactions, which might provide more information of the potential cellular mechanism of the differentiated cell movements. Specific changes of a number of proteins were shown in global protein profiling in HepG2 cells expressing wildtype HBV, including cell migration related proteins, and interestingly the changes were found recovered by SH3 binding domain mutated HBV. The distinctive expressions of proteins were validated by Western blot analysis. PMID:24763314

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of HBV-D1 genotype epidemic in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Equestre, Michele; Cella, Eleonora; Ebranati, Erika; Gabanelli, Elena; Villano, Umbertina; Bruni, Roberto; Yalcinkaya, Tulay; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), is the leading cause of liver diseases infecting an estimated 240 million persons worldwide. The HBV prevalence rates are variables between different countries, with an high level of endemicity in the south-eastern part of Europe. Seven main HBV-D subgenotypes have been described until now (D1-D7). Turkey, seems to have played an important role in the penetration of HBV-D1 in the Mediterranean area. The importance of Turkey in the European epidemiology of HBV is also suggested by the observation that the highest spread of HBV infection in the Continent are reported in Turkey with Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and some southern regions of Italy. In this paper the molecular epidemiology and the epidemiological history of HBV-D in Turkey was studied, by characterizing 34 new Turkish isolates and performing a phylogeographic reconstruction. By using a phylodynamic and phylogeographic Bayesian approach, the analysis suggested that HBV-D1 originated in Turkey about in the early 1940s. The large prevalence of D1 in comparison to the other subgenotypes in Turkey confirms the importance of this Country as epidemiological reservoir of HBV-D1 dispersion. The phylogeny suggests that after each initial introduction of the virus in a specific population, separate transmission clusters have been evolving along independent phylogenetic lineages. Better characterization and continuous monitoring of such groups are going to be crucial to understand in detail the epidemiology of HBV-D1 subgenotype in Turkey and to assess the efficacy of prevention, vaccination and therapy in controlling the epidemic. PMID:24243521

  10. Pro/ENGINEER Tutorials

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Graphics Communications Program at North Carolina State University provides Pro/ENGINEER Tutorials. Pro/ENGINEER is a mechanical design automation program "based on a parametric, feature-based, fully associative architecture that delivers a comprehensive suite of solutions for all areas of the development process, from a product's conceptual design and simulation through manufacturing." Eight illustrated tutorials take users step-by-step through the basics of using Pro/ENGINEER. Other sections of the site are Pro/E v20 Icon Guide, Changing Feature Specification, Creating Relation, and Creating Assemblies.

  11. An expanding motion in the ionized envelope of HBV 475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, S.

    Expansion velocities in the ionized envelope of HBV 475 are obtained from line profiles of H-alpha, He I 6678, 7065, and forbidden Fe VII 6087. Two components of forbidden Fe VII 6087 show evidence of outward gas motion with high velocities from the central star. H-alpha and He I 6678 profiles are very similar to those obtained from observations of forbidden O III and Ne III lines, and have gas motion velocities corresponding to full widths at half-maximum of the lines which do not exceed the velocities of Fe(+6). Through investigations of He(+) and Fe(+5) ionization structures, it is concluded that the interacting stellar winds model is favorable to explain the velocity fields suggested by the line profiles.

  12. The ultraviolet variability of the symbiotic star HBV 475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, H.; Schmutz, W.

    1983-09-01

    Evidence is presented for the binary nature of the symbiotic star HBV 475 ( = V 1329 Cyg), based on ultraviolet observations taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. The fluxes in the emission lines and in the continuum observed during 1978-1982 are related. It is found that the changes in the line and continuum fluxes observed in the far ultraviolet (1200-3200 A) are consistent with the 950 d period found from the visual luminosity variations. Periodicity and amplitudes found in the wavelength shifts are shown to indicate a size of the binary system of approximately 2 x 10 to the 14th cm. The emission lines are found to originate in a radiatively ionized gas with electron density in the range of 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 7th/cu cm, and electron temperature less than 15,000 K. In addition, an indication for a hot outer envelope around the whole system is observed.

  13. Mushroom lectin enhanced immunogenicity of HBV DNA vaccine in C57BL/6 and HBsAg-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenjuan; Sun, Yuhan; Chen, Shiwen; Zhang, Jingyao; Kang, Jingjing; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Hexiang; Xia, Guoliang; Liu, Qinghong; Kang, Youmin

    2013-04-26

    DNA vaccination is a promising strategy for activating immune responses against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the accumulated data have shown that DNA vaccination alone generates weak immune responses. To enhance the immunogenicity of HBV DNA vaccine, lectin purified from pleurotus ostreatus (POL) was used as adjuvant of HBV DNA vaccine for C57BL/6 and HBV surface antigen transgenic (HBVsAg-Tg) mice. Our data demonstrate that low dose of POL (1 ?g/mouse) in conjunction with HBV DNA vaccine stimulated stronger HBV-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and higher HBV-specific IgG level than that in high dose of POL groups (5 ?g/mouse and 10 ?g/mouse). POL activated strong Th2 and Tc1 cell responses in immunized C57BL/6 and HBVsAg-Tg mice. POL as adjuvant of HBV DNA vaccine effectively enhanced HBV surface protein antibody (HBVsAb) and decreased HBVsAg level for HBV Tg mice treatment. Furthermore, POL infiltrated more lymphocytes excluding Th1, Th2 and Tc1 cell subtypes to liver of HBVsAg-Tg mice. Together, these results suggest that POL as adjuvant enhanced immunogenicity of HBV DNA vaccination and effectively stimulated immune reaponse for HBsAg-Tg mice treatment. Our findings implicate the potential of mushroom lectin as adjuvant of HBV DNA vaccine. PMID:23499522

  14. The Intracellular HBV DNAs as Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers for the Clinical Diagnosis of Occult HBV Infection in HBeAg Negative Hepatocellular Carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Fang, Meng; Gu, Xing; Ji, Qiang; Li, Dongdi; Cheng, Shu-Qun; Shen, Feng; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the virological status in liver (both tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissue), the clinical features and the contribution of occult HBV infection (OBI) to postoperative prognosis in HBeAg-negative(?) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in China. Using quantitative TaqMan fluorescent real-time PCR assays, HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and total DNA (tDNA) were both quantified in 11 (HBsAg(?)) and 57 (HBsAg-positive(+)) pairs of tumor tissue (TT) and adjacent non-tumor tissue (ANTT) obtained from HBeAg(?) HCC patients who received no antiviral treatment and were negative for anti-HCV before surgical treatment. Of 11 HBsAg(?) patients, 36% were with HBsAb(+) HBeAb(+) HBcAb(+). However, only 9% of the HBsAg(?) patients were HBsAb(?) HBeAb(+) HBcAb(+), which accounted for the majority (93%) in the HBsAg(+) group. TT and ANTT HBV tDNAs in 11 HCC patients with HBsAg (?) and HBeAg (?) were all detectable. HBV cccDNA and tDNA were all lower in the HBsAg(?) group than those in the HBsAg(+) group. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with OBI were associated with a lower risk of cirrhosis and better overall survival (OS). The intracellular HBV DNAs, such as HBV cccDNA and tDNA are valuable biological markers for the diagnosis of occult HBV infection in HCC patients. This would assist the clinical implementation of a more personalized therapy for viral re-activation control and improve the survival rate of OBI patients. PMID:25229710

  15. TGF-? Suppression of HBV RNA through AID-Dependent Recruitment of an RNA Exosome Complex.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guoxin; Liu, Guangyan; Kitamura, Kouichi; Wang, Zhe; Chowdhury, Sajeda; Monjurul, Ahasan Md; Wakae, Kousho; Koura, Miki; Shimadu, Miyuki; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Muramatsu, Masamichi

    2015-04-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication although the intracellular effectors involved are not determined. Here, we report that reduction of HBV transcripts by TGF-? is dependent on AID expression, which significantly decreases both HBV transcripts and viral DNA, resulting in inhibition of viral replication. Immunoprecipitation reveals that AID physically associates with viral P protein that binds to specific virus RNA sequence called epsilon. AID also binds to an RNA degradation complex (RNA exosome proteins), indicating that AID, RNA exosome, and P protein form an RNP complex. Suppression of HBV transcripts by TGF-? was abrogated by depletion of either AID or RNA exosome components, suggesting that AID and the RNA exosome involve in TGF-? mediated suppression of HBV RNA. Moreover, AID-mediated HBV reduction does not occur when P protein is disrupted or when viral transcription is inhibited. These results suggest that induced expression of AID by TGF-? causes recruitment of the RNA exosome to viral RNP complex and the RNA exosome degrades HBV RNA in a transcription-coupled manner. PMID:25836330

  16. Occurrence of HBV/HIV coinfection by laboratory values in Roma, Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Senauoane, Mamakoli Blandina; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Nyandoro, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was an assessment of the coinfection status of patients with human immunode?ciency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Lesotho, and this has been rarely reported. Methods This was a retrospective study, in a laboratory setting, on HBV/HIV coinfection among 304 HIV-positive patients who were screened for HBsAg in St Joseph's Hospital records between March 2011 and December 2013. Demographic characteristics, HIV status, indications for HBsAg screening, HBsAg results and liver function test results including alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase were reviewed from the patient and laboratory registers. Results In this study 10.5% of 304 HIV-positive patients had HBV/HIV coinfection. With respect to gender, males had a significantly higher (p=0.048) rate of HBV/HIV coinfection in this study. Increased levels of ALT (p=0.013) and AST (p=0.014) were significantly associated with HBV/HIV coinfection status. Conclusion Gender and liver function tests are important predictors for HBV/HIV coinfection. Screening for HBV coinfection in HIV-positive patients is recommended.

  17. TGF-? Suppression of HBV RNA through AID-Dependent Recruitment of an RNA Exosome Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kouichi; Wang, Zhe; Chowdhury, Sajeda; Monjurul, Ahasan Md; Wakae, Kousho; Koura, Miki; Shimadu, Miyuki; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Muramatsu, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication although the intracellular effectors involved are not determined. Here, we report that reduction of HBV transcripts by TGF-? is dependent on AID expression, which significantly decreases both HBV transcripts and viral DNA, resulting in inhibition of viral replication. Immunoprecipitation reveals that AID physically associates with viral P protein that binds to specific virus RNA sequence called epsilon. AID also binds to an RNA degradation complex (RNA exosome proteins), indicating that AID, RNA exosome, and P protein form an RNP complex. Suppression of HBV transcripts by TGF-? was abrogated by depletion of either AID or RNA exosome components, suggesting that AID and the RNA exosome involve in TGF-? mediated suppression of HBV RNA. Moreover, AID-mediated HBV reduction does not occur when P protein is disrupted or when viral transcription is inhibited. These results suggest that induced expression of AID by TGF-? causes recruitment of the RNA exosome to viral RNP complex and the RNA exosome degrades HBV RNA in a transcription-coupled manner. PMID:25836330

  18. Exploring the Therapeutic Potentials of iNKT Cells for Anti-HBV Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenczyk, Agnieszka; Kim, Seil; Wen, Xiangshu; Xiong, Ran; Yuan, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a group of innate-like regulatory T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Both mouse modeling experiments and human clinical studies have suggested a key role for iNKT cells in anti-HBV immunity and these potent T cells can be explored as a novel therapeutic target for anti-HBV treatment. We aim to humanize mice in the CD1d/iNKT cell lipid presentation system and provide new research tools for identifying novel anti-HBV agents. PMID:25438012

  19. Emission Line Analyses of HBV 475, V1016 CYG and HM SGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, S.

    Results of the high dispersion spectroscopic observations on HBV 475, V1016 Cyg, and HM Sge are presented. Due to yearly observations of HBV 475 since 1981, radial velocities which have been measured from H? and H? can be explained by a bipolar like non-spherical flow combined with the rotation. Highly resolved profiles of H?, [Fe VII] ?6087, [O III] ?4959, 5007, and He II ?4686 are obtained from V1016 Cyg and HM Sge as well as HBV 475. Characteristic differences of them can be seen among these symbiotic stars.

  20. Notes from the field: transmission of HBV among assisted-living-facility residents - Virginia, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-05-17

    On June 29, 2012, the Rappahannock Area Health District in northwestern Virginia received a report of an acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in an elderly resident of an assisted-living facility (ALF). The resident reported no risk factors for HBV infection except assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG), which has been implicated in the transmission of HBV in ALFs and other long-term-care facilities. Rappahannock Area Health District investigated the source of the infection and the scope of transmission. Investigators observed facility infection control practices and procedures and conducted staff interviews. The facility was scheduled to close July 31, 2012, necessitating prompt response before residents were transferred. PMID:23677047

  1. Reporting PRO Findings

    Cancer.gov

    Best Practices for Integrating Patient Reported Outcomes in Oncology Clinical Trials This webinar series is a collaboration of the International Society for Quality of Life Research and the National Cancer Institute. Session 6: How to report PRO study

  2. Management of hepatitis C in HIV and/or HBV co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montero, José Vicente; Soriano, Vicente

    2012-08-01

    Co-infection with either HIV or HBV in chronic hepatitis C patients is common, since all these viruses share transmission routes and geographical distribution. Interaction between these viruses generally amplifies liver damage, increasing the risk of developing end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. HIV-HCV co-infection is associated with poorer response to antiviral therapy. New antivirals against HCV are eagerly awaited for this population. HBV-HCV dual infections are less common. The principles guiding indication of therapy in monoinfected patients should be followed considering which virus replicates in persons with serological markers of dual HBV-HCV infection. Although there is growing evidence supporting the use of direct acting antivirals (DAA) in dually infected patients with active HCV replication, prospective trials should be conducted to demonstrate their benefit, assessing carefully the rate and clinical consequences of HBV rebounds. PMID:23199509

  3. The Role of Proliferating Infected Hepatocytes on the Dynamics of an HBV-infected Liver

    E-print Network

    Kuang, Yang

    , and liver cancer. There are 350 million people currently infected with HBV and the majority of these cases are in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the South Pacific, tropical South America

  4. Sorafenib Combined With Transarterial Chemoembolization in Treating HBV-infected Patients With Intermediate Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-24

    PHENYTOIN/SORAFENIB [VA Drug Interaction]; Liver Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Liver Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; DOXORUBICIN/TRASTUZUMAB [VA Drug Interaction]; HBV

  5. ProSound News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ProSound News is an online source for news and information in all facets of the recording industry. News articles are added frequently throughout each business day. In addition to providing appropriate news coverage, the site also features classifieds and an industry calendar. The archives of their news section contains news dating back to 2003. ProSound News is a service of United Entertainment Media.

  6. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of full-genome HBV subgenotype D3 sequences from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevi?, Boban; Osiowy, Carla; Schaefer, Stephan; Bojovi?, Ksenija; Blagojevi?, Jelena; Neši?, Milica; Yamashita, Shunichi; Stamenkovi?, Gorana

    2011-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified into 8 genotypes with distinct geographical distribution. Genotype D (HBV/D) has the widest distribution area and is comprised of 7 subgenotypes. Subgenotypes D1, D2 and D3 appear worldwide, while D4-D7 have a more restricted distribution. Within the Mediterranean area, HBV/D and subgenotype D3 are the most prevalent. The purpose of this study was to characterize the full genome of Serbian HBV/D3 isolates by comparison and phylogenetic analysis with HBV/D3 sequences (66 samples) found in GeneBank/DDBJ databases from different parts of the world. Isolates were obtained from three patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (HBsAg+). All three isolates have two very rare nucleotide substitutions, A929T and T150A, which indicate the same ancestor. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV/D3 genome sequences throughout the world follows an ethno-geographical origin of isolates with rare exceptions, which could be explained by human travelling and migration. The geographically close but ethnically different Serbian and Italian isolates clustered in the same subnode, and on a common branch with strains from Northern Canada. To test the apparently close HBV phylogenetic relationship between completely separated patients from Serbia and Northern Canada we analyzed in depth a 440 bp region of the HBsAg from Canadian (n=73) and Serbian (n=70) isolates. The constructed parsimony tree revealed that strains from Serbia and Northern Canada fell along the same branch which indicates independent evolution within regions of each country. Considering that HBsAg sequence has limited variability for phylogenetic analyses, our hypothesis needs further confirmation with more HBV complete genome sequences. PMID:21601012

  7. HBV DNA persistence 10 years after liver transplantation despite successful anti-HBS passive immunoprophylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Roche; Cyrille Feray; Michele Gigou; Anne Marie Roque-Afonso; Jean Louis Arulnaden; Valerie Delvart; Elisabeth Dussaix; Catherine Guettier; Henri Bismuth; Didier Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Long-term immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) is widely accepted for the prevention of recurrent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after liver transplantation in HBV-infected patients without viral replication. We report long-term results of HBIG administration in 284 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive transplant patients. In protocol 1, 259 patients were given HBIG with the goal of maintaining the

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B e antigen in chronic HBV carriers in North-central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Forbi, Joseph C; Iperepolu, Odunayo H; Zungwe, Timothy; Agwale, Simon M

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important clinical problem due to its worldwide distribution and potential of adverse sequelae, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied the prevalence of hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) among individuals determined to be HBV surface antigen-positive (HBsAg+) and analyzed the gender/age category associated with more active HBV infection. A total of 572 HBsAg+ individuals, as determined by a double antibody sandwich ELISA method, participated in the study. They were tested for HbeAg, using a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay. One hundred and ten individuals were found to be HBeAg-positive giving an overall prevalence of 19.2%. Of these 110 individuals, 20 (18.2%) were females, and 90 (81.8%) were males. Thus, the prevalence of HBeAg appears to be higher in males than in females (p < 0.05). Our data also revealed that the prevalence of HBeAg was higher in patients between the age-group of 0-10 years and 11-20 years and appeared to decrease with increase in age. Taken together, our data show that approximately 1/5 of HBV-infected individuals are HBeAg+, suggesting that the virus is actively replicating and infecting liver-cells thereby ensuring an HBV-transmission pool within the Nigerian population. We suggest strengthening of the childhood HBV vaccination programmes, massive intervention activities, and treatment programmes, especially among young people to reverse the possible devastating effect of HBV infection. The success of these efforts will depend on our resolution to make the elimination of HBV infection a top priority on the public-health agenda as we start the second decade of this new century. PMID:23304903

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates from new cases of HBV infection in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Donatella; Urone, Noemi; Pizzillo, Paola; Gussio, Maria; Magliocco, Salvatore; Cacopardo, Bruno; Craxì, Antonio; Di Marco, Vito; Di Stefano, Rosa

    2012-12-01

    The level of endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in Italy is low and genotype D infections predominant. New HBV strains may however be introduced as a result of movements of people from regions of high endemicity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether strains from new cases of acute hepatitis B detected in southern Italy were due to endemic or new HBV strains. We studied 34 isolates from patients with acute hepatitis B infection, and 35 from chronic hepatitis B patients. A phylogenetic analysis of preS/S region was done by comparing the sequences from the acute and chronic cases with references sequences. The study showed that 44% of strain from acute hepatitis B patients were of genotype A, 53% of genotype D, and 3% of genotype E. The molecular analysis of isolates from acute hepatitis B patients from Sicily showed a change in the local epidemiology of this infection, with an increase in HBV/A infections and a clustering effect for HBV D2, possibly correlated to immigration. The introduction of new genotypes , could have an effect on HBV-correlated diseases due to the different association between genotype, liver disease and response to antiviral therapy. PMID:22824417

  10. Discovering novel direct acting antiviral agents for HBV using in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yoshiki; Hayakawa, Michiyo; Yano, Yoshihiko; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Enomoto, Masaru; Tamori, Akihiro; Kawada, Norifumi; Iwadate, Mitsuo; Umeyama, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are interferon and nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. Because both treatments are less than ideal, we conducted to identify novel anti-viral agents for HBV-reverse transcriptase (HBV-RT). We determined the ligand-binding site of the HBV-RT by conducting a homological search of the amino acid sequence and then we also determined not only structural arrangement of the target protein but the target protein-binding site of the ligand using known protein-ligand complexes in registered in the protein data bank (PDB). Finally we simulated binding between the ligand candidates and the HBV-RT and evaluated the degree of binding (in silico screening). PXB cells derived from human-mouse chimeric mouse liver, infected with HBV were administrated with the candidates, and HBVDNA in the culture medium was monitored by realtime qPCR. Among compounds from the AKosSamples database, twelve candidates that can inhibit RT were also identified, two of which seem to have the potential to control HBV replication in vitro. PMID:25446116

  11. College of Dentistry PRO Prosthodontics

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Dentistry PRO Prosthodontics KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped for these patients. Clinic, 110 hours. Prereq: PRO 821; coreq: PRO 830. PRO 834 PRECLINICAL RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY III using manikins. Knowledge gained in previous restorative dentistry courses are applied to more extensive

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Anti-HBV Polyoxometalate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yanfei; Li, Jinhua; Song, Xiuling; Li, Li; Yin, Dehui; Xu, Kun; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Polyoxometalates are non-nucleoside analogs that have been proven to exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral activity. In particular, Cs2K4Na[SiW9Nb3O40].H2O 1 shows low toxicity and high activity against HBV. The preclinical pharmacokinetics of Compound 1 in rats were characterized by establishing and applying inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method to determine the concentration of W in plasma, urine, feces, bile and organ samples. The quantitative ICP-MS method demonstrated good sensitivity and application in the pharmacokinetics study of polyoxometalates. The pharmacokinetic behavior of Compound 1 after intravenous or oral administration fit a two-compartment model. Tmax ranges from 0.1 h to 3 h and the T1/2 of Compound 1 is between 20 h and 30 h. The absolute bioavailability of Compound 1 at 45, 180 and 720 mg/kg groups were 23.68%, 14.67% and 11.93%, respectively. The rates of plasma protein binding of Compound 1 at 9, 18 and 36 mg/ml of Compound 1 are 62.13±9.41%, 71.20±24.98% and 49.00±25.59%, respectively. Compound 1 was widely distributed throughout the body, and high levels of compound 1 were found in the kidney and liver. The level of Compound 1 in excretion was lower: 30% for urine, 0.28% for feces and 0.42% for bile, respectively. For elaborate pharmacokinetic characteristics to be fully understood, the metabolism of Compound 1 needs to be studied further. PMID:24921932

  13. Comparison of Abbott and Da-an real-time PCR for quantitating serum HBV DNA

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ning; Li, Rui; Yu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Wei; An, Yong; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the performance of the Da-an real-time hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA assay and Abbott RealTime HBV assay. METHODS: HBV DNA standards as well as a total of 180 clinical serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B were measured using the Abbott and Da-an real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Correlation and Bland-Altman plot analysis was used to compare the performance of the Abbott and Da-an assays. The HBV DNA levels were logarithmically transformed for analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 18.0. The correlation between the two assays was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and linear regression. The Bland-Altman plots were used for the analysis of agreement between the two assays. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The HBV DNA values measured by the Abbott or Da-an assay were significantly correlated with the expected values of HBV DNA standards (r = 0.999, for Abbott; r = 0.987, for Da-an, P < 0.001). A Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between these two assays in detecting HBV DNA standards. Among the 180 clinical serum samples, 126 were quantifiable by both assays. Fifty-two samples were detectable by the Abbott assay but below the detection limit of the Da-an assay. Moreover, HBV DNA levels measured by the Abbott assay were significantly higher than those of the Da-an assay (6.23 ± 1.76 log IU/mL vs 5.46 ± 1.55 log IU/mL, P < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between HBV DNA concentrations determined by the two assays in 126 paired samples (r = 0.648, P < 0.001). One hundred and fifteen of 126 (91.3%) specimens tested with both assays were within mean difference ± 1.96 SD of HBV DNA levels. CONCLUSION: The Da-an assay presented lower sensitivity and a narrower linear range as compared to the Abbott assay, suggesting the need to be improved. PMID:25206280

  14. HBV reactivation in a HBsAg-negative patient with multiple myeloma treated with prednisolone maintenance therapy after autologous HSCT

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ha Ra; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Choi, Hong Seok; Moon, Chae Ho; Park, Su Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has previously occurred in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative patients with malignant lymphoma who received rituximab-based combination chemotherapy. However, few reports have described cases of HBV reactivation in patients with multiple myeloma thus far. We report a case of HBV reactivation in a patient with multiple myeloma treated with chemotherapy, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and maintenance steroid therapy. For the HBV reactivation, the patient was treated with the antiviral agent entecavir. The clinical symptoms and laboratory findings improved after 3 months. Further studies should target the identification of patients at high risk of HBV reactivation in multiple myeloma treated with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and steroid therapy for maintenance and establish viral prophylaxis strategies, especially in Korea, in which HBV infection is endemic.

  15. HBV reactivation in a HBsAg-negative patient with multiple myeloma treated with prednisolone maintenance therapy after autologous HSCT.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ha Ra; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Choi, Hong Seok; Moon, Chae Ho; Park, Su Cheol; Kang, Hye Jin

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has previously occurred in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative patients with malignant lymphoma who received rituximab-based combination chemotherapy. However, few reports have described cases of HBV reactivation in patients with multiple myeloma thus far. We report a case of HBV reactivation in a patient with multiple myeloma treated with chemotherapy, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and maintenance steroid therapy. For the HBV reactivation, the patient was treated with the antiviral agent entecavir. The clinical symptoms and laboratory findings improved after 3 months. Further studies should target the identification of patients at high risk of HBV reactivation in multiple myeloma treated with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and steroid therapy for maintenance and establish viral prophylaxis strategies, especially in Korea, in which HBV infection is endemic. PMID:25830131

  16. An attempt to prepare hepatitis B virus (HBV)-free plasma by ultrafiltration using microporous regenerated cellulose hollow fiber.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, S; Ito, K; Kobayashi, M; Ikeda, H; Manabe, S; Tsurumi, T; Ishikawa, G; Satani, M; Yamaguchi, K

    1990-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be effectively removed from HBV-positive plasma by filtration with a Bemberg Microporous Membrane (BMM) with a pore size of 30 nm or less, however considerable amounts of macromolecular IgM and Factor VIII are trapped in the BMM. We report that HBV-free plasma with adequate amounts of all of the plasma proteins can be obtained by double filtration with a BMM with a port size of 50 nm. Thus it may be possible to remove HBV or other transfusion-associated viruses from plasma by BMM filtration with good recovery of all of the plasma components. PMID:10149527

  17. Comodo Firewall Pro

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    If you are wary of Trojan viruses and marauding hackers, then this version of Comodo Pro Firewall is worth checking out. The application includes tabs that allow users to customize some of its main features, and while the user interface isn't too fancy, it's still fairly easy to use. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP or Vista.

  18. Significance of PRO2000/ANCCA expression, a novel proliferation-associated protein in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background PRO2000/ANCCA may be an important candidate gene which located within a region of chromosome 8q in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its significance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical significance of PRO2000/ANCCA expression in HCC. Methods The correlations of PRO2000/ANCCA expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis of HCC patients were analyzed. Expression of PRO2000/ANCCA, ki-67, cyclinD1, p53 and p21 was detected in HCCs from 107 patients along with corresponding non-tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results PRO2000/ANCCA expression was present in 66 of 107 (64.94%) HCC specimens in which 36 of 76 (47.37%) in well differentiated tumors and 30 of 31 (96.77%) in poorly differentiated tumors respectively, while 8 (7.48%) in adjacent non-tumor tissues with scattered positive cells. PRO2000/ANCCA expression was associated with clinicopathological features such as histological differentiation, number of tumor nodules, TNM stage, tumor microsatellite, portal vein tumor thrombus and recurrence, but not with gender, age, tumor size, cirrhosis, HBV infection and serum fetoprotein (AFP) level. There was a close relationship between PRO2000/ANCCA and ki-67 and cyclinD1 in HCC. PRO2000/ANCCA immunopositivity was independent of p53 and p21WAF1/Cip1. Conclusions Increased expression of PRO2000/ANCCA is associated with adverse outcome in patients with HCC and is a predictor of poor prognosis for HCC. PRO2000/ANCCA may be involved in the development of HCC and might promote cell proliferation through a p53/ P21WAF1/Cip1-independent pathway. PMID:24708861

  19. The spectrum of HBV/HCV coinfection: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, viralinteractions and management

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinou, Dimitris; Deutsch, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Monoinfection with either hepatitis B (HBV) or C virus (HCV) represents one of the major causes of chronic liver disease globally. However, in endemic areas a substantial number of patients are infected with both viruses mainly as a result of the common routes of transmission. Numerous studies have demonstrated that dually infected patients carry a greater risk of advanced liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with monoinfected patients. The choice of treatment is based on the virological profile of each patient taking into account the dominant virus pattern. In predominant HCV, standard combination treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin has proven equally effective in HBV/HCV-coinfected patients as well as in HCV-monoinfected patients. Strikingly, approximately 60% of patients with inactive HBV infection before HCV treatment may present HBV reactivation while others experience hepatitis B surface antigen seroconversion after clearing HCV, demonstrating the complexity of the interaction between the two viruses during the follow up. The therapeutic strategies for the predominant HBV dually infected patients are more vague, although high genetic barrier nucleos(t)ide analogues play an indisputable role. Finally, the recently approved combination treatments for chronic hepatitis C containing direct-acting antivirals may definitely change the treatment protocols in the future although there is no experience with these drugs in dually infected patients until today.

  20. Association of IGF1R polymorphisms with the development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, H-Y; Xing, C-Y; Wei, B-J; Xu, X; Wu, J; Chen, L-M; Cao, G-Q; Chen, H; Chen, K-J; Yin, S-Y; Wu, L-M; Zhou, L; Zheng, S-S

    2014-09-01

    Although the involvement of insulin-like signaling in cancer has been well documented in various types of cancers, the association between the genetic variants in the insulin-like signaling and the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In this study, a total of 498 individuals including 173 HBV related cirrhosis patients, 171 HBV-related HCC patients, and 154 healthy controls were enrolled. Sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R and IGF2R have been genotyped by employing SNaPshot assays. We found A/A genotype at rs3743251 of IGF1R was negatively associated with HBV related HCC [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.20-0.72, P?=?0.037]; A/G genotype decreased the risk of portal vein thrombosis (OR?=?0.38, 95%CI?=?0.18-0.82, P?=?0.01). These results indicate that rs3743251 polymorphism in IGF1R is associated with the susceptibility of HBV-related HCC. PMID:24758241

  1. A comparison of molecular methods for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection from oral fluid samples.

    PubMed

    Portilho, Moyra Machado; Martins, Patrícia Pais; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate four commercial DNA extraction methods and three PCR protocols for hepatitis B virus (HBV) detection in artificially contaminated oral fluid samples. The extraction protocols were selected based on ease of use and cost, and were also compared with respect to sensitivity and cost. Prior PCR optimization was conducted, in which the sample volume for DNA extraction and the concentrations of DNA and Taq DNA polymerase in the PCR were adjusted. One-round PCR, used to amplify the core region of the HBV genome, achieved high levels of sensitivity in comparison with nested and semi-nested PCR experiments that were designed for the amplification of HBV surface protein genes. Of the four extraction protocols evaluated, the RTP DNA/RNA Virus Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Mini kit gave the highest recovery rates, presenting 20 copies of HBV DNA ml(-1) as the limit of detection. These results suggest that HBV DNA can be detected from oral fluid samples but that the optimization of the PCR assays and the choice of extraction methods must be determined by laboratories before the implementation of this method in routine diagnostics. PMID:22403138

  2. Age-Dependent Immune Events during HBV Infection from Birth to Adulthood: An Alternative Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Hong, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Immune responses change during the life of an individual. While this concept has been well accepted for adaptive immunity, only recently it is becoming clear that the innate immune responses also acquire distinct features in different phases of life. We believe that this concept can offer a different interpretation of the pathological manifestations that can be observed in HBV-infected subjects during the patient’s life. Here, we will review the age-related immunopathological features of HBV infection and discuss how the different virological and clinical manifestations might be linked to the developmental pathway of the immune system from newborns to adults. We will discuss how the age of patients can affect the degree of inflammatory responses, but not the levels of antiviral specific immunity. We then propose that the different clinical manifestations occurring during the natural history of HBV infection are related to the host ability to trigger an inflammatory immune response. PMID:25295036

  3. The immune tolerant phase of chronic HBV infection: new perspectives on an old concept.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Kennedy, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection progresses through distinct disease phases that are strongly associated with patient age. The so-called immune tolerant (IT) phase represents the classical early phase of infection; it is associated with high levels of HBV replication and lack of clinical signs of liver Inflammation. Whether this phase of HBV infection is also associated with immunological features of "tolerance' has recently been challenged. Here, we review the data that dispute this concept of immune tolerance and then propose an alternative interpretation of the immunopathological events that take place during this early phase of CHB infection.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 1 September 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.79. PMID:25176526

  4. Defective natural killer cell anti-viral capacity in paediatric HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, I L; Pallett, L J; Winther, T N; Høgh, B; Maini, M K; Peppa, D

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells exhibit dysregulated effector function in adult chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB), which may contribute to virus persistence. The role of NK cells in children infected perinatally with HBV is less studied. Access to a unique cohort enabled the cross-sectional evaluation of NK cell frequency, phenotype and function in HBV-infected children relative to uninfected children. We observed a selective defect in NK cell interferon (IFN)-? production, with conserved cytolytic function, mirroring the functional dichotomy observed in adult infection. Reduced expression of NKp30 on NK cells suggests a role of impaired NK-dendritic cell (DC) cellular interactions as a potential mechanism leading to reduced IFN-? production. The finding that NK cells are already defective in paediatric CHB, albeit less extensively than in adult CHB, has potential implications for the timing of anti-viral therapy aiming to restore immune control. PMID:25311087

  5. Defective natural killer cell anti-viral capacity in paediatric HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Heiberg, I L; Pallett, L J; Winther, T N; Høgh, B; Maini, M K; Peppa, D

    2015-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells exhibit dysregulated effector function in adult chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB), which may contribute to virus persistence. The role of NK cells in children infected perinatally with HBV is less studied. Access to a unique cohort enabled the cross-sectional evaluation of NK cell frequency, phenotype and function in HBV-infected children relative to uninfected children. We observed a selective defect in NK cell interferon (IFN)-? production, with conserved cytolytic function, mirroring the functional dichotomy observed in adult infection. Reduced expression of NKp30 on NK cells suggests a role of impaired NK-dendritic cell (DC) cellular interactions as a potential mechanism leading to reduced IFN-? production. The finding that NK cells are already defective in paediatric CHB, albeit less extensively than in adult CHB, has potential implications for the timing of anti-viral therapy aiming to restore immune control. PMID:25311087

  6. A Rare HBV Subgenotype D4 with Unique Genomic Signatures Identified in North-Eastern India –An Emerging Clinical Challenge?

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Mondal, Rajiv Kumar; Nandi, Madhuparna; Ghosh, Sumantra; Khatun, Mousumi; Chakraborty, Nabendu; Bhattacharya, Swatilekha; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Banerjee, Soma; Santra, Amal; Sil, Samir; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Bhaumik, Pradip; Datta, Simanti

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims HBV has been classified into ten genotypes (A–J) and multiple subgenotypes, some of which strongly influence disease outcome and their distribution also correlate with human migration. HBV infection is highly prevalent in India and its diverse population provides an excellent opportunity to study the distinctiveness of HBV, its evolution and disease biology in variegated ethnic groups. The North-East India, having international frontiers on three sides, is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse region of the country. Given the paucity of information on molecular epidemiology of HBV in this region, the study aimed to carry out an in-depth genetic characterization of HBV prevailing in North-East state of Tripura. Methods From sera of chronically HBV infected patients biochemical/serological tests, HBV DNA quantification, PCR-amplification, sequencing of PreS/S or full-length HBV genomes were done. HBV genotype/subgenotype determination and sequence variability were assessed by MEGA5-software. The evolutionary divergence times of different HBV subgenotypes were estimated by DNAMLK/PHYLIP program while jpHMM method was used to detect any recombination event in HBV genomes. Results HBV genotypes D (89.5%), C (6.6%) and A (3.9%) were detected among chronic carriers. While all HBV/A and HBV/C isolates belonged to subgenotype-A1 and C1 respectively, five subgenotypes of HBV/D (D1–D5) were identified including the first detection of rare D4. These non-recombinant Indian D4 (IndD4) formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, had 2.7% nucleotide divergence and recent evolutionary radiation than other global D4. Ten unique amino acids and 9 novel nucleotide substitutions were identified as IndD4 signatures. All IndD4 carried T120 and R129 in ORF-S that may cause immune/vaccine/diagnostic escape and N128 in ORF-P, implicated as compensatory Lamivudine resistance mutation. Conclusions IndD4 has potential to undermine vaccination programs or anti-viral therapy and its introduction to North-East India is believed to be linked with the settlement of ancient Tibeto-Burman migrants from East-Asia. PMID:25295865

  7. Bim-mediated deletion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in patients unable to control HBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, A. Ross; Kellam, Paul; Das, Abhishek; Dunn, Claire; Kwan, Antonia; Turner, Joanna; Peppa, Dimitra; Gilson, Richard J.; Gehring, Adam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Maini, Mala K.

    2008-01-01

    HBV-specific CD8+ T cells are critical for a successful immune response to HBV infection. They are markedly diminished in number in patients who fail to control the virus, but the mechanisms resulting in their depletion remain ill defined. Here, we dissected the defective HBV-specific CD8+ T cell response associated with chronic HBV infection by gene expression profiling. We found that HBV-specific CD8+ T cells from patients with different clinical outcomes could be distinguished by their patterns of gene expression. Microarray analysis revealed that overlapping clusters of functionally related apoptotic genes were upregulated in HBV-specific CD8+ T cells from patients with chronic compared with resolved infection. Further analysis confirmed that levels of the proapoptotic protein Bcl2-interacting mediator (Bim) were upregulated in HBV-specific CD8+ T cells from patients with chronic HBV infection. Blocking Bim-mediated apoptosis enhanced recovery of HBV-specific CD8+ T cells both in culture and directly ex vivo. Consistent with evidence that Bim mediates apoptosis of CD8+ T cells expressing low levels of CD127 (IL-7R), the few surviving HBV-specific CD8+ T cells were CD127hi and had elevated levels of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl1, suggesting they were amenable to IL-7–mediated rescue from apoptosis. We therefore postulate that Bim-mediated attrition of HBV-specific CD8+ T cells contributes to the inability of these cell populations to persist and control viral replication. PMID:18398508

  8. Evolutionary analysis of HBV "S" antigen genetic diversity in Iranian blood donors: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Sharifi, Zohre; Soleimani, Ali; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Sijmons, Steven; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Karimi, Gharib; Lemey, Philippe; Maes, Piet; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the HBV S gene has a significant impact on the prophylaxis and treatment of hepatitis B infection. The effect of selective pressure on this genetic alteration has not yet been studied in Iranian blood donors. To explore HBV evolution and to analyze the effects and patterns of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutations on blood screening assays, 358 Iranian blood donors diagnosed as asymptomatic HBV carriers were enrolled in this nationwide study. Large S and partial S genes were amplified and sequenced. HBV (sub) genotypes and synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations were investigated. The impact of naturally occurring mutations on HBsAg ELISA results was explored. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that isolated strains were of genotype D. The dominant subgenotype/subtype was D1/ayw2. Deletions and naturally occurring stop codons in the pre-S1 and major hydrophilic region (MHR) were identified. In total, 32.8% of the studied strains harbored 195 single or multiple mutations in the MHR, the majority of which were located at the first loop of the "a determinant" domain. The ayw2 subtype showed a significant effect on the ELISA signal/cut-off value and carried fewer mutations in the MHR. Nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution value indicated that negative selection was the dominant evolutionary force in the HBV S gene. This nationwide study revealed that mutation frequency of HBsAg among Iranian blood donors was much higher than previous reports from the different local regions. These findings regarding the significant differences in reactivity of ELISA among different subtypes of HBV and its correlation with the number of mutations at the MHR will be valuable to public health authorities. PMID:24150816

  9. ProFusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Originally developed by the University of Kansas Information Telecommunication and Technology Center, and School of Engineering DesignLab (see the July 25, 1997 Scout Report), ProFusion is a meta-search and "deep Web" search engine. Purchased by Intelliseek and fitted with a new interface, ProFusion allows users to search over 1,000 search sites, "including search engines, Web directories, discussion groups, news sources, online publications, and archives." Visitors can also perform targeted searches of vertical search sources, selecting which databases to query. Two other new features include an alert service that tracks changes to selected pages and notifies users by email and a Search Assistant that suggests results from search engine groups relevant to a query in addition to the general Web results. Worth a spin around the block.

  10. HBV Induced HCC: Major Risk Factors from Genetic to Molecular Level

    PubMed Central

    Ayub, Ambreen; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Haque, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly and emerging disease leading to death in Asian countries. High hepatitis B virus (HBV) load and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection increase the risk of developing HCC. HBV is a DNA virus that can integrate DNA into host genome thereby increase the yield of transactivator protein HBxAg that may deregulate many pathways involving in metabolism of cells. Several monogenic and polygenic risk factors are also involved in HCC development. This review summarizes the mechanism involved in HCC development and discusses some promising therapies to make HCC curative. PMID:23991421

  11. Understanding the molecular basis of HBV drug resistance by molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Ashoke; Chu, Chung K

    2008-12-01

    Despite the significant successes in the area of anti-HBV agents, resistance and cross-resistance against available therapeutics are the major hurdles in drug discovery. The present investigation is to understand the molecular basis of drug resistance conferred by the B and C domain mutations of HBV-polymerase on the binding affinity of five anti-HBV agents [lamivudine (3TC, 1), adefovir (ADV, 2), entecavir (ETV, 3), telbivudine (LdT, 4) and clevudine (l-FMAU, 5)]. In this regard, homology modeled structure of HBV-polymerase was used for minimization, conformational search and induced fit docking followed by binding energy calculation on wild-type as well as on mutant HBV-polymerases (L180M, M204V, M204I, L180M+M204V, L180M-M204I). Our studies suggest a significant correlation between the fold resistances and the binding affinity of anti-HBV nucleosides. The binding mode studies reveals that the domain C residue M204 is closely associated with sugar/pseudosugar ring positioning in the active site. The positioning of oxathiolane ring of 3TC (1) is plausible due the induced fit orientation of the M204 residue in wild-type, and further mutation of M204 to V204 or I204 reduces the final binding affinity which leads to the drug resistance. The domain B residue L180 is not directly close ( approximately 6A) to the nucleoside/nucleoside analogs, but indirectly associated with other active-site hydrophobic residues such as A87, F88, P177 and M204. These five hydrophobic residues can directly affect on the incoming nucleoside analogs in terms of its association and interaction that can alter the final binding affinity. There was no sugar ring shifting observed in the case of adefovir (2) and entecavir (3), and the position of sugar ring of 2 and 3 is found similar to the sugar position of natural substrate dATP and dGTP, respectively. The exocyclic double bond of entecavir (3) occupied in the backside hydrophobic pocket (made by residues A87, F88, P177, L180 and M204), which enhances the overall binding affinity. The active site binding of LdT (4) and l-FMAU (5) showed backward shifting along with upward movement without enforcing M204 residue and this significant different binding mode makes these molecules as polymerase inhibitors, without being incorporated into the growing HBV-DNA chain. Structural results conferred by these l- and d-nucleosides, explored the molecular basis of drug resistance which can be utilized for future anti-HBV drug discovery. PMID:18765256

  12. Share My Screen Pro

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-18

    If you work with people all over the country or the world, it can be hard to share information and visuals quickly. Share My Screen Pro allows users to do just that, complete with two way audio and instant messaging. Visitors can watch a short video here to get oriented and after that, it's rather easy to get started with the program. This version is compatible with all computers running Windows 2000 and newer as well as iOS and Android phones.

  13. Pro-Poor Tourism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), an independent, UK-based, think tank, this site contains a selection of resources related to pro-poor tourism (PPT). Different than "sustainable tourism" and related initiatives, PPT is defined simply as "tourism that generates net benefits for the poor." At this site, visitors can learn more about PPT and read case studies, a report, a policy briefing, working papers, and other publications.

