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Sample records for vermicompost frente al

  1. ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF VERMICOMPOSTING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vermicomposting -- the biological degradation of organic matter that occurs as earthworms feed on waste materials -- has been advocated by some as a means of stabilizing and disposing of municipal wastewater sludges. Vermicomposting is being attempted on an experimental scale, th...

  2. COMPENDIUM ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT BY VERMICOMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vermicomposting of municipal solid wastes has been attempted only in the last five years and there are presently no full-scale operations. This report assesses the technical and economic feasibility of vermicomposting and is based on several pilot-scale studies conducted by priva...

  3. Vermicompost derived from different feedstocks as a plant growth medium.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Anglopez, M J

    2010-06-01

    This study determined feedstock effects on earthworm populations and the quality of resulting vermicomposts produced from different types of feedstocks using different vermicomposting durations. Feedstock combinations (Kitchen Paper Waste (KPW), Kitchen Yard Waste (KYW), Cattle Manure Yard Waste (CMY)), three durations of vermicomposting (45, 68 or 90 days), and two seed germination methods (with two concentrations of vermicompost) for radish, marigold and upland cress, served as the independent variables. The worms (Eisenia fetida) doubled their weight by day 68 in KPW and CMY vermicomposts and day 90 KPW vermicompost produced the greatest weight of worms. The direct seed germination method (seeding into soil or vermicompost-soil mixtures) indicated that KPW and KYW feedstocks decreased germination compared to the control, even in mature vermicompost. Seed germination was greater in the water extract method; however, most of the vermicompost extracts suppressed germination of the three seed species compared to the water controls. Vermicomposts from all three feedstocks increased leaf area and biomass compared to the control, especially in the 10% vermicompost:soil mix. Thus, seed germination and leaf area or plant biomass for these three species are contrasting vermicompost quality indicators. PMID:20153632

  4. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the suitability of vermicomposting technology for processing source-separated human faeces. Since the earthworm species Eisenia fetida could not survive in fresh faeces, modification in the physical characteristics of faeces was necessary before earthworms could be introduced to faeces. A preliminary study with six different combinations of faeces, soil and bulking material (vermicompost) in different layers was conducted to find out the best condition for biomass growth and reproduction of earthworms. The results indicated that SVFV combination (soil, vermicompost, faeces and vermicompost - bottom to top layers) was the best for earthworm biomass growth indicating the positive role of soil layer in earthworm biomass growth. Further studies with SVFV and VFV combinations, however, showed that soil layer did not enhance vermicompost production rate. Year-long study conducted with VFV combination to assess the quality and quantity of vermicompost produced showed an average vermicompost production rate of 0.30kg-cast/kg-worm/day. The vermicompost produced was mature as indicated by low dissolved organic carbon (2.4+/-0.43mg/g) and low oxygen uptake rate (0.15+/-0.09mg O(2)/g VS/h). Complete inactivation of total coliforms was noted during the study, which is one of the important objectives of human faeces processing. Results of the study thus indicated the potential of vermicomposting for processing of source-separated human faeces. PMID:19850460

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of vermicompost for determination of nutritional quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash Kumar, M.; Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis has been carried out to examine the compost quality, maturity and nutritional levels of vermicompost and compost of Eichhornia. 50% Eichhorniacrassipes and 50% cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) and collected on different days' time intervals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra reveal the presence of humic substance from compost and vermicompost, which improves the soil fertility. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis shows maximum level of Benzene propanoic acid (95.98%) and by 2-Propanone, 1-Phenyl-, OXIM (10.10%) from vermicompost through earthworms activity. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) results reported high level of micronutrient from Eichhornia mediated compost and vermicompost.

  6. Qualitative analysis of the stability of a continuous vermicomposting system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Enzhu; Liu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    A mathematical model was established to describe ecological relationships in a continuous vermicomposting system. The distributions of organic matter, microbes and earthworms on non-dimensional specific growth rates were simulated. The range of specific growth rates were visualized utilizing three-dimensional reconstruction technology. The stability of a vermicomposting system was not influenced by the initial concentrations of microbes and earthworms, only their species. The coordinates of the stable point depended on the dilution rate and initial amount of organic matter. The method described could be help for establishing a stable continuous vermicomposting system. PMID:23127841

  7. Nutrient recovery from apple pomace waste by vermicomposting technology.

    PubMed

    Hanc, Ales; Chadimova, Zuzana

    2014-09-01

    The present work was focused on vermicomposting apple pomace waste and its mixtures with straw in volume proportions of 25%, 50%, and 75%. The feasibility was evaluated on the basis of agrochemical properties and earthworm biomass. Vermicomposting was able to reduce the weight and volume of the feedstock by 65% and 85%, respectively. The resulting vermicomposts were characterized by slightly acidic to neutral pH (5.9-6.9), and optimal EC (1.6-4.4mS/cm) and C:N ratios (13-14). The total content of nutrients increased during vermicomposting for all of the treatments with the following average final values: N=2.8%, P=0.85%, K=2.3%, and Mg=0.38%. The addition of straw to apple pomace did not enhance earthworm biomass, but did increase the available content of nutrients during vermicomposting. The data reveals that vermicomposting is a suitable technology for the decomposition of apple pomace waste into a value added product. PMID:24582426