  14. Functional interplay between hepatitis B virus X protein and human miR-125a in HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Nicola; Castiello, Filomena; Coppola, Nicola; Trotta, Maria Consiglia; Sagnelli, Caterina; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Russo, Aniello; Potenza, Nicoletta

    2014-06-20

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen and chronic HBV infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Some cellular microRNAs are emerging as important regulators of virus-host interaction, indirectly or directly modulating HBV replication and pathogenesis. miR-125a binds the viral transcript encoding the surface antigen and interferes with its expression, thus inhibiting viral replication. Intriguingly, liver miR-125a expression has been found increased in patients with high levels of hepatic HBV-DNA. The present study investigates the mechanism by which liver exposure to HBV induces the expression of miR-125a. The analyses were first performed on liver biopsies from HBV patients, showing that the expression of the viral transactivator X protein (HBx) paralleled the increase of miR-125a expression. Then, transfection of HCC cell lines with an HBx-expressing vector showed a substantial increase of miR-125a expression. Overall, the available data depict a self-inhibitory feedback loop in which HBV, through HBx, increases the expression of miR-125a, that in turn interferes with expression of HBV surface antigen, thus repressing viral replication. PMID:24824183

  15. One single nucleotide difference alters the differential expression of spliced RNAs between HBV genotypes A and D.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chiao; Kuo, Tzer-Min; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Hu, Cheng-Po; Chen, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Yue-Lin; Chen, Mong-Liang; Chou, Yu-Chi; Chang, Chungming

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is generally classified into eight genotypes (A to H) based on genomic sequence divergence. The sequence variation among the different HBV genotypes suggests that the spliced RNAs should be different from genotype to genotype. However, the cis-acting element involved in the modulation of the distinct expression profiles of spliced HBV RNAs remains unidentified. Moreover, the biological role of splicing in the life cycle of HBV is not yet understood. In this study, spliced RNAs generated from genotypes A and D were carefully characterized in transfected HepG2 cells. The species and frequency of the spliced RNAs were dramatically different in the two genotypes. Of note, a population of multiply spliced RNAs with intron 2067-2350 excision was identified in HBV genotype A-transfected HepG2 cells, but not in genotype D transfected HepG2 cells. Further, we found a single nucleotide difference (2335) located within the polypyrimidine tract of the splice acceptor site 2350 between the two genotypes, and a single base substitution at 2335 was able to convert the splicing pattern of genotype D (or genotype A) to that of genotype A (or genotype D). These findings suggest that different unique splice sites may be preferentially used in different HBV genotypes resulting in distinct populations of spliced RNAs. The possible significance of the distinct spliced RNAs generated from the different HBV genotypes in HBV infection is discussed. PMID:23501362

  16. Serum Testosterone Levels and Androgen Receptor CAG Polymorphism Correlate with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Related Acute Liver Failure in Male HBV Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bao-Yan; Tan, Wen-Ting; Tan, Shun; Dan, Yun-Jie; Luo, Xiao-Li; Deng, Guo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Augmentation of androgen/androgen receptor (AR) pathway may influence chronic hepatitis B (CHB) more likely in males. AR activity is modulated by a polymorphic CAG repeat sequence in AR exon 1. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum testosterone levels, CAG repeat numbers and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute liver failure (ALF). Methods Three hundred and seventy eight male CHB patients with ALF and 441 asymptomatic HBV carriers (AsCs) were recruited. AR CAG repeats numbers were analyzed. The serum testosterone levels of AsCs, ALFs and patients with hepatitis B flare groups, and sequential serum samples, were assessed quantitatively. Results The median CAG repeat (M-CAG) frequency was significantly higher in ALF patients than AsCs (P<0.001). Patients with M-CAG alleles (P<0.001, OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1–4.2) had the highest risk for ALF. Serum testosterone levels were significantly higher (P<0.001) at hepatitis flare point (8.2±3.0 ng/mL) than inactive phase (6.4±2.0 ng/mL). CHB (8.30±2.71 ng/mL, P?=?7.6×10?6) and ALF group (2.61±1.83 ng/mL, P?=?1.7×10?17) had significantly different levels of testosterone in comparison with AsCs group (6.56±2.36 ng/mL). The serum testosterone levels sharply decreased from hepatitis flare phase to liver failure phase, and tended to be normal at the recovery phase. Male AsCs with M-CAG alleles had significantly lower serum testosterone levels (P<0.05). Conclusions There was a serum testosterone fluctuation during hepatitis B flare and HBV-related ALF, and the median CAG repeats in AR gene exon 1 were associated with lower serum testosterone levels in asymptomatic HBV carriers and an increased susceptibility to HBV-related ALF. PMID:24391916

  17. Forecasting the Declining Rate of Chronic Hepatitis-B Carrier Status at a Taiwanese University: Twenty Years after Implementation of an Universal HBV Vaccination Program in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Hsiung Su; Hsiao-Yun Huang; Hong-Jer Chang; Jin-Ju Jeng; Yi-Hui Liu; Chih-Dao Chen

    Background: Prior to the introduction of universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in Taiwan in 1984, 15-20% of the general population were chronic HBV carri- ers. Methods: We forecasted and quantified the declining HBV carrier rate 20 years subse- quent to the implementation of universal HBV vaccination in Taiwan. At a Taiwanese university, 28,763 freshmen tested for serum HBsAg level

  18. Partially Randomized, Non-Blinded Trial of DNA and MVA Therapeutic Vaccines Based on Hepatitis B Virus Surface Protein for Chronic HBV Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Cavenaugh; Dorka Awi; Maimuna Mendy; Adrian V. S. Hill; Hilton Whittle; Samuel J. McConkey; Denise L. Doolan

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundChronic HBV infects 350 million people causing cancer and liver failure. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of plasmid DNA (pSG2.HBs) vaccine, followed by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA.HBs), encoding the surface antigen of HBV as therapy for chronic HBV. A secondary goal was to characterize the immune responses.MethodsFirstly 32 HBV e antigen negative (eAg–) participants were

  19. HBV and HIV co-infection: Impact on liver pathobiology and therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

    2015-01-27

    The consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on progression of severe liver diseases is a serious public health issue, worldwide. In the co-infection cases, about 90% of HIV-infected population is seropositive for HBV where approximately 5%-40% individuals are chronically infected. In HIV co-infected individuals, liver-related mortality is estimated over 17 times higher than those with HBV mono-infection. The spectrum of HIV-induced liver diseases includes hepatitis, steatohepatitis, endothelialitis, necrosis, granulomatosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. Moreover, HIV co-infection significantly alters the natural history of hepatitis B, and therefore complicates the disease management. Though several studies have demonstrated impact of HIV proteins on hepatocyte biology, only a few data is available on interactions between HBV and HIV proteins. Thus, the clinical spectrum as well as the complexity of the co-infection offers challenging fronts to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and to design effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:25625003

  20. Characterization of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in patients from Rondônia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be classified into nine genotypes (A-I) defined by sequence divergence of more than 8% based on the complete genome. This study aims to identify the genotypic distribution of HBV in 40 HBsAg-positive patients from Rondônia, Brazil. A fragment of 1306 bp partially comprising surface and polymerase overlapping genes was amplified by PCR. Amplified DNA was purified and sequenced. Amplified DNA was purified and sequenced on an ABI PRISM® 377 Automatic Sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The obtained sequences were aligned with reference sequences obtained from the GenBank using Clustal X software and then edited with Se-Al software. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach using BEAST v.1.5.3. Results The subgenotypes distribution was A1 (37.1%), D3 (22.8%), F2a (20.0%), D4 (17.1%) and D2 (2.8%). Conclusions These results for the first HBV genotypic characterization in Rondônia state are consistent with other studies in Brazil, showing the presence of several HBV genotypes that reflects the mixed origin of the population, involving descendants from Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans. PMID:21073730

  1. Design, synthesis, and bioevaluation of paeonol derivatives as potential anti-HBV agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Chuang, Hong; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Hsien; Horng, Jia-Cherng; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Wen; Tsai, Fu-Yuan; Yen, Shih-Chieh; Chou, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Ming-Hua

    2015-01-27

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a causative reagent that frequently causes progressive liver diseases, leading to the development of acute, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite several antiviral drugs including interferon-? and nucleotide derivatives are approved for clinical treatment for HBV, critical issues remain unresolved, e.g., low-to-moderate efficacy, adverse side effects, and resistant strains. In this study, novel Paeonol-phenylsulfonyl derivatives were synthesized and their antiviral effect against HBV was evaluated. The experimental results indicated that these compounds process significant antiviral potential, including the inhibition of viral antigen expression and secretion, and the suppression of HBV viral DNA replication. Among compounds synthesized in this research, compound 2-acetyl-5-methoxyphenyl 4-methoxybenzenesulfonate (7f) had the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.36 ?M, and high selectivity index, SI (TC50/IC50) 47.75; which exhibited an apparent inhibition effect on viral gene expression and viral propagation in cell culture model. So, we believe our compounds could serve as reservoir for antiviral drug development. PMID:25461891

  2. HBV genotype C is independently associated with cirrhosis in community-based population

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xie, Jia-Xin; Li, Wei-Ping; Xu, Guo-Zhang; Shen, Jie; Dong, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Lin; Han, Jian-Kang; Wang, Hong-Yang; Cao, Guang-Wen

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes with probable cirrhosis and fatty liver in community-based populations. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster probability sampling method was applied to recruit 10 167 subjects aged between 6 and 72 years from our epidemiological bases in Eastern China. After excluding the subjects co-infected with hepatitis C or hepatitis D viruses, the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive subjects were examined for HBV genotype, serum viral load, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status, and ultrasonographic changes. Logistic regression models were used to determine the factors associated with probable cirrhosis and fatty liver. RESULTS: Of 634 HBsAg-positive subjects with HBV genotype determined, 82 had probable cirrhosis (ultrasonographic score ? 5), 42 had ultrasonographic fatty liver. Probable cirrhosis was only found in the HBeAg-negative subjects, and more frequently found in the subjects with genotype C than in those with genotype B (14.8% vs 8.0%, P = 0.018). In HBeAg-negative subjects, high viral load was frequently associated with abnormal ALT level, while ALT abnormality was more frequent in those with probable cirrhosis than those without (19.5% vs 7.8%, P = 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that age, sex, HBV genotypes, and viral load were not significantly associated with ultrasonographic fatty liver, whereas ALT abnormality was significantly related to ultrasonographic fatty liver (OR = 4.54, 95% CI: 2.11-9.75, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that HBV genotype C, age (? 45 years), male sex, and ALT abnormality were independently associated with probable cirrhosis (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.26-4.19; AOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.10-2.99; AOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03-2.95; AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.48-5.99, respectively). CONCLUSION: A crude prevalence of probable cirrhosis is 12.9% in the community-based HBV-infected subjects. HBV genotype C is independently associated with probable cirrhosis in the HBeAg-negative subjects. PMID:20082486

  3. Toll-like receptor 4 plays an anti-HBV role in a murine model of acute hepatitis B virus expression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Wei; Su, Ih-Jen; Lai, Ming-Derg; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Huang, Wenya; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been shown to be important for bacterial infection, especially to lipopolysaccharide signaling. Its possible role in HBV infection is studied in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: pHBV3.6 plasmid, containing full-length HBV genome was used in the murine model of acute HBV expression by hydrodynamics in vivo transfection. TLR4 normal or mutant mouse strain was compared to investigate the possible role of TLR4 in acute HBV expression. RESULTS: After pHBV3.6 injection, the infiltrating leukocytes expressed TLR4 were observed nearby the HBsAg-expressing hepatocytes. The HBV antigenemia as well as the replication and transcription were higher in TLR4-mutant C3H/HeJ mice than in normal C3H/HeN mice. The HBV-specific immune responses were impaired in the liver or spleen of the C3H/HeJ mice. Their inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression on the hepatic infiltrating cells was also impaired. When adoptively transferring splenocytes from C3H/HeN mice to C3H/HeJ mice, the HBV replication was inhibited to the level as that of C3H/HeN. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that TLR4 plays an anti-HBV role in vivo through the induction of iNOS expression and HBV-specific immune responses after HBV expression. PMID:16425356

  4. Insulin resistance and steatosis in HBV-HCV co-infected patients: Role of PNPLA3 polymorphisms and impact on liver fibrosis progression

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Coppola, Nicola; Cirillo, Grazia; Boemio, Adriana; Minichini, Carmine; Marrone, Aldo; Stanzione, Maria; Starace, Mario; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Restivo, Luciano; Salzillo, Giovanna; Fascione, Maria Chiara; Nevola, Riccardo; del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate steatosis, insulin resistance (IR) and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) and their relation to disease progression in hepatitis B and C viruses (HCV-HBV) co-infected patients. METHODS: Three hundred and thirty patients with biopsy proven chronic hepatitis were enrolled: 66 had HBV-HCV, 66 HBV and 198 HCV infection. Prevalence of steatosis, IR and PNPLA3 polymorphisms and their relation to anthropometric, biochemical, virological and histological parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: Prevalence of steatosis in group HBV-HCV was similar to that in HCV (47.0% vs 49.5%, respectively); group HBV showed the lowest steatosis (33.3%). Group HBV-HCV had a lesser degree of steatosis than HCV (P = 0.016), lower HCV RNA levels (P = 0.025) and lower prevalence and degree of IR (P = 0.01). PNPLA3 polymorphisms were associated with steatosis. Group HBV-HCV showed higher levels of liver fibrosis than group HCV (P = 0.001), but similar to that observed in HBV group. In HBV-HCV group, liver fibrosis was not associated with steatosis, IR or PNPLA3. HBV infection was the independent predictor of advanced liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: HBV-HCV co-infected patients have lower degree of hepatic steatosis, IR and HCV RNA than HCV mono-infected; co-infected patients showed a more rapid liver fibrosis progression that seems to be due to the double infection and/or HBV dominance. PMID:25276284

  5. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR) and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A) were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A) with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A) for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55%) and D7 (41%). Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%). Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results. PMID:21050489

  6. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xiao, Gengfu, E-mail: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  7. Modeling Runoff on the North Slope of Alaska Using the HBV Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youcha, E. K.; Trochim, E.; Kane, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Arctic fresh water hydrologic cycle is dominated by the melting of the seasonal snow cover and scattered precipitation events during the summer months. The HBV model has been applied in the Imnavait and Upper Kuparuk basins, located in the headwaters of the Kuparuk River on the North Slope, to examine runoff during spring and summer months. HBV is a semi-distributed conceptual model and was developed in 1975 by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. Simple data inputs and robust predictive capacity make HBV an attractive method for modeling discharge, particularly in basins with limited data. Current work has focused on calibrating the Imnaviat model with greater precision using historical meteorological and discharge data from 1988 to present. We are now developing new models for the larger Upper Kuparuk and Putuligayuk watersheds on the North Slope. Additional uses for the model include predicting discharge for ungaged North Slope basins east of the Kuparuk such as the Kadleroshilik and the Kavik. Parameter calibration initially begins with HBV-light, a scaled-down version of the model which is used to examine parameter sensitivity using a Monte Carlo procedure. Principle component analysis is then used to examine the interaction between the parameters and each year of the model run. An optimized set of parameters common to all calibrating years is developed and tested on additional data from gaged and ungaged basins. Existing research on ablation characteristics and precipitation correction is used to modify the associated parameters in HBV. Permafrost affects, such as the timing of active layer development, are integrated into the runoff response routine to produce a more accurate physical representation. Challenges associated with modeling larger watersheds include more spatially distributed processes and limited available data for model calibration.

  8. Anti-HBV efficacy of combined siRNAs targeting viral gene and heat shock cognate 70

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern with more than two billion individuals currently infected worldwide. Because of the limited effectiveness of existing vaccines and drugs, development of novel antiviral strategies is urgently needed. Heat stress cognate 70 (Hsc70) is an ATP-binding protein of the heat stress protein 70 family. Hsc70 has been found to be required for HBV DNA replication. Here we report, for the first time, that combined siRNAs targeting viral gene and siHsc70 are highly effective in suppressing ongoing HBV expression and replication. Methods We constructed two plasmids (S1 and S2) expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting surface open reading frame of HBV(HBVS) and one plasmid expressing shRNA targeting Hsc70 (siHsc70), and we used the EGFP-specific siRNA plasmid (siEGFP) as we had previously described. First, we evaluated the gene-silencing efficacy of both shRNAs using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter system and flow cytometry in HEK293 and T98G cells. Then, the antiviral potencies of HBV-specific siRNA (siHBV) in combination with siHsc70 in HepG2.2.15 cells were investigated. Moreover, type I IFN and TNF-? induction were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. Results Cotransfection of either S1 or S2 with an EGFP plasmid produced an 80%–90% reduction in EGFP signal relative to the control. This combinational RNAi effectively and specifically inhibited HBV protein, mRNA and HBV DNA, resulting in up to a 3.36 log10 reduction in HBV load in the HepG2.2.15 cell culture supernatants. The combined siRNAs were more potent than siHBV or siHsc70 used separately, and this approach can enhance potency in suppressing ongoing viral gene expression and replication in HepG2.2.15 cells while forestalling escape by mutant HBV. The antiviral synergy of siHBV used in combination with siHsc70 produced no cytotoxicity and induced no production of IFN-?, IFN-? and TNF-? in transfected cells. Conclusions Our combinational RNAi was sequence-specific, effective against wild-type and mutant drug-resistant HBV strains, without triggering interferon response or producing any side effects. These findings indicate that combinational RNAi has tremendous promise for developing innovative therapy against viral infection. PMID:23158906

  9. The risk factors of transmission after the implementation of the routine immunization among children exposed to HBV infected mothers in a developing area in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Wang, Qixia; Zhang, Lei; Su, Haixia; Zhang, Jingxia; Wang, Tingcai; Huang, Dahong; Wu, Jun; Yan, Yongping; Fan, Daiming

    2012-11-19

    We aimed to evaluate the present situation and possible risk factors of HBV transmission after the implementation of the routine immunization among children exposed to HBV infected mothers in a developing area in northwest China. Two hundred and twenty one HBsAg carrier mothers and 247 children born to them were finally recruited in Wuwei city, Gangsu province, China in 2010. Serum samples were taken from those HBsAg carrier mothers and their children. Children who had detectable HBsAg or HBV DNA were considered to be HBV infection. Conditional logistic regression model was used to identify potential risk factors of HBV mother-to-child transmission. Of the 247 children born to HBsAg carrier mothers, 8 (3.24%) were HBsAg positive, 15 (6.07%) were HBV DNA positive. The rate of HBV mother-to-child transmission was 7.29% (18/247). The univariate analysis and multivariate analysis showed that maternal HBV DNA positive (OR=4.83, 95% CI: 1.38-16.98, p=0.0140), the delayed injection of the first dose of HBV vaccine after premature birth (OR=9.73, 95% CI: 1.78-53.21, p=0.0087) and the missing use of HBV vaccine (OR=8.29, 95% CI: 1.42-48.23, p=0.0186) were significantly associated with an increased risk for HBV mother-to-child transmission. The rate of HBV infection of the children received HBV vaccine and HBIG together after birth (2.56%, 4/156) was lower than those children received HBV vaccine alone (11.39%, 9/79) (?(2)=7.83, p=0.0052). In conclusion, the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HBV was still high in the northwest of China. Besides the positivity of maternal HBV DNA and the missing of HBV vaccination after birth, the delayed injection of the first dose of HBV vaccine after premature birth was also a possible independent risk factor for HBV mother-to-child transmission. The HBV prevention and treatment guidelines should make it clear that all of the new born infants need to receive HBV vaccine injection after birth in 24 h, including the premature infants. PMID:23022150

  10. A new unconventional HLA-A2-restricted epitope from HBV core protein elicits antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Bao; Deng, Mengmeng; Liu, Jun; Li, Xin; Hou, Junwei; Gui, Mingming; Zhang, Shuijun; Li, Xiaodong; Gao, George F; Meng, Songdong

    2014-04-01

    Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) play a key role in the control of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and viral clearance. However, most of identified CTL epitopes are derived from HBV of genotypes A and D, and few have been defined in virus of genotypes B and C which are more prevalent in Asia. As HBV core protein (HBc) is the most conservative and immunogenic component, in this study we used an overlapping 9-mer peptide pool covering HBc to screen and identify specific CTL epitopes. An unconventional HLA-A2-restricted epitope HBc141-149 was discovered and structurally characterized by crystallization analysis. The immunogenicity and anti-HBV activity were further determined in HBV and HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Finally, we show that mutations in HBc141-149 epitope are associated with viral parameters and disease progression in HBV infected patients. Our data therefore provide insights into the structure characteristics of this unconventional epitope binding to MHC-I molecules, as well as epitope specific CTL activity that orchestrate T cell response and immune evasion in HBV infected patients. PMID:24659387

  11. Leukocyte Telomere Length-Related rs621559 and rs398652 Genetic Variants Influence Risk of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Juan; Lu, Chao; Wei, Jinyu; Li, Lichao; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Zhou, Liqing; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified eleven leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Since LTL has been associated with risk of many malignancies, LTL-related SNPs may contribute to cancer susceptibility. To test this hypothesis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we genotyped these eleven LTL-related SNPs in a case-control set including 1186 HBV-related HCC cases, 508 chronic HBV carriers and 1308 healthy controls at the discovery stage. The associations of HCC risk with these SNPs were further confirmed in an independent case-control set. We found that 1p34.2 rs621559 and 14q21 rs398652 were significantly associated with HBV-related HCC risk (both P<0.005 after Bonferroni corrections). There was no significant difference of either rs621559 or rs398652 genotypes between chronic HBV carriers and healthy controls, demonstrating that the association was not due to predisposition to HBV infection. In the pooled analyses (1806 HBV-related HCC cases and 1954 controls), we observed a decreased HCC risk, 0.72-times, associated with the 1p34.2 rs621559 AA genotype compared to the GG genotype (P?=?1.6×10?6). Additionally, there was an increased HCC risk, 1.27-fold, associated with the rs398652 GG genotype (P?=?3.3×10?6). A statistical joint effect between the rs621559 GG and rs398652 GG genotypes may exist in elevating risk of HBV-related HCC. We show, for the first time, that rs398652 and rs621559 might be marker genetic variants for risk of HBV-related HCC in the Chinese population. PMID:25365256

  12. Species Association of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Non-Human Apes; Evidence for Recombination between Gorilla and Chimpanzee Variants

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Sinéad; Sharp, Colin; LeBreton, Matthew; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Kiyang, John A.; Lankester, Felix; Bibila, Tafon G.; Tamoufé, Ubald; Fair, Joseph; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan), Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons) and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey). To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa) or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3%) and two from 11 gorillas (18%) were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency), while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes. PMID:22432021

  13. Strong Influence of HLA-DP Gene Variants on Development of Persistent Chronic HBV Carriers in the Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiuchan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ji; Ma, Jingchen; Wei, Zuli; Tan, Wenjie; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health issue, especially in Asia. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) has implicated genetic variants in the HLA-DP locus associated with chronic hepatitis B in Japanese and Thai populations. To confirm whether the polymorphisms at the HLA-DP genes are associated with persistent chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Han Chinese, we conducted an independent case-control study using 521 persistent chronic HBV carriers and 819 controls that included 571 persons with HBV natural clearance and 248 never HBV-infected (healthy) individuals. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a region including HLA-DPA and HLA-DPB and an adjacent SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a neighboring HLA-DR13 locus were genotyped using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Eleven variants at HLA-DP showed a strong association with persistent chronic HBV carrier status (p = 1.82×10?12 to 0.01). We also stratified the analysis by HBV clearance status to test the association between these polymorphisms and HBV natural clearance; similar results were obtained (p = 2.70×10?11 to 0.003). Included SNPs define highly structured haplotypes which were also strongly associated with HBV chronic infection (Block 1: odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, p = 8.73×10?7; block 2: OR = 1.98, p = 1.37×10?10). These results further confirm that genetic variants in the HLA-DP locus are strongly associated with persistent HBV infection in the Han Chinese population. PMID:21274863

  14. HBx Down-Regulated Gld2 Plays a Critical Role in HBV-Related Dysregulation of miR-122

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Feng; Xiao, Xinqiang; Jiang, Yongfang; Luo, Kaizhong; Tian, Yi; Peng, Milin; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yun; Gong, Guozhong

    2014-01-01

    miR-122 is a liver-rich-specific microRNA that plays an important role in hepatic gene expression via post-transcription regulation, and it is potentially associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. It has been confirmed that miR-122 is down-regulated during HBV infection; however, how HBV affects miR-122 is still debated. One research provided evidence that HBx could reduce the miR-122 transcription level, but the other insisted that HBV had no significant effect on miR-122 transcription level but reduce miR-122 level via binding and sequestering endogenous miR-122. It is determinate that Gld2 could increase the specific miRNA stabilization by monoadenylation which was a post-transcription regulation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of HBV-induced reduction of miR-122 and examine whether Gld2 is involved in it. According to the results of a microRNA microarray, we found miR-122 was the most down-regulated microRNA in HepG2.2.15 compared to HepG2. As revealed by qRT-PCR and western blotting analyses, both miR-122 and Gld2 levels were reduced in hepatic cell lines with expression of HBV or HBx but not other proteins of HBV, and over-expression of Gld2 could abolish the effect of HBV and HBx on the miR-122 level. What's more, both HBV and HBx have no significant effect on pre-miR-122 levels. And the dual-luciferase assay implicated that HBx could reduce the Gld2 promoter activity but had no significant effect on miR-122 promoter activity. In conclusion, HBx is a critical protein derived from HBV, which regulates miR-122 via down-regulating Gld2. PMID:24667324

  15. Association of TNF-? Promoter Polymorphism with HBV Associated Disease Outcome Among HBV Infected Patients from Orissa, Southern Part of East India

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Rajesh; Sarkar, Neelakshi; Biswas, Avik; Pal, Ananya; Saha, Debraj; Singh, Shivaram P.; Panigrahi, Manas K.; Bandopadhyay, Manikanana; Chakrabarti, Sekhar; Chakravarty, Runu

    2014-01-01

    Background TNF-? promoter polymorphism has been known to be a potential predictive factor in patients with HBV infection. We therefore tried to investigate whether the TNF-? promoter polymorphism at position ?238, ?857 and ?863 was associated with the outcome of HBV infection in a population from Orissa, southern part of East India. Methods A total of 195 patients recruited for the study were classified into 85 controls and 110 HBV infected cases, which included 34 IC, 30 CLD, 32 LC and 14 HCC patients. The polymorphisms at the respective sites were detected by a PCR-RFLP followed by statistical analysis. Results The frequency of the genotype ?238 GG and the allele ?238G in the cases (89.0% and 92.7% respectively) was significantly higher than that in the controls (68.2% and 82.2% respectively) (P < 0.001, OR = 3.8 and P = 0.001, OR = 2.73). Whereas the ?238 GA genotype was significantly high in the control group (28.2%) when compared to the cases (7.2%) (P < 0.001, OR = 0.2). Similarly, the frequency of ?863CC and the allele ?863C was significantly higher among the cases (24.5% and 49.5%) compared to controls (1.17% and 34.7%), (P < 0.001, OR = 27.32 and P = 0.003, OR = 1.85), whereas the ?863CA genotype was significantly high in the controls (67.0%) when compared to the cases (50.0%) (P = 0.01, OR = 0.49). Haplotype ?863C/?857C/?238G in cases was significantly higher than controls (P = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that the genotype ?863CC bears a negative association with liver disease progression. Conclusion The present study established an association of polymorphisms at site ?238 and ?863 of the TNF-? promoter with the outcome HBV infection and disease progression. PMID:25755561

  16. Association of HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 Polymorphisms with HBV Infection Outcomes and a Mini Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Chen, Jie; Tao, Chuanmin; Huang, Hengjian; Wang, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Background Though HLA-DP/DQ is regarded to associate with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is obscure. And the role of STAT4 in HBV susceptibility and clearance as well as HCC development is still contentious. Therefore, we conducted this study, aiming to clarify these obscure relationships. Methods We recruited 1312 Chinese Han subjects including healthy controls, HBV carriers and HCC patients in the experiment stage. The meta-analysis included 3467 HCC patients and 5821 HBV carriers to appraise the association with HCC development. Results Consistent with previous studies, HLA-DP/DQ associated with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance (p<0.05). However, the experiment showed that HLA-DP rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7453920 did not associate with HCC development (dominant model, rs3077, OR?=?0.86, 95%CI?=?0.62–1.18; rs9277535, OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.68–1.30; rs7453920, OR?=?0.75, 95%CI?=?0.44–1.27). Meta-analysis again consolidated this conclusion (allele model, rs3077, OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.87–1.02; rs9277535, OR?=?1.04, 95%CI?=?0.97–1.11; rs7453920, OR?=?0.89, 95%CI?=?0.76–1.02). As for STAT4 rs7574865, we did not find any significant association with HBV susceptibility (OR?=?0.91, 95%CI?=?0.66–1.26) or HBV natural clearance (OR?=?1.13, 95%CI?=?0.86–1.49). Moreover, current data failed to acquire positive connection of rs7574865 with HCC development (experiment, OR?=?0.86, 95%CI?=?0.62–1.19; meta-analysis, OR?=?0.87, 95%CI?=?0.74–1.03), which may be due to the small sample size. Conclusions HLA-DP/DQ polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920) did not associate with HCC development, but did correlate with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance. STAT4 rs7574865 seemed not to correlate with HBV susceptibility or natural clearance. And it seemed rather ambiguous in its role on HCC development at present. PMID:25365208

  17. Access to treatment for HBV infection and its consistency with 2008 European guidelines in a multicentre cross-sectional study of HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A survey was performed in 2008 to evaluate the profiles of patients with chronic hepatitis B cared for by Italian Infectious Diseases Centers (IDCs). This analysis describes: i) factors associated with access to the anti-HBV treatment in a cohort of HIV/HBV co-infected patients cared for in tertiary centers of a developed country with comprehensive coverage under the National Health System (NHS); ii) consistency of current anti-HBV regimens with specific European guidelines in force at the time of the study and factors associated with the receipt of sub-optimal regimens. Methods The study focuses on 374 (87.6%) treated patients at some point in their life out of the 427 tested HIV/HBV positive. It is multicentre, cross-sectional in the design. To account for missing values, a Multiple Imputation method is used. Results Three hundred and thirty-four (89.3%) patients were currently treated. The most common current regimen was combination therapy of tenofovir (TDF) plus LAM/FTC (lamivudine/emtricitabine) (n?=?235, 70.4%), as part of antiretroviral treatment. In the multivariate analysis, an increased chance of getting treated was independently associated with increasing years since HBV diagnosis (2–10 years, p <0.001; >10 years, p <0.001). Patients consistently treated with European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) 2008 guidelines were 255 (76.6%), of whom 202 (79.2%) with an indication to an anti-HIV treatment, 30 (11.8%)without an indication, and 21 (8.2%) with cirrhosis. Among the 78 not-consistent patients, LAM mono-therapy (n?=?60, 76.9%) was the most common regimen, 34 (56.7%) of them showing HBV DNA load below 1x103 IU/mL. Previous anti-HBV treatment (p = 0.01) and a triple HDV co-infection (p = 0.03) reduced the chance of not-consistent regimens. Conversely, HCV co-infection was independently associated with an increased odds ratio of being inconsistently treated (p = 0.004). Conclusion Our study shows that Italian IDCs treat for HBV infection the vast majority of HIV/HBV co-infected patients with no disparities limiting access to antiviral therapy. In approximately two-thirds of the patients on treatment, anti-HBV regimens are consistent with 2008 EACS guidelines. Finally, our study identifies scenarios in which clinical practice deviates from recommendations, as in case of sub-optimal regimens with effective anti-HBV response. PMID:23594964

  18. Predictors of HAV/HBV Vaccination Completion among Methadone Maintenance Clients

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Sinha, Karabi; Greengold, Barbara; Cohen, Allan; Marfisee, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This randomized, controlled study (N = 256) was conducted to compare three interventions designed to promote hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination completion among clients undergoing methadone maintenance (MM) treatment. Participants were recruited from five MM treatment sites in Southern California and randomized into three groups: Motivational Interviewing-Single (MI-Single), Motivational Interviewing-Group (MI-Group); and Nurse-Led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP). All were offered the 3-series HAV/HBV vaccine. A total of 148 participants completed the vaccine. Groups did not differ in rate of vaccination completion (73.6%, HHP group, versus 65% and 69% for the MI-Single, and MI-Group, respectively). The equivalence of findings across groups suggests the value of including nurses with a comprehensive health focus in promoting vaccination completion. PMID:20143328

  19. Predictors of HAV/HBV vaccination completion among methadone maintenance clients.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Sinha, Karabi; Greengold, Barbara; Cohen, Allan; Marfisee, Mary

    2010-04-01

    This randomized, controlled study (N = 256) was conducted to compare three interventions designed to promote hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination completion among clients undergoing methadone maintenance (MM) treatment. Participants were recruited from five MM treatment sites in Southern California and randomized into three groups: Motivational Interviewing-Single (MI-Single), Motivational Interviewing-Group (MI-Group); and Nurse-Led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP). All were offered the three-series HAV/HBV vaccine. A total of 148 participants completed the vaccine. Groups did not differ in rate of vaccination completion (73.6%, HHP group, vs. 65% and 69% for the MI-Single and MI-Group, respectively). The equivalence of findings across groups suggests the value of including nurses with a comprehensive health focus in promoting vaccination completion. PMID:20143328

  20. The spectrum of the symbiotic nova HBV 475 in 1969. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, G. B.; Viotti, R.

    1990-03-01

    Results are presented of a complete analysis of the first spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic nova HBV 475 (= V1329 Cyg) obtained with the 183-cm reflector of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in October-December 1969. Data show the presence of three main line systems: (1) narrow lines with a wide ionization range, up to doubly ionized CNO, showing a velocity gradient; (2) a broad line system which includes the strongest emission lines of H, He II, forbidden Ne III line and forbidden O III line, which displays a complex structure with up to 10 individual components; and (3) a WR-type line system which includes broad and shallow emissions corresponding to those observed in WN5 stars, with a velocity expansion of 2300 km/sec. A binary model of HBV 475 is developed, in which the narrow lines are formed in different regions of the cool giant's wind ionized by the radiation of the hot star.

  1. Possible detection of violet-shifted absorption and emission lines from HBV 475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, S.

    High-dispersion spectra of HBV 475 were obtained. In the spectrum taken in November, 1981 three possible absorption lines of Fe I and three emission lines of [Fe II] are detected. These absorption and emission lines are both shifted to the violet side by about 10 Å. However, in November, 1982 these lines disappeared. The appearance of these lines may suggest an explosive phenomenon in this object through its inhomogeneous chromosphere.

  2. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV & HIV Co-Infection and Risk Factors Analysis in Tripoli-Libya

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Mohamed A.; Shabash, Amira; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnya A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population. Methods A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay. Results A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20–40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection. Conclusion HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned. PMID:24936655

  3. Distinct patterns of hepcidin and iron regulation during HIV-1, HBV, and HCV infections

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Andrew E.; Stacey, Andrea R.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Marshall, Elizabeth; Sturges, Pamela; Chatha, Kamaljit; Smith, Nicola M. G.; Huang, XiaoJie; Xu, XiaoNing; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Li, Ning; Wu, Hao; Webster, Craig; Prentice, Andrew M.; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Norris, Phillip J.; Drakesmith, Hal; Borrow, Persephone

    2014-01-01

    During HIV type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, altered iron balance correlates with morbidity. The liver-produced hormone hepcidin dictates systemic iron homeostasis. We measured hepcidin, iron parameters, cytokines, and inflammatory markers in three cohorts: plasma donors who developed acute HIV-1, HBV, or HCV viremia during the course of donations; HIV-1–positive individuals progressing from early to chronic infection; and chronically HIV-1–infected individuals (receiving antiretroviral therapy or untreated). Hepcidin increased and plasma iron decreased during acute HIV-1 infection, as viremia was initially detected. In patients transitioning from early to chronic HIV-1 infection, hepcidin in the first 60 d of infection positively correlated with the later plasma viral load set-point. Hepcidin remained elevated in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection and in subjects on ART. In contrast to HIV-1, there was no evidence of hepcidin up-regulation or hypoferremia during the primary viremic phases of HCV or HBV infection; serum iron marginally increased during acute HBV infection. In conclusion, hepcidin induction is part of the pathogenically important systemic inflammatory cascade triggered during HIV-1 infection and may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of viral set-point, which is a strong predictor of progression to AIDS and death. However, distinct patterns of hepcidin and iron regulation occur during different viral infections that have particular tissue tropisms and elicit different systemic inflammatory responses. The hypoferremia of acute infection is therefore a pathogen-specific, not universal, phenomenon. PMID:25092293

  4. Effect of Trichinella spiralis infection on the immune response to HBV vaccine in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fei; Hou, Xiao; Nie, Ge; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Wen-qi; Li, Yong-long; Lei, Jia-hui

    2013-10-01

    Vaccination is the most effective and cost-effective way to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Collective data suggest that helminth infections affect immune responses to some vaccines. Therefore, it is important to reveal the effects of helminth infections on the efficacy of protective vaccines in countries with highly prevalent helminth infections. In the present work, effects of Trichinella spiralis infection on the protective efficacy of HBV vaccine in a mouse model were investigated. This study demonstrated that the enteric stage of T. spiralis infection could inhibit the proliferative response of spleen lymphocytes to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and lead to lower levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies, interferon-?, and interleukin (IL)-2, along with higher levels of IL-4 and IL-5. However, these immunological differences are absent in the muscle stage of T. spiralis infection. The results suggest that the muscle stage of T. spiralis infection does not affect the immune response to HBV vaccination, while the enteric-stage infection results in a reduced immune response to HBsAg. PMID:23883369

  5. The prevalence of HBV infection in the cohort of IDPs of war against terrorism in Malakand Division of Northern Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawad Khan; Haji Akbar; Muhammad Idrees; Hayat Khan; Khuram Shahzad; Mahmood A Kayani

    2011-01-01

    Background  Hepatitis B is an important public health problem in the Pakistani population and is the major cause of chronic hepatitis,\\u000a cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. High prevalence of HBV infections has been observed especially in areas\\u000a of low economic status. In spite of effective immunization programs, no significant change has been observed in the epidemiology\\u000a of HBV in the rural

  6. Genotyping the hepatitis B virus with a fragment of the HBV DNA polymerase gene in Shenyang, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Ma; Yang Ding; Feng Juan; Xiao Guang Dou

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been classified into eight genotypes (A-H) based on intergenotypic divergence of at least\\u000a 8% in the complete nucleotide sequence or more than 4% in the S gene. To facilitate the investigation of the relationship\\u000a between the efficacy of drug treatment and the mutation with specific genotype of HBV, we have established a new genotyping

  7. ProVention Consortium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The ProVention Consortium is a "global coalition of governments, international organizations, academic institutions, the private sector and civil society organizations dedicated to increasing the safety of vulnerable communities and to reducing the impact of disasters in developing countries." Organized by the World Bank, the Consortium and its Web site are dedicated to disseminating materials and resources about how disaster risk management can be best applied to mitigate the effects of various potential disasters and events. From their Web site, visitors can read about the ongoing activities of the Consortium (such as identifying and analyzing global disaster risk hotspots), and read about the grant opportunities offered by the organization. The "Resources" section of the site is very helpful, as it contains a toolkit for disaster-risk assessment, along with conceptual background articles, such as "Innovations in Disaster Management" or "Megacities, Megarisk." Perhaps one of the best features of the site is the video archive of a recent conference, "The Future of Disaster Risk: Building Safer Cities," which took place in December 2002. All in all, this site will be quite intriguing for those with an interest in the mitigation of the effects of catastrophes and disasters around the world.

  8. Tea polyphenols exerts anti-hepatitis B virus effects in a stably HBV-transfected cell line.

    PubMed

    Ye, Pian; Zhang, Shuling; Zhao, Lei; Dong, Jihua; Jie, Shenghua; Pang, Ran; Li, Shuli

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the anti-HBV effects of tea polyphenols (TP) were examined. After cells were exposed to TP for 3, 6, 9 days, amounts of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV-DNA released into the supernatant of the cultured HepG2 2.2.15 cells were detected. TP, to some extent, inhibited the secretion of HBsAg and strongly suppressed the secretion of HBeAg in a dose-dependent (P<0.01) and time-dependent manner, with 50% maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value being 7.34 microg/mL on the 9th day, but the time-dependence was not significant (P=0.051). Expression of HBV-DNA in the supernatant of the cell culture also was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent fashion (P<0.01). The IC50 of TP in inhibiting HBV DNA was 2.54 microg/mL. It concluded that TP possessed potential anti-HBV effects and may be used as a treatment alternative for HBV infection. PMID:19399398

  9. [Analysis of the prevalence of HBV markers relevant to the risk of reactivation of infection in patients with hematologic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kopacz, Aneta; Bielecka, Anna; Mikulska, Maria; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Zwoli?ska, Paulina; Wojciechowska, Beata; ?etowska, Magdalena; Kisiel, Elzbieta; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Ceglarek, Bernadetta; Szczepanik, Andrzej B; Szczepi?ski, Andrzej; Owczarska, Katarzyna; Pielaci?ski, Konrad; Brojer, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed the incidence of HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs) important for determination of the risk of reactivation of infection, with particular interest of occult infection (presence of HBV DNA in the absence of HBsAg) in patients treated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine. Anti-HBc frequency was correlated with the age and sex of patients. HBsAg was detected in 16/468 examined patients, 98/468 (21%) were anti-HBc positive. HBV DNA was detected in 41/98 anti-HBc positives; in 13 simultaneously with HBsAg. 28 patients had occult HBV infection (HBV DNA+/HBsAg). Antibody to HBsAg was detected in 163/430 (38%) patients, 81 out of them on protective level (> 100 IU/l). It was shown that occult HBV infection occurs in approximately 6% of patients. In most of them the protective levels of anti-HBs are detected. PMID:22708290

  10. Soluble ST2 Plasma Concentrations Predict Mortality in HBV-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Zhishuo; Zhu, Jianyun; Pang, Xiuqing; Wu, Zhebin; Wang, Ke; Li, Xinhua; Xie, Dongying; Gao, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a rapidly progressing and frequently fatal condition. The aim of this study was to determine whether interleukin- (IL-) 33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) were associated with disease severity and mortality in HBV-ACLF. We found that plasma levels of sST2 but not IL-33 were higher in HBV-ACLF patients compared with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and healthy controls. However, plasma levels of IL-33, TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-10 did not correlate with sST2 levels. Similarly, immunohistochemistry revealed low IL-33 expression and high ST2 expression in liver sections of patients with HBV-ACLF. Evaluation of dynamic changes of sST2 in HBV-ACLF showed that plasma sST2 levels increased over time in patients who died during the 180-day follow-up but decreased in those who survived. In addition, plasma sST2 level after week 1 correlated with disease severity, as assessed by total bilirubin, prothrombin time, and model for end-stage liver disease score. Results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that higher sST2 concentration (?87?ng/mL) at week 3 was associated with poor survival. These findings indicate the potential usefulness of sST2 as a predictor of disease severity and in making treatment decisions for patients with HBV-ACLF.

  11. Antihepatitis B Virus Activity of a Protein-Enriched Fraction from Housefly (Musca domestica) in a Stable HBV-Producing Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Fujiang; Zhu, Jiayong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health problem. Although several vaccines and therapeutic strategies are currently being implemented to combat HBV virus, effective antiviral therapy against HBV infection has not been fully developed. Alternative strategies and new drugs to combat this disease are urged. Insects and insect derivatives are a large and unexploited source of potentially useful compounds for modern medicine. In the present study, we investigated the first anti-HBV activity of a protein-enriched fraction (PE) from the larvae of the housefly (Musca domestica) in a stable HBV-producing cell line. HBsAg and HBeAg in the culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HBV-DNA was quantified by fluorescent quantification PCR. HBV core protein was assayed by immunofluorescent staining. Results indicate PE treatment inhibited both HBsAg, HBeAg secretion, and HBV-DNA replication. Furthermore, PE could also suppress HBV core protein expression. PE could be a potential candidate for the development of a novel and effective drug for the treatment of HBV infection. PMID:25050391

  12. The prevalence of HBV infection in the cohort of IDPs of war against terrorism in Malakand Division of Northern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B is an important public health problem in the Pakistani population and is the major cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. High prevalence of HBV infections has been observed especially in areas of low economic status. In spite of effective immunization programs, no significant change has been observed in the epidemiology of HBV in the rural areas of Pakistan (~67.5% of the total population) mainly due to lack of interest from government authorities and poor hygienic measures. The current study was aimed at estimating the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV infection within internally displaced persons (IDPs) due to war against terrorism in the Malakand Division of Northern Pakistan. Methods Blood samples from 950 IDPs suspected with HBV infection (including both males and females) were collected and processed with commercial ELISA kits for HBsAg, Anti HBs, HBeAg, Anti HBe antibodies. The samples positive by ELISA were confirmed for HBV DNA by real-time PCR analysis. Results The overall prevalence of HBV observed was 21.05% of which 78.5% were males and 21.5% were females. Most confirmed HBV patients belong to the Malakand and Dir (lower) district. High-risk of infection was found in the older subjects 29.13% (46-60 years), while a lower incidence (11.97%) was observed in children aged <15 years. Lack of awareness, socioecomic conditions, sexual activities and sharing of razor blades, syringes and tattooing needles were the most common risk factors of HBV infection observed during the cohort of patients. Conclusion The present study, revealed for the first time a high degree of prevalence of HBV infection in rural areas of Northern Pakistan. The noticed prevalence is gender- and age-dependent that might be due to their high exposures to the common risk factors. To avoid the transmission of HBV infection proper awareness about the possible risk factors and extension of immunization to the rural areas are recommended. PMID:21689435

  13. Correlation Between Hepatitis B G1896A Precore Mutations and HBeAg in Chronic HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhand, Sareh; Karami, Chiman; Hosseinzadeh Adli, Ahmad; Tabarraei, Alijan; Khodabakhshi, Behnaz; Moradi, Abdolvahab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important health concern worldwide, with critical outcomes. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative chronic hepatitis B is frequently caused by a mutation (G1896A) in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) precore (PC) reading frame, which creates a stop codon, causing premature termination of the HBe protein. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the G1896A PC mutation and its effect on HBeAg detection in chronic HBV patients. Patients and Methods: In this study, 120 chronic HBV patients neither vaccinated or who had benefited from immunoglobulin therapy, were recruited. The HBV-DNA was extracted from plasma and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Positive PCR products were subjected to automated sequencing. The HBV serological markers [hepatitis B s antigen (HBsAg), HBeAg] were tested. Results: One hundred out of 120 (83.3%) patients were HBeAg negative and 100% were HBsAg positive. The comparison of nucleotide sequences with the reference sequence (Accession number: AB033559) in HBeAg negative patients showed that there was a high rate of mutations in G1896A (93.18%). Conclusions: This study indicates that the rate of G1896A mutation at the PC region among HBeAg negative patients, in the Golestan province of Iran, was similar to the average rate encountered in other parts of Iran. The PC stop codon mutation was detected in 93.18% of HBeAg negative patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to elucidate the exact role of these mutations in the clinical course of chronic HBV infection.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences of hepatitis B virus from an Afro-Colombian community: presence of HBV F3/A1 recombinant strain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most prevalent viral infections in humans and represents a serious public health problem. In Colombia, our group reported recently the presence of subgenotypes F3, A2 and genotype G in Bogotá. The aim of this study was to characterize the HBV genotypes circulating in Quibdó, the largest Afro-descendant community in Colombia. Sixty HBsAg-positive samples were studied. A fragment of 1306 bp (S/POL) was amplified by nested PCR. Positive samples to S/POL fragment were submitted to PCR amplification of the HBV complete genome. Findings The distribution of HBV genotypes was: A1 (52.17%), E (39.13%), D3 (4.3%) and F3/A1 (4.3%). An HBV recombinant strain subgenotype F3/A1 was found for the first time. Conclusions This study is the first analysis of complete HBV genome sequences from Afro-Colombian population. It was found an important presence of HBV/A1 and HBV/E genotypes. A new recombinant strain of HBV genotype F3/A1 was reported in this population. This fact may be correlated with the introduction of these genotypes in the times of slavery. PMID:23092209

  15. The ultraviolet variability of the symbiotic star HBV 475. II - Study of line flux variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, B. E. A.; Nussbaumer, H.; Schmutz, W.

    1986-01-01

    The symbiotic star HBV 475 (= V1329 Cyg) is one of the few symbiotics where periodic variations in the ultraviolet line fluxes have been observed. The authors collect the IUE observations between June 1979 and December 1984. Extending the work of Nussbaumer and Schmutz (1983), who presented a detailed study of this object, the authors establish the periodicity in the ultraviolet line and continuum fluxes and in velocity shifts. There can thus be no doubt about the binary nature of this object. The line flux variations result in a period of 975 days.

  16. Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    x 4 GB, DDR3, 1600 MHz Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit,20 GHz, 6 MB L2 Cache) Betriebssystem Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 ProFujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P920 0-Watt proGREEN Fujitsu ESPRIMO P920 PCs

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic progress of multi-drug resistance with anti-HBV nucleos(t)ide analogues

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhuo-Lun; Cui, Yu-Jun; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Teng, Da-Hong; Zheng, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) are a breakthrough in the treatment and management of chronic hepatitis B. NA could suppress the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and control the progression of the disease. However, drug resistance caused by their long-term use becomes a practical problem, which influences the long-term outcomes in patients. Liver transplantation is the only choice for patients with HBV-related end-stage liver disease. But, the recurrence of HBV after transplantation often caused by the development of drug resistance leads to unfavorable outcomes for the recipients. Recently, the multi-drug resistance (MDR) has become a common issue raised due to the development and clinical application of a variety of NA. This may complicate the antiviral therapy and bring poorly prognostic outcomes. Although clinical evidence has suggested that combination therapy with different NA could effectively reduce the viral load in patients with MDR, the advent of new antiviral agents with high potency and high genetic barrier to resistance brings hope to antiviral therapy. The future of HBV researches relies on how to prevent the MDR occurrence and develop reasonable and effective treatment strategies. This review focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic progress in MDR caused by the anti-HBV NA and describes some new research progress in this field. PMID:23326119

  18. The direct and indirect roles of HBV in liver cancer: prospective markers for HCC screening and potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ringelhan, Marc; O'Connor, Tracy; Protzer, Ulrike; Heikenwalder, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains the number one risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for more than 600 000 deaths/year. Despite highly effective antiviral treatment options, chronic hepatitis B (CHB), subsequent end-stage liver disease and HCC development remain a major challenge worldwide. In CHB, liver damage is mainly caused by the influx of immune cells and destruction of infected hepatocytes, causing necro-inflammation. Treatment with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues can effectively suppress HBV replication in patients with CHB and thus decrease the risk for HCC development. Nevertheless, the risk of HCC in treated patients showing sufficient suppression of HBV DNA replication is significantly higher than in patients with inactive CHB, regardless of the presence of baseline liver cirrhosis, suggesting direct, long-lasting, predisposing effects of HBV. Direct oncogenic effects of HBV include integration in the host genome, leading to deletions, cis/trans-activation, translocations, the production of fusion transcripts and generalized genomic instability, as well as pleiotropic effects of viral transcripts (HBsAg and HBx). Analysis of these viral factors in active surveillance may allow early identification of high-risk patients, and their integration into a molecular classification of HCC subtypes might help in the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25196558

  19. Overexpression of HGF Promotes HBV-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Is an Effective Indicator for Met-Targeting Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian; Su, Yanli; Dykema, Karl; Johnson, Jennifer; Koeman, Julie; De Giorgi, Valeria; Huang, Alan; Schlegel, Robert; Essenburg, Curt; Kang, Liang; Iwaya, Keiichi; Seki, Shuhji; Khoo, Sok Kean; Zhang, Boheng; Buonaguro, Franco; Marincola, Francesco M; Furge, Kyle; Vande Woude, George F; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well-known cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the regulators effectively driving virus production and HCC progression remain unclear. By using genetically engineered mouse models, we show that overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) accelerated HCC progression, supporting the genomic analysis that an up-regulated HGF signature is associated with poor prognosis in HBV-positive HCC patients. We show that for both liver regeneration and spontaneous HCC development there is an inclusive requirement for MET expression, and when HGF induces autocrine activation the tumor displays sensitivity to a small-molecule Met inhibitor. Our results demonstrate that HGF is a driver of HBV-induced HCC progression and may serve as an effective biomarker for Met-targeted therapy. MET inhibitors are entering clinical trials against cancer, and our data provide a molecular basis for targeting the Met pathway in hepatitis B-induced HCC. PMID:24167653

  20. Occupational risk of HIV, HBV and HSV-2 infections in health care personnel caring for AIDS patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhls, T L; Viker, S; Parris, N B; Garakian, A; Sullivan-Bolyai, J; Cherry, J D

    1987-01-01

    We have prospectively followed for 9-12 months, 246 female health care workers (HCWs): 102 with high exposure (HE), 43 with low exposure (LE), and 101 with no exposure (NE) to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients. No HCWs have clinical, serologic, or immunologic evidence of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection. No HCWs in the HE group seroconverted to cytomegalovirus (CMV). One HCW in the HE group seroconverted to Hepatitis B virus (HBV), another HCW in the HE group seroconverted to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) although all three groups were similar with respect to HBV and HSV-2 seropositivity. If hospital infection control practices are employed when HCWs care for AIDS patients or work with their biological specimens, the risk of occupationally acquiring a HIV, CMV, HBV or HSV-2 infection appears to be low. PMID:2820252

  1. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Symbiotic Stars III. Radial Velocity Analyses of HBV 475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Tamura, Shin'ichi

    2000-08-01

    We present highly resolved spectroscopic data of HBV 475 (= V 1329 Cyg) in the optical region, which have been obtained during the past 10 years at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. We analyzed line profiles of H? , H? , He II lambda 4686, [O III] lambda 5007, and [Fe VII] lambda 6086 using Gaussian de-convolution method, and investigated the variation of individual components of the profiles as a function of the orbital phase. We revised the mass function obtained from the orbital elements of the hot star as f_h(M) ~ 1.2 +/- 0.3 MO . It differs considerably from previously published values, which were larger than 20 MO . However, our new mass function is more reasonable for a symbiotic system consisting of a red giant and a hot star, which is currently presumed to be a white dwarf. Finally, we suggest a descriptive model of line-emitting regions in the HBV 475 binary, which explains the basic variation in the line profiles and agrees with the main features of the HST image.