  8. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"…

  9. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"

  10. The use of vermicompost in organic farming: overview, effects on soil and economics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Lim, Pei Nie; Shak, Katrina Pui Yee

    2015-04-01

    Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are used to convert organic materials into humus-like material known as vermicompost. A number of researchers throughout the world have found that the nutrient profile in vermicompost is generally higher than traditional compost. In fact, vermicompost can enhance soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Physically, vermicompost-treated soil has better aeration, porosity, bulk density and water retention. Chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content are also improved for better crop yield. Nevertheless, enhanced plant growth could not be satisfactorily explained by improvements in the nutrient content of the soil, which means that other plant growth-influencing materials are available in vermicomposts. Although vermicomposts have been shown to improve plant growth significantly, the application of vermicomposts at high concentrations could impede growth due to the high concentrations of soluble salts available in vermicomposts. Therefore, vermicomposts should be applied at moderate concentrations in order to obtain maximum plant yield. This review paper discusses in detail the effects of vermicompost on soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Future prospects and economy on the use of organic fertilizers in the agricultural sector are also examined. PMID:25130895

  11. Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Faria, Cátia; Lopes, Ana R; Svensson, Liselott; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Ferreira, António C Silva; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2009-12-01

    Strain VC-230(T) was isolated from homemade vermicompost produced from kitchen waste. The isolate was a Gram-negative-staining, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod-shaped bacterium able to grow at 15-37 degrees C and pH 6-8. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain VC-230(T) was determined to belong to the family Sphingomonadaceae by its clustering with type strains of the genus Sphingobium, with Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 33790(T) (97.7 %) and Sphingobium herbicidovorans DSM 11019(T) (97.4 %) as its closest neighbours. The polar lipid pattern, the presence of spermidine and ubiquinone 10, the predominance of the cellular fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c/9t/12t, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA supported the affiliation of this organism to the genus Sphingobium. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses verify that strain VC-230(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VC-230(T) (=CCUG 55809(T) =DSM 21299(T)). PMID:19643879

  12. The potential reuse of biodegradable municipal solid wastes (MSW) as feedstocks in vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Sim, Edwin Yih Shyang; Wu, Ta Yeong

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need globally to find alternative sustainable steps to treat municipal solid wastes (MSW) originated from mismanagement of urban wastes with increasing disposal cost. Furthermore, a conglomeration of ever-increasing population and consumerist lifestyle is contributing towards the generation of more MSW. In this context, vermicomposting offers excellent potential to promote safe, hygienic and sustainable management of biodegradable MSW. It has been demonstrated that, through vermicomposting, MSW such as city garbage, household and kitchen wastes, vegetable wastes, paper wastes, human faeces and others could be sustainably transformed into organic fertiliser or vermicompost that provides great benefits to agricultural soil and plants. Generally, earthworms are sensitive to their environment and require temperature, moisture content, pH and sometimes ventilation at proper levels for the optimum vermicomposting process. Apart from setting the optimum operational conditions for the vermicomposting process, other approaches such as pre-composting, inoculating micro-organisms into MSW and redesigning the conventional vermireactor could be introduced to further enhance the vermicomposting of MSW. Thus the present mini-review discusses the potential of introducing vermicomposting in MSW management, the benefits of vermicomposted MSW to plants, suggestions on how to enhance the vermicomposting of MSW as well as risk management in the vermicomposting of MSW. PMID:20718020

  13. Utilizing heavy metal-laden water hyacinth biomass in vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, Natalya N; Akimova, Elena E; Pisarchuk, Anna D; Yunusova, Tatyana V; Minaeva, Oksana M

    2015-05-01

    We studied the efficiency of water treatment by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu), as well as a possibility of using water hyacinth biomass obtained during treatment for vermicomposting by Eisenia fetida and the vermicompost quality in a model experiment. The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals in the trials with water hyacinth decreased within 35 days. We introduced water hyacinth biomass to the organic substrate for vermicomposting, which promoted a significant weight gain of earthworms and growth in their number, as well as a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in coprolite production. In the trial with 40 % of Eichhornia biomass in the mixture, we observed a 26-fold increase in the number and a 16-fold weight gain of big mature individuals with clitellum; an increase in the number of small individuals 40 times and in the number of cocoons 140 times, as compared to the initial substrate. The utilization of water hyacinth biomass containing heavy metals in the mixture led to a 10-fold increase in the number of adult individuals and cocoons, which was higher than in control. We found out that adding 10 % of Eichhornia biomass to the initial mixture affected slightly the number of microorganisms and their species diversity in the vermicompost. Adding Eichhornia biomass with heavy metals reduced the total number of microorganisms and sharply diminished their species diversity. In all trials, adding water hyacinth in the mixture for vermicomposting had a positive impact on wheat biometric parameters in a 14-day laboratory experiment, even in the trial with heavy metals. PMID:25501861