  2. To Pro-Cite or not to Pro-Cite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Debora; Jenks, George

    1988-01-01

    Reviews Pro-Cite, a software package which formats bibliographic records into different styles, allows revisions, and sorts and prints the final bibliography. Although the program is recommended, its complexity and limitations are pointed out and problems are noted for designing a workform and style sheet, revising, sorting, and word processing.…

  3. RNA-Seq Based Transcriptome Analysis of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Replicon Transfected Huh-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thakral, Deepshi; Joshi, Prashant; Durgapal, Hemlata; Panda, Subrat Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is as varied as they appear similar; while HBV causes an acute and/or chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, HEV mostly causes an acute self-limiting disease. In both infections, host responses are crucial in disease establishment and/or virus clearance. In the wake of worsening prognosis described during HEV super-infection over chronic HBV hepatitis, we investigated the host responses by studying alterations in gene expression in liver cells (Huh-7 cell line) by transfection with HEV replicon only (HEV-only), HBV replicon only (HBV-only) and both HBV and HEV replicons (HBV+HEV). Virus replication was validated by strand-specific real-time RT-PCR for HEV and HBsAg ELISA of the culture supernatants for HBV. Indirect immunofluorescence for the respective viral proteins confirmed infection. Transcription profiling was carried out by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of the poly-A enriched RNA from the transfected cells. Averages of 600 million bases within 5.6 million reads were sequenced in each sample and ?15,800 genes were mapped with at least one or more reads. A total of 461 genes in HBV+HEV, 408 in HBV-only and 306 in HEV-only groups were differentially expressed as compared to mock transfection control by two folds (p<0.05) or more. Majority of the significant genes with altered expression clustered into immune-associated, signal transduction, and metabolic process categories. Differential gene expression of functionally important genes in these categories was also validated by real-time RT-PCR based relative gene-expression analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of in vitro replicon transfected RNA-Seq based transcriptome analysis to understand the host responses against HEV and HBV. PMID:24505321

  4. Role of interleukin 28-B in the spontaneous and treatment-related clearance of HCV infection in patients with chronic HBV/HCV dual infection.

    PubMed

    Coppola, N; Marrone, A; Pisaturo, M; Starace, M; Signoriello, G; Gentile, I; Adinolfi, L E; Sagnelli, E; Zampino, R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of IL28-B polymorphism in the clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HCV coinfection during a long-term follow-up. Thirty-four consecutive patients with HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive/anti-HCV-positive chronic hepatitis were retrospectively enrolled at their first liver biopsy (LB). For all patients, a documented clinical, serological and virological follow-up of at least 3 years (range 3-16 years) after LB and a sample of whole blood for genetic evaluation were available. Of the 24 patients with detectable serum HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA at their first observation, three cleared both HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA, 12 HCV-RNA and five HBV-DNA. Of the seven HBV DNA-positive/HCV RNA-negative patients at enrolment, three cleared HBV-DNA and one remained HBV DNA-positive and became HCV RNA-positive. All three HBV DNA-negative/HCV RNA-positive patients remained unchanged. Compared with the 12 patients with HCV persistence, the 15 patients who cleared HCV were younger, had lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HCV load, and histological activity index (HAI) and fibrosis score, more frequently had IL28-B CC variant, had been receiving an interferon-based treatment and less frequently cleared serum HBV-DNA. To investigate the relationship between the IL28-B variants and clearance of HCV, excluding the confounding effect of interferon-based treatment, the Mantel-Haenszel test was used, which indicated an association between HCV clearance and IL28-B variants (p = 0.009). In chronic HBV/HCV coinfection, a long-term follow-up showed a frequent spontaneous or treatment-related clearance of active replication of one or both viruses and identified the IL28-B CC genotype as an independent predictor of HCV clearance. PMID:24081499

  5. Risks for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections among male injection drug users in northern Vietnam: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F.; Van Nam, Le; Bergenstrom, Anna; Thuoc, Nguyen Phuong; Zenilman, Jonathan; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Injection drug use (IDU) and HIV infection are important public health problems in Vietnam. The IDU population increased 70% from 2000 to 2004 and is disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS--the country’s second leading cause of death. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share transmission routes with HIV and cause serious medical consequences. This study aimed to determine risk factors for acquisition of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections among IDUs in a northern province. We conducted a matched case-control study among active IDUs aged 18–45 who participated in a community-based survey (30-minute interview and serologic testing). Each HIV-infected IDU (case) was matched with one HIV-uninfected IDU (control) by age, sex (males only), and study site (128 pairs). Similar procedures were used for HBV infection (50 pairs) and HCV infection (65 pairs). Conditional logistic regression models were fit to identify risk factors for each infection. Among 309 surveyed IDUs, the HIV, HBV, and HCV prevalence was 42.4%, 80.9%, and 74.1%, respectively. Only 11.0% reported having been vaccinated against hepatitis B. While 13.3% of the IDUs reported sharing needles (past 6 months), 63.8% engaged in indirect sharing practices (past 6 months), including sharing drug solutions, containers, rinse water, and frontloading drugs. In multivariable models, sharing drugs through frontloading was significantly associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8), HBV infection (OR = 3.8), and HCV infection (OR = 4.6). We report an unrecognized association between sharing drugs through frontloading and higher rates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among male IDUs in Vietnam. This finding may have important implications for bloodborne viral prevention for IDUs in Vietnam. PMID:19085215

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis virus types B through E and genotypic distribution of HBV and HCV in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huy Thien-Tuan Tran; Hiroshi Ushijima; Vo Xuan Quang; Nguyen Phuong; Tian-Cheng Li; Shigeki Hayashi; Truong Xuan Lien; Tetsutaro Sata; Kenji Abe

    2003-01-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of various hepatitis viral infections, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV), was carried out in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. This study included of 295 patients with liver disease (234 viral related and 61 non-viral related) and 100 healthy individuals. The infection rates of HBV and HCV in

  7. Sequence analysis of pre-S/surface and pre-core/core promoter genes of hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis C patients with occult HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jia-Horng; Chen, Pei-Jer; Lai, Ming-Yang; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2002-10-01

    Although occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in individuals without detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may occur and has been reported to be common in patients with chronic hepatitis C, the related molecular mechanisms remain unknown. With the polymerase chain reaction, serum HBV DNA was sought in 100 HBsAg-negative patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection. In those with occult HBV infection, possible genomic variability of HBV was evaluated by amplification and direct sequencing of pre-S, surface, and pre-core/core promoter genes. In total, 10 of the 100 patients (10%) had detectable serum HBV DNA, documenting an occult HBV infection. A deletion mutant in the pre-S gene was found in one patient and mutations of the a determinant of HBsAg were observed in 2. In addition, a novel core promoter mutant (a dinucleotide substitution: T-to-C at nucleotide 1,802 and T-to-G at nucleotide 1,803, T1802C/T1803G) was found frequently in patients with occult HBV infection as compared to sex- and age-matched HBsAg-positive patients (80 vs. 10%, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the data suggest occult HBV infection is not uncommon in chronic hepatitis C patients in Taiwan, and a novel core promoter mutant may be associated with the absence of circulating HBsAg in these patients. PMID:12210410

  8. Bayard et al. Vaccine Page 1 Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived DRB1*0101-restricted CD4 T-cell epitopes3

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Bayard et al. Vaccine Page 1 1 2 Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived DRB1*0101-restricted CD4 T : Hepatitis B virus helper epitopes for in vivo CD8 response16 Keywords: T cells, epitope, vaccination17 18 Abstract1 We previously identified two HLA-DRB1*0101-restricted epitopes in hepatitis B2 virus (HBV) X

  9. Frequencies of dendritic cells and Toll-like receptor 3 in neonates born to HBsAg-positive mothers with different HBV serological profiles.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Gao, Y; Guo, Z; Zhang, L R; Wang, B; Wang, S P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the frequencies of dendritic cells (DCs) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in neonates of HBsAg-positive mothers with different HBV serological profiles, we conducted a study in Taiyuan, China. The study included 144 HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates. The frequencies of DCs and TLR3 were determined using four-colour flow-cytometric analysis. DC and TLR3 frequencies were not related to HBV intrauterine transmission, maternal HBeAg positivity, maternal HBV DNA positivity and HBeAg/HBV DNA double-positivity. The plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) frequencies in neonates whose maternal HBV DNA was >5 × 107 copies/ml decreased significantly compared to that in neonates whose maternal HBV DNA was ?5 × 107 copies/ml (Z = - 2·170, P = 0·03) or whose maternal HBV DNA was negative (Z = - 1·981 P = 0·048). This study suggests that neonatal pDC frequencies decrease when maternal HBV DNA loads are >5 × 107 copies/ml. PMID:24650439

  10. Lower than expected hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among first generation Koreans in the U.S.: results of HBV screening in the Southern California Inland Empire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care. Methods A community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic. Results A total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p?=?0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p?=?0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects. Conclusions This large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination. PMID:24884673

  11. PRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes_041612

    E-print Network

    user and PRO system documentation. Web Page Development Linda Mannering met in early spring 2012 with the campus web page development team to discuss the feed of PRO information to live web pages. The web page/college work directly with the web page development team to #12;PRO: Professional Record Online G

  12. HBV and HCV Coinfection among HIV/AIDS Patients in the National Hospital of Tropical Diseases, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Huy, Bùi V?; Vernavong, Kanxay; Kính, Nguy?n V?n

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To examine prevalence and characterization of HBV and HCV coinfection among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods. This cross-sectional, retrospective study analyzed 724 HIV/AIDS patients in the HIV clinic at the National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (NHTD), from 5/2005 to 4/2011. Results. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV coinfection was 50.3% (364/724), of which HbsAg, HCV, and both of HbsAg, and HCV positivity were 8.4%, 35.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. The cohort (364 patients) with HBV, HCV, and HIV coinfection live in the 30 provinces/cities in the North and Central area of Vietnam. We found statistically significant associations between heightened risk of coinfection with HIV and HCV in the age group 30–39 years (P < 0.001), male gender (P < 0.001), never married patients (P < 0.001), patients with a history of injection drug use (P < 0.001), and clinical stages 2–4 (P < 0.001). Coinfection with HBV/HIV was statistically significant associations between heightened risk of marital status (never married) (P < 0.001) and those who reported transmission through sexual intercourse. Conclusion. Coinfection with viral hepatitis is common in HIV patients; further study of the impact and evolution of coinfection is necessary to find effective treatment algorithms. PMID:25580287

  13. Expression and Purification of a Novel Computationally Designed Antigen for Simultaneously Detection of HTLV-1 and HBV Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Heydari Zarnagh, Hafez; Ravanshad, Mehrdad; Pourfatollah, Ali Akbar; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2015-04-01

    Computational tools are reliable alternatives to laborious work in chimeric protein design. In this study, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques for simultaneous detection of anti-HTLV-I and anti-HBV in infected sera. Databases were searched for amino acid sequences of HBV/HLV-I diagnostic antigens. The immunodominant fragments were selected based on propensity scales. The diagnostic antigen was designed using these fragments. Secondary and tertiary structures were predicted and the B-cell epitopes were mapped on the surface of built model. The synthetic DNA coding antigen was sub-cloned into pGS21a expression vector. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that glutathione fused antigen was highly expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant antigen was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. ELISA results showed that soluble antigen could specifically react with the HTLV-I and HBV infected sera. This specific antigen could be used as suitable agent for antibody-antigen based screening tests and can help clinicians in order to perform quick and precise screening of the HBV and HTLV-I infections. PMID:25780883

  14. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Plus ID NAT assay for detection of HIV 1, HBV and HCV in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Antony, Minimol

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Procleix Ultrio Plusassay is a new-generation qualitative in vitro nucleic acid amplification test used to screen for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in blood donors. This study was performed to compare the Procleix Ultrio assay with the new-generation Procleix Ultrio Plus Nucleic Acid Test (NAT) assays. Materials and Methods: Ten thousand three hundred and two donor samples were run in parallel for ID NAT using the Procleix Ultrio and the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay. Simultaneously, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing was performed on an EVOLIS Walk away System for HIV, HCV, HBsAg and anti-HBc. Reactive samples were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the 10,302 samples tested during the study period, we identified 15 NAT yields, and all these revealed HBV DNA in the discriminatory assays. Eight of these were exclusive yields from the Ultrio Plus assay and the remaining seven cases were determined as HBV NAT yield, both by the Procleix Ultrio as well as the Ultrio Plus assays, i.e. “Combined” yields. No HCV or HIV 1 yields were detected during the study period by either of two assays. Conclusion: With an overall yield rate of 1 in 687 and an exclusive yield rate of 1 in 1287, the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay proved to be highly sensitive in detecting occult HBV infections. PMID:25722569

  15. Resistance to adefovir dipivoxil therapy associated with the selection of a novel mutation in the HBV polymerase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Angus; Rhys Vaughan; Shelly Xiong; Huiling Yang; William Delaney; Craig Gibbs; Carol Brosgart; Danielle Colledge; Rosalind Edwards; Anna Ayres; Angeline Bartholomeusz; Stephen Locarnini

    2003-01-01

    Background & aims:Adefovir dipivoxil effectively inhibits both hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and disease activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Resistance to treatment was not observed in 2 recent large placebo-controlled 48-week studies with this drug. The aim of this study was to characterize adefovir resistance in a patient who developed clinical and virologic evidence of breakthrough during a

  16. Sequence Conservation of the Region Targeted by the Abbott RealTime HBV Viral Load Assay in Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, James; Young, Thomas P.; Parkin, Neil T.; Holzmayer, Vera; Yuen, Lilly; Mullen, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The Abbott RealTime HBV assay targets the N-terminal region of the S gene. Here we analyzed the sequence variability of the assay target region from >2,100 clinical specimens. Thermodynamic modeling of the percentage of bound primer/probe at the assay annealing temperature was performed to assess the potential effect of sequence variability. PMID:23345287

  17. Sequence conservation of the region targeted by the Abbott RealTime HBV viral load assay in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Cloherty, Gavin A; Rhoads, James; Young, Thomas P; Parkin, Neil T; Holzmayer, Vera; Yuen, Lilly; Mullen, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    The Abbott RealTime HBV assay targets the N-terminal region of the S gene. Here we analyzed the sequence variability of the assay target region from >2,100 clinical specimens. Thermodynamic modeling of the percentage of bound primer/probe at the assay annealing temperature was performed to assess the potential effect of sequence variability. PMID:23345287

  18. Significance of alanine aminotransferase testing in diagnosis of acute and chronic HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Pant, Sanjay; Narang, Sushil

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem world wide; more than 350 million people have chronic infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis is made by biochemical assessment of liver function. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a liver enzyme, is markedly elevated in hepatitis and with other causes of acute liver damage associated with hepatic necrosis, blood levels being elevated even before the clinical signs and symptoms of disease such as jaundice appear. HBsAg can be detected in the serum from several weeks before onset of symptoms to several months after onset of acute HBV infection. The presence of HBsAg indicates that the person is potentially infectious. In our study we found that 80% patients who were HBsAg positive had abnormal ALT levels, while the remaining 20% had normal ALT values. This is despite suffering from acute or chronic liver disease, providing a reason why some patients positive for hepatitis B have a normal ALT. PMID:20192606

  19. Runoff simulation in the Ferghana Valley (Central Asia) using conceptual hydrological HBV-light model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, Iuliia; Breuer, Lutz; Forkutsa, Irina; Frede, Hans-Georg

    2013-04-01

    Glaciers and permafrost on the ranges of the Tien Shan mountain system are primary sources of water in the Ferghana Valley. The water artery of the valley is the Syr Darya River that is formed by confluence of the Naryn and Kara Darya rivers, which originate from the mountain glaciers of the Ak-Shyrak and the Ferghana ranges accordingly. The Ferghana Valley is densely populated and main activity of population is agriculture that heavily depends on irrigation especially in such arid region. The runoff reduction is projected in future due to global temperature rise and glacier shrinkage as a consequence. Therefore, it is essential to study climate change impact on water resources in the area both for ecological and economic aspects. The evaluation of comparative contribution of small upper catchments (n=24) with precipitation predominance in discharge and the large Naryn and Karadarya River basins, which are fed by glacial melt water, to the Fergana Valley water balance under current and future climatic conditions is general aim of the study. Appropriate understanding of the hydrological cycle under current climatic conditions is significant for prognosis of water resource availability in the future. Thus, conceptual hydrological HBV-light model was used for analysing of the water balance of the small upper catchments that surround the Ferghana Valley. Three trial catchments (the Kugart River basin, 1010 km²; the Kurshab River basin, 2010 km2; the Akbura River basin, 2260 km²) with relatively good temporal quality data were chosen to setup the model. Due to limitation of daily temperature data the MODAWEC weather generator, which converts monthly temperature data into daily based on correlation with rainfall, was tested and applied for the HBV-light model.

  20. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  1. Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz 1 x 500 GB, HDD SATA III® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz Arbeitsspeicher 1 x 4 GB, DDRFujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P420 E85+ Der Fujitsu PC ESPRIMO P420 bietet

  2. Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    2 GB, DDR3, 1600 MHz Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz,40 GHz, 6 MB L2 Cache) Betriebssystem Windows® 7 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 ProFujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P920 E90+ premium selection Fujitsu ESPRIMO P

  3. Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Pro-Q Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain In-gel Detection Technology for Protein Phosphorylation and phosphoproteomics, the Pro-Q Diamond phos- phoprotein gel stain is a breakthrough technology that provides a simple phosphoproteins, the Pro-Q Diamond signal is linear over three orders of magnitude and the strength of the signal

  4. HBV Vaccination Status and Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine Among Iranian Dentists, Correlation With Risk Factors and Preventive Measures

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Nafiseh; Ahmad Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Norouzi, Mehdy; Mahboobi, Nima; Moosavi, Nilufar; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies showed that HBV vaccination and consequent level of antibody are not completely adequate among dentists despite performance of highly exposure prone procedures. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the levels of responsiveness to HBV vaccine and to determine the occupational factors associated among dental staff. Materials and Methods: In total, 1612 dental health care workers were recruited. The level of anti-HBs was tested using a commercially enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on demographic, risk factors associated with dental practice and level of protective procedures and occupational exposure aspects were collected through self-reported questionnaires. Results: Of 1538 vaccinated individuals, 55 (3.7%), 126 (8.4%) and 1309 (87.9%) had received one, two and full three doses of vaccine, respectively. One-hundred-seventy-six (11.5%) were nonimmune (anti-HBs < 10 IU/mL) and 1362 (88.5%) were immune (anti-HBs > 10 IU/ mL). 392/542 (72.3%) of dentists who received their third dose of vaccination less than five years before the commencement of study were completely immune compared to those who had completed all three recommended doses in a longer period (308/491, 64.3%) (P = 0.001). Fifty-eight (3.59%) of participants did not receive any HBV vaccine at all; however, they had positive results for anti-HBs, indicating a past HBV infection. Statistically, the levels of anti-HBs were significantly associated with gender, age, duration of dental practice engagement and regularly use of mask, glasses and shield. Conclusions: Since dental care workers have a high risk of exposure to hepatitis virus, they should be advised to receive hepatitis B vaccine and it should be confirmed if they have acquired immunity to HBV by testing the level of anti-HBs. PMID:25741367

  5. BASES CONCURSO / DESAFO PRO BONO Una Iniciativa de Fundacin Pro Bono Chile

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Felipe

    Chile dirigido a estudiantes de Derecho. Quienes deseen participar deberán presentar un proyecto socialBASES CONCURSO / DESAFÍO PRO BONO Una Iniciativa de Fundación Pro Bono Chile QUIENES DESEEN PARTICIPAR DEBERÁN PRESENTAR UN PROYECTO SOCIAL. El Desafío Pro Bono es un concurso de Fundación Pro Bono

  6. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  7. Screening differential expression of serum proteins in AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma using iTRAQ -MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    He, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Li, H; Luo, R; Zhou, Y; Li, C; Liao, M; Huang, H; Lv, X; Xie, Z; He, M

    2013-09-20

    Hepatocellular carcinoma?(HCC) is serious?condition associated with a?high morbidity and mortality. Therefore is an urgent need to develop novel noninvasive techniques for early diagnosis, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. In this study, iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC compared with non-cancerous hepatitis B?virus (HBV) and healthy controls subjects.Serum was obtained from 18 patients with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, 18 matched patients with HBV without HCC and 18 healthy control subjects. High abundance proteins were removed from serum and the differentially expressed proteins from the three groups were screened out using iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology (GO) function and the interaction networks of differentially expressed proteins were then analyzed. A total of 24 expressed differential proteins associated with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC were screened out, 15 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. The most common molecular function of the 24 differentially expressed proteins was enzyme inhibition. Interaction network of the 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 14 proteins (C5, KNG1, FN1, LRG1, HRG, SERPINC1, CRP, APOB, SAA1, APCS, C4BPA, CFI, CFB and GSN) were central to the functional network. The expression levels of the GSN protein were down-regulated in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC subjects compared with healthy controls and the HBV group (p<0.01), consistent with the iTRAQ results.The 14 proteins from the serum of AFP(-) HBV-related HCC appeared at the fulcrum of the functional network and were differentially expressed compare to HBV and healthy controls suggesting a?possible association with HCC progression. Keywords: HCC, AFP Negative, iTRAQ, GSN. PMID:24050542

  8. Screening differential expression of serum proteins in AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma using iTRAQ -MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    He, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Li, H; Luo, R; Zhou, Y; Liao, C Li M; Huang, H; Lv, X; Xie, Z; He, M

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is serious condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Therefore is an urgent need to develop novel noninvasive techniques for early diagnosis, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. In this study, iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC compared with non-cancerous hepatitis B virus (HBV) and healthy controls subjects.Serum was obtained from 18 patients with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, 18 matched patients with HBV without HCC and 18 healthy control subjects. High abundance proteins were removed from serum and the differentially expressed proteins from the three groups were screened out using iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology (GO) function and the interaction networks of differentially expressed proteins were then analyzed. A total of 24 expressed differential proteins associated with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC were screened out, 15 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. The most common molecular function of the 24 differentially expressed proteins was enzyme inhibition. Interaction network of the 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 14 proteins (C5, KNG1, FN1, LRG1, HRG, SERPINC1, CRP, APOB, SAA1, APCS, C4BPA, CFI, CFB and GSN) were central to the functional network. The expression levels of the GSN protein were down-regulated in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC subjects compared with healthy controls and the HBV group (p<0.01), consistent with the iTRAQ results.The 14 proteins from the serum of AFP(-) HBV-related HCC appeared at the fulcrum of the functional network and were differentially expressed compare to HBV and healthy controls suggesting a possible association with HCC progression. PMID:24195504

  9. An initial assessment of correlations between host- and virus-related factors affecting analogues antiviral therapy in HBV chronically infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Stalke, Piotr; Rybicka, Magda; Wróblewska, Anna; Dreczewski, Marcin; Stracewska, Ewa; Smiatacz, Tomasz; Bielawski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Background Success in treating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with nucleoside analogues drugs is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains upon prolonged therapy. In addition to mutation patterns in the viral polymerase gene, host factors are assumed to contribute to failure of treatment in chronic HBV infections. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between efficacy of antiviral therapy and the prevalence of HBV pretreatment drug-resistant variants. We also analyzed the role of heterogeneity in the promoter region of the IL-10 on the HBV pol/s gene polymorphisms and efficacy of analogues-driven therapy. Material/Methods HBV DNA was extracted from 54 serum samples from chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Drug-resistance mutations were analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry technology (MALDI-TOF MS) and Multi-temperature single-strand conformation polymorphism (MSSCP). IL-10 gene promoter region polymorphisms at positions ?1082, ?819, and ?592 were determined in allele-specific PCR reactions (AS-PCR). Results Drug-resistance mutations were detected in 74% of naïve and 93% of experienced patients, but the effect of pre-existence of drug-resistant HBV variants on antiviral therapy was not statistically significant (p=0.86). The role of polymorphisms at positions ?1082 (p=0.88), ?819 (p=0.26), and ?592 (p=0.26) of IL-10 promoter region polymorphisms was excluded from the response-predicting factors. The main host factors predicting successful response to antiviral therapy were female sex (p=0.007) and young age (p=0.013). Conclusions The presence of drug-resistant HBV variants in baseline is not a viral predictor of good response to nucleoside/nucleotide analogues therapy. Only low HBV viral load predicted positive response to antiviral therapy. The ideal candidate for antiviral therapy is an immunocompetent, young female with low HBV viral load and elevated ALT activity. PMID:24569300

  10. Epidemiological, Clinical and Histological Characteristics of HBV/HDV Co-Infection: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Haolan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jiansheng; Xu, Ying; Yi, Junqing; Chen, Yunqing; Liu, Huiyuan; Wang, Zhanhui; Cai, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of hepatitis D virus (HDV) in China is fairly unknown. The mechanisms whereby HDV leads to accelerated liver disease in hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HDV co-infected patients and the histological characteristics of chronic hepatitis D (CHD) patients need further investigation. Methods The prevalence of HDV was retrospectively evaluated in all consecutive hospitalized patients with chronic HBV infection from May 2005 to October 2011. HBV/HDV co-infected patients and HBV mono-infected patients were compared clinically and histologically. Significant histological abnormality was defined as significant necroinflammation (grade ?A2) and/or significant fibrosis (stage ? F2). Results 6.5% of patients (426/6604) tested positive for IgM anti-HDV. HDV was more common in patients over 50 years old than those under 50 (11.7% vs. 5.1%, P<0.001). HBV/HDV co-infected patients had higher frequencies of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) than HBV mono-infected patients, and HDV co-infection was an independent risk factor for ESLD (OR: 1.428, 95%CI: 1.116–1.827; P?=?0.005). The HBV DNA levels in the HBV/HDV group were significantly lower than the HBV group in chronic hepatitis patients (median: 6.50 log10copies/mL vs 6.80 log10copies/mL, P?=?0.003), but higher than the HBV group in ESLD patients (median: 5.73 log10copies/mL vs 5.16 log10copies/mL, P<0.001). When stratified by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, 46.7%, 56.5% and 80.5% of CHD patients had significant necroinflammation and 86.7%, 87.0% and 90.3% had significant fibrosis with ALT 1–2×upper limit normal (ULN), 2–5×ULN and>5×ULN respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of HDV is not low in patients with chronic HBV infection. HDV may contribute to progression to ESLD through late-phase HBV DNA reactivation. PMID:25532128

  11. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Dual Infection in Egyptian Patients on Haemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emad Abd-Allah; Emam Waked; Heba Sayed Assal; Khaled Younes; Nagwa Kantoush

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis viral infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in haemodialysis patients. The aim of the present\\u000a work is to study the prevalence and possible risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and dual infection\\u000a in haemodialysis patients. Three hundred forty patients with end-stage renal disease, 266 males (78.2%) with mean age of 50.9?±?11.6 years\\u000a and

  12. People with Multiple Tattoos and\\/or Piercings Are Not at Increased Risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anouk T. Urbanus; Anneke van den Hoek; Albert Boonstra; Robin van Houdt; Lotte J. de Bruijn; Titia Heijman; Roel A. Coutinho; Maria Prins

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAlthough published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and\\/or piercings in the Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in the Netherlands and\\/or abroad.MethodsTattoo artists,

  13. HIV, HBV, and HCV Infections Among Drug-Involved, Inner-City, Street Sex Workers in Miami, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Inciardi; Hilary L. Surratt; Steven P. Kurtz

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the rates of HIV, HBV, and HCV seropositivity among drug-involved, female street sex workers in low-income, inner-city sections of Miami, Florida; further, their sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed; and predictors of infection were reported. A sample of 586 sex workers was recruited through targeted sampling methods, interviewed, and counseled and tested for

  14. Prevalence of occult HBV among hemodialysis patients in two districts in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2014-10-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is the case with undetectable HBsAg, but positive for HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or serum. Occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Palestine has been understudied. In this study, 148 hemodialysis patients from 2 northern districts in Palestine, Jenin (89) and Tulkarem (59), were investigated for occult hepatitis B, HBV, HCV infections with related risk factors. ELISA and PCR were used for the detection of anti-HBc and viral DNA, respectively. The overall prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the study group was 12.5% (16/128). Occult hepatitis B infection is more prevalent among males with most cases (15/16) from Jenin District. About one-third (42/132) of the hemodialysis patients were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 27% of the hemodialysis patients were infected with HCV. Around 20% (28/140) were positive for HBV DNA, but only 8.2% (12/146) of the hemodialysis patients were positive for HBsAg. The comparison between hemodialysis patients with occult hepatitis B infection and those without occult hepatitis B infection for selected risk factors and parameters as liver Enzyme, age, sex, HCV infection, blood transfusion, kidney transplant, anti-HBc, and vaccination showed no statistical significance between both categories. Duration of hemodialysis significantly affected the rate of HCV infection. HCV is significantly higher in hemodialysis patients with both Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients is high; requiring stringent control policies. HBsAg assay is insufficient test for accurate diagnosis of HBV infection among hemodialysis patients. PMID:24992542

  15. Liver cancer: descriptive epidemiology and risk factors other than HBV and HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    The incidence of liver cancer is high in all low-resource regions of the world, with the exception of Northern Africa and Western Asia. The estimated worldwide number of new cases of liver cancer in 2002 is 600,000, of which 82% are from developing countries. Given the poor survival from this disease, the estimated number of deaths is similar to that of new cases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main form of liver cancer. A part from chronic infections with Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses, which are the main causes of HCC, contamination of foodstuff with aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an important contributor to HCC burden in many low-income country. Alcoholic cirrhosis is an important risk factor for HCC in populations with low prevalence of HBV and HCV infection, and the association between tobacco smoking and HCC is now established. Diabetes is also related to an excess risk of HCC and the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity likely contributes to it. The second most important type of liver cancer is cholangiocarcinoma, whose main known cause is infestation with the liver flukes, Opistorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, which is frequent in some areas in South-East Asia. Angiosarcoma is a rare form of liver cancer whose occurence is linked to occupational exposure to vinyl chloride. PMID:19091458

  16. Combination versus sequential monotherapy in chronic HBV infection: a mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Bertacchi, Daniela; Zucca, Fabio; Foresti, Sergio; Mangioni, Davide; Gori, Andrea

    2014-11-13

    Sequential monotherapy is the most widely used therapeutic approach in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection. Unfortunately, under therapy, in some patients the hepatitis virus mutates and gives rise to variants which are drug resistant. We wonder whether those patients would have benefited from the choice of combination therapy instead of sequential monotherapy. To study the action of these two therapeutic approaches and to explain the emergence of drug resistance, we propose a stochastic model for the infection within a patient who is treated with two drugs, either sequentially or contemporaneously, and who, under the first kind of therapy develops a strain of the virus which is resistant to both drugs. Our stochastic model has a deterministic approximation which is a slight modification of a classic three-strain model. We discuss why stochastic simulations are more suitable than the study of the deterministic approximation, when modelling the rise of mutations (this is mainly due to the amplitude of the stochastic fluctuations). We run stochastic simulations with suitable parameters and compare the time when, under the two therapeutic approaches, the resistant strain first reaches detectability in the serum viral load. Our results show that the best choice is to start an early combination therapy, which allows one to stay drug resistance free for a longer time and in many cases leads to viral eradication. PMID:25398978

  17. TIPE2 protein negatively regulates HBV-specific CD8? T lymphocyte functions in humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqian; Zhang, Jiao; Zhao, Lianying; Shao, Jie; Cui, Jian; Guo, Chun; Zhu, Faliang; Chen, Youhai H; Liu, Suxia

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxic T cell-mediated killing of virus-infected hepatocytes is an important pathogenic process of hepatitis B. However, its underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. TNFAIP8L2 (TIPE2) is a newly described anti-inflammatory protein that is essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. In this study, we found that the protein levels of TIPE2 in PBMCs of hepatitis B patients were significantly reduced and negatively correlated with the sera values of aminotransferases. Importantly, TIPE2 protein was downregulated preferentially in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, not CD4(+) helper T cells. The CD8(+) T cells with low TIPE2 expression were more activated and produced higher levels of perforin, granzyme B, and IFN-?. As a result, their cytolytic activity was markedly enhanced. Interestingly, HBc18-27 peptide stimulation could reduce TIPE2 expression in PBMCs. These results indicate that TIPE2 plays an important role in regulating HBV-specific CD8(+) T cell functions in patients with hepatitis B. PMID:25499447

  18. The Inhibitory Effect of the Hepatitis B Virus Singly-Spliced RNA-Encoded p21.5 Protein on HBV Nucleocapsid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ling; Liou, Gan-Guang; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Chen, Mong-Liang; Kuo, Tzer-Min; Tsai, Kuen-Nan; Huang, Chien-Choao; Chen, Ya-Ling; Huang, Li-Rung; Chou, Yu-Chi; Chang, Chungming

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the smallest DNA virus and the major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. The 3.2 kb HBV viral genome generates four major species of unspliced viral transcript as well as several alternatively spliced RNAs. A 2.2 kb singly-spliced RNA is the most abundant spliced RNA and is widely expressed among all HBV genotypes. The expression of the singly-spliced RNA, as well as that of its encoded protein HBSP, is strongly associated with hepatopathology during HBV infection. Here, we report a novel inhibitory role of a p21.5 protein, which is encoded by a 2.2 kb singly-spliced RNA, in the modulation of HBV replication. We show that overexpression of the singly-spliced RNA is able to efficiently inhibit HBV replication. Furthermore, a mutation in the ATG start codon of the precore region completely abolishes the inhibitory effect of the singly-spliced RNA, indicating that a viral protein (p21.5) derived from the singly-spliced RNA is the mediator of the inhibition. Furthermore, p21.5 is able to form a homodimer that interacts with core dimers forming hybrid viral assembly components. Sucrose gradient fractionation revealed that co-expression of p21.5 resulted in a spread distribution pattern of core proteins ranging from low to high sucrose densities. When compared with p22, p21.5 is almost ten times more efficient at destabilizing HBV nucleocapsid assembly in Huh7 cells overexpressing either p21.5 or p22 protein. Moreover, in vivo expression of p21.5 protein by tail vein injection was found to decrease the amount of nucleocapsid in the livers of HBV-expressing BALB/c mice. In conclusion, our study reveals that the HBV 2.2 kb singly-spliced RNA encodes a 21.5 kDa viral protein that significantly interferes with the assembly of nucleocapsids during HBV nucleocapsid formation. These findings provide a possible strategy for elimination of HBV particles inside cells. PMID:25785443

  19. Drug-Resistance Associated Mutations in Polymerase (P) Gene of Hepatitis B Virus Isolated From Malaysian HBV Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Suppiah, Jeyanthi; Mohd Zain, Rozainanee; Haji Nawi, Salbiah; Bahari, Norazlah; Saat, Zainah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mutations in the polymerase (P) gene of hepatitis B virus are often associated with drug resistance. The pattern of mutations varies geographically, thus giving rise to genotypes diversity. Objectives: This study was carried out to detect mutations in P gene of hepatitis B virus isolated from Malaysian HBV carriers. Materials and Methods: A total of 58 sera samples were analyzed by PCR and sequencing, of which the P gene of isolated HBV was successfully amplified and sequenced from 40 samples. Results: Genotyping of these samples revealed that the predominant genotype was genotype C (22/40, 55.0%), followed by genotype B (17/40, 42.5%), and only 1 sample showed genotype D (2.5%). A number of significant drug resistant mutations were found in five patients including S202I, N236T, M250L, L180M/V, M204I, A181T, T184G, M250V, and V173L. Of these, L180M/V and M204I were most frequently detected (80%) and associated with lamivudine in combination with emtricitabine and telbivudine drug resistance. Association with age, sex, and clinical symptoms revealed that these patients were all male, mid to elderly age and almost all hadcirrhotic liver disease. Conclusions: Detection and surveillance of the significant sites of mutations in HBV is crucial for clinicians to decide on the choice of antiviral treatment and further management of hepatitis B carriers. PMID:24497877

  20. Stability of HCV, HIV-1 and HBV nucleic acids in plasma samples under long-term storage.

    PubMed

    José, Marta; Gajardo, Rodrigo; Jorquera, Juan I

    2005-03-01

    The implementation of nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) for detection of HCV, HIV-1 and HBV has undoubtedly contributed to the viral safety of blood, reducing the window period. One important matter related to the stability of RNA/DNA is the effect of the storage conditions on samples. In a previous work, we studied the stability of HCV RNA in plasma samples after storage at different temperatures. This work is an update on the follow-up of a sample containing 100 IU/ml HCV RNA for 5 years at -20 degrees C, showing no decrease in the initial titre. The nucleic acid stability of other viruses, such as HIV-1 and HBV, has also been studied. At -20 degrees C, samples containing HIV-1 were followed up for approximately 3 years and the results obtained show no decay in HIV-1 RNA detectability. Regardless of the HIV-1 RNA concentration, samples stored at 5 degrees C maintain their titre for at least 14 days. At 25 degrees C, the HIV-1 RNA half-life was determined at nearly 7 days. The HBV DNA, at 5 degrees C and 25 degrees C, is stable for at least 28 days, regardless of the initial titre. PMID:15713552

  1. A polycarbonate based surface plasmon resonance sensing cartridge for high sensitivity HBV loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tsung-Liang; Wei, Shih-Chung; Lee, Szu-Yuan; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2012-02-15

    In this study, we report a simple, low-cost surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-sensing cartridge based on a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the on-site detection of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). For LAMP detection, a SPR based LAMP sensing system (SPRLAMP) was constructed, including a novel SPRLAMP sensing cartridge integrating a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) micro-reactor with a polycarbonate (PC)-based prism coated with a 50 nm Au film. First, we found that the change of refractive index of the bulk solution was approximately 0.0011 refractive index (RI) units after LAMP reaction. The PC-based prism's linearity and thermal responses were compared to those of a traditional glass prism to show that a PC-based prism can be used for SPR measurement. Finally, the HBV template mixed in the 10 ?l LAMP solution could be detected by SPRLAMP system in 17 min even at the detection-limited concentration of 2 fg/ml. We also analyzed the correlation coefficients between the initial concentrations of HBV DNA templates and the system response (?RU) at varying amplification times to establish an optimal amplification time endpoint of 25 min (R(2)=0.98). In conclusion, the LAMP reaction could be detected with the SPRLAMP sensing cartridge based on direct sensing of the bulk refractive index. PMID:22209071

  2. Fujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell

    E-print Network

    Ott, Albrecht

    Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz 1 x 500 GB, HDD SATA III, 7200 U/min, 3 Professional 64bit vorinstalliert - mit Windows 8.1 Pro 64bit Lizenz Arbeitsspeicher 1 x 4 GB, DDR3, 1600 MHzFujitsu empfiehlt Windows 8 Pro Aktionsmodell ESPRIMO P720 E90+ Fujitsu ESPRIMO P720 PCs bieten

  3. Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and Hepatitis Delta (HDV) Viruses in the Colombian Population—How Is the Epidemiological Situation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Viviana Alvarado-Mora; María Fernanda Gutierrez Fernandez; Michele Soares Gomes-Gouvêa; Raymundo Soares de Azevedo Neto; Flair José Carrilho; João Renato Rebello Pinho

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundViral hepatitis B, C and delta still remain a serious problem worldwide. In Colombia, data from 1980s described that HBV and HDV infection are important causes of hepatitis, but little is known about HCV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the currently frequency of HBV, HCV and HDV in four different Colombian regions.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis study was conducted

  4. Combining Serum Cystatin C with Total Bilirubin Improves Short-Term Mortality Prediction in Patients with HBV-Related Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhihong; Wu, Yichen; Yi, Jing; You, Shaoli; Liu, Hongling; Sun, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Bing; Zang, Hong; Li, Chen; Liu, Fangfang; Li, Dongze; Mao, Yuanli; Xin, Shaojie

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a severe liver disease which results in a high mortality in China. To early predict the prognosis of the patients may prevent the complications and improve the survival. This study was aimed to develop a new prognostic index to estimate the survival related to HBV-ACLF. Methods Consecutive patients with HBV-ACLF were included in a prospective observational study. Serum Cystatin C concentrations were measured by using the particle-enhanced immunonephelometry assay. All of the patients were followed for at least 3 months. Cox regression analysis was carried out to identify which factors were predictive of mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the efficacy of the variates for early predicting mortality. Results Seventy-two patients with HBV-ACLF were recruited between January 2012 and January 2013. Thirty patients died (41.7%) during 3-months followed up. Cox multivariate regression analysis identified serum cystatin C (CysC) and total bilirubin (TBil) were independent factors significantly (P < 0.01) associated with survival. Our results further showed that new prognostic index (PI) combining serum CysC with TBil was a good indicator for predicting the mortality of patients with HBV-ACLF. Specifically, the PI had a higher accuracy than the CTP, MELD, or MELD-Na scoring for early prediction short-term survival of HBV-ACLF patients with normal levels of serum creatinine (Cr). The survival rate in low risk group (PI < 3.91) was 94.3%, which was markedly higher than those in the high-risk group (PI ? 3.91) (17.4%, P < 0.001). Conclusion We developed a new prognostic index combining serum CysC with TBil which early predicted the short-term mortality of HBV-ACLF patients. PMID:25629773

  5. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants fluctuate in paired plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells among patient cohorts during different chronic hepatitis B (CHB) disease phases.

    PubMed

    Coffin, C S; Osiowy, C; Gao, S; Nishikawa, S; van der Meer, F; van Marle, G

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus is classically considered a hepatotropic virus but also infects peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chronic hepatitis B has different disease phases modulated by host immunity. We compared HBV variability, drug resistance and immune escape mutations in the overlapping HBV polymerase/surface gene in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in different disease phases. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 22 treatment naïve patient cohorts (five inactive, six immune-active, nine HBeAg negative and two immune-tolerant). HBV was genotyped via line probe assay, hepatitis B surface antigen titres were determined by an in-house immunoassay, and HBV DNA was quantified by kinetic PCR. The HBV polymerase/surface region, including full genome in some, was PCR-amplified and cloned, and ~20 clones/sample were sequenced. The sequences were subjected to various mutational and phylogenetic analyses. Clonal sequencing showed that only three of 22 patients had identical HBV genotype profiles in both sites. In immune-active chronic hepatitis B, viral diversity in plasma was higher compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mutations at residues, in a minority of clones, associated with drug resistance, and/or immune escape were found in both compartments but were more common in plasma. Immune escape mutations were more often observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of immune-active CHB carriers, compared with other disease phases. During all CHB disease phases, differences exist between HBV variants found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma. Moreover, these data indicate that HBV evolution occurs in a compartment and disease phase-specific fashion. PMID:25203736

  6. Vilification and Social Movements: A Case Study of Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderford, Marsha L.

    1989-01-01

    Examines vilification (a rhetorical strategy which discredits adversaries as ungenuine and malevolent advocates) in the rhetoric of pro-life and pro-choice movements in Minnesota between 1973 and 1980. (SR)

  7. Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Genotypes of HBV in HIV-Infected Patients in the Northeast Region of Colombia: High Prevalence of Occult Hepatitis B and F3 Subgenotype Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Amorocho, Henry; Castellanos-Domínguez, Yeny Zulay; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Velandia-Cruz, Sindi Alejandra; Becerra-Peña, Jeysson Andrey; Farfán-García, Ana Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. HIV-positive patients are commonly co-infected with HBV due to shared routes of transmission. Objectives Our aim was to determine the risk factors, prevalence, genotypes, and mutations of the Surface S gene of HBV, and occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) among patients infected with HIV in a northeastern Colombian city. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 275 HIV-positive patients attending an outpatient clinic in Bucaramanga, Colombia during 2009–2010. Blood samples were collected and screened for serological markers of HBV (anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg) through ELISA assay. Regardless of their serological profile, all samples were tested for the HBV S gene by nested-PCR and HBV genotypes were determined by phylogenetic inference. Clinical records were used to examine demographic, clinical, virological, immunological and antiretroviral therapy (ART) variables of HIV infection. Results Participants were on average 37±11 years old and 65.1% male. The prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection was 12% (95%CI 8.4–16.4) of which 3.3% had active HBV infection and 8.7% OBI. The prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection was associated with AIDS stage and ART treatment. Sequence analysis identified genotype F, subgenotype F3 in 93.8% of patients and genotype A in 6.2% of patients. A C149R mutation, which may have resulted from failure in HBsAg detection, was found in one patient with OBI. Conclusions The present study found a high prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection with an incidence of OBI 2.6-fold higher compared to active HBV infection. These findings suggest including HBV DNA testing to detect OBI in addition to screening for HBV serological markers in HIV patients. PMID:25462190

  8. Stages en Licence 3 pro Autisme Stages obligatoires de Licence 3 pro Autisme

    E-print Network

    Pellier, Damien

    Stages en Licence 3 pro « Autisme » Stages obligatoires de Licence 3 pro « Autisme » Vous devez la Licence pro « Autisme » - Le modèle d'attestation de stage Vous devez consulter - La convention « Autisme » - Imprimez la convention et la charte en trois exemplaires. - Signez la convention et faites la

  9. Conformational Plasticity of proNGF

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Francesca; Malerba, Francesca; Kelly, Geoff; Noinville, Sylvie; Lamba, Doriano; Cattaneo, Antonino; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor is an essential protein that supports neuronal survival during development and influences neuronal function throughout adulthood, both in the central and peripheral nervous system. The unprocessed precursor of NGF, proNGF, seems to be endowed with biological functions distinct from those of the mature protein, such as chaperone-like activities and apoptotic and/or neurotrophic properties. We have previously suggested, based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering data, that recombinant murine proNGF has features typical of an intrinsically unfolded protein. Using complementary biophysical techniques, we show here new evidence that clarifies and widens this hypothesis through a detailed comparison of the structural properties of NGF and proNGF. Our data provide direct information about the dynamic properties of the pro-peptide and indicate that proNGF assumes in solution a compact globular conformation. The N-terminal pro-peptide extension influences the chemical environment of the mature protein and protects the protein from proteolytic digestion. Accordingly, we observe that unfolding of proNGF involves a two-steps mechanism. The distinct structural properties of proNGF as compared to NGF agree with and rationalise a different functional role of the precursor. PMID:21818348

  10. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward Bound Canada…

  11. Assimilating H-SAF and MODIS Snow Cover Data into the Conceptual Models HBV and SRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, Aynur; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Sorman, Arda; Akkol, Bulut; Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Uysal, Gokcen

    2014-05-01

    Conceptual hydrological models are widely used for operational and scientific water resources management applications in mountain catchments. However, current model-based forecasting approaches are jeopardized by input data and model uncertainties. Data assimilation provides a suitable tool to merge information from remotely sensed observations and hydrological model predictions for improving the lead time performance of streamflow forecasts in the context of operational hydrological forecasting systems. In this study, we present a novel variational approach based on Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE). It includes a highly flexible formulation of distance metrics for penalizing the introduction of noise into the model and enforcing the agreement between simulated and observed variables. Furthermore, the MHE setup shows a high robustness regarding non-equidistant, noisy and sometimes missing data and enables the modification of model input as well as state variables. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed in mountainous regions. Therefore the data limitations in combination with snowpack heterogeneity prevent a detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. Remotely sensed images offer an opportunity to supplement ground measurements for performing runoff predictions during the snowmelt season. In this context, EUMETSAT initiated the H-SAF (Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management) project for deriving novel products from satellite data and applying it to operational hydrology. This research contributes to the H-SAF product validation by applying a generic data assimilation test bed for H-SAF snow products in comparison to snow cover data of MODIS. A preliminary performance assessment of the data assimilation framework using the conceptual models HBV and SRM with satellite derived snow data is evaluated for a snow dominated test site of 10250 km2 at the headwaters of Euphrates River in Turkey.