  14. Speciation and transformation of heavy metals during vermicomposting of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on the speciation and mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu) in cattle dung (CD) and pig manure (PM) using tessier sequential extraction method. Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon and C/N ratio were reduced, while the electric conductivity and humic acid increased after 90days vermicomposting. Moreover, the addition of earthworm could accelerate organic stabilization in vermicomposting. The total heavy metals in final vermicompost from CD and PM were higher than the initial values and the control without worms. Sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting decreased the migration and availability of heavy metals, and the earthworm could reduce the mobile fraction, while increase the stable fraction of heavy metals. Furthermore, these results indicated that vermicomposting played a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in the treatment of animal manure. PMID:26976060

  15. Waste recycling: utilization of coffee grounds and kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Adi, A J; Noor, Z M

    2009-01-01

    Vermicomposting using Lumbricus rubellus for 49 days was conducted after 21 days of pre-composting. Three different combination of treatments were prepared with eight replicates for each treatment namely cow dung: kitchen waste in 30:70 ratio (T(1)), cow dung: coffee grounds in 30:70 ratio (T(2)), and cow dung: kitchen waste: coffee grounds in 30:35:35 ratio (T(3)). The multiplication of earthworms in terms of numbers and weight were measured at the end of vermicomposting. Consequently, only T(2) showed significant increase (from it initial stage) compared to other treatments. The presence of coffee grounds in T(2) and T(3) showed higher percentage of nutrient elements in vermicompost produced. The data reveal that coffee grounds can be decomposed through vermicomposting and help to enhance the quality of vermicompost produced rather than sole use of kitchen waste in vermicomposting. PMID:18752936

  16. [Advances in vermiculture and inhibition of vermicompost to soil-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanxia; Sun, Zhenjun; Cheng, Wenling

    2003-02-01

    The transformation of organic wastes into useful resources by vermiculture has been a biological technology for ages, and obtained a new development in 1970s. This paper mainly reviewed the methods of vermiculture, the physical and chemical aspects of vermicompost, and the comprehensive utilization of vermicompost, and emphasized the inhibition of vermicompost to soil-borne disease. Although the mechanisms of inhibition have not been fully understood, the application has great potentiality. The disease inhibition is related with the microflora, especially the large number antagonisms enriched in vermicompost. PMID:12827891

  17. Optimizing vermistabilization of waste activated sludge using vermicompost as bulking material.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2011-03-01

    An integrated composting-vermicomposting system has been developed for stabilization of waste activated sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as bulking material and Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Composting was considered as the main processing unit and vermicomposting as polishing unit. The integrated system was optimized by successive recycling and mixing of bulking material with WAS during composting and examining the effects of environmental condition (i.e. temperature: 10-30°C and relative humidity: 50 and 90%) and stocking density (0-5 kg/m(2)) on vermicomposting. The composting stage resulted in sufficient enrichment of bulking material with organic matter after 20 cycles of recycling and mixing with WAS and produced materials acceptable for vermicomposting. Vermicomposting of composted material caused significant reduction in pH, volatile solids (VS), specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratio and pathogens and a substantial increase in electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP). The environmental conditions (i.e. temperature: 10-30°C and relative humidity: 50 and 90%) and stocking density (0-5 kg/m(2)) have profound effects on vermicomposting. Temperature of 20°C with high humidity is the best suited environmental condition for vermicomposting employing E. fetida. The favorable stocking density range for vermiculture is 0.5-2.0 kg/m(2) (optimum: 0.5 kg/m(2)) and for vermicomposting is 2.0-4.0 kg/m(2) (optimum: 3.0 kg/m(2)), respectively. The integrated composting-vermicomposting system potentially stabilizes and converts the hazardous WAS into quality organic manure for agronomic applications without any adverse effects. PMID:21145224

  18. Reduction of heavy metal contents in liquid effluents by vermicomposts and the use of the metal-enriched vermicomposts in lettuce cultivation.

    PubMed

    Jordão, C P; Fialho, L L; Neves, J C L; Cecon, P R; Mendonça, E S; Fontes, R L F

    2007-11-01

    The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn from electroplating effluents by adsorption in cattle manure vermicompost has been discussed. A glass column 38 cm long and 7 cm i.d. was loaded with cattle manure vermicompost and effluents were passed through it. The metal concentrations were measured in the elutant. The experiments on adding effluent aliquots into the columns were continued until the metal concentrations in the elutant reached the maximum values established for effluent discharges in water courses by the Brazilian quality criteria, i.e., Cu=1.0 mg L(-1), Ni=2.0 mg L(-1), and Zn=5.0 mg L(-1). The amount of Cu retention by the vermicompost was determined at the natural effluent pH (2.0). The Zn and Ni retentions were evaluated at the natural effluent pH (6.9 and 7.4, respectively) as well pH 2.0. Vermicompost residues obtained from this process were used for lettuce cultivation. The vermicompost was found to be efficient in removing metals from the electroplating wastes, as well as in the increase of its pH values. Metal retention values were close to 100%. The Cu concentrations in lettuce leaves from the treatment with vermicompost enriched with this metal were below the range of critical toxicity level to plants, i.e., from 20 to 100 mg L(-1). However, the estimated Cu concentrations in the roots from the treatment with vermicompost enriched with Cu were much larger than that of the treatment with the natural vermicompost, reaching 246.3 mg L(-1). The Ni and Zn concentrations in lettuce leaves from the treatments, with vermicomposts enriched with the respective metals, were above the range of critical toxicity levels to plants, i.e., from 10 to 50 mg kg(-1) and from 15 to 30 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, no symptom of toxicity was found visually. Larger accumulations of Cu, Ni and Zn were found in the lettuce leaves than in the roots after the treatments with the uncontaminated vermicompost. A greater absorption of Cu and Ni by roots was found in treatments with vermicompost enriched with these elements, whereas Zn was found preferentially in the leaves. The statistical analysis was done by analyses of variance and regression. PMID:17400444

  19. Re-use of invasive plants (water hyacinth) as organic fertilizer through composting and vermicomposting (Extremadura, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Moreno, Marta M.