  12. Risk factors for naturally-occurring early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with HBV-associated liver cirrhosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zheng; Shi, Jianfei; Jin, Lei; Wang, Lifeng; Xu, Dongping; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Early onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (males and females under the age of 40 or 50 years old, respectively) has a significant prevalence and poor prognosis; however, few studies have reported the risk factors and development of HCC in such cases. Methods: In this study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical, laboratory and demographic data from 588 treatment-naïve HCC patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated liver cirrhosis (LC) and 708 age-matched HBV-associated LC patients as control in Beijing 302 Hospital. Results: 15.1% (89/588) of the HCC patients and 36.7% (181/708) of the LC patients were classified as early onset. Compared with age-matched LC controls, male gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, P < 0.05), family history of HBV infection (OR = 2.45, P < 0.05) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) > 200 ng/ml (OR = 30.8, P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for early-onset HCC. Comparing late-onset LC controls, male gender (OR = 1.92, P < 0.05), age (OR = 1.04, P < 0.05), family history of HCC (OR = 2.06, P < 0.05), history of smoking (OR = 1.68, P < 0.05) and AFP > 200 ng/ml (OR = 12.0, P < 0.05) were associated with the development of naturally occurring HCC. Overall, male gender and AFP > 200 ng/ml is associated with HCC development across all ages, whereas a family history of HBV infection may identify younger HBV-associated LC patients at risk for HCC. Conclusion: Our data suggest that a family history of HBV infection is a unique risk factor for naturally-occurring early-onset HCC patients with HBV-associated LC, who should be considered for intensive screening programs. PMID:25785114

  13. Analysis of HBV genotype, drug resistant mutations, and pre-core/basal core promoter mutations in Korean patients with acute hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Ho; Hong, Sun Pyo; Jang, Eun Sun; Park, Sang Jong; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Kang, Sook-Kyoung; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2015-06-01

    Acute hepatitis B, caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains with drug resistant mutations or pre-core/basal core promoter (PC/BCP) mutations, is a public health concern, because this infection is often associated with poor disease outcome or difficulty in therapeutic choice. The HBV genotype, the prevalence of drug resistant mutations, and PC/BCP mutations in Korean patients with acute hepatitis B were studied. From 2006 to 2008, 36 patients with acute hepatitis B were enrolled prospectively in four general hospitals. Among them, 20 showed detectable HBV DNA (median value was 4.8 log copies/mL). HBV genotyping and analysis of HBV mutations that conferred resistance against lamivudine, adefovir, or entecavir and of PC/BCP mutations were performed using highly sensitive restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) analysis. All 20 patients were infected with HBV genotype C, which causes almost all cases of chronic hepatitis B in Korea. No patient showed mutations that conferred resistance against lamivudine (L180M, M204V/I), adefovir (A181T, N236S), or entecavir (I169M, A184T/V, S202I/G, M250V/I/L). However, four patients had BCP mutations, and two had PC mutations. Platelet counts were significantly lower in the four patients with PC/BCP mutations compared to those with wild type. In this study, all acute hepatitis B patients had genotype C HBV strains with no drug resistant mutations. However, 20% showed PC/BCP mutations. This highlights the need for further study on the significance of PC/BCP mutations. J. Med. Virol. 87:993-998, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25712861

  14. Genetic polymorphisms in hypoxia-inducible factor-1a gene and its association with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanqiong; Sui, Jingzhe; Zhai, Limin; Yang, Shi; Huang, Li; Huang, Liying; Mo, Cuiju; Wu, Junrong; Li, Shan; Qin, Xue

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between HIF-1a polymorphisms and HCC has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to determine whether HIF-1a polymorphisms are associated with HCC through a case-control study. Two polymorphisms in the HIF-1a gene (rs11549465 and rs115494657) were examined in 157 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC patients and 173 healthy controls using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. DNA sequencing was used to validate genotype results. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of HIF-1a rs11549465 and rs115494657 polymorphisms between the HBV-related HCC patients and healthy controls. However, the data revealed that subjects with the CG haplotype have a higher susceptibility to HBV-related HCC [odds ratio (OR)=2.327, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.578-4.721, P=0.008]. In contrast, the CA haplotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HBV-related HCC (OR=0.416, 95% CI=0.172-0.910, P=0.025). HIF-1a rs11549465 and rs115494657 polymorphisms appeared to be irrelevant to HBV-related HCC. However, the HIF-1a CG and CA haplotypes might be a risk factor and a protective marker, respectively, for HBV-related HCC in a Chinese population. Further investigations with a larger sample size may be required to validate the genetic effects of HIF-1a polymorphisms on HBV-related HCC. PMID:25195037

  15. Abbott RealTime HBV Assay Is More Sensitive in Detection of Low Viral Load and Little Impacted by Drug Resistant Mutation in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients under Nucleot(s)ide Analogues Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Huang, Ching-I; Liu, Shu-Fen; Yang, Hua-Ling; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Huang, Jee-Fu; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Background Selection of drug-resistant strains may lead to failure of HBV antiviral therapy. There is little information whether there is detection difference in drug resistant mutations between different viral load assays of HBV. Objectives This study is aimed to investigate whether there is drug-resistant strains related detection difference between Abbott RealTime HBV (RealTime) and CobasAmpliPrep/CobasTaqMan HBV assays 2.0 (TaqMan). Study Design One hundred and thirty-four CHB patients who received HBV anti-viral therapy were enrolled. HBV virological markers were tested 3 months apart regularly. Serum HBV DNA levels were determined using the TaqMan and RealTime. YMDD (rt180M and rt204V) mutation was checked in patients who experienced virologic breakthrough (VBT). Results The correlation of HBV DNA observed between the RealTime and TaqMan was good for all 571 samples (R2?=?0.797; P<0.001). However, the correlation in the 434 samples with HBV DNA level <3 log10 IU/ml was not as good as in all samples (R2?=?0.457). Overall, 21.5% of samples had a detection difference of ?1 log10 IU/ml with 91.9% of these having HBV DNA level <3 log10 IU/ml. Twenty-four patients experiencedVBT. Three of these patients had acquired the YMDD mutation and exhibited discordant viral load results between the two methods tested. In each case, persistent HBV DNA was detected by RealTime and undetectable with TaqMan. Of the patients who experienced a VBT and had acquired YMDD mutation, 4.7% had undetectable HBV DNA by TaqMan while all were detectable with RealTime. Conclusions RealTime assay is more sensitive and is little impacted by the development of drug resistant mutation. PMID:25000502

  16. A Study on the HBV and the HCV Infections in Female Sex Workers and their Co-Infection with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Praseeda S., Desai; Anuradha, Dutta; Jayanthi S., Shastri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) have been shown to enhance the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The Hepatitis B and the Hepatitis C viral infections are highly prevalent among the HIV-infected persons as a result of shared transmission routes. Aim: To determine the seroprevalence of the HIV, Syphilis, HBV and HCV infections and their co-infection rates among Female Sex Workers (FSWs). Settings and Design: 250 blood samples were collected from FSWs from a red light area of Mumbai by using an outreach strategy. Materials and Methods: Their sera were tested for the HIV antibodies as per the strategy II of the NACO guidelines, for syphilis by RPR, for the HCV antibodies and for HBsAg by ELISA. Results: The study group showed (105/250) 42% HIV reactivity, (15/250) 6% RPR reactivity, (20/250) 8% HBsAg positivity, (7/250) 2.8% HCV reactivity, (11/250) 4.4% HIV-RPR reactivity, (7/250) 2.8% HIV-HBV co-infection and (3/250)1.2% HIV-HCV co-infection. Statistical test which was used: The Chi square test. Conclusion: A high HIV sero-prevalence was found among the FSWs. A high HIV prevalence was found among the RPR reactive FSWs. The relationship between the HIV reactivity and the RPR reactivity was statistically significant. Co-infections with HBV and HCV were detected among the HIV reactive FSWs, but they were not statistically significant. PMID:23543505

  17. Virologic and biochemical responses to clevudine in patients with chronic HBV infection-associated cirrhosis: data at week 48.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Yim, H J; Jung, E S; Jung, Y K; Kim, J H; Seo, Y S; Yeon, J E; Lee, H S; Um, S H; Byun, K S

    2011-04-01

    Clevudine shows high rates of virologic and biochemical responses in patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, the efficacy and safety of clevudine in patients with cirrhosis are unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate the safety and to assess the virologic and the biochemical responses to clevudine in patients with cirrhosis with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We reviewed data from treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B with and without cirrhosis who started clevudine between April 2007 and March 2008 (n = 52, hepatitis B without cirrhosis n = 21 and chronic hepatitis B with cirrhosis n = 31) at Korea University Ansan/Guro Hospital. All of the patients were treated for more than 48 weeks. The mean age was older in the patients with cirrhosis. Baseline HBV DNA levels were 6.9 and 7.78 log copies/mL (P = 0.042), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were 104.9 and 147.4 IU/L (P = 0.204), for those with and without cirrhosis, respectively. Virologic response (HBV DNA <1000 copies/mL) (87.1%vs 71.4%, P = 0.24) and biochemical response (83.9%vs 80.9%, P = 0.99) at week 48 were not significantly different between the two groups. Early virologic response at week 12 was even higher in the patients with cirrhosis (61.3%vs 28.6%, P = 0.026). Neither ALT flare nor newly onset hepatic decompensation was found in the patients with cirrhosis, whereas ALT flare was transiently observed in 14.3% of the chronic hepatitis group. In conclusion, although clevudine may produce a transient elevation of ALT during the early treatment period, such findings were not observed in patients with cirrhosis and the virologic and biochemical responses of the groups were comparable. PMID:20367793

  18. PRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes_020312

    E-print Network

    done with the library regarding Open Access review. She indicated that journal publications in PRO ­ to encourage persons who might not otherwise be engaged with KU faculty to become aware of and interested

  19. PRO: Professional Record Online G:\\IR\\PRO\\Implementation Plan\\SC\\PRO Steering Committee Minutes_121112

    E-print Network

    Measures maintains internal date stamping of record changes, but doesn't currently offer reporting this spring, the School opted for a parallel process where faculty updated activity in PRO and generated

  20. Whole genome HBV deletion profiles and the accumulation of preS deletion mutant during antiviral treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV), because of its error-prone viral polymerase, has a high mutation rate leading to widespread substitutions, deletions, and insertions in the HBV genome. Deletions may significantly change viral biological features complicating the progression of liver diseases. However, the clinical conditions correlating to the accumulation of deleted mutants remain unclear. In this study, we explored HBV deletion patterns and their association with disease status and antiviral treatment by performing whole genome sequencing on samples from 51 hepatitis B patients and by monitoring changes in deletion variants during treatment. Clone sequencing was used to analyze preS regions in another cohort of 52 patients. Results Among the core, preS, and basic core promoter (BCP) deletion hotspots, we identified preS to have the highest frequency and the most complex deletion pattern using whole genome sequencing. Further clone sequencing analysis on preS identified 70 deletions which were classified into 4 types, the most common being preS2. Also, in contrast to the core and BCP regions, most preS deletions were in-frame. Most deletions interrupted viral surface epitopes, and are possibly involved in evading immuno-surveillance. Among various clinical factors examined, logistic regression showed that antiviral medication affected the accumulation of deletion mutants (OR?=?6.81, 95% CI?=?1.296?~?35.817, P?=?0.023). In chronic carriers of the virus, and individuals with chronic hepatitis, the deletion rate was significantly higher in the antiviral treatment group (Fisher exact test, P?=?0.007). Particularly, preS2 deletions were associated with the usage of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy (Fisher exact test, P?=?0.023). Dynamic increases in preS1 or preS2 deletions were also observed in quasispecies from samples taken from patients before and after three months of ADV therapy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that preS2 deletions alone were not responsible for antiviral resistance, implying the coordination between wild type and mutant strains during viral survival and disease development. Conclusions We present the HBV deletion distribution patterns and preS deletion substructures in viral genomes that are prevalent in northern China. The accumulation of preS deletion mutants during nucleos(t)ide analog therapy may be due to viral escape from host immuno-surveillance. PMID:23272650

  1. Pro-self, pro-social, and pro-organizational foci of proactive behavior: Differential antecedents and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. D. Belschak; Hartog den D. N

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to further knowledge of proactive employee behaviour by exploring whether pro-organizational, prosocial, and pro-self focused proactive behaviour can be measured in an empirically distinct manner, and whether these types of proactive behaviour show differential relationships with other variables. Results of two multi-source studies using self-rated and peer-rated measures empirically support the distinctiveness of the different foci of

  2. Pro-GLP-1, a Pro-drug of GLP-1, is neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huinan; Meng, Jingru; Li, Xubo; Zhou, Shimeng; Qu, Di; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Ma, Xue; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2015-04-01

    Pro-Glucagon-like peptide-1 (Pro-GLP-1), a long-lasting GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, was developed using a polymeric pro-drug strategy and its neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke were investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Pro-GLP-1 was injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 7days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery. The neurological deficit score and TTC staining were determined 24h after ischemia. The results demonstrated that Pro-GLP-1 was slowly degraded in the plasma and brain of the mice, and GLP-1 could be detected even 12h after administration. Pro-GLP-1 was significantly neuroprotective in C57BL/6 mice subjected to MCAO. In cultured cortical neurons, treatment with Pro-GLP-1 attenuated apoptosis induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The neuroprotective effects of Pro-GLP-1 were blocked by a selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist and knockdown of GLP-1 receptor with shRNA. However, Pro-GLP-1 had no effect on blood glucose and insulin levels which indicated that neuroprotection was mediated by the activation of GLP-1 receptor in the brain. Pro-GLP-1 repaired the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased the expression of caspase-3. The anti-apoptotic effect was mediated by the cAMP/PKA and PI3K/Akt pathway. Our research provides evidence that pre-treatment of MCAO mice with Pro-GLP-1 exerts a neuroprotective effect mediated by a blockade of apoptosis and that Pro-GLP-1 might be a potential neuroprotective agent candidate against ischemic stroke. PMID:25640912

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of 3-dose primary vaccination with combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, David W; Ferguson, Murdo; Predy, Gerald; Dawar, Meena; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Han, Htay-Htay

    2015-04-15

    This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (?0.15?g/ml) in ?97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6.12?g/ml versus 3.51?g/ml). All subjects were seroprotected (anti-HBs ?10mIU/mL) against HBV, with groups having similar GMCs (1797.9 versus 1544.4mIU/mL, Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal, respectively). No safety concerns were identified. We conclude that 3-dose primary vaccination with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine elicited immune responses to Hib and HBV components that were at least as high in Aboriginal as in non-Aboriginal Canadian infants. Clinical Trial Registration NCT00753649. PMID:25701314

  4. TGF-?1 Down-Regulation of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP Expression on Human NK Cells Contributes to HBV Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Cheng; Fu, Binqing; Gao, Yufeng; Liao, Xiaofeng; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism underlying persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear. We investigated the role of innate immune responses to persistent HBV infection in 154 HBV-infected patients and 95 healthy controls. The expression of NKG2D- and 2B4-activating receptors on NK cells was significantly decreased, and moreover, the expression of DAP10 and SAP, the intracellular adaptor proteins of NKG2D and 2B4 (respectively), were lower, which then impaired NK cell-mediated cytotoxic capacity and interferon-? production. Higher concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1) were found in sera from persistently infected HBV patients. TGF-?1 down-regulated the expression of NKG2D and 2B4 on NK cells in our in vitro study, leading to an impairment of their effector functions. Anti-TGF-?1 antibodies could restore the expression of NKG2D and 2B4 on NK cells in vitro. Furthermore, TGF-?1 induced cell-cycle arrest in NK cells by up-regulating the expression of p15 and p21 in NK cells from immunotolerant (IT) patients. We conclude that TGF-?1 may reduce the expression of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP, and those IT patients who are deficient in these double-activating signals have impaired NK cell function, which is correlated with persistent HBV infection. PMID:22438812

  5. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  6. Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

    2000-12-01

    Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063]. PMID:11249748

  7. High prevalence of HBV genotype D in Syria and the clinical characteristics of hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Antaki, N; Haffar, S; Ali Deeb, S; Assaad, F; Abou Harb, R; Zeibane, N; Nasserelddine, M; Ibrahim, N; Alhaj, N; Jabbour, E; Aaraj, R; Antaki, F; Kebbewar, K

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype D and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative chronic hepatitis are the most prevalent in Mediterranean countries. No data have ever been published on their prevalence in Syria, a country of intermediate endemicity for HBV. The aims of the current study were to determine the HBV genotype distribution in Syria, the prevalence of HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis and to analyse the clinical characteristics of each group. A total of 220 patients were included. Ninety-seven percent of the patients were of genotype D, and 72% were HBeAg negative. The HBeAg-negative patients were older, had a lower viral load, had more cirrhosis and the mode of contamination was known less than for HBeAg-positive patients. These findings have major implications in understanding the natural history of the infection and are of great relevance in the choice of therapy. PMID:19538827

  8. A new fluorescent based screening system for high throughput screening of drugs targeting HBV-core and HBsAg interaction.

    PubMed

    Suresh, V; Krishnakumar, K A; Asha, V V

    2015-03-01

    The existing screening systems for anti-hepatitis B virus (anti-HBV) drug discovery is time-consuming mainly due to the laborious detection system it is using. A new fluorescence based screening system for high throughput anti-HBV drug discovery was created by tagging hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with monomeric red fluorescent protein and hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein with enhanced green fluorescent protein. The two constructs were co-transfected on to Hep3B cells and the transfection was stabilized by fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS). The fusion proteins expressed through the secretory protein pathway as evidenced by localization with ER-Tracker and tubulin tracker. The new system has given analogues results like that of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hence it can be of very high potential for large scale drug screening systems. PMID:25776516

  9. Five new secoiridoid glycosides and one unusual lactonic enol ketone with anti-HBV activity from Swertia cincta.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xiao-Xia; Geng, Chang-An; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yun-Bao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Five new secoiridoid glycosides, swericinctosides A and B (1-2), 9-epi swertiamarin (3), 2'-O-m-hydroxybenzoyl swertiamarin (4), 4?-O-acetyl swertianoside E (5), and one unusual lactonic enol ketone, 3-(hydroxymethyl ene) dihydro-2H-pyran-2, 4(3H)-dione (6), together with three known compounds, swertiaside (7), swertianoside C (8) and decentapicrin B (9) were isolated from Swertia cincta. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, UV, IR and [?]D spectra. Anti-HBV assay on HepG 2.2.15 cell line in vitro demonstrated that compounds 1-9 possessed inhibitory activity on HBV DNA replication with IC50 values from 0.05 to 1.83mM, and compounds 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 could inhibit the secretion of HBsAg with IC50 values from 0.24 to 1.06mM. PMID:25721422

  10. QuickTime Pro Tutorial 1 How to Edit a Movie in QuickTime Pro

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    QuickTime Pro Tutorial 1 How to Edit a Movie in QuickTime Pro 1. How To Extract:00:14) PLEASE NOTE: This PDF Tutorial covers technical details on both the Hunter SOE VAT program, a required Tutorial 2 You can select the footage by pulling the "in" and "out" handlebars as shown

  11. Physical Conditions and Elemental Abundances in the Symbiotic Novae V1016-CYGNI Hm-Sagittae and HBV:475

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, H. M.; Schild, H.

    1990-09-01

    We have obtained optical, near-infrared and UV spectra of the symbiotic stars HM Sge, V 1016 Cyg and HBV 475. We present diagnostic diagrams which indicate that physical conditions vary strongly throughout the symbiotic nebulosities. In HM Sge and V 1016 Cyg we find a steep electron-density gradient covering more than an order of magnitude from the lowest to the highest observed ionization stages. We discuss the formation of hydrogen and helium recombination lines in dense nebulae in order to obtain He abundances. We emphasize that Balmer self-absorption and collisional excitation in He I are important processes in symbiotic nebulae. Their inclusion leads to considerably lower He abundances than previously reported. We obtain He abundances in HM Sge, which are consistent with the solar value. Also in V1016 Cyg and HBV 475 no He overabundance is found although some problems concerning the H I and He I lines remain unsolved. We determine the abundances of C, N, O and Ne in all three objects and additionally Si, Ar and Fe in HM Sge and V1016 Cyg. Compared to solar, nitrogen is enhanced by a factor of 10 in HM Sge and HBV 475 and a factor of 3.5 in V1016 Cyg. The other elements are compatible with solar abundances. The overall abundance pattern found in these symbiotic stars differs markedly from the one observed in nova ejecta. The H and He mass fractions in both HM Sge and V1016 Cyg are 0.72 and 0.25, in contrast to the hydrogen mass fractions ?0.53 observed in novae. We suggest that the material presently constituting these symbiotic nebulae has not undergone nova-processing. The C, N, O abundances in V1016 Cyg are almost identical to the mean abundances observed in M and S giants. HM Sge shows the signs of a more advanced nuclear burning stage and can be interpreted as due to a wind of a highly evolved red giant. We also find no depletion of typical dust constituents like Si and Fe in the D-type symbiotics HM Sge and V1016 Cyg. We conclude that the dust observable in the IR is located outside the ionized nebulosity. We suggest that symbiotic stars can be used to determine elemental abundances in red giants including Miras by means of nebular diagnostic tools. This may be particularly important for poorly known elemental abundances such as He.

  12. A comparison of SRM and HBV models for real time runoff forecasting in the Upper Euphrates Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorman, A. A.; Sensoy, A.; Yamankurt, E.; Gozel, E.

    2012-04-01

    Predicting snowmelt runoff in the mountainous eastern part of Turkey at a daily time step is important in water resource management as it constitutes nearly 2/3 in volume of the total yearly runoff during spring and early summer months. Keeping track of snow dynamics as well as forecasting the amount and timing of snowmelt runoff in the headwaters of the trans-boundary Euphrates River, where large dams are located, is a crucial and challenging task concerning the practical importance and great demand for real time forecasting of melt water. In mountainous regions, data limitations prevent detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed relative to snowpack heterogeneity therefore, to supplement ground measurement networks, remotely sensed images of snow covered area (SCA) provide useful information for runoff prediction during the snowmelt season. SCA has been used as a direct input to hydrological models such as Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) or as a means of assimilating hydrologic model snowpack and checking the internal validity as in the case of HBV model. Alternative ways of handling melt water modeling using satellite derived SCA is discussed, with emphasis on the contrasting treatments in two widely used hydrologic models, SRM and HBV. The greatest similarity between the two models is that each uses a temperature index method to predict melt rate whereas the greatest difference lies in the way snow cover is handled. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow cover products with 500 m spatial resolution are used to derive SCA data in this study. Since the cloud obscuring problem degrades the use of satellites with optical sensors, a special combination and filtering methodology is utilized to reduce cloud coverage of the product. Both models are used to simulate runoff for the years 2001-2010 with model efficiency above 0.86 and volume difference less than 2.5%. Finally, operational snowmelt runoff forecasting is carried out for 2011 ablation season using numerical weather prediction (Mesoscale Model 5) data as forcing input variables. Discussion of results are supervised to reflect the general debates in hydrologic modeling in terms of parameters and calibration, internal validation, the value and limitations of using satellite derived and numerical weather prediction data. Key words: snow, SRM, HBV, forecasting, Upper Euphrates Basin

  13. Primary resistance, multidrug resistance, and cross-resistance pathways in HBV as a consequence of treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Locarnini, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    Antiviral resistance is now the single most important factor in treatment failure using nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). Primary drug resistance mutations refer to amino acid change(s) that result in reduced susceptibility to an antiviral agent. Secondary compensatory mutations restore replication defects associated with primary drug resistance and may be associated with low level reduced susceptibility. Several evolutionary pathways of drug resistant HBV have been observed in patients treated with NAs. It is possible that the drug resistance mutations selected with one agent may affect the efficacy of other NAs. Several major HBV-evolutionary NA-resistance pathways (rtM204I/V, rtN236T and rtA181T/V) have now been characterised. The rtM204V/I pathway is responsible for resistance to the L: -nucleosides, such as lamivudine (LMV), telbivudine (LdT) and clevudine (CLD), and also entecavir (ETV), whilst the rtN236T pathway is responsible for adefovir (ADV) and tenofovir (TFV) resistance. Both pathways are associated with clusters of secondary mutations that can affect subsequent treatment with NAs (rtT184G, rtS202I) such as ETV. The third pathway, rtA181T/V, is associated with resistance to LMV and ADV and is a potential multi-drug resistance pathway and will probably have an impact on TFV sensitivity, either alone or with the rtN236T. In naïve patients treated with ETV, atleast three mutations arising at the same time are required: rtL180M + rtM204V plus either one of rtT184, rtS202 or rtM250 codon changes. Finally, in highly drug-experienced patients, clusters of mutations such as rtA181T/I233V/N236T/M250L, all on the one dominant HBV genome, are being detected which are associated with multi-drug resistance. Sequential treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) promotes multidrug resistance. It is likely, therefore, that development of multi-drug resistance could be reduced by combination therapy optimised to individual viral phenotypes. PMID:19669299

  14. Analysis of hepatitis B virus X gene phylogeny, genetic variability and its impact on pathogenesis: implications in Eastern Indian HBV carriers.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Banerjee, Arup; Chandra, Partha Kumar; Biswas, Avik; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Mahapatra, Pradip Kumar; Panda, Chinmoy Kumar; Chakrabarti, Shekhar; Bhattacharya, Sujit Kumar; Chakravarty, Runu

    2008-12-20

    HBx genetic variability was explored in the Eastern Indian population with low HCC incidence. DNase I sensitive HBV DNA was detected in 53% samples, which differed significantly between clinical groups (P<0.001). HBV genotypes A (Aa/A1), C (Cs/C1) and D (D1, D2, D3, D5) were detected in 37.5%, 18.7% and 43.7% samples respectively. Population specific signature HBx residues A(36), V(88), S(101) in Aa/A1 and residues P(41), Q(110) in D5 were detected. Mutations T(127), M(130) and I(131) were detected in 66.7%, 91% and 75% of genotype A, C and D5 samples respectively. Very low occurrence of HCC associated mutations (V(5)M/L, P(38)S, and H(94)Y) and absence of C-terminal deletions were observed. Our study shows that HBV genotype associated clinically important HBx variations may evolve and act distinctly in different geo-ethnic populations. Further studies on HBx functions from the perspective of genetic variability are essential for the better understanding of the clinical significance of HBV. PMID:18952249

  15. Virus NAT for HIV, HBV, and HCV in Post-Mortal Blood Specimens over 48 h after Death of Infected Patients – First Results

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Polywka, Susanne; Wulff, Birgit; Edler, Carolin; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Wilkemeyer, Ina; Kalus, Ulrich; Pruss, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective According to EU regulations (EU directive 2006/17/EC), blood specimens for virologic testing in the context of post-mortal tissue donation must be taken not later than 24 h post mortem. Methods To verify validity of NAT in blood specimens collected later, viral nucleic acid concentrations were monitored in blood samples of deceased persons infected with HIV (n = 7), HBV (n = 5), and HCV (n = 17) taken upon admission and at 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h post mortem. HIV and HCV RNA were quantified using Cobas TaqMan (Roche), HBV DNA was measured by in-house PCR. Results A more than 10-fold decrease of viral load in samples taken 36 h or 48 h post mortem was seen in one HIV-infected patient only. For all other patients tested the decrease of viral load in 36-hour or 48-hour post-mortal samples was less pronounced. Specimens of 3 HIV- and 2 HBV-infected patients taken 24 h post mortem or later were even found to have increased concentrations (>10-fold), possibly due to post-mortem liberation of virus from particular cells or tissues. Conclusion Our preliminary data indicate that the time point of blood collection for HIV, HBV and HCV testing by PCR may be extended to 36 h or even 48 h post mortem and thus improve availability of tissue donations. PMID:23801336

  16. In vitro stimulation with HBV therapeutic vaccine candidate Nasvac activates B and T cells from chronic hepatitis B patients and healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Lobaina, Yadira; Hardtke, Svenja; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Aguilar, Julio Cesar; Schlaphoff, Verena

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infections remain a considerable health problem worldwide. The standard therapies have demonstrated limited efficacy, side effects or need life-long treatments. Nowadays therapeutic vaccination is a promising option. Recently, we developed a new vaccine formulation called Nasvac, based on the combination of surface and core antigens from HBV. Clinical trials already performed showed good efficacy in virus control. However, the exact mode of action of Nasvac formulation remains unclear. So far the functional impairment of DCs during persistent HBV infection is a controversial issue. On the other hand, it is known that B cells may function as antigen presenting cells (APC) activating T cells. The hepatitis B core antigen contained in Nasvac vaccine is able to bind and activate a high frequency of naive human B cells. In the present study the surface expression of activation and exhaustion markers on B cells and the subsequent activation of T cells after in vitro stimulation with Nasvac antigens were evaluated in chronic HBV patients and healthy donors. B- and T-cell phenotype and proliferation were assessed by flow cytometry. Our results indicate that in contrast to exhaustions markers B cell activation markers were increased on both study groups after Nasvac stimulation. A shift toward an activation phenotype was observed for both B and T cells. The present work suggests that B cells could act as efficient APCs for Nasvac antigens in humans, which might suggest the use of activated B cells as immunotherapeutic strategy for chronic hepatitis B. PMID:25193323

  17. Liver Regeneration Signature in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Associated Acute Liver Failure Identified by Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Giacomo; Kleiner, David E.; Tice, Ashley; Fantola, Giovanni; Zamboni, Fausto; Mishra, Lopa; Farci, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The liver has inherent regenerative capacity via mitotic division of mature hepatocytes or, when the hepatic loss is massive or hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, through activation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC). The dramatic clinical course of acute liver failure (ALF) has posed major limitations to investigating the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration and the role of HSPC in this setting. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration in 4 patients who underwent liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated ALF. Methods and Findings Gene expression profiling of 17 liver specimens from the 4 ALF cases and individual specimens from 10 liver donors documented a distinct gene signature for ALF. However, unsupervised multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering identified two clusters of ALF that segregated according to histopathological severity massive hepatic necrosis (MHN; 2 patients) and submassive hepatic necrosis (SHN; 2 patients). We found that ALF is characterized by a strong HSPC gene signature, along with ductular reaction, both of which are more prominent in MHN. Interestingly, no evidence of further lineage differentiation was seen in MHN, whereas in SHN we detected cells with hepatocyte-like morphology. Strikingly, ALF was associated with a strong tumorigenesis gene signature. MHN had the greatest upregulation of stem cell genes (EpCAM, CK19, CK7), whereas the most up-regulated genes in SHN were related to cellular growth and proliferation. The extent of liver necrosis correlated with an overriding fibrogenesis gene signature, reflecting the wound-healing process. Conclusion Our data provide evidence for a distinct gene signature in HBV-associated ALF whose intensity is directly correlated with the histopathological severity. HSPC activation and fibrogenesis positively correlated with the extent of liver necrosis. Moreover, we detected a tumorigenesis gene signature in ALF, emphasizing the close relationship between liver regeneration and liver cancer. PMID:23185381

  18. HBV and HCV infection in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a survey in three diabetes units in different Italian areas.

    PubMed

    Soverini, Valentina; Persico, Marcello; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Forlani, Gabriele; Salamone, Federico; Massarone, Mario; La Mura, Vincenzo; Mazzotti, Arianna; Bruno, Alberto; Marchesini, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    Viral infections and the metabolic syndrome may coexist in several individuals, due to the large prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Antiviral therapy has changed the natural history of chronic viral hepatitis, but viral infection may remain undiagnosed in the absence of systematic screening. We determined the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV infection in an Italian cohort with T2DM (859 consecutive patients, 413 females) in three Italian centers: Turin, Bologna, and Naples. Screening for viral disease was coupled with the determination of parameters of metabolic syndrome. Fourteen patients were HBsAg-positive, 51 anti-HCV with a prevalence of genotype-1 infection in 58% of cases. Thirty cases had newly diagnosed viral markers, only one-third had already-diagnosed liver disease, 16 were being followed-up by a Liver Unit, and 9 cases had received antiviral treatment. Patients with viral markers had higher liver enzyme levels in comparison with virus-negative patients (P < 0.0001), whereas the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was similar in the 2 groups. A positive correlation between BMI and alanine aminostransferase levels was only present in virus-negative cases, where the probability of enzyme levels above the upper limit of normal increased by 5% for unit of increase in BMI (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.003-1.100, P = 0.037). In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV and HCV is non-negligible in patients with T2DM, but these cases may long remain undiagnosed. Elevated liver enzymes might be frequently disregarded in diabetes Units and ascribed to metabolic syndrome, thus excluding T2DM patients from specific disease-modifying antiviral treatment for hepatitis. PMID:21574001

  19. Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and Hepatitis Delta (HDV) Viruses in the Colombian Population—How Is the Epidemiological Situation?

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Gutierrez Fernandez, María Fernanda; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo Soares; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis B, C and delta still remain a serious problem worldwide. In Colombia, data from 1980s described that HBV and HDV infection are important causes of hepatitis, but little is known about HCV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the currently frequency of HBV, HCV and HDV in four different Colombian regions. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted in 697 habitants from 4 Colombian departments: Amazonas, Chocó, Magdalena and San Andres Islands. Epidemiological data were obtained from an interview applied to each individual aiming to evaluate risk factors related to HBV, HCV or HDV infections. All samples were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV markers. Samples that were positive to HBsAg and/or anti-HBc were tested to anti-HDV. Concerning the geographical origin of the samples, the three HBV markers showed a statistically significant difference: HBsAg (p?=?0.033) and anti-HBc (p<0.001) were more frequent in Amazonas and Magdalena departments. Isolated anti-HBs (a marker of previous vaccination) frequencies were: Chocó (53.26%), Amazonas (32.88%), Magdalena (17.0%) and San Andrés (15.33%) - p<0.001. Prevalence of anti-HBc increased with age; HBsAg varied from 1.97 to 8.39% (p?=?0.033). Amazonas department showed the highest frequency for anti-HCV marker (5.68%), while the lowest frequency was found in San Andrés Island (0.66%). Anti-HDV was found in 9 (5.20%) out of 173 anti-HBc and/or HBsAg positive samples, 8 of them from the Amazonas region and 1 from them Magdalena department. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, HBV, HCV and HDV infections are detected throughout Colombia in frequency levels that would place some areas as hyperendemic for HBV, especially those found in Amazonas and Magdalena departments. Novel strategies to increase HBV immunization in the rural population and to strengthen HCV surveillance are reinforced by these results. PMID:21559488

  20. Maternal chronic HBV infection would not increase the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension--results from pregnancy cohort in Liuyang rural China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Li, Xun; Zhou, Shujin; Wen, Shi Wu; Luo, Meiling

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between maternal HBV (hepatitis B virus) infection and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted in rural areas of China. In order to examine the association between maternal chronic HBV infection and risk of PIH in Liuyang rural area China, we enrolled 6,195 eligible pregnant women in 2010-2011 in selected 14 towns of Liuyang on their first prenatal visit to local maternity care unit. A total of 461 subjects (7.44% (95%CI: 6.79%, 8.10%)) were identified with positive HBsAg status (exposed group) and 5734 were non-HBV carriers (unexposed group). Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk of PIH, gestational hypertension (GH), and preeclampsia (PE) in relation to maternal chronic HBV infection. There are total of 455 subjects diagnosed with PIH (7.34% (95%CI: 6.70%, 7.99%)), including 371 GH (5.99% (95%CI: 5.40%, 6.58%)) and 81 PE (1.31% (95%CI: 1.07%, 1.64%)). The crude risk ratio between PIH, GH, PE and maternal HBV infection were 1.20 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.64), 1.30(95%CI: 0.93, 1.81) and 0.79 (95%CI: 0.32, 1.93), respectively. After adjustment for gravidity history, abortion history, family history of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and family history of hypertension, positive HBsAg status was still not significantly associated with PIH (RR = 1.18, 95%CI: 0.87, 1.62), GH (RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.91, 1.78) or PE (RR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.32, 1.95). Additional adjustment for maternal age, marital status, parity history, family history of DM, Body Mass Index at first antenatal visit, folic acid supplementation, smoking status during pregnancy and economic status of living area, multivariate analysis provided similar results. In conclusion, our study found that maternal chronic HBV infection prevalence rate is 7.4% among Liuyang rural area and there is no significant association between maternal HBV infection and the risk of PIH, GH or PE. PMID:25479003

  1. Maternal Chronic HBV Infection Would Not Increase the Risk of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension – Results from Pregnancy Cohort in Liuyang Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Li, Xun; Zhou, Shujin; Wen, Shi Wu; Luo, Meiling

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between maternal HBV (hepatitis B virus) infection and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted in rural areas of China. In order to examine the association between maternal chronic HBV infection and risk of PIH in Liuyang rural area China, we enrolled 6,195 eligible pregnant women in 2010–2011 in selected 14 towns of Liuyang on their first prenatal visit to local maternity care unit. A total of 461 subjects (7.44% (95%CI: 6.79%, 8.10%)) were identified with positive HBsAg status (exposed group) and 5734 were non-HBV carriers (unexposed group). Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk of PIH, gestational hypertension (GH), and preeclampsia (PE) in relation to maternal chronic HBV infection. There are total of 455 subjects diagnosed with PIH (7.34% (95%CI: 6.70%, 7.99%)), including 371 GH (5.99% (95%CI: 5.40%, 6.58%)) and 81 PE (1.31% (95%CI: 1.07%, 1.64%)). The crude risk ratio between PIH, GH, PE and maternal HBV infection were 1.20 (95%CI: 0.88, 1.64), 1.30(95%CI: 0.93, 1.81) and 0.79 (95%CI: 0.32, 1.93), respectively. After adjustment for gravidity history, abortion history, family history of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and family history of hypertension, positive HBsAg status was still not significantly associated with PIH (RR?=?1.18, 95%CI: 0.87, 1.62), GH (RR?=?1.27, 95%CI: 0.91, 1.78) or PE (RR?=?0.79, 95%CI: 0.32, 1.95). Additional adjustment for maternal age, marital status, parity history, family history of DM, Body Mass Index at first antenatal visit, folic acid supplementation, smoking status during pregnancy and economic status of living area, multivariate analysis provided similar results. In conclusion, our study found that maternal chronic HBV infection prevalence rate is 7.4% among Liuyang rural area and there is no significant association between maternal HBV infection and the risk of PIH, GH or PE. PMID:25479003

  2. Rapid screening and identification of dominant B cell epitopes of HBV surface antigen by quantum dot-based fluorescence polarization assay.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhongji; Song, Ruihua; Chen, Yue; Zhu, Yang; Tian, Yanhui; Li, Ding; Cui, Daxiang

    2013-01-01

    A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future. PMID:23452727

  3. HBV Reactivation in Patients Treated with Antitumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-?) Agents for Rheumatic and Dermatologic Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cantini, Fabrizio; Boccia, Stefania; Goletti, Delia; Iannone, Florenzo; Leoncini, Emanuele; Panic, Nikola; Prignano, Francesca; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Antitumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) agents are widely used for treatment of rheumatic and dermatological diseases. We conducted the systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of HBV reactivation among patients treated with anti-TNF-?. Methods and Findings. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases was conducted. From 21 studies included in the systematic review, 9 included patients with occult chronic HBV infection and 6 included patients with overt infection while 6 addressed both groups. Based on 10 studies eligible for meta-analysis we report pooled estimate of HBV reactivation of 4.2% (95% CI: 1.4-8.2%, I (2): 74.7%). The pooled prevalence of reactivation was 3.0% (95% CI: 0.6-7.2, I (2): 77.1%) for patients with occult infection, and 15.4% (95% CI: 1.2-41.2%, I (2): 79.9%) for overt infection. The prevalence of reactivation was 3.9% (95% CI: 1.1-8.4%, I (2): 51.1%) for treatment with etanercept and 4.6% (95% CI: 0.5-12.5%, I (2): 28.7%) for adalimumab. For subgroup of patients without any antiviral prophylaxis the pooled reactivation was 4.0% (95% CI: 1.2-8.3%, I (2): 75.6%). Conclusion. Although HBV reactivation rate is relatively low in patients treated with anti-TNF-? for rheumatic and dermatological conditions, the antiviral prophylaxis would be recommended in patients with overt chronic HBV infection. PMID:25114684

  4. A low steady HBsAg seroprevalence is associated with a low incidence of HBV-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Mexico: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Roman, Sonia; Panduro, Arturo; Aguilar-Gutierrez, Yadira; Maldonado, Montserrat; Vazquez-Vandyck, Maclovia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Ruiz-Madrigal, Bertha; Hernandez-Nazara, Zamira

    2009-06-01

    To address the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity and HBV-related liver diseases in Mexico. Research literature reporting on HBsAg and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) prevalence in Mexican study groups were searched in NLM Gateway, PubMed, IMBIOMED, and others. Weighted mean prevalence (WMP) was calculated from the results of each study group. A total of 50 studies were analyzed. Three nationwide surveys revealed an HBsAg seroprevalence of less than 0.3%. Horizontal transmission of HBV infection occurred mainly by sexual activity and exposure to both contaminated surgical equipment and body fluids. High-risk groups exposed to these factors included healthcare workers, pregnant women, female sex workers, hemodialysis patients, and emergency department attendees with an HBsAg WMP ranging from 1.05% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-1.43) to 14.3% (95% CI, 9.5-19.1). A higher prevalence of anti-HBc in adults than those younger than 20 years was associated with the main risk factors. Anti-HBc WMP ranged from 3.13% (95% CI, 3.01-3.24) in blood donors to 27.7% (95% CI, 21.6-33.9) in hemodialysis patients. A heterogeneous distribution of HBV infection was detected, mainly in native Mexican groups with a high anti-HBc WMP of 42.0% (95% CI, 39.5-44.3) but with a low HBsAg WMP of 2.9% (95% CI 2.08-3.75). Estimations of the Mexican population growth rate and main risk factors suggest that HBsAg seroprevalence has remained steady since 1974. A low HBsAg prevalence is related to the low incidence of HBV-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously reported in Mexico. PMID:19669360

  5. Rapid screening and identification of dominant B cell epitopes of HBV surface antigen by quantum dot-based fluorescence polarization assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhongji; Song, Ruihua; Chen, Yue; Zhu, Yang; Tian, Yanhui; Li, Ding; Cui, Daxiang

    2013-03-01

    A method for quickly screening and identifying dominant B cell epitopes was developed using hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen as a target. Eleven amino acid fragments from HBV surface antigen were synthesized by 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl solid-phase peptide synthesis strategy, and then CdTe quantum dots were used to label the N-terminals of all peptides. After optimizing the factors for fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay, the antigenicities of synthetic peptides were determined by analyzing the recognition and combination of peptides and standard antibody samples. The results of FP assays confirmed that 10 of 11 synthetic peptides have distinct antigenicities. In order to screen dominant antigenic peptides, the FP assays were carried out to investigate the antibodies against the 10 synthetic peptides of HBV surface antigen respectively in 159 samples of anti-HBV surface antigen-positive antiserum. The results showed that 3 of the 10 antigenic peptides may be immunodominant because the antibodies against them existed more widely among the samples and their antibody titers were higher than those of other peptides. Using three dominant antigenic peptides, 293 serum samples were detected for HBV infection by FP assays; the results showed that the antibody-positive ratio was 51.9% and the sensitivity and specificity were 84.3% and 98.2%, respectively. In conclusion, a quantum dot-based FP assay is a very simple, rapid, and convenient method for determining immunodominant antigenic peptides and has great potential in applications such as epitope mapping, vaccine designing, or clinical disease diagnosis in the future.

  6. ASIA PRO ECO PROGRAM Feeding China's Expanding

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    's Expanding Demand for Wood Pulp: A Diagnostic Assessment of Plantation Development, Fiber Supply, and ImpactsASIA PRO ECO PROGRAM Feeding China's Expanding Demand for Wood Pulp: A Diagnostic Assessment land uses 1 State of the forests 3 Potentials for pulp wood plantations 5 Wood plantation development 9

  7. Pro-Q Emerald Glycoprotein Stain Kits

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Pro-Q Emerald Glycoprotein Stain Kits The most advanced technology for staining glycoproteins steps -- fixation, oxidation and staining More sensitive than any other nonradioactive glycoprotein Kits provide the most advanced technology available for detection of glycoproteins in gels and on blots

  8. Public interest PUBLIC INTEREST AND PRO BONO

    E-print Network

    Student Profile 11Alumni Profile Pro Bono Numbers (statistics for 2008-09 academic year) 374 students growing caseload, and a new project investigating racial bias in the court system in north Carolina. the second was spurred by the state legislature's recent passage of the Racial Justice act, which allows

  9. Bazin, Pro-Censorship? by Marc Vernet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Bazin, Pro-Censorship? by Marc Vernet 1. A complex political and legal situation In Bazin's era, cinematic censorship revolved around two complications that started to loom large at the end of the Second ministries: Information, Commerce and Industry, Fine Arts...). Second complication: the see-saw of censorship

  10. ProGreen 2014 Colorado Climate Update

    E-print Network

    this past year including a look at the September 2013 floods · Where 2013 fit in the historic perspectiveProGreen 2014 Colorado Climate Update Nolan Doesken Colorado State Climatologist Colorado Climate Center Atmospheric Science Department Colorado State University http://ccc.atmos.colostate.edu Presented

  11. "Cosmologists have used these supernovae very pro-

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yi

    "Cosmologists have used these supernovae very pro- ductively, but it's all based on empirical--the type II supernovae--presents theorists with another set of challenges. A type II supernova pops off, is what got Woosley interested in supernovae in the first place. Starting as a graduate student at Rice

  12. NEBRASKA TRANSCRIPT 19 Nebraska Law Pro-

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Corporations, Constitutional Law, Wills and Trusts, Income Tax, Environmental Law, Family Law and IntellectualNEBRASKA TRANSCRIPT 19 Nebraska Law Pro- fessor Colleen Medill is the creator and series editor into the law school classroom. Medill is the author of the first book in the series, Developing Profes- sional

  13. Lasting immune memory against hepatitis B in children after primary immunization with 4 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in the first and 2nd year of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed long term persisting immunity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children vaccinated during infancy with combined vaccines containing recombinant HBV surface antigen (HBs). We assessed antibody persistence and immune memory in children 4-5 years of age, previously vaccinated with four doses of combined hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa™). Methods Immune memory was assessed in 301 children through administration of a challenge dose of monovalent HBV vaccine. Results At 4-5 years of age, 85.3% of subjects had persisting anti-HBs antibody concentrations ? 10 mIU/mL, rising to 98.6% after the HBV challenge dose. All but 12 subjects (95.8%) achieved post-challenge anti-HBs concentrations ? 100 mIU/mL. The post-challenge anti-HBs GMC rose by 100-fold compared to pre-challenge concentrations. An anamnestic response to the HBV vaccine challenge was observed in 96.8% of subjects, including 17/21 (81.0%) of children with initially undetectable antibodies (<3.3 mIU/mL). All but 4 of 42 subjects (90.5%) with anti-HBs antibodies <10 mIU/mL prior to the challenge dose, achieved seroprotective levels afterwards. A 4-fold rise in antibody concentration after the challenge dose was observed in 259/264 (98.1%) of initially seropositive subjects. The magnitude of the post-challenge responses was proportional to pre-challenge anti-HBs levels. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusion The combined DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine induced lasting immune memory against hepatitis B. Long term protection afforded by DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib is likely to be similar to that observed following priming with monovalent HBV vaccines. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov 106789 NCT00411697 PMID:20078876

  14. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) AND RELATIONSHIP TO ALANINE TRANSFERASE (ALT) IN SAUDI WORKERS AT YANBU INDUSTRIAL CITY

    PubMed Central

    Kashgari, Rashad H.; Mohamad, Adel A.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCP) in a relatively new industrial community in Yanbu, and to find out whether any relationship exists between increased serum Alanine Transferase (ALT) and HBV infection. Method: A group of Saudi male workers (n=332) (mean age = 32 years) were screened for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and Alanine Transferase (ALT) level and the results were correlated with age and marital status. Results: Overall, the prevalence of anti-HBc, HBsAg, and anti-HCV were 23.2%, 7.7% and 0.6% respectively. Age-related HBsAg carrier rates were 7.8%, 6.4% and 9.4% for age groups 18-20, 21-30 and over 30 years respec-tively. Anti-HBc positivity rates lucre 7.8%, 24.3% and 23.1 M for the same age groups. Anti-HCV was positive in only two cases (0.6%) of all subjects. Con-sidering marital status, HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity rates were 7.8% and 20.5% for single subjects compared with 7.4% and 24.5% for married subjects (P=> 0.5 and > 0.5). Twenty-two percent of all subjects had ALT levels above 35 U/L with no correlation between the increase of ALT and anti-HBc or HBsAg positivity. Conclusions: The findings of this work: (1) Support the notion of relatively low prevalence of HCV in the Saudi Population as compared to HBV. (2) Provide clues regarding possible routes of transmission of HBV in Saudis that may help in vaccination policies for control of HBV infection. (3) Emphasize the fact that ALT level is an independent factor of HBV infection, and (4) Signify the need to screen industrial workers fir non-viral causes of liver disease. PMID:23008562

  15. [Private companies: an opportunity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevention and care in Ivory Coast in the wake of HIV/AIDS?

    PubMed

    Bekelynck, A

    2014-11-18

    In the 1990s, defenders of "aids exceptionnalism" have promised that the inequities caused by HIV/AIDS could provide leverage in the care of other health issues later. Fifteen years later, this argument can be rethought at the light of the current context of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Ivory Coast. In fact, in this country, the challenges caused by HBVecho those of HIV/AIDS fifteen years ago: high prevalence (8-10%), ignorance of the disease, and high cost of care. To this end, this article compares the role of private companies in the fights against HIV/AIDS in the 2000s and its role in the fight against HBV today. Although some private firms played a critical role in the promotion of universal access to ART, today, they are one of the few places where HBV screening, vaccination and treatment are offered in the country. HIV/AIDS opened the door for private companies to address other diseases through their health care systems. However, many challenges still need to be met: the absence of qualitative ongoing training for health professionals, illness representations and the costs of treatments, which are all related to the lack of international and national collective action. In Ivory Coast, at the early stage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, national authorities took up the leadership in the fight against AIDS in West Africa, by developing extraverted strategies (Xth ICASA's organization, Unaids initiative hosting). The exceptional international mobilization and the creation of innovative funding mechanisms [International Therapeutic Solidarity Fund (ITSF), Global Fund (GM), and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)] have facilitated easy access to ARV. Although 380 million people are infected by chronic HBV in the world, even so, international and national collective actions are fledgling and remained weak. Moreover, private firms have represented leverage for testing, treatment, and the provision of universal access to medication in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ivory Coast, as relayed by other public and private actors. In the HBV context, private companies can only be a vector for the development of a two tier healthcare system. Therefore, the lack of a strong international commitment prevents public and private local initiatives to generalize HBV prevention and treatment. PMID:25407333

  16. InterPro, progress and status in 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola J. Mulder; Rolf Apweiler; Teresa K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; David Binns; Paul Bradley; Peer Bork; Phillip Bucher; Lorenzo Cerutti; Richard R. Copley; Emmanuel Courcelle; Ujjwal Das; Richard Durbin; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Julian Gough; Daniel H. Haft; Nicola Harte; Nicolas Hulo; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Maria Krestyaninova; David Lonsdale; Rodrigo Lopez; Ivica Letunic; Martin Madera; John Maslen; Jennifer Mcdowall; Alex Mitchell; Anastasia N. Nikolskaya; Sandra E. Orchard; Marco Pagni; Chris P. Ponting; Emmanuel Quevillon; Jeremy D. Selengut; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Ville Silventoinen; David J. Studholme; Robert Vaughan; Cathy H. Wu

    2005-01-01

    InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biolo- gical and functional information. Annotation is pro- vided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping

  17. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  18. Progesterone withdrawal I: pro-convulsant effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria H. Moran; Sheryl S. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Pro-convulsant withdrawal properties have been reported for a variety of GABA-modulatory drugs, such as the benzodiazepines (BDZs, [S.E. File, The history of BDZ dependence: a review of animal studies, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 14 (1990) 135–146; P.R. Finley, P.E. Nolan, Precipitation of BDZ withdrawal following sudden discontinuation of midazolam, DICP 23 (1989) 151–152]), barbiturates and ethanol [N. Kokka, D.E. Sapp, U.