    2015-04-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive plant that is native of the Amazon basin and whose capacity for growth and propagation causes major conservation problems with considerable socioeconomic repercussions. The greatest damage due to its fast expansion has been in the middle reaches of the River Guadiana in the SW Iberian Peninsula, where was detected in the Autumn of 2004. Due to its rapid expansion, mechanical extraction was carried out by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (CHG) of Spain's Ministry of the Environment since the affected zone is an important area of irrigation farming and hydraulic works and this alien plant weed provoked acute social alarm (Ruiz et al., 2008). In this work we used composting and vermicomposting techniques as an environmental alternative to assess the possibilities of biotransformation of the water hyacinth biomass removed mechanically from the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Four compost piles 1.5 x 10 m size, mechanically tumbled and with no forced ventilation (turning windrows system), were constructed outdoor. Each compost pile was considered as a different treatment: CC1: fresh water hyacinth / wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC2: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC3: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (2:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2) to favor the composting process; CC4: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2). The vermicomposting process was performed on mesh coated wooden boxes (0.34 m3) covered with a shadow mesh with the aim of harmonizing the environmental conditions. The quantities of water hyacinth biomass used were identical in volume (120 l) but with different state or composition: fresh and chopped biomass (VCF); dry and chopped biomass (VCS); fresh and pre-composted biomass with sheep manure rich in wheat straw (VCP). Identical worm density, irrigation type (microaspersion), irrigation period and vermicomposting process duration (four months) were adopted. Phytotoxicity tests were performed on Lactuca sativa cv. "cuatro estaciones" with the aim of finding the appropriate concentrations to be incorporated to the soil. The composting process required water hyacinth to be crushed, because only chopping made the process very slow. The greatest effectiveness was observed with the vermicomposting trials. In the phytotoxicity tests, the vermicompost extracts did not cause any toxicity at any of the concentrations studied; however, compost extracts obtained in CC1 and CC3 caused problems in root development. Key words: composting, vermicomposting, water hyacinth. References Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1: 42-53.

  20. Changes in fungal population of fly ash and vinasse mixture during vermicomposting by Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida: documentation of cellulase isozymes in vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-06-01

    Fly ash (FA) and vinasse (VN), two industrial wastes, are generated in huge amounts and cause serious hazards to the environment. In this experiment, different proportions of these two wastes were used as food for two epigeic earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae) to standardize the recycling technique of these two wastes and to study their effect on fungal especially cellulolytic fungal population, cellulase activity and their isozyme pattern, chitin content and microbial biomass of waste mixture during vermicomposting. Increasing VN proportion from 25% to 50% or even higher, counts of both fungi and cellulolytic fungi in waste mixtures were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased during vermicomposting. Higher cellulase activity in treatments having 50% or more vinasse might be attributed to the significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher concentration of group I isozyme while concentrations of other isozymes (group II and III) of cellulase were statistically at par. Higher chitin content in vinasse-enriched treatments suggested that fungal biomass and fungi-to-microbial biomass ratio in these treatments were also increased due to vermicomposting. Results revealed that Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida had comparable effect on FA and VN mixture during vermicomposting. Periodical analysis of above-mentioned biochemical and microbial properties and nutrient content of final vermicompost samples indicated that equal proportion (1:1, w/w) of FA and VN is probably the optimum composition to obtain best quality vermicompost. PMID:21277188

  1. Effects of combined composting and vermicomposting of waste sludge on arsenic fate and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Maňáková, Blanka; Kuta, Jan; Svobodová, Markéta; Hofman, Jakub

    2014-09-15

    Composting and vermicomposting are traditional processes for the treatment of sludge. During these processes, the humification of organic matter has a significant effect on the physicochemical form and distribution of heavy metals. In this study, industrial sludge (groundwater treatment waste) contaminated by arsenic (396 ± 1 mg kg(-1)) was used. Such sludge poses a significant challenge with respect to effective treatment. Composting, vermicomposting (with Eisenia fetida), and the combined approach of composting and vermicomposting were performed to determine the evolution of arsenic speciation, mobility and bioavailability. The composting/vermicomposting was done with sludge, horse manure, and grass in the ratios of 3:6:1. A solution of 0.1M NH4COOCH3 was used as a single extraction solvent for determination of the mobile arsenic pool and targeted arsenic species (As(III), As(V), monomethylarsenic acid - MMA(V), dimethylarsenic acid - DMA(V)). The analysis of arsenic in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-ICP-MS spectrometry. In addition, the earthworm species E. fetida was used for bioaccumulation tests that followed the compost and vermicompost processes. The obtained results indicate a reduction in arsenic mobility and bioavailability in all matured composts and vermicomposts. The combined process exhibited a greater effect than compost or vermicompost alone. PMID:25209831