  19. Bureaucracy and Pro-poor Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Cheema; Asad Sayeed

    2006-01-01

    Based on the premise that a functioning state is a necessary pre-requisite for pro-poor change, it is critical to investigate the role of the bureaucracy as a key catalyst in this process. Weber (1968) ascribes bureaucracies to be anchors of the modern nation state as their conduct is based on rational-legal norms. Bureaucracies, according to this ideal type, temper the

  20. A comparison of SRM and HBV models for real time runoff forecasting in the Upper Euphrates Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorman, A.; Sensoy, A.; Gozel, E.; Yamankurt, E.; Sorman, U.

    2011-12-01

    Predicting snowmelt runoff in the mountainous eastern part of Turkey at a daily timescale is important in water resource management as it constitutes nearly 2/3 in volume of the total yearly runoff during spring and early summer months. Keeping track of snow dynamics and forecasting the amount and the timing of snowmelt runoff in the headwaters of the trans-boundary Euphrates River, where large dams are located, is a crucial and challenging task concerning the practical importance and great demand for real time forecasting of meltwater. In mountainous regions, data limitations prevent detailed understanding of the variability of snow cover and melt. In situ snowpack measurements are sparsely distributed relative to snowpack heterogeneity therefore to supplement ground measurement networks, remotely derived images of snow covered area (SCA) provides useful information for runoff prediction during the snowmelt season. SCA has been used as a direct input to hydrological models such as Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) or as a means of updating hydrologic model snowpack simulations and checking the internal validity of snowmelt runoff model as in the case of HBV model. Alternative ways of handling meltwater modeling using satellite derived SCA is discussed, with emphasis on the contrasting treatments in two widely used models, HBV and SRM. The greatest similarity between two models is that each uses a temperature index method to predict melt rate and the greatest difference between the models is in the way snow cover is handled. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow cover products with 500 m spatial resolution are used to derive SCA data in this study. Since the cloud obscuring problem degrades the use of satellites with optical sensors, a special combination and filtering methodology is used to reduce cloud coverage of the product. Both models are used to simulate runoff for the years 2003-2010 with model efficiency above 0.85 and volume difference around 2.5% and model parameters are calibrated in these applications. Finally, an operational snowmelt runoff forecasting is carried out for 2011 ablation season using numerical weather prediction Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) data as forcing input variables. Discussion of results are supervised to reflect the general debates in hydrological modeling in terms of parameters and calibration, internal validation, the value and limitations of using satellite derived data.

  1. IN VITRO INHIBITION OF THE ACTIVATION OF PRO-MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1 (PRO-MMP-1) AND PRO-MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9 (PRO-MMP-9) BY RICE AND SOYBEAN BOWMAN - BIRK INHIBITORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The in vitro inhibitory activity of the rice Bowman-Birk inhibitor (rBBI), or soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (sBBI), against trypsin-catalyzed activation of pro-matrix metallogroteinase 1 or 9 (pro-MMP-1 or pro-MMP-9), respectively, was investigated using electrophoresis with silver staining, heparin...

  2. External Memory Controller for Virtex II Pro Blagomir Donchev

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    . Our implementation uses 1063 slices of Virtex2Pro FPGA and runs at 100 MHz. The major bene ts cores embedded in the Virtex II Pro Field Programable Gate Arrays (FPGA) have two bus interfaces is the only solution, provided by Xilinx, for connecting external memories to Virtex II Pro FPGA. Although PLB

  3. ProGen: GPHMM for prokaryotic genomes Sharad Akshar Punuganti

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    ProGen: GPHMM for prokaryotic genomes Sharad Akshar Punuganti May 10, 2011 Abstract Pro and implemented to train the model and find the genes respectively. ProGen models prokaryotic genome (hence of GPHMMs in the domain of prokaryotic genomes as the genomic structure of prokaryotes is relatively simple

  4. InterProScan: protein domains identifier.

    PubMed

    Quevillon, E; Silventoinen, V; Pillai, S; Harte, N; Mulder, N; Apweiler, R; Lopez, R

    2005-07-01

    InterProScan [E. M. Zdobnov and R. Apweiler (2001) Bioinformatics, 17, 847-848] is a tool that combines different protein signature recognition methods from the InterPro [N. J. Mulder, R. Apweiler, T. K. Attwood, A. Bairoch, A. Bateman, D. Binns, P. Bradley, P. Bork, P. Bucher, L. Cerutti et al. (2005) Nucleic Acids Res., 33, D201-D205] consortium member databases into one resource. At the time of writing there are 10 distinct publicly available databases in the application. Protein as well as DNA sequences can be analysed. A web-based version is accessible for academic and commercial organizations from the EBI (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/InterProScan/). In addition, a standalone Perl version and a SOAP Web Service [J. Snell, D. Tidwell and P. Kulchenko (2001) Programming Web Services with SOAP, 1st edn. O'Reilly Publishers, Sebastopol, CA, http://www.w3.org/TR/soap/] are also available to the users. Various output formats are supported and include text tables, XML documents, as well as various graphs to help interpret the results. PMID:15980438

  5. Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (?2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p?HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29 years age group. There was no statistically significant association between age or other socio-demographic risk factors and HBsAg status. Numerous risk factors for HBV acquisition exists in our settings, but amongst these, only a history of a contact with hepatitis B infection was found to be significantly associated with HBsAg positivity (OR 1.63, 95% C.I 1.15-2.30). Finally, the coinfection rate of HBV/HIV was 0.74%. Conclusion The prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant women in Cameroon is high, and the pattern tends towards high infectivity and therefore increased risk of perinatal HBV transmission. These highlight the need to step up preventive efforts against hepatitis B infection and perinatal HBV transmission in our community. PMID:23924215

  6. FACTSHEET WORKFLOW PhD Candidate / Promotor / Dean / TGS / Doctorate Board / ProDoc Code / ProDoc

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    INTAKE TGS FACTSHEET WORKFLOW PhD Candidate / Promotor / Dean / TGS / Doctorate Board / ProDoc Code / ProDoc Message 1. Every new PhD candidate 1 is given the status '05 Invitation Intake TGS' (Pro or 4b (depending whether the PhD candidate is in the MSc/PhD integrated track), if the Promotor

  7. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2012].

    PubMed

    Guna Serrano, María del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained from the 2012 SEIMC External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; two of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.3% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean±0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 98.9% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (? < 0.5 log10 copias/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 84% in the case of HCV and 88% in the HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean±1.96 SD log10 UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programmes to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up. PMID:24630578

  8. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].

    PubMed

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, María del Remedio; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers in the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the results of the 2011 SEIMC External Quality Control Program for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; to determine repeatability, two of these standards were identical. A significant proportion of the laboratories (52.1% on average) obtained values outside the accepted range (mean ± 0,25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 94.9% of laboratories reporting results within the accepted range (?<0,5 log10 copies/ mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. In most of the participating laboratories (90% in the case of HCV and 86% in that of HBV), all the results were within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log10UI/mL). Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to the marked interlaboratory variability found, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable. PMID:23453225

  9. Inhibitory Phenotype of HBV-Specific CD4+ T-Cells Is Characterized by High PD-1 Expression but Absent Coregulation of Multiple Inhibitory Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kurktschiev, Peter; Schraut, Winfried; Zachoval, Reinhart; Wendtner, Clemens; Wächtler, Martin; Spannagl, Michael; Denk, Gerald; Ulsenheimer, Axel; Bengsch, Bertram; Pircher, Hanspeter; Diepolder, Helmut M.; Grüner, Norbert H.; Jung, Maria-Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background T-cell exhaustion seems to play a critical role in CD8+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic viral infections. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms underlying CD4+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection and the role of inhibitory molecules such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) for CD4+ T-cell failure. Methods The expression of multiple inhibitory molecules such as PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, CD244, KLRG1 and markers defining the grade of T-cell differentiation as CCR7, CD45RA, CD57 and CD127 were analyzed on virus-specific CD4+ T-cells from peripheral blood using a newly established DRB1*01-restricted MHC class II Tetramer. Effects of in vitro PD-L1/2 blockade were defined by investigating changes in CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Results CD4+ T-cell responses during chronic HBV infection was characterized by reduced Tetramer+CD4+ T-cell frequencies, effector memory phenotype, sustained PD-1 but low levels of CTLA-4, TIM-3, KLRG1 and CD244 expression. PD-1 blockade revealed individualized patterns of in vitro responsiveness with partly increased IFN-?, IL-2 and TNF-? secretion as well as enhanced CD4+ T-cell expansion almost in treated patients with viral control. Conclusion HBV-specific CD4+ T-cells are reliably detectable during different courses of HBV infection by MHC class II Tetramer technology. CD4+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic HBV is basically linked to strong PD-1 upregulation but absent coregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors. PD-L1/2 neutralization partly leads to enhanced CD4+ T-cell functionality with heterogeneous patterns of CD4+ T-cell rejunivation. PMID:25144233

  10. Effect of antiviral therapy on the survival and incidence of major complications in HBV-associated cirrhotic patients after splenectomy for hypersplenism and portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Splenectomy remains a common approach for the management of hypersplenism and portal hypertension in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated cirrhotic patients in China and some other Asian countries. The effects of antiviral therapy on the survival and occurrence of complications in asplenic HBV-associated cirrhotic patients are unknown. This study analyzed the effect of antiviral therapy on survival and occurrence of major complications in HBV-associated cirrhotic patients after splenectomy for hypersplenism and portal hypertension. Results Of the 57 eligible patients for analysis, 28 patients received nucleos(t)ide analogs (treatment group) for antiviral treatment after splenectomy, while 29 patients received no antiviral treatment (control group). After a median of 3 years and 9 months, the overall survival and complication-free survival in the treatment group were higher though not statistically significant than those in the control group. Multivariate analysis showed that antiviral treatment was associated with increased but not statistically significant overall survival (hazard ratio (HR): 2.272, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.952–5.424, P?=?0.064) and the antiviral treatment was significantly associated with increased complication-free survival of the patients (HR: 7.229, 95% CI: 1.271–41.117, P?=?0.026). The complication-free survival in patients aged???40 years was higher than that in patients aged?>?40 years in the antiviral treatment patients (P?=?0.020). Conclusions Antiviral therapy initiating after splenectomy may reduce the incidence of complications and tend to improve the survival in asplenic HBV-associated cirrhotic patients, especially in younger patients, supporting the use of antiviral therapy in these patients after splenectomy. PMID:23158807

  11. A Phase II, Randomized Study on an Investigational DTPw-HBV\\/Hib-MenAC Conjugate Vaccine Administered to Infants in Northern Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Hodgson; Abudulai Adams Forgor; Daniel Chandramohan; Zarifah Reed; Fred Binka; Cornelia Bevilacqua; Dominique Boutriau; Brian Greenwood; David Goldblatt

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundCombining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV\\/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana.Methods and FindingsIn this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were

  12. Screening for HBV, HCV and HIV genomes in blood donations: shortcomings of pooling revealed by a multicentre study simulating real-time testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Jacques Lefrère; Jean-François Cantaloube; Christine Defer; Bernard Mercier; Pascale Loiseau; Dominique Vignon; Jean-Michel Pawlotsky; Philippe Biagini; Joelle Lerable; Philippe Rouger; Françoise Roudot-Thoraval; Claude Férec

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to determine whether screening of viremic blood donations by testing of pooled donor samples could constitute a technically feasible transfusional safety measure. A pilot study of real-time simulation, on a day-to-day basis, of screening of three viral genomes (hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) was conducted by

  13. Osteopontin and latent-TGF ? binding-protein 2 as potential diagnostic markers for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andre Nogueira; Plymoth, Amelie; Santos-Silva, Daniela; Ortiz-Cuaran, Sandra; Camey, Suzy; Guilloreau, Paule; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Mendy, Maimuna; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Duk-Hee; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kirk, Gregory D; Merle, Philippe; Beretta, Laura; Hainaut, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis B (HB) is the main risk factor for chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in many low-resource countries, where diagnosis is constrained by lack of clinical, histopathological and biomarker resources. We have used proteomics to detect plasma biomarkers that outperform ?-Fetoprotein (AFP), the most widely used biomarker for HCC diagnosis in low-resource contexts. Deep-plasma proteome analysis was performed in HCC patients, patients with CLD and in HB-carrier controls from Thailand (South-East Asia) and The Gambia (West-Africa). Mass spectrometry profiling identified latent-transforming growth factor ? binding-protein 2 (LTBP2) and Osteopontin (OPN) as being significantly elevated in HCC versus CLD and controls. These two proteins were further analyzed by ELISA in a total of 684 plasma samples, including 183 HCC, 274 CLD and 227 asymptomatic controls. When combined, LTBP2 and OPN showed an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.85 in distinguishing HCC from CLD in subjects with AFP <20 ng/mL. In a prospective cohort of 115 CLD patients from Korea, increased plasma levels of LTBP2 and/or OPN were detected in plasma collected over 2 years prior to diagnosis in 21 subjects who developed HCC. Thus, the combination of LTBP2 and OPN outperformed AFP for diagnosis and prediction of HCC and may therefore improve biomarker-based detection of HBV-related HCC. PMID:24803312

  14. Freeze-Drying of Plant Tissue Containing HBV Surface Antigen for the Oral Vaccine against Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Milczarek, Magdalena; Pajtasz-Piasecka, El?bieta; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-drying protocol facilitating successful processing of plant material containing the small surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (S-HBsAg) while preserving its VLP structure and immunogenicity. Freeze-drying of the antigen in lettuce leaf tissue, without any isolation or purification step, was investigated. Each process step was consecutively evaluated and the best parameters were applied. Several drying profiles and excipients were tested. The profile of 20°C for 20?h for primary and 22°C for 2?h for secondary drying as well as sucrose expressed efficient stabilisation of S-HBsAg during freeze-drying. Freezing rate and postprocess residual moisture were also analysed as important factors affecting S-HBsAg preservation. The process was reproducible and provided a product with VLP content up to 200?µg/g DW. Assays for VLPs and total antigen together with animal immunisation trials confirmed preservation of antigenicity and immunogenicity of S-HBsAg in freeze-dried powder. Long-term stability tests revealed that the stored freeze-dried product was stable at 4°C for one year, but degraded at elevated temperatures. As a result, a basis for an efficient freeze-drying process has been established and a suitable semiproduct for oral plant-derived vaccine against HBV was obtained. PMID:25371900

  15. 2-amino-N-(2,6-dichloropyridin-3-yl)acetamide derivatives as a novel class of HBV capsid assembly inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cho, M H; Jeong, H; Kim, Y S; Kim, J-W; Jung, G

    2014-12-01

    Capsid structure is crucial for the maturation and maintenance of the stable hepatitis B virion. Therefore, chemicals that inhibit capsid assembly might potentially act as potent antiviral compounds. However, only a few chemicals are known to block the capsid assembly process and further viral proliferation. In this study, we present a novel family of capsid assembly inhibitors that act against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Based on X-ray crystallographic data of the HBV core protein (Cp), we built dimer and hexamer structural models to be used in library searches. Several chemicals in the 2-amino-N-(2,6-dichloropyridin-3-yl)acetamide family were predicted to have high affinity for the groove structure in Cp. Using in vitro assembly and the HepG2.2.15 cell culture test, we verified that these chemicals demonstrated inhibitory effects on capsid assembly. Furthermore, we investigated the combinatorial effects of these assembly inhibitor chemicals with lamivudine and revealed that, in combination, they have synergistic inhibitory effects on decreasing viral concentration. We propose that these inhibitors could be utilized as an effective combination treatment against HBV infection. PMID:24372792

  16. Association between Waste Management and HBV among Solid Municipal Waste Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Corrao, Carmela Romana Natalina; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Marzuillo, Carolina; Paparo, Emanuele; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To conduct a systematic review of this relationship using available published observational studies in the field of solid municipal waste treatment. Methods. The review of the scientific literature was based on Medline and Scopus databases up to December 2012, using the keywords HBV, waste, solid, treatment, workers, disposal, and refuse in different combinations. Results. 160 studies were found and checked. Finally, 5 observational studies were considered suitable, all cross-sectional. The pooled proportion of HBs-Ag considering all the studies was 11% (95% CI: 5–21%), and considering the high quality studies only, this proportion was 14% (95% CI: 6–24%). The pooled proportion of HBs-Ab positivity among waste workers considering all the studies was 14.2% (95% CI: 1.4–37.2%), and considering the high quality studies only, this proportion was 24% (95% CI: 18–30%). The pooled proportion of HBc-Ab positivity among waste workers considering all the studies was 24% (95% CI: 6–49%). The pooled estimation of the risk of HBV positivity (HBsAg) among exposed was OR?=?2.39 (95% CI: 0.88–6.52). Conclusion. In conclusion, waste workers need to be vaccinated against HBV infection since they are at risk of acquiring this infection through the exposure to potentially infected waste. PMID:24228011

  17. The presentation of "pro-anorexia" in online group interactions.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Jeff; Rodham, Karen; Poyer, Helen

    2008-03-01

    Although pro-anorexia online support forums and the narratives that occur within them are increasingly the focus of research, none, to date, focuses closely on issues of identity within this online context. Our aim in conducting this study was to examine the presentation of pro-anorexia via an interpretive phenomenological analysis of postings to a pro-anorexia ("pro-ana") online discussion forum. Analysis indicates that pro-anorexic identities are normalized and strengthened through the normalization of participants' pro-ana thoughts and behaviors, and the group bond created through sharing a secret identity. This process renders participants less likely to reveal their pro-ana identity to friends and family in the real world. The implications of our findings are discussed in relation to the theory of identity demarginalization. PMID:18235156

  18. Assessment of the Proliferative Marker Ki-67 and p53 Protein Expression in HBV- and HCV-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cases in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Waleed S.; Omar, Masoud M.; Khayri, Tarek M.; Fakhr, Ibrahim M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Chronic HBV and HCV infections are the major risk factors for the development of HCC through a multistep pathway that involves viral and non-viral dependent pathophysiological steps. Hepatic expression of the nuclear proliferative marker ki-67 and the p53 oncoprotein were found to be associated with poor outcome. So, the present study was done to evaluate the changes in expression of Ki-67 and p53 oncoprotein, and to determine p53 gene mutation in HBV/HCV-related HCC Egyptian patients. Methods: Eight HBV-and 22 HCV-positive HCC cases have been examined for the presence of p53 mutation by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), followed by direct DNA sequencing. HCV were genotyped by LiPA-II. Results: Our results have shown that the proliferative marker ki-67 LI and p53 were highly expressed and significantly related to tumor grade in the Egyptian HCC cases (p<0.05). Also, p53 mutation was found in 16 HCC cases by IHC and in 14 HCC cases by SSCP, only 11 patients showed p53 mutation by sequencing. The highest mutation rate was scored for exon 7 (7 mutations) at codon 249; 4 out of 8 (50%) of HBV-related HCC cases and 3 out of 22 (13.6%) of HCV-related HCC cases, followed by exon 5 (3 mutations) at codons 133, 146, 176 in HCV-related HCC cases, then exon 8 at codon 275 in HCV-related HCC cases. The concordance between the IHC and sequencing analysis was 69%. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the association between the proliferative marker ki-67 and p53 expression with the tumor grade of Egyptian HBV/HCV-related HCC cases. Our results also support the hypothesis that p53 mutations are rather a late event in the carcinogenesis. Also, they suggest that the final steps of hepatocarcinogenesis are common and independent of the aetiology of the viral infection. PMID:21475468

  19. Association of Mutations in the Basal Core Promoter and Pre-core Regions of the Hepatitis B Viral Genome and Longitudinal Changes in HBV Level in HBeAg Negative Individuals: Results From a Cohort Study in Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Besharat, Sima; Poustchi, Hossein; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Freedman, Neal David; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although certain HBV mutations are known to affect the expression of Hepatitis e antigen, their association with HBV viral level or clinical outcomes is less clear. Objectives: We evaluated associations between different mutations in the Basal Core promoter (BCP) and Pre-core (PC) regions of HBV genome and subsequent changes in HBV viral DNA level over seven years in a population of untreated HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) participants in Northeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Participants in the current study were drawn from the Golestan Hepatitis B Cohort Study (GHBCS), a cohort of approximately 2590 HBsAg positive subjects (living in Gonbad city) embedded in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). At baseline, HBsAg was measured in all participants and revealed 2590 HBsAg positive cases. We randomly selected 304 participants who their blood sample were taken at both baseline and seven years later in follow-up and had not been treated for HBV during this time. HBV viral load were assessed at baseline and at year 7. The BCP and PC regions of the HBV DNA, at baseline, were amplified via hemi-nested PCR and sequenced by cycle sequencing. At year 7, liver stiffness was assessed by fibroscan; also, other parameters of liver disease were assessed following standard clinical protocols. Associations were assessed via tabulation, chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant and all tests were two-sided. Results: Among 304 HBsAg positive participants, 99 had detectable HBV DNA at study baseline. Of these, 61.6% had PC mutations (48.5% A1896 and 25.2% G1899). In contrast to other mutations, A1896 was associated with a higher proportion of detectable HBV DNA at year 7 (39.6%) compared to patients with the wild type (13.7%) (OR: 4.36, CI95% = 1.63-11.70; P Value = 0.002). Although participants with the A1896 mutation had higher year-7 HBV viral load than participants with G1896 (2.30 ± 1.66 IU/mL vs. 1.76 ± 1 IU/mL among patients with detectable HBV; P value = 0.052), no association was observed with either serum level ALT or liver stiffness. Interestingly, mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) region had no significant effect on virus DNA detection. Conclusions: In this population with chronic HBeAg negative hepatitis B, an association was observed between the G1896A mutation in the Pre-core region of HBV and subsequent level of HBV DNA seven years later, which indicated that mutations in this region of HBV genome may contribute to disease progression in these patients and play an important role in HBV natural course of disease. PMID:25788956

  20. InterProScan: protein domains identifier

    PubMed Central

    Quevillon, E.; Silventoinen, V.; Pillai, S.; Harte, N.; Mulder, N.; Apweiler, R.; Lopez, R.

    2005-01-01

    InterProScan [E. M. Zdobnov and R. Apweiler (2001) Bioinformatics, 17, 847–848] is a tool that combines different protein signature recognition methods from the InterPro [N. J. Mulder, R. Apweiler, T. K. Attwood, A. Bairoch, A. Bateman, D. Binns, P. Bradley, P. Bork, P. Bucher, L. Cerutti et al. (2005) Nucleic Acids Res., 33, D201–D205] consortium member databases into one resource. At the time of writing there are 10 distinct publicly available databases in the application. Protein as well as DNA sequences can be analysed. A web-based version is accessible for academic and commercial organizations from the EBI (). In addition, a standalone Perl version and a SOAP Web Service [J. Snell, D. Tidwell and P. Kulchenko (2001) Programming Web Services with SOAP, 1st edn. O'Reilly Publishers, Sebastopol, CA, ] are also available to the users. Various output formats are supported and include text tables, XML documents, as well as various graphs to help interpret the results. PMID:15980438

  1. Pro-neurotrophins, sortilin, and nociception

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Gary R; Nykjaer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling is important in the development and functional maintenance of nociceptors, but it also plays a central role in initiating and sustaining heat and mechanical hyperalgesia following inflammation. NGF signaling in pain has traditionally been thought of as primarily engaging the classic high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase receptor TrkA to initiate sensitization events. However, the discovery that secreted proforms of nerve NGF have biological functions distinct from the processed mature factors raised the possibility that these proneurotrophins (proNTs) may have distinct function in painful conditions. ProNTs engage a novel receptor system that is distinct from that of mature neurotrophins, consisting of sortilin, a type I membrane protein belonging to the VPS10p family, and its co-receptor, the classic low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Here, we review how this new receptor system may itself function with or independently of the classic TrkA system in regulating inflammatory or neuropathic pain. PMID:24494677

  2. RacerPro Demos Software Technology & Systems Group

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Michael

    " · "Minnie is an old lady!" (inference) · "Minnie has Tom as a pet" · Nothing is known about Tom · "Tom must be a cat, since old ladies are cat lovers!" (inference) RacerPro Demos ­ p.7/21 #12;RacerPorter GUI Racer RacerPro Demos ­ p.10/21 #12;Definition of concept old lady RacerPro Demos ­ p.11/21 #12;Minnie

  3. Is it necessary to delay antiviral therapy for 3-6 months to anticipate HBeAg seroconversion in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B in endemic areas of HBV genotype C?

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Jwa, Hyeyoung; Choi, Eun Kwang; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Hyun Joo; Na, Soo-Young; Boo, Sun-Jin; Jeong, Seung Uk

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion occurs frequently in the immune reactive phase in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, observation for 3-6 months before commencing antiviral therapy is recommended in patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels that exceed twice the upper limit of normal (ULN). However, HBeAg seroconversion occurs infrequently in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the waiting policy is necessary in endemic areas of HBV genotype C infection. Methods Ninety patients with HBeAg-positive CHB were followed prospectively without administering antiviral therapy for 6 months. Antiviral therapy was initiated promptly at any time if there was any evidence of biochemical (i.e., acute exacerbation of HBV infection or aggravation of jaundice) or symptomatic deterioration. After 6 months of observation, antiviral therapy was initiated according to the patient's ALT and HBV DNA levels. Results Only one patient (1.1%) achieved spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. Biochemical and symptomatic deterioration occurred before 6 months in 17 patients (18.9%) and 5 patients, respectively. High ALT and HBV DNA levels were both independent risk factors for biochemical deterioration. Of 15 patients with HBV DNA ?5.1×107 IU/mL and ALT ?5×ULN, biochemical deterioration occurred in 7 (46.7%), including 1 patient receiving liver transplantation due to liver failure. Conclusions Spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in patients with HBeAg-positive CHB is rare within 6 months. Biochemical deterioration was common and may lead to liver failure. Immediate antiviral therapy should be considered, especially in patients with high ALT and HBV DNA levels in endemic areas of genotype C infection. PMID:25548741

  4. A -819 C/T polymorphism in the interleukin-10 promoter is associated with persistent HBV infection, but -1082 A/G and -592A/C polymorphisms are not: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Hu, Wen-Long

    2015-03-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin-10 (IL10) gene promoter have been associated with persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In particular, the -1082A/G, -819 C/T and -592 A/C polymorphisms have most often been implicated. We performed a meta-analysis of available data to determine the relative importance of these SNPs in persistent HBV infection. We searched available articles in NCBI PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and identified 24 studies for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Our results indicated that the presence of the IL10 -819 C allele significantly increased the risk for persistent HBV infection (CC+CT vs. TT: OR = 1.283, 95 % CI 1.023-1.610, P = 0.031; C vs. T: OR = 1.183, 95 % CI 1.001-1.399, P = 0.049). Meanwhile, the -1082A/-819T/-592A haplotype (OR = 0.751, 95 % CI 0.640-0.881, P = 0.000) and the -1082A/-819C/-592C haplotype (OR = 1.568, 95 % CI 1.304-1.884, P = 0.000) were observed to be significantly associated with HBV disease progression in Asians. In contrast, the IL10 -1082A/G and -592A/C polymorphisms were not associated with an increased susceptibility to or outcome of HBV infection. Our meta-analysis supports the growing body of evidence that the presence of the IL10 -819 C/T polymorphism is associated with persistent HBV infection and that the -1082A/-819T/-592A haplotype and the -1082A/-819C/-592C haplotype are associated with HBV disease progression in Asians. PMID:25583543

  5. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  6. Serial transmission of hepatitis B like non-A, non-B hepatitis and associated markers to chimpanzees successfully immunized against HBV.

    PubMed

    Trepo, C; Degos, F; Degotte, C; Vitvitski, L; Lacour, J; Feldman, G; Hantz, O; Desormeaux, P; Brangier, J; Prunet, P

    1983-01-01

    In order to demonstrate that the HBV like strain of NANB hepatitis bred true as non-B together with its associated markers, 2 chimpanzees with high titer anti-HBs (45 and 125 AUSAB RU respectively) immunized with the Pasteur HB vaccine received 1 ml IV of a NANB inoculum. Two neighbour captive animal served as controls. The inoculum was the serum of a leukemic patient in remission for over 3 years with NANB chronic active hepatitis which serum contained HBV like particles and was found positive for NANBe Ag and anti-NANBc whereas in the liver typical numerous "SHIMIZU" dense soft edge aggregated intranuclear structures were demonstrated by electron microscopy. After 4 weeks portal inflammation and hepatocyte necrosis with significant aminotransferase elevation lasting for over 10 weeks developed in the 2 infected chimpanzees. No change in anti-HBs titer was seen and HBs, HBc, HBe Ag and/or AB could neither be detected in serum by RIA nor in liver by immunofluorescence during the 6 month follow up period. By contrast NANBc Ag became clearly demonstrable by immunofluorescence in the liver nuclei together with anti-NANBc in the serum after the 6th week and both persisted for over 4 months. Double unit structures similar to those of NANB/F strain were demonstrable in the cytoplasm at the acute phase. None of these changes was seen in the two control animals. Inoculation of the acute phase serum in the 2 previous control animals was again followed by the same sequence of events. Hybridization studies with HBV DNA of liver biopsies of infected chimps were negative. PMID:6228474

  7. Tenofovir is superior to entecavir for achieving complete viral suppression in hbeag-positive chronic hepatitis b patients with high hbv dna

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Linyi; Trinh, Huy N.; Li, Jiayi; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are the two first-line antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB); however, there are limited studies directly comparing their effectiveness. Aims To compare the effectiveness of ETV and TDF in nucleos(t)-ide-naïve CHB patients with high hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, defined as serum HBV DNA greater than 6 log10 IU mL?1. Methods We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort study of adult CHB patients who were seen between 2009 and 2012 at four Northern California community gastroenterology and hepatology clinics. Results We identified 59 consecutive patients treated with TDF and 216 patients treated with ETV. Pretreatment characteristics were similar between the two groups. Among HBeAg-negative patients, there was no significant difference in viral suppression rates between ETV and TDF (p = 0.72). In contrast, among HBeAg-positive patients, those treated with TDF achieved viral suppression significantly more rapidly than those treated with ETV (p < 0.0001); the Kaplan-Meier estimated probability of complete suppression was 18% vs. 11% at 6 months, 51% vs. 28% at 12 months, and 72% vs. 39% at 18 months, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis indicated that treatment with TDF compared to ETV was a significant predictor of viral suppression but only for HBeAg-positive patients (HR = 2.59; 95% CI 1.58–4.22; p < 0.001). Conclusions TDF is significantly more effective than ETV for achieving complete viral suppression in HBeAg-positive, nucleos(t)-ide-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA greater than 6 log10 IU mL?1. PMID:24467455

  8. HIV-1, HBV, HCV, HTLV, HPV-16/18, and Treponema pallidum Infections in a Sample of Brazilian Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Caroline C.; Georg, Ingebourg; Lampe, Elisabeth; Lewis, Lia; Morgado, Mariza G.; Nicol, Alcina F.; Pinho, Adriana A.; Salles, Regina C. S.; Teixeira, Sylvia L. M.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Gomes, Selma A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are more vulnerable to blood-borne infections and/or sexually-transmitted infections (STI). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalences of mono and co-infections of HIV-1 and other blood-borne/STIs in a sample of MSM in Campinas, Brazil. Methods Responding Driven Sampling (RDS) was used for recruitment of MSM. Serum samples collected from 558 MSM were analyzed for the presence of serological markers for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, HTLV, HPV-16/18, and T. pallidum infections. Results The highest prevalences of infection in serum samples were found for HPV-16 and 18 (31.9% and 20.3%, respectively). Approximately 8% of the study population showed infection with HIV-1, and within that group, 27.5% had recently become infected with HIV-1. HBV infection and syphilis were detected in 11.4% and 10% of the study population, respectively, and the rates of HTLV and HCV infection were 1.5% and 1%, respectively. With the exception of HTLV, all other studied infections were usually found as co-infections rather then mono-infections. The rates of co-infection for HCV, HPV-18, and HIV-1 were the highest among the studied infections (100%, 83%, and 85%, respectively). Interestingly, HTLV infection was usually found as a mono-infection in the study group, whereas HCV was found only as a co-infection. Conclusions The present findings highlight the need to educate the MSM population concerning their risk for STIs infections and methods of prevention. Campaigns to encourage vaccination against HBV and HPV could decrease the rates of these infections in MSM. PMID:25083768

  9. [Routine PCR screening for HBV, HCV and HIV-I genome in a large blood donation services--experiences and initial results].

    PubMed

    Schottstedt, V; Tuma, W; Bünger, G; Lakenberg, P

    1997-01-01

    We adapted the PCR method to screen up to 3,000 blood donations per day for HBV, HCV, and HIV-1 contamination. Concerning logistics: The first step is the generation of 3 identical microtiter plates (PT) by using the self-validated automatic sample processor with disposable tips. Using the first PT, we pooled up to 600 aliquots taken from blood donations which are serological negative and free for clinical usage according to actual federal regulations. In the case of a positive PCR pool result the viremic donation is identified by 2 additional PCR pool testing steps with smaller pool sizes using the second and third PT. All described steps are supported by electronic data processing. The PCR-method: After virus concentration by ultracentrifugation and--in case of HCV and HIV-1--additional reverse transcription PCR-amplifications were performed. PCR in two genomic regions are done for each virus. Laser-induced fluorescence detection after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and computer analysis were used to check the amplification products. Using this approach, a virus-containing donation can be detected in up to 599 negative samples with following sensitivity: HBV and HIV-1, 1,000-1,500 genome equivalents/ml; HCV, 2,000-2,500 genome equivalents/ml, thus sensitivity being in the range of commercial available PCR kits when testing nonpooled samples. The sensitivity was validated by using national and international available standards with known virus genome concentrations. All processing steps are checked using different controls such as, e.g., negative, positive, premix controls, reporter virus, inhibition controls. Routinely employing this validated methodology, we investigated 327,013 donations until the end of June 1996. During this survey, we found at least 16 virus-containing donations which are negative in corresponding serological tests and would have been transfused (4 HBV-, 13 HCV-, 0 HIV-1-containing donations), including one later seroconversion for HBV and one for HCV. Using our adapted PCR-methodology, it seems possible to shorten the diagnostic window periods with acceptable costs for large transfusion centers (15 DM per donation for all 3 viruses including all steps and investments). Therefore, PCR seems to become a new method of choice to prevent transfusion transmitted infections. PMID:9417342

  10. Prevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution of HCV and HBV infection in the tribal population: a community based study in south India.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Madhavi; Khaja, M N; Farees, Nafeesa; Poduri, C D; Hussain, M M; Aejaz Habeeb, M; Habibullah, C M

    2003-01-01

    Viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents a major public health problem in India. These viruses share common modes of transmission, such as parenteral routes. We aimed to assess the exposure of a tribal population to these viruses in south India. The present study was carried out on serum samples from 890 individuals (526 males and 324 females) belonging to the Lambada tribe residing in the state of Andhra Pradesh, south India. Anti-HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) status in the sera were analyzed using commercially available enzyme immunoassays (Abbott Labs, Chicago, IL). HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA in the sera was tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR, respectively. The infecting genotype of HCV was determined using type-specific primers corresponding to the NS5 region of the virus. Out of the 890 samples, 18 (2.02%; male 11/526; female 7/364) were positive for HCV-RNA by RT-PCR and, 17 of them were positive for anti-HCV antibody. Genotyping of HCV isolates from the 18 individuals positive for HCV-RNA revealed that 66.67% (12/18) were infected with type 1 of HCV and its variants; while in the remaining (6/18), the infecting genotype was found to be type 3 and its variants. A total of 46 samples (5.16%; males 28/526; female 18/364) were positive for HBsAg; while 11 were positive only for HBV-DNA, 9 were positive for both hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV-DNA. Cultural practices such as tattooing, traditional medicine (e.g. blood-letting), rituals (e.g. scarification), body-piercing etc are the potential sources of spread of infection in this tribe. None of the samples analyzed revealed co-infection with the 2 viruses. PMID:15164530

  11. HBV Perinatal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Muhammad; Hamama-tul-Bushra; Umar, Shifa; Khan, Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem all around the world. It is a blood-borne and sexually transmitted DNA virus in adults, but mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus also occurs in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers. PMID:23738081

  12. Design and synthesis of a novel candidate compound NTI-007 targeting sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide [NTCP]-APOA1-HBx-Beclin1-mediated autophagic pathway in HBV therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Fu, Lei-Lei; Tian, Mao; Liu, Hao-Qiu; Li, Jing-Jing; Li, Yan; He, Jun; Huang, Jian; Ouyang, Liang; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2015-03-01

    Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is a multiple transmembrane transporter predominantly expressed in the liver, functioning as a functional receptor for HBV. Through our continuous efforts to identify NTCP as a novel HBV target, we designed and synthesized a series of new compounds based on the structure of our previous compound NT-5. Molecular docking and MD simulation validated that a new compound named NTI-007 can tightly bind to NTCP, whose efficacy was also measured in vitro virological examination and cytotoxicity studies. Furthermore, autophagy was observed in NTI-007 incubated HepG2.2.15 cells, and results of q-PCR and Western blotting revealed that NTI-007 induced autophagy through NTCP-APOA1-HBx-Beclin1-mediated pathway. Taken together, considering crucial role of NTCP in HBV infection, NTCP-mediated autophagic pathway may provide a promising strategy of HBV therapy and given efficacy of NTI-007 triggering autophagy. Our study suggests pre-clinical potential of this compound as a novel anti-HBV drug candidate. PMID:25650312

  13. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  14. GROWING PEOPLE TO GROW AN INDUSTRY PRO-DAIRYSTORY

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    : Increase the competitiveness and sustainability of New York's dairy businesses through industry. For information on the PRO-DAIRY program, contact: PRO-DAIRY 272 Morrison Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853.ansci.cornell.edu/prodairy ANNUAL REPORT 2013 Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences GROWING PEOPLE TO GROW

  15. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  16. Body composition of transgenic pigs expressing the myostatin pro domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous results have shown that male mice expressing a myostatin pro domain construct (MLC-Pro) have increased body weight, more total body lean mass, and lower percentage of total body fat. Founder transgenic (TG) pigs were generated by standard pronuclear microinjection techniques using the sam...

  17. TA01 Launch Solid Rocket PRoPulSion

    E-print Network

    TA01 · Launch ProPuLsion systems Solid Rocket PRoPulSion SyStemS · Propellants · CaseMaterials · NozzleSystems · HybridRocketPropulsion Systems · FundamentalSolidPropulsion Technologies liquid RocketCollaboration · CommonHuman-Systems Interfaces · Safety,Trust,&Interfacingof Robotic/HumanProximity Operations Autonomy

  18. Xilinx University Program Virtex-II Pro Development

    E-print Network

    Bakos, Jason D.

    R Xilinx University Program Virtex-II Pro Development System Hardware Reference Manual UG069 (v1.0) March 8, 2005 #12;XUP Virtex-II Pro Development System www.xilinx.com UG069 (v1.0) March 8, 2005 "Xilinx to a user. Xilinx products are not intended for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems. Use

  19. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  20. Michigan Law School Pro Bono Program Organization Evaluation of Student

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Michigan Law School Pro Bono Program Organization Evaluation of Student Date Student Name the student perform in a professionally responsible manner? Would you supervise another Michigan Law student.) Comments or suggestions regarding Michigan Law School's Pro Bono Program. From: I certify that completed

  1. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  2. Profiling the ‘Pro-environmental Individual’: A Personality Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

  3. ProPortal: A Database for Prochlorococcus

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huang, Katherine (Chisholm lab, MIT)

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans, and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL) adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL) adapted group. They are closely related to, but distinct from, marine Synechococcus. The genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced and they range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 Mbp. They represent diverse lineages, spanning the rRNA diversity (97 to 99.93% similarity) of cultured representatives of this group. Our analyses of these genomes inform our understanding of how adaptation occurs in the oceans along gradients of light, nutrients, and other environmental factors, providing essential context for interpreting rapidly expanding metagenomic datasets. [Copied from http://proportal.mit.edu/project/prochlorococcus/] ProPortal allows users to browse and search genome date for not only Prochlorococcus, but Cyanophage and Synechococcus. Microarray data, environmental cell concentration data, and metagenome information are also available.

  4. Pro and contra IBR-eradication.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Mathias; Engels, Monika

    2006-03-31

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections such as infectious rhinotracheitis (IBR), infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV, balanoposthitis (IBP), and abortion. Despite of a pronounced immune response, the virus is never eliminated from an infected host but establishes life-long latency and may be reactivated at intervals. Europe has a long history of fighting against BoHV-1 infections, yet, only a small number of countries has achieved IBR-eradication. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to review the reasoning pro and contra such a task. Clearly, the goal can indeed be achieved as has been demonstrated by a number of European countries. However, detection and stamping out of seemingly healthy virus carriers is inevitable in the process. Unfortunately, the use of vaccines is only of temporary and limited value. Therefore, there are numerous considerations to be put forward against such plans, including the high costs, the great risks, and the unsatisfactory quality of tools. If either control or eradication of IBR is nonetheless a goal, then better vaccines are needed as well as better companion tests. Moreover, better tools for the characterization of viral isolates are required. Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous. PMID:16337098

  5. Pro-angiogenic properties of orosomucoid (ORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Irmak, Ster [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia [Department of Oncology/Hematology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)] [Department of Oncology/Hematology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Singer, Bernhard B. [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Erguen, Sueleyman, E-mail: sueleyman.erguen@uk-essen.de [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany)] [Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Tilki, Derya [Department of Urology, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Urology, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM), also known as alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is found to be increased in infection, inflammation and cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that ORM is produced by endothelial cells and detectable in urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. However, it was not clarified yet whether ORM plays a role in new vessel formation. To this aim we performed overexpression and gene silencing for ORM in human microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). ORM purified from human plasma was used individually or in combination with VEGF-A in endothelial tube formation, migration and proliferation assay. The in vivo effect of ORM in angiogenesis was studied using the chicken chorionallantois membrane (CAM) with subsequent counting of blood vessels on histological sections from the stimulated areas of CAM tissue. Our data show that ORM alone enhances migration but not proliferation of HDMECs. ORM alone does not induce endothelial tubes in vitro but simultaneous application of ORM with VEGF-A increases the number and the network of VEGF-A-induced endothelial tubes. Remarkably, ORM alone induces new vessel formation in vivo using CAM assay and supports the VEGF-A-induced new vessel formation in this assay. Taken together, our results let assume that ORM has pro-angiogenic properties and supports the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. Thus, ORM seems to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  6. Pro-Inflammatory Mediation of Myoblast Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Otis, Jeffrey S.; Niccoli, Sarah; Hawdon, Nicole; Sarvas, Jessica L.; Frye, Melinda A.; Chicco, Adam J.; Lees, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cell function is largely dictated by the surrounding environment following injury. Immune cell infiltration dominates the extracellular space in the injured area, resulting in increased cytokine concentrations. While increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression has been previously established in the first 3 days following injury, less is known about the time course of cytokine expression and the specific mechanisms of cytokine induced myoblast function. Therefore, the expression of IL-1? and IL-6 at several time points following injury, and their effects on myoblast proliferation, were examined. In order to do this, skeletal muscle was injured using barium chloride in mice and tissue was collected 1, 5, 10, and 28 days following injury. Mechanisms of cytokine induced proliferation were determined in cell culture using both primary and C2C12 myoblasts. It was found that there is a ?20-fold increase in IL-1? (p?0.05) and IL-6 (p?=?0.06) expression 5 days following injury. IL-1? increased proliferation of both primary and C2C12 cells ?25%. IL-1? stimulation also resulted in increased NF-?B activity, likely contributing to the increased proliferation. These data demonstrate for the first time that IL-1? alone can increase the mitogenic activity of primary skeletal muscle satellite cells and offer insight into the mechanisms dictating satellite cell function following injury. PMID:24647690

  7. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys?) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys? cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases. PMID:25361011

  8. HBx protein-induced upregulation of microRNA-221 promotes aberrant proliferation in HBV?related hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting estrogen receptor-?.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan-Juan; Tang, Yi-Shu; Huang, Shi-Feng; Ai, Jian-Gang; Wang, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Emerging evidence has shown the association between aberrantly expressed miR-221 and cancer development; however, little is known concerning its potential role in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. In the present study, functional studies demonstrated that HBx leads to the promotion of cell proliferation and cell growth viability. Obviously overexpressed miR-221 was found in HBx-transfected cells compared with the mock counterparts. Suppression of miR-221 significantly inhibited HCC cell proliferation. Western blot analysis indicated that estrogen receptor-? (ER?) was downregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis combined with validation experiments identified ER? as a direct target of miR-221. The present study suggests that miR-221 modulates HCC cancer cell proliferation by suppressing ER?, functioning as a tumor promoter. Moreover, our data imply that miR-221 has potential as an miRNA-based therapeutic target for HBV-related HCC. PMID:25483016

  9. Sorafenib overcomes the chemoresistance in HBx-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HBx protein stability and suppresses HBV gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Jung, Hye Uk; Yoo, Seung Hee; Yoo, Ki Soo; Cheong, JaeHun; Park, Bong Soo; Yun, Il; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that HBx expression has anti-apoptotic effects, resulting in increased drug resistance in HCC cells. Thus, we examined if sorafenib efficiently induces apoptosis in HBx-overexpressing HCC cells. Noticeably, sorafenib efficiently induced apoptosis, even in HBx-expressing HepG2 cells, indicating that the HBx protein does not attenuate sorafenib-induced apoptosis. We next investigated if sorafenib modulates autophagy, allowing HCC cells to overcome the chemoresistance conferred by the HBx protein. Although autophagy plays a cytoprotective role against sorafenib-induced lethality, sorafenib was effective irrespective of HBx protein overexpression. We next examined if sorafenib exerts its cytotoxic effect via direct effects on the HBx protein. Importantly, sorafenib decreased HBx protein stability through a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Moreover, sorafenib decreased HBV gene expression and viral promoter activity. Taken together, sorafenib efficiently induces apoptotic cell death in HBx-expressing HCC cells via the downregulation of the HBx protein, a key factor in the anti-cancer drug resistance observed in HBV-induced HCC. PMID:25218348

  10. Astragalus polysaccharides enhance immune responses of HBV DNA vaccination via promoting the dendritic cell maturation and suppressing Treg frequency in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaogang; Zhao, Bing; Li, Jinyao; Cao, Xiaohan; Diao, Mingkun; Feng, Haibo; Chen, Xiaobing; Chen, Zhiyu; Zeng, Xianyin

    2012-12-01

    Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), an extract from a kind of Chinese traditional herb Astragalus membranaceus, was proved to have strong immunoregulatory properties. In this study, APS was employed as an adjuvant of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine (pcDS2) and its' effects on immune system of mice were investigated. Our data demonstrated that APS as an adjuvant could increase the HBsAg-specific antibody level as well as the proliferating activity of T cells. APS also could induce CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-4, IL-2 and IFN-? and enhance IFN-? expression of CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, APS could induce the robust activity of the cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL). Additionally, APS could stimulate the dendritic cells (DC) maturation which is characterized by up-regulation of MHC I/II, CD40, CD80 and CD86, and decreased the frequency of the regulatory T cells (nTreg). Collectively, these findings suggest that APS is a potent adjuvant for the hepatitis B DNA vaccine and can enhance the immune responses of HBV DNA vaccine via promoting DC maturation and inhibit the Treg frequency. PMID:23006659

  11. The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Blair J.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

  12. The Pro-Apoptotic and Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Calprotectin on Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Lingfei; Wang, Xian'e; Wei, Shicheng; Meng, Huanxin

    2014-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9) and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9) in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF?, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-?B inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis. PMID:25338166

  13. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a common belief, often expressed explicitly, that precession is incapable of energizing a geodynamo, a la Loper. We will present a critique of Loper’s 1975 paper and briefly discuss the common practice and belief that the geodynamo must be energized by thermal and/or compositional driven convection (motion). We note here that there is no observational evidence for existence of thermal or compositional convection within the liquid core or for growth of the solid core. Although there has been considerable success in adapting data in thermal/compositional models to yield near realistic solutions, that does not constitute a proof that those models apply to the Earth. There is absolute observational evidence for mantle precession, an Earth feature that is unique, along with the Earth’s magnetic field, among the terrestrial planets. We argue that great difficulty experienced in analysis and computation of precessional flow is a major explanation for its absence in current models of the geodynamo.