  2. Characterization of Matured Vermicompost Derived from Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Byproduct.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong

    2016-03-01

    The valorization process involves transforming low-value materials such as wastes into high-value-added products. The current study aims to determine the potential of using a valorization process such as vermicomposting technology to convert palm oil mill byproduct, namely, decanter cake (DC), into organic fertilizer or vermicompost. The maturity of the vermicompost was characterized through various chemical and instrumental characterization to ensure the end product was safe and beneficial for agricultural application. The vermicomposting of DC showed significantly higher nutrient recovery and decreases in C:N ratio in comparison with the controls, particularly in the treatment with 2 parts DC and 1 part rice straw (w/w) (2DC:1RS). 2DC:1RS vermicompost had a final C:N ratio of 9.03 ± 0.12 and reasonably high levels of calcium (1.13 ± 0.05 g/kg), potassium (25.47 ± 0.32 g/kg), magnesium (4.87 ± 0.19 g/kg), sodium (7.40 ± 0.03 g/kg), and phosphorus (3.62 ± 0.27 g/kg). In addition, instrumental characterization also revealed a higher degree of maturity in the vermicompost. Ratios of 2921:1633 and DTG2:DTG3 also showed significant linear correlations with the C:N ratio, implying that those ratios could be used to characterize the progression of vermicompost maturity during the valorization process of DC. PMID:26844586

  3. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  4. Pilot-scale vermicomposting of pineapple wastes with earthworms native to Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mainoo, Nana O K; Barrington, Suzelle; Whalen, Joann K; Sampedro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over 20 weeks. In a second experiment, a 1:1 mixture of pineapple peels and pulp (w/w) was fed to triplicate pilot-scale vermicomposters and control boxes during a 20 week period. One month after feeding ended, the vermicompost and composted (control) waste was air dried and analyzed. During the first experiment, the vermicomposted pineapple pulp and peels lost 99% and 87% of their wet mass, respectively, indicating the potential for vermicomposting. Fresh pineapple waste exhibited an initial pH of 4.4, but after 24 weeks, the vermicompost and compost had acquired a neutral to alkaline pH of 7.2-9.2. The vermicompost contained as much as 0.4% total N, 0.4% total P and 0.9% total K, and had a C:N ratio of 9-10. A reduction of 31-70% in the Escherichia coli plus Salmonella loads and 78-88% in the Aspergillus load was observed during vermicomposting. The rapid breakdown of pineapple wastes by E. eugeniae demonstrated the viability of vermicomposting as a simple and low cost technology recycling this waste into a soil amendment that could be used by the 2500 vegetable producers of Accra and its surrounding areas. PMID:19620003

  5. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition. PMID:26139410

  6. Dynamics of microbial communities related to biochemical parameters during vermicomposting and maturation of agroindustrial lignocellulose wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    Scarce information is available on the changes in abundance of microbial taxa during vermicomposting. Quantitative PCR and DGGE analysis were used to monitor variations in the microbial structure, relative abundance of four bacterial classes and fungi over the vermicomposting and maturation period of wet olive cake (O) and vine shoots (W). Multivariate correlation analysis between microbial structure and abundance, earthworm biomass and enzyme activities revealed similar and divergent interactions in both processes. Although Eisenia fetida development was different, significant correlations were found with β-glucosidase activity and with bacterial and fungal structure. In the vermicomposting period of O and W, a decline was found in bacteria (94% and 77%), fungi (93% and 94%), and Gammaproteobacteria (56% and 71%) but an increase in Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria (62-79%). Alphaproteobacteria increased only in O (26%). Despite the different initial lignocellulose wastes, the mature vermicomposts were similar in microbial and biochemical properties. PMID:23948272

  7. Transformation of toxic and allelopathic lantana into a benign organic fertilizer through vermicomposting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Naseer; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    In a first study of its kind, the composition of vermicompost derived solely from the toxic and allelopathic weed lantana has been investigated using UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal that a sharp reduction in humification index, substantial mineralization of organic matter and degradation of complex aromatics such as lignin and polyphenols into simpler carbohydrates and lipids occur in the course of vermicomposting. GC-MS analysis shows significant fragmentation, bio-oxidation and molecular rearrangements of chemical compounds in vermicompost in comparison to those in lantana. SEM micrographs of vermicompost reflect strong disaggregation of material compared to the much better formed lantana matrices. The phenols and sesquiterpene lactones which are specifically responsible for the toxicity and allelopathy of lantana are seen to get significantly degraded in the course of vermicomposting - turning it into a plant-friendly organic fertilizer. The study leads to the possibility that the millions of tons of phytomass that is generated annually by lantana can be gainfully utilized in producing organic fertilizer via vermicomposting.