  14. Pro-oxidative action of polyphenols as action mechanism for their pro-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Logrieco, Antonio; Leone, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols, secondary metabolites widely present in plant kingdom, are known for their positive effects on human health, such as treatments of degenerative disease and cancer. Many dietary polyphenols show anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties and they are proposed as chemopreventive agents for many skin disorders and cancer. Exposure to solar UV radiation is widely considered to cause skin cancer and a consistent carcinogenic dose derived from UVA causes several skin disorders as a consequence of free radicals generation and DNA damages. In this study, verbascoside, isoverbascoside and tyrosol were investigated for their effects on HEKa (Human Epidermal Keratinocytes adult) cell cultures challenged from UVA-rays. Non-toxic doses of each polyphenol were assayed on HEKa before, during and after the exposure to a damaging dose of UVA. Treatment with polyphenols before and after the UVA-irradiation exerted a pro-oxidant effect, while the simultaneous treatment caused a weak decrease of ROS production. The increasing of ROS levels was associated with a proapoptotic effect on HEKa, detected by AnnexinV/Propidiun Iodide, mainly evident in surviving cells treated with the polyphenols after the UVA-irradiation. The pro-apoptotic effect was confirmed by the immunodetection of significant changes in the Bax and Bcl-xL protein levels, leading to apoptotic events. The hypothesis that these polyphenols could trigger the apoptosis pathway mainly in UVA-damaged cells, via ROS increase, is here proposed as action mechanism behind their protective effect. PMID:25244914

  15. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    El-Saghire, Houssein; Vandevoorde, Charlot; Ost, Piet; Monsieurs, Pieter; Michaux, Arlette; De Meerleer, Gert; Baatout, Sarah; Thierens, Hubert

    2014-04-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using ?-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18-24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  16. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using ?-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  17. Thermo2Pro: Knowledge dissemination for deep geothermal exploration

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/12 Thermo2Pro: Knowledge dissemination for deep geothermal exploration Philippe Calcagno1 territoires, Voreppe, France # now at Kitware, Villeurbanne, France p.calcagno@brgm.fr Keywords: Deep geothermal exploration, information system, Web tool, sedimentary basin, dissemination. Abstract

  18. Pro-cyclical mortality across socioeconomic groups and health status.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Venke Furre; Telle, Kjetil

    2015-01-01

    Using variation across geographic regions, a number of studies from the U.S. and other developed countries have found more deaths in economic upturns and less deaths in economic downturns. We use data from regions in Norway for 1977-2008 and find the same pro-cyclical patterns. Using individual-level register data for the identical population, we find that disadvantaged socioeconomic groups are not hit harder by pro-cyclical mortality than advantaged groups. We also find that other indicators of deteriorated health (than death), like becoming disabled, are pro-cyclical. Overall, our analysis suggests that pro-cyclical mortality is rather related to deaths of people already in deteriorated health than to people of low socioeconomic status. PMID:25205610

  19. Sickle cell disease is associated with decreased HIV but higher HBV and HCV comorbidities in US hospital discharge records: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nouraie, Mehdi; Nekhai, Sergei; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2012-01-01

    Objective Some studies suggest that HIV infection progresses slowly in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The authors aimed to determine the relationships between SCD and HIV infection. Methods National Hospital Discharge Survey data from adult Africane–Americans in the period of 1997–2009 were analysed. The comorbidities of SCD with HIV infections in hospital discharges were analysed. Multiple logistic regression was used to test the association between SCD and HIV. For comparative purposes, the relationships of SCD with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were also assessed. Results 423 431 records were divided into two time periods 1997–2003 (53% of records) and 2004–2009 (47% of records). The frequency of HIV diagnosis was lower in patients with SCD (1.5% vs 3.3% in patients without SCD). In logistic regression, SCD diagnosis was associated with an OR of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.32) for HIV diagnosis in the first period and with an OR of 0.31 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.42) in the second period. In contrast, SCD was associated with higher risk of HCV (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.59 in the first period and OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.63 in the second period). SCD was also associated with a higher risk of HBV (OR=1.15, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.83 in the first period and OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.68 in the second period). Conclusions The lower risk of HIV comorbidity, but not HCV and HBV, with SCD is consistent with the possibility that SCD has a unique effect in altering the risk of HIV infection or progression. Investigation of how the haemolytic and immunological changes of SCD influence HIV might lead to new therapeutic or preventive approaches. PMID:22628662

  20. Frequency and genotypic distribution of GB virus C (GBV-C) among Colombian population with Hepatitis B (HBV) or Hepatitis C (HCV) infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background GB virus C (GBV-C) is an enveloped positive-sense ssRNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Studies on the genetic variability of the GBV-C reveals the existence of six genotypes: genotype 1 predominates in West Africa, genotype 2 in Europe and America, genotype 3 in Asia, genotype 4 in Southwest Asia, genotype 5 in South Africa and genotype 6 in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and genotypic distribution of GBV-C in the Colombian population. Methods Two groups were analyzed: i) 408 Colombian blood donors infected with HCV (n = 250) and HBV (n = 158) from Bogotá and ii) 99 indigenous people with HBV infection from Leticia, Amazonas. A fragment of 344 bp from the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) was amplified by nested RT PCR. Viral sequences were genotyped by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences from each genotype obtained from GenBank (n = 160). Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to obtain the MCC tree using BEAST v.1.5.3. Results Among blood donors, from 158 HBsAg positive samples, eight 5.06% (n = 8) were positive for GBV-C and from 250 anti-HCV positive samples, 3.2%(n = 8) were positive for GBV-C. Also, 7.7% (n = 7) GBV-C positive samples were found among indigenous people from Leticia. A phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of the following GBV-C genotypes among blood donors: 2a (41.6%), 1 (33.3%), 3 (16.6%) and 2b (8.3%). All genotype 1 sequences were found in co-infection with HBV and 4/5 sequences genotype 2a were found in co-infection with HCV. All sequences from indigenous people from Leticia were classified as genotype 3. The presence of GBV-C infection was not correlated with the sex (p = 0.43), age (p = 0.38) or origin (p = 0.17). Conclusions It was found a high frequency of GBV-C genotype 1 and 2 in blood donors. The presence of genotype 3 in indigenous population was previously reported from Santa Marta region in Colombia and in native people from Venezuela and Bolivia. This fact may be correlated to the ancient movements of Asian people to South America a long time ago. PMID:21745373

  1. Bax and other pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Antonsson

    2001-01-01

    Two major intracellular apoptosis signaling cascades have been characterized, the mitochondrial pathway and the death receptor pathway. The mitochondrial pathway is regulated by members of the Bcl-2 protein family. The members of this family can be subdivided into anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. The pro-apoptotic members are further divided into two groups, the multidomain and the 'BH3 domain only' proteins. When

  2. Fibula-pro-tibia in plating tibial non-unions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galal Z. Said; Mohammad M. El-Sharkawi; Hatem G. Said; Omar A. Refai

    Purpose  Plating non-unions of the tibial diaphysis often presents the technical problem of poor purchase of screws due to osteoporosis.\\u000a To improve the stabilization, insertion of one or more screws through the plate across the tibio-fibular space to the fibula\\u000a (fibula-pro-tibia plating) has been practiced. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the fibula-pro-tibia\\u000a plating technique in

  3. A novel pro-Arg motif recognized by WW domains.

    PubMed

    Bedford, M T; Sarbassova, D; Xu, J; Leder, P; Yaffe, M B

    2000-04-01

    WW domains mediate protein-protein interactions through binding to short proline-rich sequences. Two distinct sequence motifs, PPXY and PPLP, are recognized by different classes of WW domains, and another class binds to phospho-Ser-Pro sequences. We now describe a novel Pro-Arg sequence motif recognized by a different class of WW domains using data from oriented peptide library screening, expression cloning, and in vitro binding experiments. The prototype member of this group is the WW domain of formin-binding protein 30 (FBP30), a p53-regulated molecule whose WW domains bind to Pro-Arg-rich cellular proteins. This new Pro-Arg sequence motif re-classifies the organization of WW domains based on ligand specificity, and the Pro-Arg class now includes the WW domains of FBP21 and FE65. A structural model is presented which rationalizes the distinct motifs selected by the WW domains of YAP, Pin1, and FBP30. The Pro-Arg motif identified for WW domains often overlaps with SH3 domain motifs within protein sequences, suggesting that the same extended proline-rich sequence could form discrete SH3 or WW domain complexes to transduce distinct cellular signals. PMID:10744724

  4. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  5. AdjudiPro{reg_sign} 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.; Connolly, J. [United HealthCare Corp., Minnetonka, MN (United States); Simons, B.C. [United HealthCare Corp., Edina, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    AdjudiPro, version 2.0, is the latest incarnation of United HealthCare`s patented physician claims adjudication expert system (US patent No. 5,359,509). Its core is an embedded expert system that contains the logic for processing 55% of all physician claim situations reviewed on United HealthCare`s managed care system. Certain physician services are reviewed as part of the claims adjudication process to ensure that submitted charges meet contractual, and other guidelines. In 1995, nearly $20 million in gross savings was realized through use of this system. Since its initial deployment in 1991-1992, there has been a steep increase in AdjudiPro`s processing volume. This increased demand created a number of issues that had to be addressed to ensure AdjudiPro`s continued viability and growth. As a result, much of the past three years was spent rearchitecting AdjudiPro to meet the increasing load placed on it, while achieving acceptable throughput. AdjudiPro is now an essentially real-time application, processing claims twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. This paper describes the current AdjudiPro application, and the key issues faced during the past three years.

  6. Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation requires proPO-activating proteinase (PAP) and serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) simultaneously

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snehalata Gupta; Yang Wang; Haobo Jiang

    2005-01-01

    In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is mediated by three proPO-activating proteinases (PAPs) and two serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95 (1998) 12220–12225; J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003a) 3552–3561; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33 (2003b) 1049–1060). While our current data are consistent with the hypothesis that the SPHs

  7. Identification of cyclin B1 and Sec62 as biomarkers for recurrence in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma after surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Frequent tumor recurrence after surgery is related to its poor prognosis. Although gene expression signatures have been associated with outcome, the molecular basis of HCC recurrence is not fully understood, and there is no method to predict recurrence using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which can be easily obtained for recurrence prediction in the clinical setting. Methods According to the microarray analysis results, we constructed a co-expression network using the k-core algorithm to determine which genes play pivotal roles in the recurrence of HCC associated with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Furthermore, we evaluated the mRNA and protein expressions in the PBMCs from 80 patients with or without recurrence and 30 healthy subjects. The stability of the signatures was determined in HCC tissues from the same 80 patients. Data analysis included ROC analysis, correlation analysis, log-lank tests, and Cox modeling to identify independent predictors of tumor recurrence. Results The tumor-associated proteins cyclin B1, Sec62, and Birc3 were highly expressed in a subset of samples of recurrent HCC; cyclin B1, Sec62, and Birc3 positivity was observed in 80%, 65.7%, and 54.2% of the samples, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high expression levels of these proteins was associated with significantly reduced recurrence-free survival. Cox proportional hazards model analysis revealed that cyclin B1 (hazard ratio [HR], 4.762; p?=?0.002) and Sec62 (HR, 2.674; p?=?0.018) were independent predictors of HCC recurrence. Conclusion These results revealed that cyclin B1 and Sec62 may be candidate biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for HBV-related HCC recurrence after surgery. PMID:22682366

  8. The InterPro BioMart: federated query and web service access to the InterPro Resource.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Binns, David; McMenamin, Conor; McAnulla, Craig; Hunter, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models ('signatures') that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview. PMID:21785143

  9. Synthesis, DNA recognition and cleavage studies of novel tetrapeptide complexes, Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.; Mohapatra, D. K.

    2013-05-01

    New tetrapeptide complexes Cu(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (1) and Zn(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (2) were synthesized from the reaction of tetrapeptide, Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro and CuCl2/ZnCl2 and were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H and 13C NMR (in case of 2), ESI-MS, UV and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study was carried out employing UV-vis absorption titrations over a broad range of pH which suggested the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA was studied employing UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroic and viscometry studies. To throw insight into molecular binding event at the target site, UV-vis titrations of 1 and 2 with mononucleotides of interest viz.; 5'-GMP and 5'-TMP were carried out. Cleavage activity of the complexes with pBR322 plasmid DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and, the electrophoresis pattern demonstrated that both the complexes 1 and 2 are efficient cleavage agents. Further, the Cu(II) complex displayed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA while various reactive oxygen species are responsible for the cleavage in Zn(II) complex.

  10. Development of the Flight Tether for ProSEDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Vaughn, Jason; Welzyn, Ken; Carroll, Joe; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System to deploy a newly designed and developed tether which will provide tether generated drag thrust of approx. 0.4 N. The development and production of very long tethers with specific properties for performance and survivability will be required to enable future tether missions. The ProSEDS tether design and the development process may provide some lessons learned for these future missions. The ProSEDS system requirements drove the design of the tether to have three different sections of tether each serving a specialized purpose. The tether is a total of 15 kilometers long: 10 kilometers of a non-conductive Dyneema lead tether; 5 km of CCOR conductive coated wire; and 220 meters of insulated wire with a protective Kevlar overbraid. Production and joining of long tether lengths involved many development efforts. Extensive testing of tether materials including ground deployment of the full-length ProSEDS tether was conducted to validate the tether design and performance before flight.

  11. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballance, Judy; Johnson, Les; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned to fly in 2001, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 10 km spectra or dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDs instrumentation includes a Langmuir probe and Differential Ion Flux Probe, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations, The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the deorbit of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  12. Milk-Derived Tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) Promote Adipocyte Differentiation and Inhibit Inflammation in 3T3-F442A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Wu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Milk derived tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) have shown promise as anti-hypertensive agents due to their inhibitory effects on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Due to the key inter-related roles of hypertension, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, there is growing interest in investigating established anti-hypertensive agents for their effects on insulin sensitivity and inflammation. In this study, we examined the effects of IPP and VPP on 3T3-F442A murine pre-adipocytes, a widely used model for studying metabolic diseases. We found that both IPP and VPP induced beneficial adipogenic differentiation as manifested by intracellular lipid accumulation, upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) and secretion of the protective lipid hormone adiponectin by these cells. The observed effects were similar to those induced by insulin, suggesting potential benefits in the presence of insulin resistance. IPP and VPP also inhibited cytokine induced pro-inflammatory changes such as reduction in adipokine levels and activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that IPP and VPP exert insulin-mimetic adipogenic effects and prevent inflammatory changes in adipocytes, which may offer protection against metabolic disease. PMID:25714093

  13. ProServer: a simple, extensible Perl DAS server

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Robert D.; Stalker, James W.; Jackson, David K.; Kulesha, Eugene; Clements, Jody; Pettett, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Summary: The increasing size and complexity of biological databases has led to a growing trend to federate rather than duplicate them. In order to share data between federated databases, protocols for the exchange mechanism must be developed. One such data exchange protocol that is widely used is the Distributed Annotation System (DAS). For example, DAS has enabled small experimental groups to integrate their data into the Ensembl genome browser. We have developed ProServer, a simple, lightweight, Perl-based DAS server that does not depend on a separate HTTP server. The ProServer package is easily extensible, allowing data to be served from almost any underlying data model. Recent additions to the DAS protocol have enabled both structure and alignment (sequence and structural) data to be exchanged. ProServer allows both of these data types to be served. Availability: ProServer can be downloaded from http://www.sanger.ac.uk/proserver/ or CPAN http://search.cpan.org/~rpettett/. Details on the system requirements and installation of ProServer can be found at http://www.sanger.ac.uk/proserver/. Contact: rmp@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary Materials: DasClientExamples.pdf PMID:17237073

  14. Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

    2011-01-01

    Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

  15. ProCure21+ should speed scheme starts.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    This October saw the launch of the new ProCure21+ National Framework under which, the Department of Health (DH) team behind the new scheme claims, the NHS can potentially save a further pound 200 million of public money on top of the substantial sums saved under predecessor, ProCure21, via faster, more streamlined procurement, design, planning, and construction, of publicly-funded healthcare schemes. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discussed, with the DH's senior responsible officer (SRO) and P21+ team leader Peter Sellars, the background to the new Framework's introduction, the success of its forerunner, and the additional benefits that ProCure21 + (which is backed by organisations incuding HM Treasury, the National Audit Office, and the Office of Government Commerce) should bring to the entire healthcare building supply chain. PMID:21141235

  16. Cancer exosomes trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Mark; Mason, Malcolm D.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2015-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts become altered in response to solid cancers, to exhibit myofibroblastic characteristics, with disease promoting influence. Infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may contribute towards these changes, but the factors secreted by cancer cells that impact MSC differentiation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nano-metre sized vesicles (exosomes), secreted by prostate cancer cells, on the differentiation of bone-marrow MSC (BM-MSC), and the subsequent functional consequences of such changes. Purified exosomes impaired classical adipogenic differentiation, skewing differentiation towards alpha-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) positive myofibroblastic cells. A single exosomes treatment generated myofibroblasts secreting high levels of VEGF-A, HGF and matrix regulating factors (MMP-1, ?3 and ?13). Differentiated MSC had pro-angiogenic functions and enhanced tumour proliferation and invasivity assessed in a 3D co-culture model. Differentiation was dependent on exosomal-TGF?, but soluble TGF? at matched dose could not generate the same phenotype. Exosomes present in the cancer cell secretome were the principal factors driving this phenotype. Prostate cancer exosomes dominantly dictate a programme of MSC differentiation generating myofibroblasts with functional properties consistent with disease promotion. PMID:25596732

  17. The neuropsychology of infants’ pro-social preferences

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kaduk, Katharina; Bakker, Marta; Gottwald, Janna; Ekberg, Therese; Elsner, Claudia; Reid, Vincent; Kenward, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate neural correlates of infants’ detection of pro- and antisocial agents. Differences in ERP component P400 over posterior temporal areas were found during 6-month-olds’ observation of helping and hindering agents (Experiment 1), but not during observation of identically moving agents that did not help or hinder (Experiment 2). The results demonstrate that the P400 component indexes activation of infants’ memories of previously perceived interactions between social agents. This leads to suggest that similar processes might be involved in infants’ processing of pro- and antisocial agents and other social perception processes (encoding gaze direction, goal directed grasping and pointing). PMID:25681955

  18. Pro-2-PAM Therapy for Central and Peripheral Cholinesterases

    PubMed Central

    DeMar, James C.; Clarkson, Edward D.; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H.; Campbell, Amy J.; Thangavelu, Sonia G.; Herdman, Christine A.; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M.; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A.; Ku, Theresa C.; Evans, Sarah A.; Khan, Farhat A.; Owens, Roberta R.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gordon, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980–1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using a) surgically-implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG) b) neurohistopathology of brain, c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropyl-fluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM, but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5 h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro 2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for the deleterious effects of OP poisoning by reactivating CNS AChE. PMID:20156430

  19. The miR-545/374a Cluster Encoded in the Ftx lncRNA is Overexpressed in HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Promotes Tumorigenesis and Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Tao; Qi, Jianni; Liu, Juan; Qin, Chengyong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies have shown several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play various roles in HCC progression, but no research has focused on the expression pattern of microRNA clusters encoded in lncRNAs. The Ftx gene encodes a lncRNA which harbors 2 clusters of microRNAs in its introns, the miR-374b/421 cluster and the miR-545/374a cluster. To date, no research has focused on the role of the miR-545/374a and miR-374b/421 clusters in HBV-related HCC. In this study, 66 pairs of HBV-related HCC tissue and matched non-cancerous liver tissue specimens were analyzed for the expression of the Ftx microRNA clusters. Our results showed that the miR-545/374a cluster was upregulated in HBV-HCC tissue and significantly correlated with prognosis-related clinical features, including histological grade, metastasis and tumor capsule. Transfection studies with microRNA mimics and inhibitors revealed that miR-545/374a expression promoted in vitro cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. The wild-type HBV-genome-containing plasmid or full-length HBx protein encoding plasmid was transfected into the Bel-7402 cell line and observed for their influence on miR-545/374a expression. We found that transfection of the HBV genome or HBx alone resulted in an increase in miR-545/374a expression. Next, by monitoring the expression of sera miR-545/374a before and after surgical tumor excision, we found serum miR-545/374a was tumor-derived and exhibited a sharp decrease 25 days after tumor excision. We also examined the gender-based difference in miR-545/374a expression among HCC patients and utilized microRNA target prediction software to find the targets of miR-545/374a. One of these targets, namely estrogen-related receptor gamma (ESRRG) was inversely correlated with miR-545 expression. In conclusion, the overexpression of miR-545/374a cluster located in the Ftx lncRNA is partially responsible for a poor prognosis, and monitoring sera levels of miR-545/374a may be a useful diagnostic marker for HCC. PMID:25299640

  20. Immunohistochemical mapping of pro-opiomelanocortin- and pro-dynorphin-derived peptides in the alpaca (Lama pacos) diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Manso, B; Sánchez, M L; Medina, L E; Aguilar, L A; Díaz-Cabiale, Z; Narváez, J A; Coveñas, R

    2014-09-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibres containing non-opioid peptides (adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and opioid peptides (beta-endorphin (1-27), alpha-neo-endorphin, leucine-enkephalin) in the alpaca diencephalon. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were found. Perikarya containing the other four peptides were observed exclusively in the hypothalamus and their distribution was restricted. Perikarya containing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin showed a more widespread distribution than those containing leucine-enkephalin or beta-endorphin (1-27). Cell bodies containing pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were observed in the arcuate nucleus, anterior and lateral hypothalamic areas and in the ventromedial and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei, whereas perikarya containing alpha-neo-endorphin (a pro-dynorphin-derived peptide) were found in the arcuate nucleus, dorsal and lateral hypothalamic areas, and in the paraventricular, ventromedial and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei. Immunoreactive cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin were found in the lateral hypothalamic area and in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactive fibres expressing pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides were more numerous than those expressing pro-dynorphin-derived peptides. A close anatomical relationship was observed: in all the diencephalic nuclei in which beta-endorphin (1-27)-immunoreactive fibres were found, fibres containing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin were also observed. Fibres containing beta-endorphin (1-27), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-neo-endorphin were widely distributed throughout the diencephalon, but fibres containing ACTH or leucine-enkephalin showed a moderate distribution. The distribution of the five peptides studied here is also compared with that reported previously in other mammalian species. The widespread distribution observed indicates that both the pro-dynorphin and the pro-opiomelanocortin systems are involved in multiple physiological actions (e.g., food intake, thermoregulation, neuroendocrine and reproductive mechanisms) in the alpaca diencephalon. PMID:24956196

  1. HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum infections among blood donors and Transfusion-related complications among recipients at the Laquintinie hospital in Douala, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) pose a major health risk in Cameroon given the high prevalence of such pathogens and increased demands for blood donations in the local communities. This study aims at establishing the prevalence of commonly encountered TTIs among blood donors and transfusion-related complications among recipients in an urban center of Cameroon. Methods A total of 477 blood donors and 83 blood recipients were recruited by consecutive sampling at the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala (LHD), Cameroon. Serum samples from blood donors were tested by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and/or using various Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for presence of Hepatits B (HBV) viral antigens, and antibodies to human immunodeficiency (HIV-1/2), Hepatits B (HCV) and Treponema pallidum. Recipient’s medical records were also analyzed for possible transfusion-associated complications. Results The male/female sex ratio of the blood donors was 4/1 with a mean age of 30.2 (Sd?=?8.3) years. Of all blood donors, 64/467 (13.7%) were infected by at least one of the four TTIs. Infected volunteer donors represented 8.3% while infected family donors comprised 14.3% of the donor population. The prevalence of HCV, HIV, HBV and T. pallidum were 1.3%, 1.8%, 3.5%, and 8.1%, respectively. More than half of the blood recipients were female (78.3%) and the mean age was 20.6 (SD?=?16.1) years. The causes of severe anemia indicative of transfusion in recipients varied with wards (postpartum hemorrhage, caesarean section, uterine or cervical lacerations, abortions, urinary tract infections, severe malaria, vaso-occlusive attacks, wounds and gastrointestinal bleeding). The most frequent complications were chills and hematuria, which represented 46.1% of all observed complications. Other complications such as nausea, vomiting, jaundice, sudden diarrhea, anxiety, tachycardia, or hyperthermia were also found in recipients. Three cases of deaths occurred during the study, including a girl of less than one year. Conclusion This study confirms the presence of blood-borne infectious diseases in blood donors at the LHD, identifying T. pallidum as the greatest threat to blood safety in the region, and hematuria as the most common immunological complications in blood recipients. PMID:24517107

  2. Engineering Graphics/Pro-Engineer on the Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Crown, Stephen W.

    This website, authored by Stephen W. Crown of the University of Texas-Pan American, is the 1999 recipient of Premier Award for Excellence in Engineering Education Courseware. It includes a course syllabus for an Engineering Graphics course, virtual world, lecture notes, games and quizzes, class photos, and pro-engineer tutorials.

  3. ProTarget: automatic prediction of protein structure novelty

    E-print Network

    Linial, Michal

    Target is a graph- ical visualization of the protein of interest together with the likelihood that a protein over 160 000 protein sequences from the SwissProt and PDB databases. ProTarget is available at http SG projects is constantly increasing. One of the most critical tasks for SG is target selection (3

  4. Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Paul G.; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Bongiorno, Renata; Jeffries, Carla

    2012-08-01

    A sizeable (and growing) proportion of the public in Western democracies deny the existence of anthropogenic climate change. It is commonly assumed that convincing deniers that climate change is real is necessary for them to act pro-environmentally. However, the likelihood of `conversion' using scientific evidence is limited because these attitudes increasingly reflect ideological positions. An alternative approach is to identify outcomes of mitigation efforts that deniers find important. People have strong interests in the welfare of their society, so deniers may act in ways supporting mitigation efforts where they believe these efforts will have positive societal effects. In Study 1, climate change deniers (N=155) intended to act more pro-environmentally where they thought climate change action would create a society where people are more considerate and caring, and where there is greater economic/technological development. Study 2 (N=347) replicated this experimentally, showing that framing climate change action as increasing consideration for others, or improving economic/technological development, led to greater pro-environmental action intentions than a frame emphasizing avoiding the risks of climate change. To motivate deniers' pro-environmental actions, communication should focus on how mitigation efforts can promote a better society, rather than focusing on the reality of climate change and averting its risks.

  5. Review of the ProSEDS Electrodynamic Tether Mission Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Curtis, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Bilen, Sven; Lorenzini, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment was ready to fly as a secondary payload on a Delta-II expendable launch vehicle in late March 2003. Concerns raised in February 2003 by the International Space Station resulted in the delay of the launch of ProSEDS. Issues associated with the delayed launch date and a change in starting altitude resulted in the cancellation of the mission. ProSEDS was intended to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta I1 second stage to achieve adequate drag thrust that would lower the orbit of the system over days as opposed to months due to atmospheric drag. It was also designed to utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. Considerable effort and testing went in to developing the ProSEDS system by a dedicated team. Through this effort, important technological issues were identified and addressed and this presentation will discuss some of the important technical issues and hurdles that had to be addressed to successfully prepare for flight. It is intended that this information will be of use for future tether mission and experiment designers.

  6. Pro-eating disorder websites: facts, fictions and fixes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Sharpe; Peter Musiat; Olivia Knapton; Ulrike Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Pro-eating disorder websites are online communities of individuals who do not consider eating disorders to be serious mental illnesses requiring treatment. People visit these websites to meet other like-minded individuals, to share tips and tricks on how to lose weight and how to otherwise maintain the symptomatology of the disorder. This paper aims to review what is actually

  7. PRO-ART: Enabling Requirements Pre-Traceability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Pohl; RWTH Aachen

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: Requirements traceability is essential for developing software systems of high quality Whereas the traceability of the refinement, deployment, and use of a requirement is called post - traceability, the traceability of a requirement back to its origin is named pre - traceability In this contribution we present a requirements engineering environment, called PRO - ART , which enables requirements

  8. http://pro.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Mike

    http://pro.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings of the Human Factors and http: 945Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Clayton T. Stanley, Michael and Ergonomics Society can be found at:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting

  9. http://pro.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting

    E-print Network

    Mutlu, Bilge

    http://pro.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings of the Human Factors and http: 1027Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Shadeequa Miller, Bilge and Ergonomics Society can be found at:Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting

  10. From Biology to DiscoveryTM LipodinProTM

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    an alternative to nucleic acids transfection and a powerful strategy for functional studies or therapeutic with a single sample. Principal LipodinPro TM advantages: · No need for DNA cloning or nucleic acid approaches. Several technologies based on the use of peptide transduction domain (PTD) were developed

  11. Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

  12. Quantum computing: pro and con BY JOHN PRESKILL

    E-print Network

    Preskill, John

    -tolerant procedures that enable a quantum computer with noisy gates to perform reliably. Quantum computing hardware will the quantum computers of the future use? Can this hardware be constructed via incremental improvementsQuantum computing: pro and con BY JOHN PRESKILL Charles C. Lauritsen Laboratory of High Energy

  13. Potent Antioxidant Dendrimers Lacking Pro-oxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A.; Upadhaya, Samik K.; Nelson, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens and electron donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical quenching property. In order to minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity towards Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:20977937

  14. An evolvable hardware system in Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenek Vasicek; Lukas Sekanina

    2007-01-01

    *Corresponding author Abstract: In this paper, a new circuit architecture for image filter evolution is proposed. The evolvable system is based on the implementation of a search algorithm in the PowerPC processor which is available in Xilinx Virtex II Pro Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Candidate filters are evaluated in a domain-specific virtual reconfigurable circuit implemented using a reconfigurable logic

  15. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie is of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The tether would be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether connected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. Upcycling by Crowdsourcing: Leveraging Pro-Environmental Behavior

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Paul N.

    , collection site officials are frustrated by Company X's customer service and by the long waitlists volunteer productivity through improved customer service, by providing volunteer groups a platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1.1 Value orientations and environmental attitudes . . . . . . 14 4.1.2 Context for Pro

  17. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

  18. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  19. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also...S.C. 7183, imposes restrictions on smoking in facilities where certain Federally...services are provided. The Act prohibits smoking within any indoor facility...

  20. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also...S.C. 7183, imposes restrictions on smoking in facilities where certain Federally...services are provided. The Act prohibits smoking within any indoor facility...

  1. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also...S.C. 7183, imposes restrictions on smoking in facilities where certain Federally...services are provided. The Act prohibits smoking within any indoor facility...

  2. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also...S.C. 7183, imposes restrictions on smoking in facilities where certain Federally...services are provided. The Act prohibits smoking within any indoor facility...

  3. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also...S.C. 7183, imposes restrictions on smoking in facilities where certain Federally...services are provided. The Act prohibits smoking within any indoor facility...

  4. Raven Pro 1.3 User's Manual 10 March 2008

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    Raven Pro 1.3 User's Manual Revision 4 10 March 2008 This manual can be printed or used online are hypertext links: click the link to view the referenced section or page. #12;Copyright notice Raven software, the Raven 1.3 User's Manual , and example sounds Copyright ©2003 Cornell Lab of Orni thology. All rights

  5. Using Pro/ENGINEER`s{reg_sign} interface module

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, J.

    1994-06-01

    When the ACCORD Process introduced Pro/ENGINEER to Sandians several years ago, a new process for design/definition was implemented. Prior to ACCORD, engineers and draftsmen worked in the 2-D mode with a program caned ANVIL{reg_sign}, which had limited capabilities. Although the transition from 2-D modeling to 3-D modeling met with some resistance, most engineers have embraced this new concept with enthusiasm They are now able to work in the 3-D mode and at increased levels of productivity with appropriate time savings never achieved before. One area that Pro/ENGINEER is noted for that this report will concentrate on, is the powerful interface module with its wide selection of transfer file configurations. This allows the engineer to create parts or assemblies and transfer them to many different second party software packages whose vendors can provide the capability for stress analysis, rapid prototypes, virtual reality environments, or many other forms of advanced manufacturing modes of communication. The ACCORD Program has at its core, the Pro/ENGINEER program from Parametric Technology Inc. Included in the ACCORD program, are several supporting programs from other vendors to make this cooperation between software packages a reality. It is possible to create parts in Pro/ENG transfer those parts to another package that has the capability to analyze the parts for deficiencies, then optimize those parts, and allow for changes to be made. Also included in this report, are other packages closely tied to Pro/ENGINEER, but not necessarily supported under the ACCORD program. Some of these packages allow you to create very impressive video productions, or allow you to meander through a virtual reality scenario. All of these new software packages will give you a new perspective on performance. This report will show how some of these interfaces work, and how you can improve your productivity if you utilize the ACCORD program as it is implemented here at Sandia.

  6. Direct Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Prorenin on Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Peng; Grobe, Justin L.; Desland, Fiona A.; Zhou, Guannan; Shen, Xiao Z.; Shan, Zhiying; Liu, Meng; Raizada, Mohan K.; Sumners, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation has been implicated in hypertension, and microglia have been proposed to play an important role in the progression of this disease. Here, we have studied whether microglia are activated within cardiovascular regulatory area(s) of the brain during hypertension, especially in high blood pressure that is associated with chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin-system. In addition, we determined whether prorenin, an essential component of the renin-angiotensin-system, exerts direct pro-inflammatory effects on these microglia. Our data indicate that two rodent models which display neurogenic hypertension and over activation of the renin-angiotensin-system in the brain (sRA mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats) exhibit microglial activation, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an area crucial for regulation of sympathetic outflow. Further, the renin-angiotensin-system component prorenin elicits direct activation of hypothalamic microglia in culture and induction of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in these cells, effects that involve prorenin receptor-induced NF?B activation. In addition, the prorenin-elicited increases in cytokine expression were fully abolished by microglial inhibitor minocycline, and were potentiated by pre-treatment of cells with angiotensin II. Taken together with our previous data which indicate that pro-inflammatory processes in the paraventricular nucleus are involved in the hypertensive action of renin-angiotensin-system, the novel discovery that prorenin exerts direct stimulatory effects on microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production provides support for the idea that renin-angiotensin-system -induced neurogenic hypertension is not restricted to actions of angiotensin II alone. PMID:25302502

  7. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie; Johnson, Les; Brown, Norman S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta 11 Expendable Launch Vehicle second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned on an Air Force GPS Satellite replacement mission in June 2002, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 10 km non-conducting Dyneema) from a Delta 11 second stage to achieve approx. 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDS instrumentation includes Langmuir probes and Differential Ion Flux Probes, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the removal of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  8. Progastrin a new pro-angiogenic factor in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Najib, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Do, C; Roche, S; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, E; Seva, C

    2014-08-11

    Angiogenesis is essential in tumor progression and metastatic process, and increased angiogenesis has been associated with poor prognosis and relapse of colorectal cancer (CRC). VEGF has become the main target of anti-angiogenic therapy. However, most patients relapse after an initial response or present a resistance to the treatment. Identification of new pro-angiogenic factors may help to improve anti-angiogenic therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that the pro-hormone progastrin (PG), over-expressed in CRC, recognized as a growth factor, is a potent pro-angiogenic factor. In transgenic mice and human colorectal HPs producing high levels of PG, we correlated PG overexpression with an increased vascularization. In vitro, exogenous PG and conditioned media (CM) from CRC cells producing PG increased endothelial cell proliferation and migration. We also showed that treatment with exogenous PG can increase the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like structures. Moreover, we demonstrated that PG enhanced endothelial permeability. The finding that PG stimulated the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, p125-FAK, paxillin and induced actin remodelling was consistent with a role of these components in PG-stimulated endothelial cell migration and permeability. The pro-angiogenic effects observed with CM were significantly inhibited when CRC cells expressed a PG shRNA. In vivo, we found an important decrease in tumor growth and neovascularization when the CRC cells expressing the PG shRNA were xenografted in mice or in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. We also observed an increase in the coverage of blood vessels by pericytes and a decrease in endothelial permeability when PG expression was blocked. Our results demonstrate that PG is a new pro-angiogenic factor in CRC and an attractive therapeutic target.Oncogene advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.255. PMID:25109333

  9. IUE observations of proto-planetary and variable planetary nebulae. I - V1016 Cygni, HM Sagittae, and HBV 475. II - A search for variability in IC 4997 and NGC 6905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feibelman, W. A.

    1982-07-01

    The IUE satellite has undertaken UV observations of the proto-planetary nebulae V1016 Cyg, HM Sge, and HBV 475, yielding emission line fluxes, line ratios, line profiles, electron densities, and distances from these objects. While levels of increasing excitation and ionization as a function of time are shown by the data for the first two nebulae, the trend for HBV 475 is found to lead in the opposite direction. The formation of a shell is suggested by dramatic changes in the HM Sge UV line profiles over the last four years, including the disappearance of W-R features and the incipient splitting of the semi-forbidden C III 1909 A line. An additional IUE search for UV variability in the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 6905 has yielded emission line fluxes, line ratios and profiles, and central star temperatures, as well as stratification effects data for several ions in NGC 6905

  10. Characterization of T cell clones specific to a determinant of hepatitis B virus core and e antigens in chronic type B hepatitis: Implication for a T cell mechanism of HBV immunopathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Lung Tsai; Pei-Jer Chen; Pei-Ming Yang; Ta-Hsiu Liao; Juei-Low Sung; Ming-Yang Lai; Jyh-Hsiung Huang; Tong-Hsuan Chang; Ding-Shinn Chen

    1994-01-01

    T cell clones specific for hepatitis B core (HBcAg) and e (HBeAg) antigens of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were generated from liver infiltrates of HBeAg-positive patients. Analyzed with a panel of overlapping synthetic peptides spanning the complete sequences of HBcAg and HBeAg, eight clones responded specifically to the e2 peptide (PAYRPPNAPIL; amino acid residues 130–140 of HBcAg and HBeAg), which

  11. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads].

    PubMed

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, María del Remedio Guna; Martínez, José-Carlos Latorre; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; de Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers for the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained in the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads and HCV genotyping. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 3-5 log(10) copies/mL; two of these standards were identical, with the aim of determining repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.6% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.2 log(10)copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 95% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (?<0.5 log(10)copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 86.1% in the case of HCV and 87.1% in HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log(10)UI/mL). Post-analytical errors due to mistranscription of the results were detected in these controls. Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to interlaboratory variability, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable. PMID:22305664

  12. Evidence for induction of polysaccharide specific B-cell-memory in the 1st year of life: plain Haemophilus influenzae type b - PRP (Hib) boosters children primed with a tetanus-conjugate Hib-DTPa-HBV combined vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Zepp; H.-J. Schmitt; A. Kaufhold; A. Schuind; M. Knuf; P. Habermehl; C. Meyer; H. Bogaerts; M. Slaoui; R. Clemens

    1996-01-01

    The lack of an adequate immune response to the major polysaccharide of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsule (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate) (PRP) in very young infants (HBV) vaccine as a

  13. The prevalence of TT virus and GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in individuals with raised liver enzymes but without HBV or HCV infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, C. Y.; Yu, M. L.; Chang, W. Y.; Tseng, C. H.; Hou, C.; Lin, Z. Y.; Chen, S. C.; Hsieh, M. Y.; Wang, L. Y.; Tsai, J. F.; Chuang, W. L.

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of TT virus (TTV) and GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) infection and the association with raised liver function tests in 546 Taiwanese with negative HBsAg, anti-HCV and HCV RNA was elucidated. They were tested for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), GBV-C/HGV RNA, anti-envelope protein 2 antibody (anti-E2) and TTV DNA. Direct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed on 58 isolates for TTV genotype determination. The prevalence of TTV DNA, GBV-C/HGV RNA, anti-E2 and over all GBV-C/HGV exposure was 24.9, 3.4, 8.2 and 11.1%, respectively. Using uni- and multi-variate analyses, male gender and TTV viremia were associated significantly with raised ALT values. Sixty-nine percent of TTV isolates were deduced to be TTV genotype 1 and they had significantly lower mean age than genotype non-1 isolates. In the population, raised ALT may be related to male gender and be attributable to TTV infection but not to GBV-C/HGV among individuals with no evidence of current HBV and HCV infection. TTV genotype 1 is the most prevalent genotype and associated with younger age. PMID:12403107

  14. PCR for HBV, HCV and HIV-1 experiences and first results from a routine screening programme in a large blood transfusion service.

    PubMed

    Schottstedt, V; Tuma, W; Bünger, G; Lefèvre, H

    1998-06-01

    We adapted the PCR method to screen up to 3000 blood donations per day for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV-1 virus contamination. Up to 600 aliquots (average 418 donations) are pooled by using an automatic sample processor with disposable tips (validated to avoid contamination) taken from blood donations which are serologically negative and free for clinical usage according to federal regulations. In the case of a positive PCR pool result the viraemic donation is identified by two additional PCR pools testing steps with smaller pool sizes. All of the steps are supported by electronic data processing. After virus concentration by ultracentrifugation, and in the case of HCV and HIV-1 an additional reverse transcription step, PCR amplifications are performed. PCRs are done for each virus in two genomic regions. Laser-induced detection after PAGE and computer-analysis are used to identify the amplification products. Using this validated methodology routine we have checked 428 896 donations up to the end of August 1996. During this survey we found at least 24 viruses-containing donations which were negative in corresponding serological tests and would have been transfused (2 HBV-, 22 HCV-, 0 HIV-1 -containing donations). It seems possible for large transfusion centres to shorten the diagnostic window periods with our PCR-methodology with acceptable costs (15 DM per donation for all three viruses including logistics, developments and investments). PMID:9811513

  15. Simulation of the water balance in the Elbe River basin using weather forecast data - A comparison of the hydrological models SWIM and HBV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roers, Michael; Vetter, Tobias; Hoffmann, Peter; Wechsung, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The ecohydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) is applied to the German part of the Elbe River basin since 2012 on a semi-operational basis. In this context, semi-operational means that soil water balance, plant growth and runoff is simulated continuously on different spatial scales, using measured meteorological data of the previous day. In order to extend the prediction range and to include the Czech part of the river basin, we implement weather forecast data from the Global Forecast System (GFS), which is available for the years 2012-2014. At the same time we conduct simulations with the hydrological model HBV using the same input data. The consistency of the data allows a comparison of the results, which fosters the evaluation of the models and helps to improve their deficits. Initially, the calibration of both models is carried out with weather data of the last decade from the German weather service (DWD). Different parameter sets are tested and compared; uncertainties of the simulations can be shown. The validity of the results indicates the strength and weaknesses of each model and therefore determines its predictive capacity. A successful calibration and validation of the models is the basis for simulations with GFS-data of the previous two years and the prospective use of the model system for short (day)- to medium-term (week) predictions of high- and low water, of the soil water balance and of the agricultural plant growth in the Elbe river basin.

  16. Mammalian neural and endocrine pro-protein and pro-hormone convertases belonging to the subtilisin family of serine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Seidah, N G; Day, R; Marcinkiewicz, M; Benjannet, S; Chrétien, M

    1991-01-01

    Conversion of pro-hormones and precursor proteins into biologically active peptides and proteins involves the concerted action of a number of convertases and post-translation modification enzymes. The identification of the yeast convertase kexin as a prototype processing enzyme led to the discovery of the mammalian convertase designated furin, PC1 and PC2. Whereas furin is ubiquitously expressed, PC1 and PC2 are found only in endocrine and neural tissues and cell lines. In man and mouse, the genes coding for furin, PC1 and PC2 reside on three different chromosomes. The analysis of the intracellular processing of PC1 and PC2 and the removal of their pro-segment is presented, together with a summary of the cleavage specificity of these enzymes for precursors such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and human pro-renin. The distinct tissue distribution of PC1 and PC2 and their coregulation with POMC in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe adds credence to their physiological role as convertases involved in the tissue-specific processing of precursor proteins. PMID:1843281

  17. [Pretective action of peptide pro-gly-pro on electrophysiological characteristics of cultured hippocampal neurones during excitotoxic damage].

    PubMed

    Maslov, V Iu; Veselovs'ky?, M S; Moskaliuk, A O; M"iasoiedov, M F; Shram, S I; Fedulova, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal neurones cultured with Pro-Gly-Pro peptide were studied using glutamate excitotoxisity model (excitotoxic damage was induced by 100 mkM glutamate application during 5 min). It was found that negative changes in neurones cultured with 10 mcM Pro-Gly-Pro were less prominent if compared with control ones. Culturing with the peptide significantly affected the following parameters: resting potential (-55 +/- 4 mV in control; -29 +/- 6 MV after glutamate application; -38 +/- 5 MV cultured after glutamate application), action potential amplitude (91 +/- 4; 65 +/- 5; 84 +/- 5 mV), duration (4,3 +/- 0,4; 9,5 +/- 1,6; 5,2 +/- 0,7 ms), depolarization (56 [38, 84]; 27 [21, 35]; 46 [28, 62] MV/Ms) and repolarization (-29 [-38, -27]; -20 [-21, -18]; -29 [-33, -22] M(V)/MS) rates. The data obtained suggest that PGP exhibit its neuroprotective properties on a level of basic electrophysiological characteristics, appropriate cellular mechanisms require further investigations. PMID:25007514

  18. Systematic Evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Content of Clinical Trial Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Kyte, Derek; Duffy, Helen; Fletcher, Benjamin; Gheorghe, Adrian; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine; Draper, Heather; Ives, Jonathan; Brundage, Michael; Blazeby, Jane; Calvert, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative evidence suggests patient-reported outcome (PRO) information is frequently absent from clinical trial protocols, potentially leading to inconsistent PRO data collection and risking bias. Direct evidence regarding PRO trial protocol content is lacking. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the PRO-specific content of UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme trial protocols. Methods and Findings We conducted an electronic search of the NIHR HTA programme database (inception to August 2013) for protocols describing a randomised controlled trial including a primary/secondary PRO. Two investigators independently reviewed the content of each protocol, using a specially constructed PRO-specific protocol checklist, alongside the ‘Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials’ (SPIRIT) checklist. Disagreements were resolved through discussion with a third investigator. 75 trial protocols were included in the analysis. Protocols included a mean of 32/51 (63%) SPIRIT recommendations (range 16–41, SD 5.62) and 11/33 (33%) PRO-specific items (range 4–18, SD 3.56). Over half (61%) of the PRO items were incomplete. Protocols containing a primary PRO included slightly more PRO checklist items (mean 14/33 (43%)). PRO protocol content was not associated with general protocol completeness; thus, protocols judged as relatively ‘complete’ using SPIRIT were still likely to have omitted a large proportion of PRO checklist items. Conclusions The PRO components of HTA clinical trial protocols require improvement. Information on the PRO rationale/hypothesis, data collection methods, training and management was often absent. This low compliance is unsurprising; evidence shows existing PRO guidance for protocol developers remains difficult to access and lacks consistency. Study findings suggest there are a number of PRO protocol checklist items that are not fully addressed by the current SPIRIT statement. We therefore advocate the development of consensus-based supplementary guidelines, aimed at improving the completeness and quality of PRO content in clinical trial protocols. PMID:25333349

  19. Enhancing Microvascular Formation And Vessel Maturation Through Temporal Control Over Multiple Pro-Angiogenic And Pro-Maturation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Brudno, Yevgeny; Ennett-Shepard, Alessandra B.; Chen, Ruth R.; Aizenberg, Michael; Mooney, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic stimulation of angiogenesis to re-establish blood flow in ischemic tissues offers great promise as a treatment for patients suffering from cardiovascular disease or trauma. Since angiogenesis is a complex, multi-step process, different signals may need to be delivered at appropriate times in order to promote a robust and mature vasculature. The effects of temporally regulated presentation of pro-angiogenic and pro-maturation factors were investigated in vitro and in vivo in this study. Pro-angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) cooperatively promoted endothelial sprouting and pericyte detachment in a three-dimensional in vitro EC-pericyte co-culture model. Pro-maturation factors platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF) and angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) inhibited the early stages of VEGF- and Ang2-mediated angiogenesis if present simultaneously with VEGF and Ang2, but promoted these behaviors if added subsequently to the pro-angiogenesis factors. VEGF and Ang2 were also found to additively enhance microvessel density in a subcutaneous model of blood vessel formation, while simultaneously administered PDGF/Ang1 inhibited microvessel formation. However, a temporally controlled scaffold that released PDGF and Ang1 at a delay relative to VEGF/Ang2 promoted both vessel maturation and vascular remodeling without inhibiting sprouting angiogenesis. Our results demonstrate the importance of temporal control over signaling in promoting vascular growth, vessel maturation and vascular remodeling. Delivering multiple growth factors in combination and sequence could aid in creating tissue engineered constructs and therapies aimed at promoting healing after acute wounds and in chronic conditions such as diabetic ulcers and peripheral artery disease. PMID:23972477

  20. Evolution of pro-protamine P2 genes in primates.

    PubMed

    Retief, J D; Dixon, G H

    1993-06-01

    Protamines P1 and P2 form a family of small basic peptides that represent the major sperm proteins in placental mammals. In human and mouse protamine P2 is one of the most abundant sperm proteins. The protamine P2 gene codes for a P2 precursor, pro-P2 which is later processed by proteolytic cleavages in its N-terminal region to form the mature P2 protamines. We have used polymerase chain amplification to directly sequence the pro-P2 genes of the five major primate families: red howler (Alouatta seniculus) is a New World monkey (Cebidae); the two macaque species, Macaca mulatta and M. nemistrina are Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), the gibbon, Hylobates lar, represents one branch of the apes (Hylobatidae); the orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus, gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and two species of chimpanzee Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes represent a second ape family (Pongidae). These pro-P2 genes are compared with that of human [Domenjoud, L., Nussbaum, G., Adham, I. M., Greeske, G. & Engel, W. (1990) Genomics 8, 127-133]. The overall size and organization of the genes are conserved within the group. The mean length of pro-P2 is 101 residues, with an increase to 102 in M. nemistrina and a decrease to 99 residues in red howler (A. seniculus). In gorilla and red howler one of two 79-bp tandem repeats that occurs 3' of the gene is deleted. Of the 101 deduced amino acids examined, an amino acid change occurs in one or more primates at 45 positions. Considering only the most recently diverged group, the human/gorilla/chimpanzee clade, this represents a very high mutation rate of 0.99 changes/100 sites in 10(6) years. This rapid mutation rate is characteristic of both members of the protamine gene family, P1 and P2. Consideration of the variable nature of the sequences at the multiple sites of proteolysis during the processing of the pro-P2 indicates either that there are several processing enzymes of differing specificities, or more likely that the folded structure of the pro-P2 limits accessibility of a non-specific protease to certain exposed sites. PMID:8513810

  1. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. 203.268 Section 203.268...Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance...