  8. Transformation of toxic and allelopathic lantana into a benign organic fertilizer through vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Naseer; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2016-06-15

    In a first study of its kind, the composition of vermicompost derived solely from the toxic and allelopathic weed lantana has been investigated using UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal that a sharp reduction in humification index, substantial mineralization of organic matter and degradation of complex aromatics such as lignin and polyphenols into simpler carbohydrates and lipids occur in the course of vermicomposting. GC-MS analysis shows significant fragmentation, bio-oxidation and molecular rearrangements of chemical compounds in vermicompost in comparison to those in lantana. SEM micrographs of vermicompost reflect strong disaggregation of material compared to the much better formed lantana matrices. The phenols and sesquiterpene lactones which are specifically responsible for the toxicity and allelopathy of lantana are seen to get significantly degraded in the course of vermicomposting - turning it into a plant-friendly organic fertilizer. The study leads to the possibility that the millions of tons of phytomass that is generated annually by lantana can be gainfully utilized in producing organic fertilizer via vermicomposting. PMID:27049868

  9. Changes in microbial dynamics during vermicomposting of fresh and composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Pérez-Díaz, Domingo; Mato, Salustiano

    2016-02-01

    Municipal sewage sludge is a waste with high organic load generated in large quantities that can be treated by biodegradation techniques to reduce its risk to the environment. This research studies vermicomposting and vermicomposting after composting of sewage sludge with the earthworm specie Eisenia andrei. In order to determine the effect that earthworms cause on the microbial dynamics depending on the treatment, the structure and activity of the microbial community was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis and enzyme activities, during 112days of vermicomposting of fresh and composted sewage sludge, with and without earthworms. The presence of earthworms significantly reduced microbial biomass and all microbial groups (Gram+ bacteria, Gram- bacteria and fungi), as well as cellulase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Combined composting-vermicomposting treatment showed a lesser development of earthworms, higher bacterial and fungal biomass than vermicomposting treatment and greater differences, compared with the control without earthworms, in cellulase, β-glucosidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. Both treatments were suitable for the stabilization of municipal sewage sludge and the combined composting-vermicomposting treatment can be a viable process for maturation of fresh compost. PMID:26489796

  10. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bachman, G R; Metzger, J D

    2008-05-01

    Vermicompost has been promoted as a viable alternative container media component for the horticulture industry. The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of vermicompost at different points in the production cycle of tomato, marigold, pepper, and cornflower. The incorporation of vermicompost of pig manure origin into germination media up to 20% v/v enhanced shoot and root weight, leaf area, and shoot:root ratios of both tomato and French marigold seedlings; however amendment with vermicompost had little influence on pepper and cornflower seedling growth. Moreover there was no effect on the germination of seed of any species. When seedlings of tomato, French marigold, and cornflower were transplanted into 6-cell packs there was greater plant growth in media amended with vermicompost compared to the control media, and the greatest growth when vermicompost was amended into both the germination and transplant media. This effect was increased when seedlings in the transplant media were irrigated with water containing fertilizer. PMID:17689243

  11. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. PMID:25728090

  12. Feasibility of utilization of horse dung spiked filter cake in vermicomposters using exotic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Pritam; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2008-05-01

    This contribution reports the potential of vermicomposting technology in the management of horse dung (HD) spiked sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida under laboratory conditions. A total of six vermicomposters filled with different ratios of HD and SMFC were maintained for this study. The growth and fecundity of E. foetida was monitored for 12 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 90% HD+10% SMFC feed mixture containing vermicomposter. Earthworms' biomass gain and reproduction was favorably up to 50% HD+50% SMFC feed composition. Maximum cocoons were also recorded in 90% HD+10% SMFC feed mixtures, however increasing proportions of SMFC in different vermicomposters affected the growth and fecundity of worms. A significant decrease in C:N ratio and increase in total kjeldahl nitrogen, total available phosphorus and calcium contents was recorded. The heavy metals content was higher in the vermicompost obtained in all the reactors than initial feed substrates. Based on investigations it is concluded that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of filter cake if it is mixed in 1:1 ratio with horse dung. PMID:17574845

  13. Reduction of bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during vermicomposting of water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2013-12-01

    Vermicomposting of water hyacinth is a good alternative for the treatment of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and subsequentially, beneficial for agriculture purposes. The bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) were evaluated during vermicomposting of E. crassipes employing Eisenia fetida earthworm. Five different proportions (trials 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of cattle manure, water hyacinth, and sawdust were prepared for the vermicomposting process. Results show that very poor biomass growth of earthworms was observed in the highest proportion of water hyacinth (trial 1). The water soluble, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable, and leachable heavy metals concentration (percentage of total heavy metals) were reduced significantly in all trials except trial 1. The total concentration of some metals was low but its water soluble and DTPA extractable fractions were similar or more than other metals which were present in higher concentration. This study revealed that the toxicity of metals depends on bioavailable fraction rather than total metal concentration. Bioavailable fraction of metals may be toxic for plants and soil microorganisms. The vermicomposting of water hyacinth by E. fetida was very effective for reduction of bioavailability and leachability of selected heavy metals. Leachability test confirmed that prepared vermicompost is not hazardous for soil, plants, and human health. The feasibility of earthworms to mitigate the metal toxicity and to enhance the nutrient profile in water hyacinth vermicompost might be useful in sustainable land renovation practices at low-input basis. PMID:23757026

  14. Removal of Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd from electroplating wastes and synthetic solutions by vermicompost of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Cláudio Pereira; Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Einloft, Rosilene; Santana, Marlete Bastos; Bellato, Carlos Roberto; de Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the retention of Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cd under laboratory conditions from synthetic solution and electroplating wastes by vermicompost. A glass column was loaded with vermicompost, and metal solutions were passed through it. Metal concentrations were then measured in the eluate in order to evaluate the amounts retained by the vermicompost. Measurements of pH, metal concentrations, moistness, organic matter and ash contents, and infrared and XRD spectroscopy were used for vermicompost characterisation. Vermicompost residues obtained from this process were used for plant nutrition in eroded soil collected from a talus near a highway. Metal retention (in g of metal/kg of vermicompost) from effluents ranged from 2 for Cr and Zn to 4 in the case of Ni. In synthetic solutions, the values for metal retention were 4 for Cd and Zn, 6 for Cu and Ni, and 9 for Cr. The results also showed that metal concentrations in the purified effluents were below the maximum values established for waste discharges into rivers by the Brazilian Environmental Standards. The relatively high available Cd concentration of the vermicompost residue resulted in plant damage. This effect was attributed to the presence of Cd in the synthetic solution passed through the vermicompost. The data obtained do not give a complete picture of using vermicompost in cultivated lands, but such values as are determined do show that it can be suitable to remove heavy metals from industrial effluents. PMID:12049122

  15. Vermicomposting of milk processing industry sludge spiked with plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Singh, Sushma

    2012-07-01

    This work illustrates the vermistabilization of wastewater sludge from a milk processing industry (MPIS) unit spiked with cow dung (CD), sugarcane trash (ST) and wheat straw (WS) employing earthworms Eisenia fetida. A total of nine experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P and exchangeable K. The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+ST (30%) and MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+WS (30%) had better waste mineralization rate among waste mixtures studied. The earthworm showed better biomass and cocoon numbers in all vermibeds during vermicomposting operation. Results, thus suggest the suitability of E. fetida for conversion of noxious industrial waste into value-added product for land restoration programme. PMID:22609678

  16. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  17. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: Reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a vineyard soil amended with grape marc vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Vineyard soils in many areas suffer from low organic matter contents, which can be the cause of negative effects such as increasing the risk of erosion, so the use of organic amendments must be considered a good agricultural practice. Even more, if grape marc is recycled as a soil amendment in the vineyards, benefits from a good waste management strategy are also obtained. In the present study, a grape marc from the wine region of Valdeorras (north-west Spain) was used for the production of vermicompost, and this added to a vineyard soil of the same area in a laboratory study. Mixtures of soil and grape marc vermicompost (2 and 4%, dry weight) were incubated for ten weeks at 25°C and the mineralization of C and N studied. The respiration data were fitted to a first-order kinetic model. The rates of grape marc vermicompost which should be added to the vineyard soil in order to maintain the initial levels of organic matter were estimated from the laboratory data, and found to be 1.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if the present mean temperature is considered) and 2.1 t ha(-1) year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if a 2°C increment in temperature is considered), amounts which could be obtained recycling the grape marc produced in the exploitation. PMID:20837558

  19. Effects of vermicomposts produced from food waste on the growth and yields of greenhouse peppers.

    PubMed

    Arancon, Norman Q; Edwards, Clive A; Atiyeh, Rola; Metzger, James D

    2004-06-01

    Vermicomposts, produced commercially from food wastes, were substituted at a range of different concentrations into a soil-less commercial bedding plant container medium, Metro-Mix 360 (MM360), to evaluate their effects on the growth and yields of peppers in the greenhouse. Six-week-old peppers (Capsicum annum L. var. California) were transplanted into 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% or 10% MM360 substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% vermicompost. All plants were watered three times weekly with 200 ppm Peter's Nutrient Solution from the time of transplanting up to 107 days. Peppers grown in potting mixtures containing 40% food waste vermicomposts and 60% MM360 yielded 45% more fruit weights and had 17% greater mean number of fruits than those grown in MM360 only. The mean heights, numbers of buds and numbers of flowers of peppers grown in potting mixtures containing 10-80% vermicompost although greater did not differ significantly from those of peppers grown in MM360. There were no positive correlations between the increases in pepper yields, and the amounts of mineral-N and microbial biomass-N in the potting mixtures, or the concentrations of nitrogen in the shoot tissues of peppers. Factors such as: an improvement of the physical structure of the potting medium, increases in populations of beneficial microorganisms and the potential availability of plant growth-influencing-substances produced by microorganisms in vermicomposts, could have contributed to the increased pepper yields obtained. PMID:15051075

  20. Vermicomposting of mixed solid textile mill sludge and cow dung with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Priya; Garg, V K