  2. Differences in the autocatalytic cleavage of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3 can be attributed to sequences within the propeptide and Asp310 of pro-PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Scougall, K; Taylor, N A; Jermany, J L; Docherty, K; Shennan, K I

    1998-01-01

    PC2 and PC3 are subtilisin-like proteases involved in the maturation of prohormones and proneuropeptides within neuroendocrine cells. They are synthesized as zymogens that undergo autocatalytic maturation within the secretory pathway. Maturation of pro-PC2 is slow (t12 >8 h), exhibits a pH optimum of 5.5 and is dependent on calcium (K0.5 2 mM), while pro-PC3 maturation is relatively rapid (t12 15 min), exhibits a neutral pH optimum and is not calcium dependent. These differences in the rates and optimal conditions for activation of the proteases may contribute to the diversity of products generated by these proteases in different cell types. Although highly similar, there are two major differences between pro-PC2 and pro-PC3: the presence of an aspartate at position 310 in pro-PC2 compared with asparagine at the equivalent position in pro-PC3 (and all other members of the subtilisin family), and the N-terminal propeptides, which exhibit low sequence identity (30%). With a view to establishing the structural features that might be responsible for these differences in the maturation of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3, Asp310 in pro-PC2 was mutated to Asn, and Asn309 in pro-PC3 was mutated to Asp. Chimaeric proteins were also made consisting of the pro-region of PC2 fused to the mature portion of PC3 and the pro-region of PC3 fused to the mature region of PC2. The wild-type and mutant DNA constructs were then transcribed and translated in an in vitro system capable of supporting maturation of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3. The results demonstrated that Asp310 of pro-PC2 is responsible for the acidic pH optimum for maturation. Thus changing Asp310 to Asn shifted the pH optimum for maturation to pH 7.0. However, changing Asn309 of pro-PC3 to Asp had no effect on the optimum pH for maturation of pro-PC3. A chimaeric construct containing the propeptide of pro-PC2 attached to PC3 shifted the pH optimum for maturation from pH 7.0 to 6.0 and slowed down the rate of maturation (t12 >8 h). When attached to PC2, the pro-region of pro-PC3 had no effect on the optimum pH for maturation (pH 5.5-6.0), but it did accelerate the rate of maturation (t12 2 h). These results demonstrate that Asp310 and the pro-region of pro-PC2 contribute to the acidic pH optimum and low rate of maturation of this zymogen relative to its closely related homologue PC3. PMID:9729458

  3. InterPro-an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Apweiler; Terri K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; Ewan Birney; Margaret Biswas; Philipp Bucher; Lorenzo Cerutti; Florence Corpet; Michael D. R. Croning; Richard Durbin; Laurent Falquet; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Jérôme Gouzy; Henning Hermjakob; Nicolas Hulo; Inge Jonassen; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Youla Karavidopoulou; Rodrigo Lopez; Beate Marx; Nicola J. Mulder; Thomas M. Oinn; Marco Pagni; Florence Servant; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Evgeni M. Zdobnov

    2000-01-01

    Motivation: InterPro is a new integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, developed initially as a means of rationalising the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Results: Merged annotations from PRINTS, PROSITE and Pfam form the InterPro core. Each combined Inter- Pro entry includes functional descriptions and literature references, and links are

  4. 'I Love You to the Bones': Constructing the Anorexic Body in 'Pro-Ana' Message Boards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie J. Ward

    2007-01-01

    With reference to an \\\\'online ethnography\\\\' (Ward, 1999) carried out in the \\\\'Anagrrl\\\\' pro-anorexic (ana) asynchronous web based community, I explore the radical, underground web-based pro-ana movement. The \\\\'pro-ana\\\\' movement challenges established biomedical ideas surrounding the treatment of anorexia, based on the \\\\'normalisation\\\\' of the body shape and weight. For participants of the pro-ana movement, the anorexic condition represents a

  5. The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

  6. Ratio of Pro-Resolving and Pro-Inflammatory Lipid Mediator Precursors as Potential Markers for Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Zein Elabdeen, Hager R.; Mustafa, Manal; Szklenar, Monika; Rühl, Ralph; Ali, Raouf; Bolstad, Anne Isine

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a rapidly progressing type of periodontal disease in otherwise healthy individuals which causes destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The disease is initiated by pathogenic bacteria in the dental biofilm, and the severity of inflammation and attachment loss varies with the host response. Recently, there has been an increased interest in determining the role of lipid mediators in inflammatory events and the concept of pro-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators has been brought into focus also in periodontal disease. The present study aimed to determine the profile of omega-3 or n3- as well as omega-6 or n6- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and PUFA-metabolites of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and serum in AgP patients and healthy controls. In total, 60 selected n3- and n6-PUFAs and various PUFA metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Of these, 51 could be quantified in this study. The concentrations of the majority were low in saliva samples compared with serum and GCF, but were mainly higher in AgP patients compared with healthy controls in all three kinds of sample. Ratios of n3- to n6-PUFAs (DHA + EPA)/AA were significantly lower in the GCF of AgP patients than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, various ratios of the direct precursors of the pro-resolution lipid mediators (precursors of resolvins and protectins) were calculated against the precursors of mainly pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. These ratios were mainly lower in GCF and saliva of AgP patients, compared with healthy controls, but only reached significance in GCF (P<0.05). To conclude, the ratios of precursors of pro-resolution/pro-inflammatory lipid mediators seem to be more relevant for describing the disease status of AgP than the concentration of specific lipid mediators. PMID:23951021

  7. Blocking Pro-Cell-Death Signal Pathways to Conserve Hearing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine T. Dinh; Thomas R. Van De Water

    2009-01-01

    The programmed cell death of stress-damaged auditory hair cells can occur through a variety of signal pathways, and therapeutic modalities that block pro-cell-death pathways are being developed and evaluated for hearing preservation. Because of their ability to have both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic actions, corticosteroids have long been used to protect against several types of acute sensorineural hearing loss. Other anti-apoptotic

  8. Effects of MagPro™ on muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Dawn T; Agarwal, Melinda; Josephs, Jeremy; Reinmiller, Amanda; Zimmerman, Becky

    2012-09-01

    Athletes are on an endless quest to enhance performance and are frequently barraged by products that purport to contribute to various components of athletic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if MagPro™ influenced muscle flexibility or muscle endurance. This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled study using a repeated-measures design. The Institutional Review Board approved consent was obtained. The participants were healthy, physically active adults (n = 38 for phase 1; n = 18 for phase 2). Two creams were used: MagPro™ (Mg cream) and a placebo. In phase 1, each cream was applied to the gastroc-soleus muscles. A stretching protocol was completed, and ankle dorsiflexion was compared. In phase 2, 1 cream was applied to both quadriceps muscles. An endurance protocol using a Life Fitness bicycle was completed. The procedure was repeated with the other cream on the quadriceps muscle 1 week later. For the flexibility phase, an analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed no difference between the 2 creams (p = 0.50), but there was a change in the flexibility over time (p = 0.00). For the endurance phase, paired t-tests revealed that there was no significant difference between the first (p = 0.26) or second (p = 0.35) cycling bouts of either cream. Likewise, there were no differences between the first and second cycling bouts of both the creams (MagPro™ p = 0.46; Placebo p = 0.08). Despite previous studies demonstrating improved performance with Mg supplements, MagPro™ did not enhance the outcome measures of this study. Examination of alternative application techniques and other outcome measures would be appropriate. PMID:22067254

  9. ProFusion*: Intelligent Fusion from Multiple, Distributed Search Engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Gauch; Guijun Wang; Mario Gomez

    1996-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web, and the resulting information overload, has led to a mini-explosion in World Wide Web search engines. This mini-explosion, in turn, led to the development of ProFusion, a meta search engine. Educators, like other users, do not have the time to evaluate multiple search engines to knowledgeably select the best for their uses.

  10. Bacterial inhibition of eukaryotic pro-inflammatory pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew S. Neish

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells perceive and respond to microbes, both pathogenic and commensal, by activation of signaling cascades such\\u000a as the NF-K B pathway. Induction of such pathways leads to the upregulation of a program of gene expression that mediates pro-inflammatory\\u000a and anti-apoptotic effector proteins. This host response is usually effective in clearing or controlling an infection. For\\u000a pathogens (and potentially, symbionts)

  11. Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

  12. Cervical arthroplasty using ProDisc-C case report.

    PubMed

    Nica, D A; Copaciu, R

    2013-03-15

    Cervical disc replacement is an emerging motion-preserving technology in the surgical treatment of the cervical degenerative disc disorders used as an alternative to the classic interbody fusion. We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with C6-7 right disc herniation who underwent anterior discectomy and received a total disc replacement using ProDisc C artificial disc prosthesis. PMID:23599830

  13. Quick Start Guide Cisco Small Business Pro IP Phone

    E-print Network

    Quick Start Guide Cisco Small Business Pro IP Phone Models SPA501G, SPA502G, SPA504G, SPA508G, on your network. · Using a Wireless Connection--You can use a Cisco WBP54G Wireless-G Bridge with the IP on Cisco.com for more information (see the list of links at the end of this document). STEP 8 (Optional

  14. PRO: A Profile-based Routing Protocol for Pocket Switched Networks

    E-print Network

    Demirbas, Murat

    PRO: A Profile-based Routing Protocol for Pocket Switched Networks Murat Ali Bayir Computer Science, SUNY Abstract--In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol, PRO, for profile-based routing in pocket switched networks. Differing from previous routing protocols, PRO treats node encounters

  15. The PRO-S/E System for Assessing School Effectiveness: Development, Implementation, and Follow-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jack; And Others

    The development and structure of the Profile of School Excellence (PRO-S/E) are described, and the needs for which the PRO-S/E was developed are explained. A product of the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) in West Virginia, the PRO-S/E has been involved in evaluation and improvement planning and intervention for 25 urban and regional school…

  16. Evaluating System-wide Monitoring Capsule Design using Xilinx Virtex-II Pro FPGA

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    Evaluating System-wide Monitoring Capsule Design using Xilinx Virtex-II Pro FPGA Taeweon Suh the design of a monitoring capsule in Owl using a Xilinx ML310 [2] board based on the Virtex-II Pro FPGA. ML-II Pro), 256MB DDR SDRAM DIMM, Ethernet, etc. Two PowerPC 405 processors are fused into XC2VP30

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Activation of pro-oncogenic pathways in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Activation of pro-oncogenic pathways in colorectal hyperplastic polyps involved in colon carcinogenesis and is known to activate pro-oncogenic pathways such as the ERK a malignant potential. Keywords: Hyperplastic polyps, Colorectal, Progastrin, ERK, STAT3, Pro-oncogenic

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.; Yacoubian, Stephanie; Yang, Rong

    2009-01-01

    The popular view that all lipid mediators are pro-inflammatory arises largely from the finding that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs block the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. The resolution of inflammation was widely held to be a passive event until recently, with the characterization of novel biochemical pathways and lipid-derived mediators that are actively turned on in resolution possessing potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions. A lipid mediator informatics approach was employed to systematically identify new families of endogenous local-acting mediators from omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in resolving exudates in addition to the lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins generated from arachidonic acid. These new chemical mediator families were coined resolvins and protectins, given their potent bioactions. In this annual review, we present recent advances on the biosynthesis and stereospecific actions of these new pro-resolving mediators, which have also proven to be organ protective and anti-fibrotic. PMID:18233953

  19. PRoNTo: pattern recognition for neuroimaging toolbox.

    PubMed

    Schrouff, J; Rosa, M J; Rondina, J M; Marquand, A F; Chu, C; Ashburner, J; Phillips, C; Richiardi, J; Mourão-Miranda, J

    2013-07-01

    In the past years, mass univariate statistical analyses of neuroimaging data have been complemented by the use of multivariate pattern analyses, especially based on machine learning models. While these allow an increased sensitivity for the detection of spatially distributed effects compared to univariate techniques, they lack an established and accessible software framework. The goal of this work was to build a toolbox comprising all the necessary functionalities for multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data, based on machine learning models. The "Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging Toolbox" (PRoNTo) is open-source, cross-platform, MATLAB-based and SPM compatible, therefore being suitable for both cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. In addition, it is designed to facilitate novel contributions from developers, aiming to improve the interaction between the neuroimaging and machine learning communities. Here, we introduce PRoNTo by presenting examples of possible research questions that can be addressed with the machine learning framework implemented in PRoNTo, and cannot be easily investigated with mass univariate statistical analysis. PMID:23417655

  20. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Gilchrist, Brian; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Enrico; Ballance, Judy

    1998-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. ProSEDS which is planned to fly in 2000, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 15 km spectra) from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust, thus demonstrating deorbit thrust. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. ProSEDS will utilize tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer of payloads and upper stages from LEO to higher orbits it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  1. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) Space Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Ballance, Judy

    1998-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system. The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. ProSEDS which is planned to fly in 2000, will use the flight proven Small Expendable C, Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5 km bare wire plus 15 km spectra) from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. ProSEDS will utilize tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer of payloads and upper stages from LEO to higher orbits it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  2. Maturation and pro-peptide cleavage of beta-secretase.

    PubMed

    Capell, A; Steiner, H; Willem, M; Kaiser, H; Meyer, C; Walter, J; Lammich, S; Multhaup, G; Haass, C

    2000-10-01

    Amyloid beta-peptide is generated by two sequential proteolytic cleavages mediated by beta-secretase (BACE) and gamma-secretase. BACE was recently identified as a membrane-associated aspartyl protease. We have now analyzed the maturation and pro-peptide cleavage of BACE. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that BACE is post-translationally modified during transport to the cell surface, which can be monitored by a significant increase in the molecular mass. The increase in molecular mass is caused by complex N-glycosylation. Treatment with tunicamycin and N-glycosidase F led to a BACE derivative with a molecular weight corresponding to an unmodified version. In contrast, the mature form of BACE was resistant to endoglycosidase H treatment. The cytoplasmic tail of BACE was required for efficient maturation and trafficking through the Golgi; a BACE variant lacking the cytoplasmic tail undergoes inefficient maturation. In contrast a soluble BACE variant that does not contain a membrane anchor matured more rapidly than full-length BACE. Pro-BACE was predominantly located within the endoplasmic reticulum. Pro-peptide cleavage occurred immediately before full maturation and trafficking through the Golgi. PMID:10801872

  3. X-ray crystallographic determination of a collagen-like peptide with the repeating sequence (Pro-Pro-Gly) 1 1 Edited by D. Rees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Z Kramer; Luigi Vitagliano; Jordi Bella; Rita Berisio; Lelio Mazzarella; Barbara Brodsky; Adriana Zagari; Helen M Berman

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of the triple-helical peptide (Pro-Pro-Gly)10 has been re-determined to obtain a more accurate description for this widely studied collagen model and to provide a comparison with the recent high-resolution crystal structure of a collagen-like peptide containing Pro-Hyp-Gly regions. This structure demonstrated that hydroxyproline participates extensively in a repetitive hydrogen-bonded assembly between the peptide and the solvent molecules.

  4. Binding of Pro-Gly-Pro at the active site of leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase and development of an epoxide hydrolase selective inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Olsson, Ulrika; Wan, Min; Kleinschmidt, Thea; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Haeggström, Jesper Z.

    2014-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the committed step in the formation of the proinflammatory mediator LTB4. Recently, the chemotactic tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro was identified as an endogenous aminopeptidase substrate for LTA4 hydrolase. Here, we determined the crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in complex with a Pro-Gly-Pro analog at 1.72 Å. From the structure, which includes the catalytic water, and mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis products of Pro-Gly-Pro, it could be inferred that LTA4 hydrolase cleaves at the N terminus of the palindromic tripeptide. Furthermore, we designed a small molecule, 4-(4-benzylphenyl)thiazol-2-amine, denoted ARM1, that inhibits LTB4 synthesis in human neutrophils (IC50 of ?0.5 ?M) and conversion of LTA4 into LTB4 by purified LTA4H with a Ki of 2.3 ?M. In contrast, 50- to 100-fold higher concentrations of ARM1 did not significantly affect hydrolysis of Pro-Gly-Pro. A 1.62-Å crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in a dual complex with ARM1 and the Pro-Gly-Pro analog revealed that ARM1 binds in the hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the ?-end of LTA4, distant from the aminopeptidase active site, thus providing a molecular basis for its inhibitory profile. Hence, ARM1 selectively blocks conversion of LTA4 into LTB4, although sparing the enzyme’s anti-inflammatory aminopeptidase activity (i.e., degradation and inactivation of Pro-Gly-Pro). ARM1 represents a new class of LTA4 hydrolase inhibitor that holds promise for improved anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24591641

  5. Dynamic structure of NGF and proNGF complexed with p75NTR: pro-peptide effect.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, A C; Dourado, D F A R; Martins, J M; Melo, A; Dias Soeiro Cordeiro, M N; Almeida, R D; Morra, G; Moreira, I S

    2014-07-28

    Crystallographic structures of NGF/p75NTR and proNGF/p75NTR were previously obtained in 2:1 and 2:2 stoichiometries, respectively. However, evidence shows that both stoichiometries can occur for mature neurotrophins and pro-neurotrophins. We used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the energetic and structural characteristics of these two complete systems as well as the uncomplexed forms of NGF and understand how these could translate in a new view of different biological outcomes. Here, we show that one chain at the 2:2 proNGF complex seems to be preferentially lost creating a 2:1 structure able to interact with sortilin. We also demonstrated that the structure of the neurotrophin dimers is not pre-established and suffers large structural modifications upon p75NTR binding. Moreover, our data suggests an elegant explanation for the dual role of NGF in neuronal cell death and survival, where different stoichiometries induce conformational changes that might be the basis for the different biological outcomes observed with the mature and proforms of neurotrophins. PMID:24941229

  6. Usability test of the ImPRO, computer-based procedure system

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Y.; Lee, J. [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Company, Munjidong, Yuseonggu Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    ImPRO is a computer based procedure in both flowchart and success logic tree. It is evaluated on the basis of computer based procedure guidelines. It satisfies most requirements such as presentations and functionalities. Besides, SGTR has been performed with ImPRO to evaluate reading comprehension and situation awareness. ImPRO is a software engine which can interpret procedure script language, so that ImPRO is reliable by nature and verified with formal method. One bug, however, had hidden one year after release, but it was fixed. Finally backup paper procedures can be prepared on the same format as VDU in case of ImPRO failure. (authors)

  7. Context of action of Proline Dehydrogenase (ProDH) in the Hypersensitive Response of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proline (Pro) dehydrogenase (ProDH) potentiates the oxidative burst and cell death of the plant Hypersensitive Response (HR) by mechanisms not yet elucidated. ProDH converts Pro into ?1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and can act together with P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH) to produce Glu, or with P5C reductase (P5CR) to regenerate Pro and thus stimulate the Pro/P5C cycle. To better understand the effects of ProDH in HR, we studied the enzyme at three stages of the defense response differing in their ROS and cell death levels. In addition, we tested if ProDH requires P5CDH to potentiate HR. Results Control and infected leaves of wild type and p5cdh plants were used to monitor ProDH activity, in vivo Pro catabolism, amino acid content, and gene expression. Wild type plants activated ProDH at all HR stages. They did not consume Pro during maximal ROS accumulation, and maintained almost basal P5C levels at all conditions. p5cdh mutants activated ProDH as wild type plants. They achieved maximum oxidative burst and cell death levels producing normal HR lesions, but evidenced premature defense activation. Conclusion ProDH activation has different effects on HR. Before the oxidative burst it leads to Pro consumption involving the action of P5CDH. During the oxidative burst, ProDH becomes functionally uncoupled to P5CDH and apparently works with P5CR. The absence of P5CDH does not reduce ROS, cell death, or pathogen resistance, indicating this enzyme is not accompanying ProDH in the potentiation of these defense responses. In contrast, p5cdh infected plants displayed increased ROS burst and earlier initiation of HR cell death. In turn, our results suggest that ProDH may sustain HR by participating in the Pro/P5C cycle, whose action on HR must be formally evaluated in a future. PMID:24410747

  8. Making Women the Subjects of the Abortion Debate: A Class Exercise that Moves beyond "Pro-Choice" and "Pro-Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sara L.; Willman, Rebecca K.; Clark, Leisa; Walsh, Clare

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom exercise designed to put women (and children and men) back at the center of the abortion debate, avoiding the standard rhetoric and engaging reflection on how everyone might find common political goals among the so-called pro-life and pro-choice sides. The exercise the authors offer in this article…

  9. Biosynthetic processing of the pro-alpha 1(V)2pro-alpha 2(V) collagen heterotrimer by bone morphogenetic protein-1 and furin-like proprotein convertases.

    PubMed

    Unsöld, Christine; Pappano, William N; Imamura, Yasutada; Steiglitz, Barry M; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2002-02-15

    The low abundance fibrillar collagen type V is incorporated into and regulates the diameters of type I collagen fibrils. Bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) is a metalloprotease that plays key roles in regulating formation of vertebrate extracellular matrix; it cleaves the C-propeptides of the major fibrillar procollagens I-III and processes precursors to produce the mature forms of the cross-linking enzyme prolysyl oxidase, the proteoglycan biglycan, and the basement membrane protein laminin 5. Here we have successfully produced recombinant pro-alpha1(V)(2)pro-alpha2(V) heterotrimers, and we have used these to characterize biosynthetic processing of the most prevalent in vivo form of type V procollagen. In addition, we have compared the processing of endogenous pro-alpha1(V) chains by wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts and by fibroblasts derived from embryos doubly homozygous null for the Bmp-1 gene and for a gene encoding the closely related metalloprotease mammalian Tolloid-like 1. Together, results presented herein indicate that within pro-alpha1(V)(2)pro-alpha2(V) heterotrimers, pro-alpha1(V) N-propeptides and pro-alpha2(V) C-propeptides are processed by BMP-1-like enzymes, and pro-alpha1(V) C-propeptides are processed by furin-like proprotein convertases in vivo. PMID:11741999

  10. MICROSOFT PRE-RELEASE SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS WINDOWS 8.1 PREVIEW, WINDOWS 8.1 PRO PREVIEW, WINDOWS 8.1 PRO PREVIEW

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Phil

    MICROSOFT PRE-RELEASE SOFTWARE LICENSE TERMS WINDOWS 8.1 PREVIEW, WINDOWS 8.1 PRO PREVIEW, WINDOWS 8.1 PRO PREVIEW WITH MEDIA CENTER AND WINDOWS RT 8.1 PREVIEW This is a license agreement between you review linked terms by pasting the forward link into your browser window once the software is running

  11. Bush to Begin with Pro-life Executive Order

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charbonneau, David D.

    2001-01-01

    In one of his first official acts as President, George W. Bush announced yesterday his intentions to block funding of international organizations and clinics that offer abortion procedures or counseling. President Clinton had signed an executive order authorizing such funding three days after taking office in 1992. Bush's action will reinstate the ban on such funding that had been in place up to that time under both the Reagan and Bush administrations. The announcement comes on the 28th anniversary of Roe v. Wade and has been accompanied by a formal statement of support from the President to pro-life advocates. The statement will be read by a Bush spokesperson to pro-life demonstrators in the Capitol today. Both actions signal the President's intention to aggressively limit the right to an abortion and are in line with his controversial choice for Attorney General, John Ashcroft, who has publicly stated his opposition to abortion even in cases of rape and incest. The administration also announced its intention to review the release of RU 486, though Tommy Thompson, Bush's nominee for the head of Health and Human Services, stated in his confirmation hearing last week, that any withdrawal of the "abortion pill" should be premised fundamentally on health concerns. The President, however, does not necessarily share this opinion and may instruct Thompson to do otherwise. In a potentially related development, USA Today reported Monday that Sandra Day O'Connor was considering imminent retirement from the court, in part due to her discomfort with the lingering acrimony on the Court over the December decision that effectively ratified the election results for Bush. If O'Connor retires, it will give Bush an early opportunity to consider appointing to the court someone in the mold of the justices he says he most admires -- staunchly pro-life jurists Clarence Thomas and Antonin Scalia.

  12. The genetics of pro-arrhythmic adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Petropoulou, Evmorfia; Jamshidi, Yalda; Behr, Elijah R

    2014-04-01

    Ventricular arrhythmia induced by drugs (pro-arrythmia) is an uncommon event, whose occurrence is unpredictable but potentially fatal. The ability of a variety of medications to induce these arrhythmias is a significant problem facing the pharmaceutical industry. Genetic variants have been shown to play a role in adverse events and are also known to influence an individual's optimal drug dose. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the role of genetic variants in modulating the risk of drug induced arrhythmias. PMID:23834499

  13. Toolbox pro stanovení topografického indexu a hydrologických zón

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katedra Geoinformatiky

    Abstrakt. Bakalá?ská práce se zabývá tvorbou sady nástroj? ur?ených pro prost?edí softwaru ArcGIS. Tyto základ? vstupního gridu digitálního modelu reliéfu provád?jí výpo?et topografického indexu. Na základ? vyhodnocení indexu i dalších primárních i sekundárních morfometrických charakteristik stanoví hydrologické zóny ve zkoumaném území. Sou?ástí práce je popis stávajících p?ístup? a ?ešení problému výpo?tu topografického indexu a stanovení hydrologických zón. Klí?ová slova: hydrologická

  14. The genetics of pro-arrhythmic adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulou, Evmorfia; Jamshidi, Yalda; Behr, Elijah R

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmia induced by drugs (pro-arrythmia) is an uncommon event, whose occurrence is unpredictable but potentially fatal. The ability of a variety of medications to induce these arrhythmias is a significant problem facing the pharmaceutical industry. Genetic variants have been shown to play a role in adverse events and are also known to influence an individual's optimal drug dose. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the role of genetic variants in modulating the risk of drug induced arrhythmias. PMID:23834499

  15. Endovascular coil retrieval using a TrevoProVue stentriever.

    PubMed

    Kabbani, Mouhammed R; Smith, Angela; Leider, Morgan

    2015-05-01

    A 65-year-old man with a left cavernous internal carotid artery cerebral aneurysm experienced a premature detachment of the first framing coil (10?mm×40?cm Penumbra Complex Standard) during a coil embolization procedure. The coil herniated into the anterior cerebral artery and pericallosal artery. Multiple attempts to retrieve the coil using both a 2 and 4?mm Microsnare (Amplatz GooseNeck) failed. A Trevo ProVue retrievable stent was then used to retrieve the coil without any adverse events. This case report highlights a novel use of a stent for the removal of a foreign body from the cerebrovascular system. PMID:24778141

  16. Pro-neural transcription factors as cancer markers

    E-print Network

    Vias, Maria; Massie, Charles E; East, Philip; Scott, Helen; Warren, Anne; Zhou, Zongxiang; Nikitin, Alexander Yu; Neal, David E; Mills, Ian G

    2008-05-19

    progression [5-7] Variations in expression and detection of neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A and synaptophysin may be partly responsible for this contro- versy. Therefore better markers for a neural or neuroendo- crine phenotype would benefit the field... is represented in a volcano plot. Transcripts up-regulated are shown in red and those down-regulated are indicated in blue. Pro-neural transcription factors, Hes6 and Ascl1, and neuroendocrine marker genes such us chromogranin A (Chga) and dopa decarboxylase...

  17. Endovascular coil retrieval using a TrevoProVue stentriever.

    PubMed

    Kabbani, Mouhammed R; Smith, Angela; Leider, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with a left cavernous internal carotid artery cerebral aneurysm experienced a premature detachment of the first framing coil (10 mm × 40 cm Penumbra Complex Standard) during a coil embolization procedure. The coil herniated into the anterior cerebral artery and pericallosal artery. Multiple attempts to retrieve the coil using both a 2 and 4 mm Microsnare (Amplatz GooseNeck) failed. A Trevo ProVue retrievable stent was then used to retrieve the coil without any adverse events. This case report highlights a novel use of a stent for the removal of a foreign body from the cerebrovascular system. PMID:24759162

  18. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    2001-01-01

    This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

  19. Efficacy of Neonatal HBV Vaccination on Liver Cancer and Other Liver Diseases over 30-Year Follow-up of the Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chunsun; Zhan, Qimin; Wang, Yuting; Lu, Jianhua; Lu, Ling-ling; Ni, Zhengping; Huang, Fei; Yao, Hongyu; Zhu, Jian; Fan, Jian; Zhu, Yuanrong; Wu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Guoting; Gao, Wenhong; Zang, Mengya; Wang, Dongmei; Dai, Min; Hsia, Chu Chieh; Zhang, Yawei; Sun, Zongtang

    2014-01-01

    Background Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination has been implemented worldwide to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Its long-term protective efficacy on primary liver cancer (PLC) and other liver diseases has not been fully examined. Methods and Findings The Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study, a population-based, cluster randomized, controlled trial between 1985 and 1990 in Qidong, China, included 39,292 newborns who were randomly assigned to the vaccination group in which 38,366 participants completed the HBV vaccination series and 34,441 newborns who were randomly assigned to the control group in which the participants received neither a vaccine nor a placebo. However, 23,368 (67.8%) participants in the control group received catch-up vaccination at age 10–14 years. By December 2013, a total of 3,895 (10.2%) in the vaccination group and 3,898 (11.3%) in the control group were lost to follow-up. Information on PLC incidence and liver disease mortality were collected through linkage of all remaining cohort members to a well-established population-based tumor registry until December 31, 2013. Two cross-sectional surveys on HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence were conducted in 1996–2000 and 2008–2012. The participation rates of the two surveys were 57.5% (21,770) and 50.7% (17,204) in the vaccination group and 36.3% (12,184) and 58.6% (17,395) in the control group, respectively. Using intention-to-treat analysis, we found that the incidence rate of PLC and the mortality rates of severe end-stage liver diseases and infant fulminant hepatitis were significantly lower in the vaccination group than the control group with efficacies of 84% (95% CI 23%–97%), 70% (95% CI 15%–89%), and 69% (95% CI 34%–85%), respectively. The estimated efficacy of catch-up vaccination on HBsAg seroprevalence in early adulthood was 21% (95% CI 10%–30%), substantially weaker than that of the neonatal vaccination (72%, 95% CI 68%–75%). Receiving a booster at age 10–14 years decreased HBsAg seroprevalence if participants were born to HBsAg-positive mothers (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.68, 95% CI 0.47–0.97). Limitations to consider in interpreting the study results include the small number of individuals with PLC, participants lost to follow-up, and the large proportion of participants who did not provide serum samples at follow-up. Conclusions Neonatal HBV vaccination was found to significantly decrease HBsAg seroprevalence in childhood through young adulthood and subsequently reduce the risk of PLC and other liver diseases in young adults in rural China. The findings underscore the importance of neonatal HBV vaccination. Our results also suggest that an adolescence booster should be considered in individuals born to HBsAg-positive mothers and who have completed the HBV neonatal vaccination series. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25549238

  20. Boosting medicine with nanotechnology to destroy cancers AnProN AnProN http://anpron.eu/?p=738[4/21/2011 11:41:09 AM

    E-print Network

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Boosting medicine with nanotechnology to destroy cancers « « AnProN AnProN http://anpron.eu/?p=738[4/21/2011 11:41:09 AM] AnProNAnalysis Prognosis News Home About AnProN Contacts Boosting medicine nanoparticles to load them with unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. They effectively

  1. pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API

    E-print Network

    pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API #12;pdfcrowd.comopen in browser PRO

  2. Long-term stability of endogenous B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and amino terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) in frozen plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Thomas; Gegenhuber, Alfons; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Poelz, Werner; Haltmayer, Meinhard

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term stability of endogenous B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and amino terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) in plasma samples stored at -20 degrees C without addition of protease inhibitors (e.g., aprotinin). Stability of BNP and NT-proBNP was tested in 60 EDTA plasma samples with BNP values between 30 and 420 pg/ml. Initial BNP and NT-proBNP plasma concentrations were determined within four hours after blood collection using the AxSYM BNP and the Elecsys NT-proBNP assays. Subsequently, all samples were stored at -20 degrees C and were thawed for the second BNP and NT-proBNP determination on the two instruments after one day, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days and 120 days, respectively. Mean recovery (i.e., residual immunoreactivity) of BNP and NT-proBNP expressed in percent of the initial value for the given time interval of storage was calculated. Mean recovery of BNP was less than 70% after one day of storage at -20 degrees C and decreased to less than 50% after two to four months of storage (e.g., recovery of endogenous BNP after three months of storage at -20 degrees C ranging from 0% to 71%). In contrast, mean recovery of NT-proBNP was generally greater than 90%, irrespective of the duration of storage at -20 degrees C (e.g., recovery of endogenous NT-proBNP after three months of storage at -20 degrees C ranging from 91% to 112%). In conclusion, the determination of endogenous BNP with the AxSYM assay using frozen plasma samples may not be valid under the conditions tested. In contrast, NT-proBNP as measured by the Elecsys assay may be stored at -20 degrees C for at least four months without a relevant loss of the immunoreactive analyte. PMID:15387447

  3. Experimental results from RO-PRO: a next generation system for low-energy desalination.

    PubMed

    Achilli, Andrea; Prante, Jeri L; Hancock, Nathan T; Maxwell, Eric B; Childress, Amy E

    2014-06-01

    A pilot system was designed and constructed to evaluate reverse osmosis (RO) energy reduction that can be achieved using pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). The RO-PRO experimental system is the first known system to utilize energy from a volume of water transferred from atmospheric pressure to elevated pressure across a semipermeable membrane to prepressurize RO feedwater. In other words, the system demonstrated that pressure could be exchanged between PRO and RO subsystems. Additionally, the first experimental power density data for a RO-PRO system is now available. Average experimental power densities for the RO-PRO system ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 W/m2. This is higher than previous river-to-sea PRO pilot systems (1.5 W/m2) and closer to the goal of 5 W/m2 that would make PRO an economically feasible technology. Furthermore, isolated PRO system testing was performed to evaluate PRO element performance with higher cross-flow velocities and power densities exceeding 8 W/m2 were achieved with a 28 g/L NaCl draw solution. From this empirical data, inferences for future system performance can be drawn that indicate future RO-PRO systems may reduce the specific energy requirements for desalination by ?1 kWh/m3. PMID:24798068

  4. PRoViScout: a planetary scouting rover demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, Gerhard; Woods, Mark; Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Labrosse, Frédéric; Medina, Alberto; Tyler, Laurence; Barnes, David P.; Fritz, Gerald; Kapellos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Mobile systems exploring Planetary surfaces in future will require more autonomy than today. The EU FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (2010-2012) establishes the building blocks of such autonomous exploration systems in terms of robotics vision by a decision-based combination of navigation and scientific target selection, and integrates them into a framework ready for and exposed to field demonstration. The PRoViScout on-board system consists of mission management components such as an Executive, a Mars Mission On-Board Planner and Scheduler, a Science Assessment Module, and Navigation & Vision Processing modules. The platform hardware consists of the rover with the sensors and pointing devices. We report on the major building blocks and their functions & interfaces, emphasizing on the computer vision parts such as image acquisition (using a novel zoomed 3D-Time-of-Flight & RGB camera), mapping from 3D-TOF data, panoramic image & stereo reconstruction, hazard and slope maps, visual odometry and the recognition of potential scientifically interesting targets.

  5. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS AS A PRO-FIBROTIC STIUMULUS

    PubMed Central

    Tanjore, Harikrishna; Lawson, William E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence suggests a prominent role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in fibrotic conditions affecting a number of internal organs, including the lungs, liver, GI tract, kidney, and heart. ER stress enhances the susceptibility of structural cells, in most cases the epithelium, to pro-fibrotic stimuli. Studies suggest that ER stress facilitates fibrotic remodeling through activation of pro-apoptotic pathways, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and promotion of inflammatory responses. While genetic mutations that lead to ER stress underlie some cases of fibrosis, including lung fibrosis secondary to mutations in surfactant protein C (SFTPC), a variety of other factors can cause ER stress. These ER stress inducing factors include metabolic abnormalities, oxidative stress, viruses, and environmental exposures. Interestingly, the ability of the ER to maintain homeostasis under stress diminishes with age, potentially contributing to the fact that fibrotic disorders increase in incidence with aging. Taken together, underlying ER stress and UPR pathways are emerging as important determinants of fibrotic remodeling in different forms of tissue fibrosis. Further work is needed to better define the mechanisms by which ER stress facilitates progressive tissue fibrosis. In addition, it remains to be seen whether targeting ER stress and the UPR could have therapeutic benefit. PMID:23201247

  6. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).

  7. Do Null Subjects (mis-)Trigger Pro-drop Grammars?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2014-08-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[Formula: see text]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing their grammars to a [[Formula: see text]pro] setting. Mack et al. (J Memory Lang 67(1):211-223, 2012) showed that sentences with noise covering the subject are analyzed as having null subjects more often with a first person pronoun and with a present tense-properties correlated with more predictable referents-compared to a third person pronoun and past tense. However, those results might in principle have been due to reporting null subjects for verbs that often occur with null subjects. An experiment is reported here in which comparable results are found for sentences containing nonsense verbs. Participants preferred a null subject more often for first person present tense sentences than for third person past tense sentences. The results are as expected if participants are responding to predictability, the likelihood of reduction, rather than to lexical statistics. The results are argued to be important in removing a class of mis-triggering examples from the language acquisition problem. PMID:25086703

  8. Schistosome tegumental ecto-apyrase (SmATPDase1) degrades exogenous pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Da’dara, Akram A.; Bhardwaj, Rita; Ali, Yasser B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic worms that can survive in the hostile environment of the human bloodstream where they appear refractory to both immune elimination and thrombus formation. We hypothesize that parasite migration in the bloodstream can stress the vascular endothelium causing this tissue to release chemicals alerting responsive host cells to the stress. Such chemicals are called damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and among the most potent is the proinflammatory mediator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Furthermore, the ATP derivative ADP is a pro-thrombotic molecule that acts as a strong activator of platelets. Schistosomes are reported to possess at their host interactive tegumental surface a series of enzymes that could, like their homologs in mammals, degrade extracellular ATP and ADP. These are alkaline phosphatase (SmAP), phosphodiesterase (SmNPP-5) and ATP diphosphohydrolase (SmATPDase1). In this work we employ RNAi to knock down expression of the genes encoding these enzymes in the intravascular life stages of the parasite. We then compare the abilities of these parasites to degrade exogenously added ATP and ADP. We find that only SmATPDase1-suppressed parasites are significantly impaired in their ability to degrade these nucleotides. Suppression of SmAP or SmNPP-5 does not appreciably affect the worms’ ability to catabolize ATP or ADP. These findings are confirmed by the functional characterization of the enzymatically active, full-length recombinant SmATPDase1 expressed in CHO-S cells. The enzyme is a true apyrase; SmATPDase1 degrades ATP and ADP in a cation dependent manner. Optimal activity is seen at alkaline pH. The Km of SmATPDase1 for ATP is 0.4 ± 0.02 mM and for ADP, 0.252 ± 0.02 mM. The results confirm the role of tegumental SmATPDase1 in the degradation of the exogenous pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic nucleotides ATP and ADP by live intravascular stages of the parasite. By degrading host inflammatory signals like ATP, and pro-thrombotic signals like ADP, these parasite enzymes may minimize host immune responses, inhibit blood coagulation and promote schistosome survival. PMID:24711968

  9. Use of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures at Group and Patient Levels: Experiences From the Generic Integrated PRO System, WestChronic

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Louise Pape; Biering, Karin; Johnsen, Soren Paaske; Riiskjær, Erik; Schougaard, Liv Marit

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures may be used at a group level for research and quality improvement and at the individual patient level to support clinical decision making and ensure efficient use of resources. The challenges involved in implementing PRO measures are mostly the same regardless of aims and diagnostic groups and include logistic feasibility, high response rates, robustness, and ability to adapt to the needs of patient groups and settings. If generic PRO systems can adapt to specific needs, advanced technology can be shared between medical specialties and for different aims. Objective We describe methodological, organizational, and practical experiences with a generic PRO system, WestChronic, which is in use among a range of diagnostic groups and for a range of purposes. Methods The WestChronic system supports PRO data collection, with integration of Web and paper PRO questionnaires (mixed-mode) and automated procedures that enable adherence to implementation-specific schedules for the collection of PRO. For analysis, we divided functionalities into four elements: basic PRO data collection and logistics, PRO-based clinical decision support, PRO-based automated decision algorithms, and other forms of communication. While the first element is ubiquitous, the others are optional and only applicable at a patient level. Methodological and organizational experiences were described according to each element. Results WestChronic has, to date, been implemented in 22 PRO projects within 18 diagnostic groups, including cardiology, neurology, rheumatology, nephrology, orthopedic surgery, gynecology, oncology, and psychiatry. The aims of the individual projects included epidemiological research, quality improvement, hospital evaluation, clinical decision support, efficient use of outpatient clinic resources, and screening for side effects and comorbidity. In total 30,174 patients have been included, and 59,232 PRO assessments have been collected using 92 different PRO questionnaires. Response rates of up to 93% were achieved for first-round questionnaires and up to 99% during follow-up. For 6 diagnostic groups, PRO data were displayed graphically to the clinician to facilitate flagging of important symptoms and decision support, and in 5 diagnostic groups PRO data were used for automatic algorithm-based decisions. Conclusions WestChronic has allowed the implementation of all proposed protocol for data collection and processing. The system has achieved high response rates, and longitudinal attrition is limited. The relevance of the questions, the mixed-mode principle, and automated procedures has contributed to the high response rates. Furthermore, development and implementation of a number of approaches and methods for clinical use of PRO has been possible without challenging the generic property. Generic multipurpose PRO systems may enable sharing of automated and efficient logistics, optimal response rates, and other advanced options for PRO data collection and processing, while still allowing adaptation to specific aims and patient groups. PMID:24518281

  10. Generous Leaders and Selfish Underdogs: Pro-Sociality in Despotic Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; van den Berg, Lisette M.; Spruijt, Berry M.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Actively granting food to a companion is called pro-social behavior and is considered to be part of altruism. Recent findings show that some non-human primates behave pro-socially. However, pro-social behavior is not expected in despotic species, since the steep dominance hierarchy will hamper pro-sociality. We show that some despotic long-tailed macaques do grant others access to food. Moreover, their dominance hierarchy determines pro-social behavior in an unexpected way: high-ranking individuals grant, while low-ranking individuals withhold their partner access to food. Surprisingly, pro-social behavior is not used by subordinates to obtain benefits from dominants, but by dominants to emphasize their dominance position. Hence, Machiavellian macaques rule not through “fear above love”, but through “be feared when needed and loved when possible”. PMID:20305812

  11. NT-proBNP: a cardiac biomarker to assess prognosis in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Eva; Gómez, Miquel; González, Juan Ramón; Comín, Josep; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Molina, Lluis; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Garcia-Pallarols, Francesc; Pedro, Carmen; Abella, Eugenia; Vilaplana, Carles; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Besses, Carlos; Salar, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    NT-proBNP provides diagnostic and prognostic information in heart syndromes but its role in cancer has not yet been established. The prognostic value of NT-proBNP was prospectively studied in 104 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients treated with chemotherapy. Echocardiography and NT-proBNP were determined prior to treatment. In multivariate analysis, NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml was the variable with higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 11.1; 95% CI 3.8-32.9; P<0.001). The C statistic for NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml was significantly better than IPI score for prediction of survival. These findings suggest that NT-proBNP ? 900 pg/ml could be considered a useful marker for risk assessment in NHL patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:21333352

  12. Synthesis and backbone conformations of cyclic hexapeptides cyclo-(Xxx-Pro-D-Gln)2.

    PubMed

    Kopple, K D; Parameswaran, K N

    1983-03-01

    The solution syntheses of cyclo-(Xxx-Pro-D-Gln)2, where Xxx = Gly, Ala, Leu, Phe and Val are described. Several routes were examined, the most successful involving the intermediate Z-Xxx-Pro-D-Gln-O-tBu and proceeding to cyclization of H-Xxx-Pro-D-Gln-Xxx-Pro-D-Gln-OH using diphenylphosphoryl azide. The N--H regions of the proton magnetic resonance spectra of aqueous solutions of these peptides were examined, and in the Xxx = Leu and Val peptides an unsymmetrical backbone, presumably with one cis Xxx-Pro peptide bond, was found to be important. Previous reports of cyclo-(Xxx-Pro-D-Yyy)2 peptides have shown only C2-symmetric forms. PMID:6853028

  13. Tutorial on ProSim: a knowledge-based simulation model design tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhavi Lingineni; Bruce Caraway; Perakath C. Benjamin; Richard J. Mayer

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces ProSim, a knowledge-based simulation design tool that automatically generates simulation models from process models. Domain experts who are familiar with the various aspects of the system may be interviewed and process models can be developed based on the evidence collected using ProSim. The built-in simulation design support environment of ProSim enables building simulation models automatically from process

  14. The VolumePro real-time ray-casting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanspeter Pfister; Jan Hardenbergh; Jim Knittel; Hugh C. Lauer; Larry Seiler

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes VolumePro, the world's first single-chip real- time volume rendering system for consumer PCs. VolumePro im- plements ray-casting with parallel slice-by-slice processing. Our discussion of the architecture focuses mainly on the rendering pipeline and the memory organization. VolumePro has hardware for gradient estimation, classification, and per-sample Phong illu- mination. The system does not perform any pre-processing and makes

  15. Pro-environmental Behavior in Egypt: Is there a Role for Islamic Environmental Ethics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Rice

    2006-01-01

    Egypt, a less affluent, predominantly Muslim country, suffers from numerous forms of environmental pollution, some severe.\\u000a This study investigates pro-environmental behaviors of citizens in Cairo, Egypt’s largest metropolis, and studies the relationship\\u000a between pro-environmental behavior and demographic variables, beliefs, values, and religiosity. Analysis shows that three\\u000a types of pro-environmental behavior are present: Public Sphere, Private Sphere, and Activist Behavior, with

  16. The InterPro Database, 2003 brings increased coverage and new features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola J. Mulder; Rolf Apweiler; Terri K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Daniel Barrell; Alex Bateman; David Binns; Margaret Biswas; Paul Bradley; Peer Bork; Philipp Bucher; Richard R. Copley; Emmanuel Courcelle; Ujjwal Das; Richard Durbin; Laurent Falquet; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Sam Griffiths-jones; Daniel H. Haft; Nicola Harte; Nicolas Hulo; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Maria Krestyaninova; Rodrigo Lopez; Ivica Letunic; David Lonsdale; Ville Silventoinen; Sandra E. Orchard; Marco Pagni; David Peyruc; Chris P. Ponting; Jeremy D. Selengut; Florence Servant; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Robert Vaughan; Evgeni M. Zdobnov

    2003-01-01

    InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one compre- hensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually inte- grated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in

  17. The InterPro database, an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Apweiler; Terri K. Attwood; Amos Bairoch; Alex Bateman; Ewan Birney; Margaret Biswas; Philipp Bucher; Lorenzo Cerutti; Florence Corpet; Michael D. R. Croning; Richard Durbin; Laurent Falquet; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Jérôme Gouzy; Henning Hermjakob; Nicolas Hulo; Inge Jonassen; Daniel Kahn; Alexander Kanapin; Youla Karavidopoulou; Rodrigo Lopez; Beate Marx; Nicola J. Mulder; Thomas M. Oinn; Marco Pagni; Florence Servant; Christian J. A. Sigrist; Evgeni M. Zdobnov

    2001-01-01

    Signature databases are vital tools for identifying distant relationships in novel sequences and hence for inferring protein function. InterPro is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which amalgamates the efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Each InterPro entry includes a functional description, annotation, literature references and links back to the relevant

  18. Cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase A3 (proPOA3) from Culex pipiens pallens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Hao, Shunhua; Chen, Lin; Xiong, Chunrong; Ma, Lei; Zhang, Donghui; Hong, Shanchao; Shi, Linna; Gong, Maoqing; Zhou, Huayun; Yu, Xinyou; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2012-01-01

    The prophenoloxidase subunit A3 (proPOA3) gene was cloned from Culex pipiens pallens, which had an open reading frame of 2,061 bp encoding a putative 686 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% with proPOA3 from Cx. quinquefasciatus. ProPOA3 is expressed at all developmental stages of Cx. pipiens pallens. Significant negative correlation was observed between proPOA3 expression and deltamethrin resistance in resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. Furthermore, proPOA3 expression levels were significantly lower in deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes collected at four locations in Eastern China. However, we did not find any substantial change in proPOA3 expression in field-collected resistant Anopheles mosquitoes. Moreover, overexpressing proPOA3 in C6/36 cells led to more sensitivity to deltamethrin treatment. In laboratory and field-collected resistant Cx. pipiens pallens, a valine to isoleucine mutation (769G>A) and two synonymous mutations (1116G>C and 1116G>A) were identified in proPOA3. In addition, the mutation frequency of 769G>A and 1116G>C increased gradually, which corresponded with raised deltamethrin resistance levels. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that proPOA3 may play a role in the regulation of deltamethrin-resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens. PMID:22561195

  19. Identification of furin pro-region determinants involved in folding and activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bissonnette, Lyne; Charest, Gabriel; Longpré, Jean-Michel; Lavigne, Pierre; Leduc, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The pro-region of the subtilisin-like convertase furin acts early in the biosynthetic pathway as an intramolecular chaperone to enable proper folding of the zymogen, and later on as an inhibitor to constrain the activity of the enzyme until it reaches the trans -Golgi network. To identify residues that are important for pro-region function, we initially identified amino acids that are conserved among the pro-regions of various mammalian convertases. Site-directed mutagenesis of 17 selected amino acids within the 89-residue pro-region and biosynthetic labelling revealed that I60A-furin and H66A-furin were rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner, while W34A-furin and F67A-furin did not show any autocatalytic activation. Intriguingly, the latter mutants proteolytically cleaved pro-von Willebrand factor precursor to the mature polypeptide, suggesting that the mutations permitted proper folding, but did not allow the pro-region to exercise its role in inhibiting the enzyme. Homology modelling of furin's pro-region revealed that residues Ile-60 and His-66 might be crucial in forming the binding interface with the catalytic domain, while residues Trp-34 and Phe-67 might be involved in maintaining a hydrophobic core within the pro-region itself. These results provide structural insights into the dual role of furin's pro-region. PMID:14741044

  20. Increased Risk of Cutaneous Melanoma Associated with p53 Arg72Pro Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Peiliang; Liao, Yunmei; Ruan, Zhihua; Liang, Houjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism may contribute to an increased risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM). Methods By searching the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, a total of 8 eligible case-control studies with 1,957 CM cases and 2,887 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Stata software was used to analyze all the statistical data. Results The pooled data by a fixed-effects model suggested an increased risk of CM associated with p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism under the genetic model of Arg/Pro vs. Pro/Pro without heterogeneity (ORArg/Pro vs. Pro/Pro = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.55-1.99, Pheterogeneity = 0.075). A similar trend was seen in subgroups of hospital-based studies and population-based studies. Conclusion Our meta-analysis based on all studies shows that the p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism may increase individual susceptibility to CM, particularly in Caucasians and could serve as a biomarker to predict the population at high risk of CM. PMID:25774791

  1. The tissue-specific processing of pro-opiomelanocortin.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, A B

    2008-06-01

    It is just over 30 years since the definitive identification of the adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) precursor, pro-opiomelanocotin (POMC). Although first characterised in the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary, POMC is also expressed in a number of both central and peripheral tissues including the skin, central nervous tissue and placenta. Following synthesis, POMC undergoes extensive post-translational processing producing not only ACTH, but also a number of other biologically active peptides. The extent and pattern of this processing is tissue-specific, the end result being the tissue dependent production of different combinations of peptides from the same precursor. These peptides have a diverse range of biological roles ranging from pigmentation to adrenal function to the regulation of feeding. This level of complexity has resulted in POMC becoming the archetypal model for prohormone processing, illustrating how a single protein combined with post-translational modification can have a diverse number of roles. PMID:18601691

  2. Embedding theorems for pro-p groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy D.

    1998-03-01

    Baumslag [Bm1] and Remeslennikov [R1] independently showed that the abstract group with finite presentation[left angle bracket]a, x, y[mid R:]ax =aay, [x, y] =1=[a, ay][right angle bracket].is metabelian; the derived subgroup is free abelian of countably infinite rank. Both generalized this example to show that every finitely generated metabelian group embeds in a finitely presented metabelian group. Thomson [T] generalized this result still further to show that every finitely generated group of upper triangular matrices over an abstract ring A lies inside a finitely presented group of upper triangular matrices over some extension ring of A. For a valuable survey of these results, see [St].Baumslag proved analogous theorems for Lie algebras in [Bm2]. In this paper we shall prove some analogous results for pro-p groups.

  3. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Estes, Robert D.; Sanmartin, Juan; Pelaez, Jesus; Ruiz, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This Final Report covers the following main topics: 1) Brief Description of ProSEDS; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Dynamics Stability; 5) Deployment Control; 6) Updated System Performance; 7) Updated Mission Analysis; 8) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 9) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 10) Updated Reference Mission; 11) Evaluation of Power Delivered by the Tether; 12) Deployment Control Profile Ref. #78 and Simulations; 13) Kalman Filters for Mission Estimation; 14) Analysis/Estimation of Deployment Flight Data; 15) Comparison of ED Tethers and Electrical Thrusters; 16) Dynamics Analysis for Mission Starting at a Lower Altitude; 17) Deployment Performance at a Lower Altitude; 18) Satellite Orbit after a Tether Cut; 19) Deployment with Shorter Dyneema Tether Length; 20) Interactive Software for ED Tethers.

  4. Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation.

    PubMed

    Turaga, Rama Mohana R; Howarth, Richard B; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics. PMID:20146771

  5. Using JMatPro to model materials properties and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, N.; Guo, U. K. Z.; Li, X.; Miodownik, A. P.; Schillé, J.-Ph.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of a new multi-platform software program called JMatPro for calculating the properties and behavior of multi-component alloys. These properties are wide ranging, including thermophysical and physical properties (from room temperature to the liquid state), time-temperature-transformation/continuous-cooling transformation diagrams, stress/strain diagrams, proof and tensile stress, hardness, coarsening of ?' and ??, and creep. A feature of the new program is that the calculations are based on sound physical principles rather than purely statistical methods. Thus, many of the shortcomings of methods such as regression analysis can be overcome. With this program, sensitivity to microstructure can be included for many of the properties and the true inter-relationship between properties can be developed, for example in the modeling of creep and precipitation hardening.

  6. Pro-oxidative, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of uranyl ions.

    PubMed

    Garmash, S A; Smirnova, V S; Karp, O E; Usacheva, A M; Berezhnov, A V; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Bruskov, V I; Gudkov, S V

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide are formed under the action of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions containing no reducing agents. In the presence of uranyl ions, formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA and long-lived protein radicals are observed in vitro. It is shown that the pro-oxidant properties of uranyl at micromolar concentrations mostly result from the physico-chemical nature of the compound rather than its radioactive decay. Uranyl ions lead to damage in DNA and proteins causing death of HEp-2 cells by necrotic pathway. It is revealed that the uranyl ions enhance radiation-induced oxidative stress and significantly increase a death rate of mice exposed to sublethal doses of X-rays. PMID:23312590

  7. (Pro)renin Receptor in Kidney Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Renfang; Yosypiv, Ihor V.

    2011-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a key regulator of the blood pressure and fluid/electrolyte homeostasis, also plays a critical role in kidney development. All the components of the RAS are expressed in the developing metanephros. Moreover, mutations in the genes encoding components of the RAS in mice or humans are associated with a broad spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). These forms of CAKUT include renal papillary hypoplasia, hydronephrosis, duplicated collecting system, renal tubular dysgenesis, renal vascular abnormalities, and aberrant glomerulogenesis. Emerging evidence indicates that (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a novel component of the RAS, is essential for proper kidney development and that aberrant PRR signaling is causally linked to cardiovascular and renal disease. This paper describes the role of the RAS in kidney development and highlights emerging insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the PRR may regulate this critical morphogenetic process. PMID:21755055

  8. Galectin-8 elicits pro-inflammatory activities in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Valentina; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Carabelli, Julieta; Carestia, Agostina; Schattner, Mirta; Campetella, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    Galectins (Gals), a family of mammalian lectins, play diverse roles under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analyzed the tandem-repeat Gal-8 synthesis, secretion and effects on the endothelium physiology. Gal-8M and Gal-8L isoforms were secreted under basal conditions by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). However, expression and secretion of the Gal-8M isoform, but not Gal-8L, were increased in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulus and returned to control values after LPS removal. Similarly, cell surface Gal-8 exposure was increased after stimulation with LPS. To evaluate Gal-8 effects on the endothelium physiology, HMEC-1 cells were incubated in the presence of recombinant Gal-8M. Pretreated HMEC-1 cells became proadhesive to human normal platelets, indicating that Gal-8 actually activates endothelial cells. This effect was specific for lectin activity as it was prevented by the simultaneous addition of lactose, but not by sucrose. Endothelial cells also increased their exposition of von Willebrand factor after Gal-8 treatment, which constitutes another feature of cell activation that could be, in turn, responsible for the observed platelet adhesion. Several pro-inflammatory molecules were abundantly produced by Gal-8 stimulated endothelial cells: CXCL1 (GRO-?), GM-CSF, IL-6 and CCL5 (RANTES), and in a lower degree CCL2 (MCP-1), CXCL3 (GRO-?) and CXCL8 (IL-8). In agreement, Gal-8M induced nuclear factor kappa B phosphorylation. Altogether, these results not only confirm the pro-inflammatory role we have already proposed for Gal-8 in other cellular systems but also suggest that this lectin is orchestrating the interaction between leukocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. PMID:24957054

  9. Comparison of the centring ability of the ProTaper™ and ProTaper Universal™ rotary systems for preparing curved root canals.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Sobrinho, Pamella Bezerra; Teles, Fabíola; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; de Figueiredo, Jose Antonio Poli

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the centring ability of the ProTaper™ and ProTaper Universal™ rotary systems for preparing curved root canals, by means of preoperative and postoperative imaging of a cross-section of their coronal, middle and apical thirds. Twenty mesiobuccal root canals of human mandibular first molars with a degree of curvature ranging from 55° to 60° were randomly divided into two groups of 10 specimens each: Group 1, ProTaper™ rotary system; and Group 2, ProTaper Universal™ rotary system. The data were analysed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Student's t-test at the 5% significance level. The results showed that the differences between the percentages of the presence of deviation observed were not statistically significant. Both systems showed the capacity for producing centred preparations in curved root canals with low proportions of deviation. PMID:23551510

  10. The ketone cinnamoyl-(1-13C-Phe)-CGly-Pro-Pro is a tetrahedral transition state analog inhibitor of C. histolyticum collagenase.

    PubMed

    Grobelny, D; Teater, C; Galardy, R E

    1989-03-15

    The ketone cinnamoyl-(1-13C-Phe)-CGly-Pro-Pro [(4-13C-5-cinnamido-4-oxo-6-phenylhexanoyl)-Pro-Pro 2] competitively inhibits a mixture of collagenases from Clostridium histolyticum with a Ki of 40 +/- 6 nM. 13C-nmr spectroscopy of the ketone in the presence of this collagenase shows a bound 13C resonance at 102.6 ppm and the resonance of the free ketone at 212 ppm. Ketone alone shows no trace (less than 0.5%) of a resonance in the region around 100 ppm. The bound resonance is displaceable by another competitive inhibitor. This ketone is thus a transition state analog which is rehybridized from trigonal planar to tetrahedral upon binding to collagenase. PMID:2539108

  11. Molecular and Structural Insight into proNGF Engagement of p75NTR and Sortilin

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dan; Kim, Taeho; Özkan, Engin; Light, Matthew; Torkin, Risa; Teng, Kenneth K.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor is initially synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, which is cleaved to release its C-terminal mature form. Recent studies suggest that proNGF is not an inactive precursor, but acts as a signaling ligand distinct from its mature counterpart. Pro- and mature NGF initiate opposing biological responses by utilizing both distinct and shared receptor components. Here, we carry out a structural and biochemical characterization of proNGF interactions with p75NTR and sortilin. We have crystallized proNGF complexed to p75NTR, and present the structure at 3.75 Å resolution. The structure reveals a 2:2 symmetric binding mode, as compared to the asymmetric structure of a previously reported crystal structure of mature NGF complexed to p75NTR, and the 2:2 symmetric complex of Neurotrophin-3 and p75NTR. Here we discuss the possible origins and implications of the different stoichiometries. In the proNGF/p75NTR complex, the pro regions of proNGF are mostly disordered, and two hairpin loops (L2) at the top of NGF dimer have undergone conformational changes in comparison to mature neurotrophin structures, suggesting possible interactions with the pro-peptide. We further explore the binding characteristics of proNGF to sortilin using surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays, and determine that calcium ions promote the formation of a stable ternary complex of proNGF/sortilin/p75NTR. These results, together with previous structural and mechanistic studies of neurotrophin-receptor interactions, suggest the potential for distinct signaling activities through p75NTR mediated by different neurotrophin-induced conformational changes. PMID:20036257

  12. CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24222276

  13. Description of a New Mutation in Rhodopsin, Pro23Ala, and Comparison With Electroretinographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Pro23His Mutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kean T. Oh; Richard G. Weleber; Andrew Lotery; Dawn M. Oh; Andrea M. Billingslea; Edwin M. Stone

    Objectives: To report the clinical characteristics of a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa caused by a proline-to-alanine mutation at codon 23 (Pro23Ala) of the rhodopsin gene and to compare this phenotype with that associated with the more common proline-to-histidine mutation at codon 23 (Pro23His). Methods: We examined 6 patients within a single pedigree. The electroretinograms (ERGs) of 35 patients

  14. Elevated level of inhibin-? subunit is pro-tumourigenic and pro-metastatic and associated with extracapsular spread in advanced prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Balanathan; E D Williams; H Wang; J S Pedersen; L G Horvath; M G Achen; S A Stacker; G P Risbridger

    2009-01-01

    The biological function of inhibin-? subunit (INH?) in prostate cancer (PCa) is currently unclear. A recent study associated elevated levels of INH? in PCa patients with a higher risk of recurrence. This prompted us to use clinical specimens and functional studies to investigate the pro-tumourigenic and pro-metastatic function of INH?. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine a link between

  15. The Role of Pro20 in the Isomerization of Myotoxin afrom Crotalus viridis viridis:Folding and Structural Characterization of Synthetic Myotoxin aand Its Pro20Gly Homolog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dobrin Nedelkov; Michael P. O'keefe; Tara L. Chapman; Allan L. Bieber

    1997-01-01

    Biochemical characterization has established the presence of two conformational forms of myotoxina.To test the hypothesis that this may be due tocis-transisomerization at Pro20, synthetic versions of myotoxinaand its Pro20?Gly structural homolog were folded, then purified using a two-step cation-exchange\\/reverse-phase perfusion chromatography method. The disulfide bond configuration for the folded proteins was found to be the same as that of native

  16. Tribenuron-methyl resistance and mutation diversity of Pro197 in flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) accessions from China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Liu, Ming Jie; Yang, Qian; Mei, Yu; Li, Xue Feng; Zheng, Ming Qi

    2015-01-01

    Flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L.) is a problematic weed in winter wheat fields in China, which causes great loss of wheat yield. A total of 46 flixweed accessions from winter wheat-planting areas were collected and used for the survey of resistance to tribenuron-methyl and Pro197 mutation diversity. According to the "R" resistance rating system, 16 flixweed accessions have evolved resistance to tribenuron-methyl, 13 accessions have high risk of developing resistance to this herbicide and 17 accessions are susceptible. The mutation of Pro197 codon (CCT) changed proline (Pro) into leucine (Leu) (homozygous, RR), serine (Ser, RR), histidine (His, RR), threonine (Thr, RR), Pro/Leu (heterozygous, RS), Pro/Ser (RS), Pro/His, Pro/Thr (RS) and Pro/Tyr (RS). Among these amino acid changes, a Pro197-Pro/Tyr (heterozygous, RS) substitution caused by the mutation of two successive nucleotides was identified for the first time in resistant weed species. In addition, the Pro197-His and Pro197-Pro/His mutations have not been reported previously in flixweed. Finally, a CPAS marker was developed to identify flixweed plants with or without Pro197 mutation. PMID:25619914

  17. Using PRO-SEARCH To Enhance an Online Searching Service: One Library's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Judith; Zyzik, Ursula

    This presentation describes the features of the PRO-SEARCH front-end software package and how they can enhance online searching. The cost savings in terms of decreased connect time and convenience for the inexperienced searcher are discussed. The relationship between the quality of reference services and the effectiveness of using PRO-SEARCH in a…

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and...Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-9 Use of pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and...Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-9 Use of pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other...

  20. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and...Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-9 Use of pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other...

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and...Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-9 Use of pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other...

  2. Configuration-specific immunotherapy targeting cis pThr231-Pro232 tau for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-15

    Tau pathology is the main pathological characteristic of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD), and tau-based therapeutic strategies have great implications in the prevention of MCI and AD. The phosphorylation of threonine 231 preceding proline 232 (pThr231-Pro232) triggers tau hyperphosphorylation, tau aggregation, and tau pathology. Interestingly, the pThr231-Pro232 motif may be in a cis or trans configuration, but several recent studies have firstly indicated that cis, but not trans, pThr231-Pro232 tau is a striking therapeutic target for MCI and AD. Cis pThr231-Pro232 tau appears firstly in MCI and accumulates exclusively in the development of AD. Moreover, cis pThr231-Pro232 tau has low affinity to microtubules, high resistance to dephosphorylation and degradation, and a potent tendency to aggregate. On the contrary, trans pThr231-Pro232 tau has normal physiological activity in vivo. Fortunately, Pin1 is the only known isomerase that catalyzes pThr231-Pro232 tau from the neurotoxic cis to nontoxic trans configuration, which prevents MCI and AD. Nonetheless, as we have mentioned before, Pin1 is frequently inactivated under abnormal physiological conditions in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to clear cis pThr231-Pro232 tau by immunotherapy when Pin1 is insufficient, in order to avoid the occurrence of MCI and AD. PMID:25467137

  3. Michael Wessel13.09.2009 1 The RacerPro Environment for

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Michael

    for people (Wikis, Blogs, Boards, Flicker, Blogger, Twitter, ...) folksonomies (,,(geo) tagging") ­ Web 3.0Michael Wessel13.09.2009 1 The RacerPro Environment for Lisp-based Semantic Web Applications, Racer Systems, RacerPro Background ­ idea of the Semantic Web & logic-based Knowledge Representation

  4. Improving the Pro-Social Skills of Transitioning Urban Youth: A Summer Camp Approach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Korrie Allen

    Examined the impact of a summer camp designed to improve pro-social skills among disadvantaged urban youth. Fifty rising middle grades students identified as at-risk participated in the camp and completed completed pre- and post-surveys. Results demonstrated significant improvement in pro-social skills and overall satisfaction with the camp.

  5. ProDoc guidelines for PhD candidates at the University of Twente INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Twente, Universiteit

    ProDoc guidelines for PhD candidates at the University of Twente INTRODUCTION ProDoc1 is the registration and monitoring system for PhD candidates at the University of Twente. All PhD candidates contain the relevant definitions and specify the rights and obligations of PhD candidates

  6. Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackstrom, John Edwin

    The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

  7. Striving for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: ProSPER.Net Members Meet in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabucanon, Mario T.; Tanaka, Aurea Christine; Aipanjiguly, Sampreethi

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the two-year anniversary of the founding of ProSPER.Net--the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network--members convened on 5-9 July 2010 in Shanghai, China, at a meeting hosted by Tongji University, a founding member. ProSPER.Net is an alliance of 21 higher education institutions in the Asia-Pacific…

  8. DynaFlexPro for Maple RAJANKUMAR M. BHATT and VENKAT N. KROVI

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    combustion engines, automobile steering and suspension mechanisms, aircraft landing gear and control). The algebraic constraints combine with the ODEs to comprise a system of differential algebraic equations (DAEs CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE 127 D ynaFlexPro (DFP), released in the middle of 2005 by MotionPro, Inc

  9. STORED GRAIN ADVISOR PRO: DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INSECT MANAGEMENT IN COMMERCIAL GRAIN ELEVATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A decision support system, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro), was developed to provide insect pest management information for grain stored at commercial elevators. The program uses a model to predict future risk based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. A rule-based system wa...

  10. Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

  11. DNA Microarray Data Analysis and Regression Modeling for Genetic Expression Pro ling

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    DNA Microarray Data Analysis and Regression Modeling for Genetic Expression Pro#12;ling Mike West in large-scale gene expression pro#12;ling using DNA microarray data. The problem of molecular phenotyping, DNA microarrays, molecular phenotyping, singular value decompositions 2 #12; 1 Introduction

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and...Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-9 Use of pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other...

  13. Japan turns pro-life: recent change in reproductive health policy and challenges by new technologies

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2014-01-01

    Japan, known as a pro-choice country in terms of abortion, is currently facing the increase of “selective abortions” thanks to new prenatal screening. Efforts to restrict proliferation of new technology has not been successful and it is likely that Japan will turn pro-life by strictly enforcing the Maternity Protection Act (MPA), which prohibits abortions due to “fetal cause”. PMID:24639978

  14. (Pro)cambium formation and proliferation: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed Central

    Jouannet, Virginie; Brackmann, Klaus; Greb, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The body of higher plants is usually pervaded by the (pro)cambium, a reticulate system of meristematic cells harboring the potential for producing vascular tissues at critical times and places. The (pro)cambium thereby provides the basis for the differential modulation of long-distance transport capacities and plant body stability. Distinct regulatory networks responsible for the initiation and proliferation of (pro)cambium cells have been identified. However, although a tight interaction between these networks can be expected, connections have been established only sporadically. Here we highlight recent discoveries of how (pro)cambium development is regulated and discuss possible interfaces between networks regulating two processes: (pro)cambium formation and cambium proliferation. PMID:25449727

  15. Drive for muscularity and drive for thinness: the impact of pro-anorexia websites.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Lilia; Soto, Ernesto; Pritchard, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, websites that stress the message of thinness as the ideal and only choice have surfaced on the internet. The possibility that pro-anorexia websites may reinforce restrictive eating and exercise behaviors is an area of concern. In addition, friends may be influencing one another to view these websites, further contributing to drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men. Three hundred male and female undergraduate psychology students responded to questionnaires assessing: internalization of pro-anorexia website content, internalization of general media content, influence of friends to view pro-anorexia websites, peer influence, drive for muscularity, and drive for thinness. Results showed internalization of pro-anorexia website content was positively correlated with drive for thinness in women, and negatively correlated with drive for muscularity in men. Internalization of pro-anorexia website content was found to be related to both drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men. PMID:22364342

  16. (Pro)cambium formation and proliferation: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Jouannet, Virginie; Brackmann, Klaus; Greb, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The body of higher plants is usually pervaded by the (pro)cambium, a reticulate system of meristematic cells harboring the potential for producing vascular tissues at critical times and places. The (pro)cambium thereby provides the basis for the differential modulation of long-distance transport capacities and plant body stability. Distinct regulatory networks responsible for the initiation and proliferation of (pro)cambium cells have been identified. However, although a tight interaction between these networks can be expected, connections have been established only sporadically. Here we highlight recent discoveries of how (pro)cambium development is regulated and discuss possible interfaces between networks regulating two processes: (pro)cambium formation and cambium proliferation. PMID:25449727

  17. Going 'above and beyond': are those high in autistic traits less pro-social?

    PubMed

    Jameel, Leila; Vyas, Karishma; Bellesi, Giulia; Roberts, Victoria; Channon, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Few studies have explored how the cognitive differences associated with autistic spectrum disorder translate into everyday social behaviour. This study investigated pro-social behaviour in students scoring high and low on the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ), using a novel scenario task: 'Above and Beyond'. Each scenario involved an opportunity to behave pro-socially, and thus required balancing the needs of a character against participants' own interests. High AQ participants both generated responses and selected courses of action that were less pro-social than those of the low AQ group. For actions of low pro-social value they gave higher self-satisfaction ratings; conversely, they gave lower self-satisfaction ratings for high pro-social actions. The implications for everyday functioning are considered for those with high autistic traits. PMID:24522968

  18. ProBiS-Database: Precalculated Binding Site Similarities and Local Pairwise Alignments of PDB Structures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    ProBiS-Database is a searchable repository of precalculated local structural alignments in proteins detected by the ProBiS algorithm in the Protein Data Bank. Identification of functionally important binding regions of the protein is facilitated by structural similarity scores mapped to the query protein structure. PDB structures that have been aligned with a query protein may be rapidly retrieved from the ProBiS-Database, which is thus able to generate hypotheses concerning the roles of uncharacterized proteins. Presented with uncharacterized protein structure, ProBiS-Database can discern relationships between such a query protein and other better known proteins in the PDB. Fast access and a user-friendly graphical interface promote easy exploration of this database of over 420 million local structural alignments. The ProBiS-Database is updated weekly and is freely available online at http://probis.cmm.ki.si/database. PMID:22268964

  19. Association of [-2]proPSA with Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; Loeb, Stacy; Feng, Zhaoyong; Isharwal, Sumit; Landis, Patricia; Elliot, Debra J.; Veltri, Robert; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Trock, Bruce; Sokoll, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have suggested an association between [-2]proPSA expression and prostate cancer detection. Less is known about the utility of this marker in following prostate cancer patients on active surveillance. Thus, our objective was to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and biopsy results in men enrolled in an active surveillance program. Materials and Methods In 167 men from our institutional active surveillance program, we used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between [-2]proPSA and annual surveillance biopsy results. The outcome of interest was biopsy reclassification (Gleason score ?7, or >2 positive biopsy cores, or >50% involvement of any core with cancer). We also examined the association of biopsy results with total PSA, %fPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA, and the Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index [phi=([-2]proPSA/fPSA) x (tPSA)½]. Results While on active surveillance (median time from diagnosis 4.3 years), 63 (37.7%) men demonstrated biopsy reclassification based on the above criteria, including 28 (16.7%) of whom had reclassification based on Gleason score upgrading (Gleason score?7). Baseline and longitudinal %fPSA, %[-2]proPSA, [-2]proPSA/%fPSA, and phi measurements were significantly associated with biopsy reclassification, and %[-2]proPSA and phi provided the greatest predictive accuracy for high-grade cancer. Conclusions In men on active surveillance, measures based on [-2]proPSA such as phi, appear to provide improved prediction of biopsy reclassification during follow-up. Additional validation is warranted to determine whether clinically useful thresholds can be defined, and to better characterize the role of %[-2]proPSA and phi in conjunction with other markers in monitoring patients enrolled in active surveillance. PMID:22901577

  20. Secretion of pro- and mature Rhizopus arrhizus lipases by Pichia pastoris and properties of the proteins.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wei-ning; Li, Zhao-peng; Tan, Tianwei

    2006-01-01

    The lipases of Rhizopus spp. share a high 1,3-regiospecificity toward triacylglycerols, which makes them important enzymes in lipid modification. In the present study, the extracellularly active production of recombinant Rhizopus arrhizuslipase was carried out with genes encoding the mature region (mRAL) and the mRAL having the prosequence (ProRAL) in Pichia pastoris. Two transformed P. pastoris clones containing the multicopy of mRAL and ProRAL genes were separately selected for the production of recombinant enzymes. In a fed-batch cultivation, where methanol feeding was controlled by an on-line methanol analyzer, the supernatant contained 91 mg/L recombinant pro-form lipase (rProRAL) and 80 mg/L recombinant mature lipase (rRAL) after 92 h of cultivation. rProRAL and rRAL were purified by ultrafiltration, SP-Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography, and Butyl-Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. Molecular weights of rProRAL and rRAL are 32 kDa and 29 kDa, respectively. The amino-terminal analysis showed that the 32-kDa protein was mRAL attached with 28 amino acids of the carboxy-terminal part of the prosequence (rPro28RAL). The specific lipase activities of mRAL attached with 28 amino acids of the carboxy-terminal part of the prosequence (rPro28RAL) and rRAL were 1543 U/mg and 2437 U/mg. The rPro28RAL was more stable than rRAL at pH 4.0-7.0, whereas rRAL was more stable at pH 7.0-10.0. The rPro28RAL had the highest lipase activity toward tributyrin (C4), whereas rRAL had the highest lipase activity toward tricaprylin (C8). PMID:16382184

  1. Molecular and structural insight into proNGF engagement of p75NTR and sortilin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dan; Kim, Taeho; Ozkan, Engin; Light, Matthew; Torkin, Risa; Teng, Kenneth K; Hempstead, Barbara L; Garcia, K Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is initially synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, that is cleaved to release its C-terminal mature form. Recent studies suggested that proNGF is not an inactive precursor but acts as a signaling ligand distinct from its mature counterpart. proNGF and mature NGF initiate opposing biological responses by utilizing both distinct and shared receptor components. In this study, we carried out structural and biochemical characterization of proNGF interactions with p75NTR and sortilin. We crystallized proNGF complexed to p75NTR and present the structure at 3.75-A resolution. The structure reveals a 2:2 symmetric binding mode, as compared with the asymmetric structure of a previously reported crystal structure of mature NGF complexed to p75NTR and the 2:2 symmetric complex of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and p75NTR. Here, we discuss the possible origins and implications of the different stoichiometries. In the proNGF-p75NTR complex, the pro regions of proNGF are mostly disordered and two hairpin loops (loop 2) at the top of the NGF dimer have undergone conformational changes in comparison with mature NT structures, suggesting possible interactions with the propeptide. We further explored the binding characteristics of proNGF to sortilin using surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays and determined that calcium ions promote the formation of a stable ternary complex of proNGF-sortilin-p75NTR. These results, together with those of previous structural and mechanistic studies of NT-receptor interactions, suggest the potential for distinct signaling activities through p75NTR mediated by different NT-induced conformational changes. PMID:20036257

  2. Amino terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide, secondary stroke prevention, and choice of antithrombotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Longstreth, WT; Kronmal, Richard A; Thompson, John L P; Christenson, Robert H; Levine, Steven R; Gross, Rebecca; Brey, Robin L; Buchsbaum, Richard; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Tirschwell, David L; Seliger, Stephen L; Mohr, JP; deFilippi, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Because of its association with atrial fibrillation and heart failure, we hypothesized that amino terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) would identify a subgroup of patients from the Warfarin–Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study (WARSS), diagnosed with inferred non-cardioembolic ischemic strokes, where anticoagulation would be more effective than antiplatelet agents in reducing risk of subsequent events. Methods NT-proBNP was measured in stored serum collected at baseline from participants enrolled in WARSS, a previously reported randomized trial. Relative effectiveness of warfarin and aspirin in preventing recurrent ischemic stroke or death over two years was compared based on NT-proBNP concentrations. Results About 95% of 1028 patients with assays had NT-proBNP below 750 pg/mL, and among them, no evidence for treatment effect modification was evident. For 49 patients with NT-proBNP >750 pg/mL, the two-year rate of events per 100 person-years was 45.9 for the aspirin group and 16.6 for the warfarin group, while for 979 patients with NT-proBNP ?750 pg/mL, rates were similar for both treatments. For those with NT-proBNP >750 pg/mL, the hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.84, p-value=0.021) significantly favoring warfarin over aspirin. A formal test for interaction of NT-proBNP with treatment was significant (p-value=0.01). Conclusion For secondary stroke prevention, elevated NT-proBNP concentrations may identify a subgroup of ischemic stroke patients without known atrial fibrillation, about 5% based on the current study, who may benefit more from anticoagulants than antiplatelet agents. Clinical Trial Registration This trial was not registered because enrollment began prior to 2005. PMID:23339958

  3. Diagnostic Values of Plasma, Fresh and Frozen Urine NT-proBNP in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Namdar, Hossein; Abbasnezhad, Mohsen; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Esmaeili, Heidarali; Yaraghi, Saeid; Samani, Zhila

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The plasma N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level is an important diagnostic and prognostic marker of heart failure. Recent studies have suggested urinary NT-proBNP as a new and simple test for diagnosis of heart failure. We aim to compare diagnostic value of plasma, fresh and frozen urine levels of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for detecting heart failure. Methods: Between January 2010 and January 2012, we measured urine and plasma levels of NTproBNP in 98 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Results: There were significant correlations between plasma NT-proBNP and fresh (r=0.45, p<0.001) and frozen (r=0.42, p<0.001) urine NT-proBNP concentrations in CHF patients. Due to receiver operating curve analysis, fresh and frozen urine NT-proBNP could diagnose HF with are aunder curve (AUC) of 0.73±0.04 (p<0.001) and 0.65±0.05 (p=0.01) with sensitivity and specificity of 73.97%, 58.62%, and 65.31%, 62.07%, for a cut-off of 94.2 and 96 pg/mL, respectively. Plasma NT-proBNP had greater AUC (0.94±0.02, p<0.001) and better sensitivity and specificity (94.9%, 89.66% for cut-off of 414.5 pg/mL). There was no significant correlation between LVEF and plasma, fresh and frozen urine NT-proBNP levels in CHF patients. Conclusion: Plasma NT-proBNP is still the best diagnostic marker with high sensitivity and specificity; however, urinary especially fresh urine NT-proBNP may be a surrogate to plasma NTproBNP for diagnosing HF with acceptable accuracy. PMID:25031827

  4. Plasma pro-surfactant protein B and lung function decline in smokers.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janice M; Mayo, John; Tan, Wan; Tammemagi, C Martin; Liu, Geoffrey; Peacock, Stuart; Shepherd, Frances A; Goffin, John; Goss, Glenwood; Nicholas, Garth; Tremblay, Alain; Johnston, Michael; Martel, Simon; Laberge, Francis; Bhatia, Rick; Roberts, Heidi; Burrowes, Paul; Manos, Daria; Stewart, Lori; Gingras, Michel; Pasian, Sergio; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Lam, Stephen; Sin, Don D

    2015-04-01

    Plasma pro-surfactant protein B (pro-SFTPB) levels have recently been shown to predict the development of lung cancer in current and ex-smokers, but the ability of pro-SFTPB to predict measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity is unknown. We evaluated the performance characteristics of pro-SFTPB as a biomarker of lung function decline in a population of current and ex-smokers. Plasma pro-SFTPB levels were measured in 2503 current and ex-smokers enrolled in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study. Linear regression was performed to determine the relationship of pro-SFTPB levels to changes in forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) over a 2-year period as well as to baseline FEV1 and the burden of emphysema observed in computed tomography (CT) scans. Plasma pro-SFTPB levels were inversely related to both FEV1 % predicted (p=0.024) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (p<0.001), and were positively related to the burden of emphysema on CT scans (p<0.001). Higher plasma pro-SFTPB levels were also associated with a more rapid decline in FEV1 at 1?year (p=0.024) and over 2?years of follow-up (p=0.004). Higher plasma pro-SFTPB levels are associated with increased severity of airflow limitation and accelerated decline in lung function. Pro-SFTPB is a promising biomarker for COPD severity and progression. PMID:25614175

  5. Arg72Pro Polymorphism of TP53 Gene and the Risk of Skin Cancer: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Li, Xiao-Fen; Wang, Yong-Dong; Yuan, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Background TP53 gene is one of the most important tumor suppressor genes. We undertook this meta-analysis to explore the association between TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and the risk of skin cancer mainly in Caucasians. Methods We searched PubMed for case-control studies published up to March 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. Results A total of 5276 skin cancer cases and 5315 controls from 20 studies were included. Overall, no significant association between TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and skin cancer was observed in all genetic contrast models (Pro/Pro versus Arg/Arg, Pro/Arg versus Arg/Arg, Pro/Pro + Pro/Arg versus Arg/Arg, Pro/Pro versus Arg/Arg + Pro/Arg, Pro allele versus Arg allele). Similar results were obtained in the stratified analysis by ethnicity and histological types of skin cancer, such as melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Power calculations indicated that some studies were underpowered. No publication bias was found by using the funnel plot and Egger's test. Conclusions This meta-analysis indicated that TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism probably had little association with skin cancer susceptibility mainly in Caucasians. However, larger sample-size studies are required to verify the conclusion as low statistical powers. PMID:24260330

  6. CHILDHOOD BODY MASS INDEX AND ADULT PRO-INFLAMMATORY AND PRO-THROMBOTIC RISK FACTORS; DATA FROM THE NEW DELHI BIRTH COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Fall, Caroline HD; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Biswas, Sushant Dey; Tandon, Nikhil; Ramji, Siddharth; Reddy, K Srinath; Barker, David JP; Bhargava, Santosh K

    2012-01-01

    Objective Weight gain and growth in early life may influence adult pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Follow-up of a birth cohort in New Delhi, India, whose weight and height were measured 6-monthly until age 21 years. BMI at birth, during infancy (2 years), childhood (11 years) and adulthood (26-32 years) and BMI gain between these ages were analyzed in 886 men and 640 women in relation to adult fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) concentrations. Results All the pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic risk factors were higher in participants with higher adiposity. In women, BMI at birth and age 2 years was inversely related to fibrinogen (p=0.002 and 0.05) and, after adjusting for adult adiposity, to hsCRP (p=0.02 and 0.009). After adjusting for adult adiposity, BMI at 2 years was inversely related to hsCRP and PAI-1 concentrations (p<0.001 and p=0.02) in men. BMI gain between 2-11 years and/or 11 years to adulthood was positively associated with fibrinogen and hsCRP in women and with hsCRP and PAI-1 in men. Conclusions Thinness at birth or during infancy, and accelerated BMI gain during childhood/adolescence are associated with a pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic state in adult life. An altered inflammatory state could be one link between small newborn/infant size and adult cardiovascular disease. Associations between pro-inflammatory markers and childhood/adolescent BMI gain are probably mediated through adult adiposity. PMID:20660641

  7. Pro-Inflammatory and Pro-Oxidant Status of Pancreatic Islet In Vitro Is Controlled by TLR-4 and HO-1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vivot, Kevin; Langlois, Allan; Bietiger, William; Dal, Stéphanie; Seyfritz, Elodie; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard, Elisa; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Sigrist, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Since their isolation until implantation, pancreatic islets suffer a major stress leading to the activation of inflammatory reactions. The maintenance of controlled inflammation is essential to preserve survival and function of the graft. Identification and targeting of pathway(s) implicated in post-transplant detrimental inflammatory events, is mandatory to improve islet transplantation success. We sought to characterize the expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediators during islet culture with a focus on Heme oxygenase (HO-1) and Toll-like receptors-4 signaling pathways. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated and pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status were evaluated after 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours of culture through TLR-4, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, CCL-2 and IL-6 secretion, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production (Dihydroethidine staining, DHE) and macrophages migration. To identify the therapeutic target, TLR4 inhibition (CLI-095) and HO-1 activation (cobalt protoporphyrin,CoPP) was performed. Activation of NF?B signaling pathway was also investigated. After isolation and during culture, pancreatic islet exhibited a proinflammatory and prooxidant status (increase levels of TLR-4, COX-2, CCL-2, IL-6, and ROS). Activation of HO-1 or inhibition of TLR-4 decreased inflammatory status and oxidative stress of islets. Moreover, the overexpression of HO-1 induced NF?B phosphorylation while the inhibition of TLR-4 had no effect NF?B activation. Finally, inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathway induced a reduction of macrophages migration. These data demonstrated that the TLR-4 signaling pathway is implicated in early inflammatory events leading to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status of islets in vitro. Moreover, these results provide the mechanism whereby the benefits of HO-1 target in TLR-4 signaling pathway. HO-1 could be then an interesting target to protect islets before transplantation. PMID:25343247

  8. Differential activity of pro-angiogenic CXC chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Moldobaeva, Aigul; Baek, Amy; Eldridge, Lindsey; Wagner, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    We showed previously in a mouse model of lung ischemia-induced angiogenesis, enhanced expression of the three ELR+ CXC chemokines (KC, LIX, and MIP-2 ) and that blockade of the ligand receptor CXCR2 limited neovascularization. The present study was undertaken to determine the relative abundance and angiogenic potential of the three CXC chemokines and whether RhoA activation explained the measured differences in potencies. We found that LIX showed the greatest absolute amount in the in vivo model 4 hrs after left pulmonary artery obstruction (LIX>KC>MIP-2; p<0.05). In vitro, LIX induced the greatest degree of arterial endothelial cell chemotaxis and KC was without effect. A significant increase (~40%) in active RhoA was observed with both LIX and MIP-2 compared with vehicle control (p<0.05). On average, LIX induced the greatest amount of tube formation within pleural tissue in culture. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that among the three ELR+ CXC chemokines, LIX predominates in eliciting a pro-angiogenic phenotype. PMID:20144627

  9. Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press

    PubMed Central

    McCandless, Phyra M.; Yerger, Valerie B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. Methods. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. Results. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. Conclusions. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries. PMID:21852652

  10. [(Pro) renin receptor in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), originally regarded as an important controller of systemic blood pressure (circulatory RAS), plays a pivotal role in pathological vascular conditions including inflammation and angiogenesis (tissue RAS). (Pro) renin receptor [(P) RR] is known to bind with prorenin causing the dual activation of tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) together with RAS-independent intracellular signaling pathways and contributes to the molecular pathogenesis of end-organ damage. In this review, we investigated localization and expression of (P)RR in fibrovascular tissues and vitreous fluids from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and evaluated the molecular mechanisms in vitro in order to confirm the conclusions regarding (P) RR from animal studies. (P)RR immunoreactivity was detected in vascular endothelial cells, co-localized with prorenin, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Protein levels of soluble (P) RR in the vitreous fluids were higher in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) eyes than in non-diabetic control eyes, and were significantly correlated with vitreous VEGF levels and the vascular density of fibrovascular tissues. We herein report the first evidence that shows the close association of (P) RR with angiogenic activity in human PDR. The present data suggest the validity of (P) RR as a molecular target for the treatment of PDR. PMID:25543383

  11. Self-interest and pro-environmental behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Laurel; Maio, Gregory R.; Corner, Adam; Hodgetts, Carl J.; Ahmed, Sameera; Hahn, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Inspired by the principles used to market physical products, campaigns to promote pro-environmental behaviour have increasingly emphasized self-interested (for example, economic) reasons for engaging with a self-transcendent cause (that is, protecting the environment). Yet, psychological evidence about values and behaviour suggests that giving self-interested reasons, rather than self-transcending reasons, to carry out a self-transcending action should be ineffective at increasing self-transcending behaviour more generally. In other words, such a campaign may fail to cause spillover, or an increase in other, different environmental behaviours. Here we show that recycling rates are dependent on the information participants receive about a separate environmental behaviour, car-sharing (carpooling in the USA). In two experiments, we found that recycling was significantly higher than control when participants received environmental information about car-sharing, but was no different from control when they received financial information or (in experiment 2) received both financial and environmental information. Our results suggest that, congruent with value theory, positive spillover from one environmental message to another behaviour (car-sharing to recycling) may occur primarily when self-transcending reasons alone are made salient.

  12. NT-proBNP testing for diagnosis and short-term prognosis in acute destabilized heart failure: an international pooled analysis of 1256 patients The International Collaborative of NT-proBNP Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Januzzi; Roland van Kimmenade; John Lainchbury; Antoni Bayes-Genis; Jordi Ordonez-Llanos; Miguel Santalo-Bel; Yigal M. Pinto; Mark Richards

    Aims Experience with amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing for evaluation of dyspnoeic patients with suspected acute heart failure (HF) is limited to single-centre studies. We wished to establish broader standards for NT-proBNP testing in a study involving four sites in three continents. Methods and results Differences in NT-proBNP levels among 1256 patients with and without acute HF and the

  13. 26 CFR 1.955-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment...pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment...controlled foreign corporation's previously excluded subpart F income which is...

  14. Creating .DXF files from ProE (Wildfire 5.0) for use with ESPRIT CNC Software College of Engineering students and staff should be aware that ProE (Wildfire x.x) is available through the

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Brian G.

    1 Creating .DXF files from ProE (Wildfire 5.0) for use with ESPRIT CNC Software College of Engineering students and staff should be aware that ProE (Wildfire x.x) is available through the CITES with older versions of ProE (Wildfire 4.0) are available upon request. Step 1. Verify that you have set

  15. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Erez, Neta, E-mail: netaerez@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Glanz, Sarah [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Raz, Yael [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel) [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LIS Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Avivi, Camilla [Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)] [Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Barshack, Iris [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel) [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-?b activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-?B targets and we show that NF-?B is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

  16. The InterPro protein families database: the classification resource after 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Alex; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Daugherty, Louise; Fraser, Matthew; Hunter, Sarah; Lopez, Rodrigo; McAnulla, Craig; McMenamin, Conor; Nuka, Gift; Pesseat, Sebastien; Sangrador-Vegas, Amaia; Scheremetjew, Maxim; Rato, Claudia; Yong, Siew-Yit; Bateman, Alex; Punta, Marco; Attwood, Teresa K.; Sigrist, Christian J.A.; Redaschi, Nicole; Rivoire, Catherine; Xenarios, Ioannis; Kahn, Daniel; Guyot, Dominique; Bork, Peer; Letunic, Ivica; Gough, Julian; Oates, Matt; Haft, Daniel; Huang, Hongzhan; Natale, Darren A.; Wu, Cathy H.; Orengo, Christine; Sillitoe, Ian; Mi, Huaiyu; Thomas, Paul D.; Finn, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a freely available resource that can be used to classify sequences into protein families and to predict the presence of important domains and sites. Central to the InterPro database are predictive models, known as signatures, from a range of different protein family databases that have different biological focuses and use different methodological approaches to classify protein families and domains. InterPro integrates these signatures, capitalizing on the respective strengths of the individual databases, to produce a powerful protein classification resource. Here, we report on the status of InterPro as it enters its 15th year of operation, and give an overview of new developments with the database and its associated Web interfaces and software. In particular, the new domain architecture search tool is described and the process of mapping of Gene Ontology terms to InterPro is outlined. We also discuss the challenges faced by the resource given the explosive growth in sequence data in recent years. InterPro (version 48.0) contains 36 766 member database signatures integrated into 26 238 InterPro entries, an increase of over 3993 entries (5081 signatures), since 2012. PMID:25428371

  17. The InterPro protein families database: the classification resource after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Alex; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Daugherty, Louise; Fraser, Matthew; Hunter, Sarah; Lopez, Rodrigo; McAnulla, Craig; McMenamin, Conor; Nuka, Gift; Pesseat, Sebastien; Sangrador-Vegas, Amaia; Scheremetjew, Maxim; Rato, Claudia; Yong, Siew-Yit; Bateman, Alex; Punta, Marco; Attwood, Teresa K; Sigrist, Christian J A; Redaschi, Nicole; Rivoire, Catherine; Xenarios, Ioannis; Kahn, Daniel; Guyot, Dominique; Bork, Peer; Letunic, Ivica; Gough, Julian; Oates, Matt; Haft, Daniel; Huang, Hongzhan; Natale, Darren A; Wu, Cathy H; Orengo, Christine; Sillitoe, Ian; Mi, Huaiyu; Thomas, Paul D; Finn, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a freely available resource that can be used to classify sequences into protein families and to predict the presence of important domains and sites. Central to the InterPro database are predictive models, known as signatures, from a range of different protein family databases that have different biological focuses and use different methodological approaches to classify protein families and domains. InterPro integrates these signatures, capitalizing on the respective strengths of the individual databases, to produce a powerful protein classification resource. Here, we report on the status of InterPro as it enters its 15th year of operation, and give an overview of new developments with the database and its associated Web interfaces and software. In particular, the new domain architecture search tool is described and the process of mapping of Gene Ontology terms to InterPro is outlined. We also discuss the challenges faced by the resource given the explosive growth in sequence data in recent years. InterPro (version 48.0) contains 36,766 member database signatures integrated into 26,238 InterPro entries, an increase of over 3993 entries (5081 signatures), since 2012. PMID:25428371

  18. Plasma N terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and its determinants in a multi-ethnic population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A M Abdulle; N J D Nagelkerke; A Adem; S Abouchacra; J Y Pathan; M Al-Rukhaimi; M N Suleiman; M C Mathew; M G Nicholls; E N Obineche

    2007-01-01

    This study documents the determinants and plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) among hypertensive and normotensive subjects in a multi-ethnic population in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We obtained demographic, anthropometric and clinical data, together with fasting NT-proBNP and biochemical indices from 128 hypertensive patients and 138 normotensive subjects matched for age, gender and ethnicity. Plasma NT-proBNP levels

  19. Pro–Surfactant Protein B As a Biomarker for Lung Cancer Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Don D.; Tammemagi, C. Martin; Lam, Stephen; Barnett, Matt J.; Duan, Xiaobo; Tam, Anthony; Auman, Heidi; Feng, Ziding; Goodman, Gary E.; Hanash, Samir; Taguchi, Ayumu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Preliminary studies have identified pro–surfactant protein B (pro-SFTPB) to be a promising blood biomarker for non–small-cell lung cancer. We conducted a study to determine the independent predictive potential of pro-SFTPB in identifying individuals who are subsequently diagnosed with lung cancer. Patients and Methods Pro-SFTPB levels were measured in 2,485 individuals, who enrolled onto the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study by using plasma sample collected at the baseline visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the predictive ability of pro-SFTPB in addition to known lung cancer risk factors. Calibration and discrimination were evaluated, the latter by an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). External validation was performed with samples collected in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) participants using a case-control study design. Results Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, personal history of cancer, family history of lung cancer, forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking duration, pro-SFTPB (log transformed) had an odds ratio of 2.220 (95% CI, 1.727 to 2.853; P < .001). The AUCs of the full model with and without pro-SFTPB were 0.741 (95% CI, 0.696 to 0.783) and 0.669 (95% CI, 0.620 to 0.717; difference in AUC P < .001). In the CARET Study, the use of pro-SFPTB yielded an AUC of 0.683 (95% CI, 0.604 to 0.761). Conclusion Pro-SFTPB in plasma is an independent predictor of lung cancer and may be a valuable addition to existing lung cancer risk prediction models. PMID:24248694

  20. Plasma N-Terminal Pro B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Dogs with Pulmonic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Keiya; HORI, Yasutomo; CHIMURA, Syuuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The detailed information between plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measuring plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with PS and to determine whether plasma NT-proBNP concentration could be used to assess disease severity. This retrospective study enrolled 30 client-owned, untreated dogs with PS (asymptomatic [n=23] and symptomatic [n=7]) and 11 healthy laboratory beagles. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were recorded. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using commercial laboratories. Compared to the healthy control dogs, cardiothoracic ratio was significantly increased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. Similarly, the ratio of the main pulmonary artery to aorta was significantly decreased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. The pulmonic pressure gradient in the symptomatic PS dogs was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic PS dogs. Plasma NT-proBNP concentration was significantly elevated in the symptomatic PS dogs compared to the healthy control dogs and the asymptomatic PS dogs. Furthermore, the Doppler-derived pulmonic pressure gradient was significantly correlated with the plasma NT-proBNP concentration (r=0.78, r2=0.61, P<0.0001). Plasma NT-proBNP concentration >764 pmol/l to identify severe PS had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 81.8%. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration increased by spontaneous PS, i.e. right-sided pressure overload and can be used as an additional method to assess the severity of PS in dogs. PMID:24561377