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida of solid textile mill sludge mixed with cow dung in different ratios in a 90 days composting experiment. Vermicomposting resulted in significant reduction in C:N ratio and increase in TKN. Total K and Ca were lower in the final cast than the initial feed mixture. Microbial activity measured as dehydrogenase activity increased up to 75 days and decreased on further incubation. Total P was higher in the final product than the initial feed mixture. Total heavy metal contents were lower in the final product than initial feed mixture. Solid textile mill sludge can be potentially useful as raw substrate in vermicomposting if mixed with up to 30% cow dung (on dry weight basis). The growth and cocoon production of the worm species in different feed mixtures were also investigated. PMID:14575954

  1. Molecular characteristics of humic acids isolated from vermicomposts and their relationship to bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Balmori, Dariellys; Spaccini, Riccardo; Aguiar, Natália Oliveira; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Olivares, Fábio Lopes; Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto

    2014-11-26

    Vermitechnology is an effective composting method, which transforms biomass into nutrient-rich organic fertilizer. Mature vermicompost is a renewable organic product containing humic substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical characteristics and the bioactivity of humic acids isolated from different vermicomposts produced with either cattle manure, sugar cane bagasse, sunflower cake from seed oil extraction, or filter cake from a sugar cane factory. More than 200 different molecules were found, and it was possible to identify chemical markers on humic acids according to the nature of the organic source. The large hydrophobic character of humic extracts and the preservation of altered lignin derivatives confer to humic acids the ability to induce lateral root emergence in maize seedlings. Humic acid-like substances extracted from plant biomass residues represent an additional valuable product of vermicomposting that can be used as a plant growth promoter. PMID:25379603

  2. Impact of fly ash and phosphatic rock on metal stabilization and bioavailability during sewage sludge vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longmian; Zhang, Yimin; Lian, Jianjun; Chao, Jianying; Gao, Yuexiang; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Leiyan

    2013-05-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) was mixed with different proportions of fly ash (FA) and phosphoric rock (PR), as passivators, and earthworms, Eisenia fetida, were introduced to allow vermicomposting. The earthworm growth rates, reproduction rates, and metal (except Zn and Cd) concentrations were significantly higher in the vermireactors containing FA and PR than in the treatments without passivators. The total organic carbon (TOC) and total metal concentrations in the mixtures decreased, and the mixtures were brought to approximately pH 7 during vermicomposting. There were significant differences in the decreases in the metal bioavailability factors (BFs) between the passivator and control treatments, and adding 20% FA (for Cu and Zn) or 20% PR (for Pb, Cd, and As) to the vermicompost were the most effective treatments for mitigating metal toxicity. The BF appeared to be dependent on TOC in the all treatments, but was not closely dependent on pH in the different vermibeds. PMID:23567692

  3. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  4. An overview of the environmental applicability of vermicompost: from wastewater treatment to the development of sensitive analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Neta, Lourdes Cardoso de Souza; Fontes, Maurício Paulo Ferreira; Souza, Adriana Nascimento; Matos, Thaionara Carvalho; Sachdev, Raquel de Lima; dos Santos, Arnaud Victor; da Guarda Souza, Marluce Oliveira; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Paulo, Gabriela Marinho Maciel; Ribeiro, Joselito Nardy; Ribeiro, Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy

    2014-01-01

    The use of vermicompost (humified material) for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i) easy acquisition, (ii) low costs, (iii) structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv) the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps) are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent. PMID:24578668

  5. Vermicomposting eliminates the toxicity of Lantana (Lantana camara) and turns it into a plant friendly organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Hussain, N; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2015-11-15

    In evidently the first study of its kind, vermicompost derived solely from a weed known to possess plant and animal toxicity was used to assess its impact on the germination and early growth of several plant species. No pre-composting or supplementation of animal manure was done to generate the vermicompost in order to ensure that the impact is clearly attributable to the weed. Whereas the weed used in this study, Lantana (Lantana camara), is known to possess strong negative allelopathy, besides plant/animal toxicity in other forms, its vermicompost was seen to be a good organic fertilizer as it increased germination success and encouraged growth of all the three botanical species explored by the authors - green gram (Vigna radiata), ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In terms of several physical, chemical and biochemical attributes that were studied, the vermicompost appeared plant-friendly, giving best results in general when employed at concentrations of 1.5% in soil (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed that the phenols and the sesquiterpene lactones that are responsible for the allelopathic impact of Lantana were largely destroyed in the course of vermicomposting. There is also an indication that lignin content of Lantana was reduced during its vermicomposting. The findings open up the possibility that the billions of tons of phytomass that is generated annually by Lantana and other invasives can be gainfully utilized in generating organic fertilizer via vermicomposting. PMID:26073377

  6. An Overview of the Environmental Applicability of Vermicompost: From Wastewater Treatment to the Development of Sensitive Analytical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Cardoso de Souza Neta, Lourdes; Fontes, Maurício Paulo Ferreira; Souza, Adriana Nascimento; Carvalho Matos, Thaionara; de Lima Sachdev, Raquel; dos Santos, Arnaud Victor; Oliveira da Guarda Souza, Marluce; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Marinho Maciel Paulo, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Joselito Nardy; Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    The use of vermicompost (humified material) for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i) easy acquisition, (ii) low costs, (iii) structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv) the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps) are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent. PMID:24578668

  7. Combination of anaerobic effluent and lignocellulosic bacterial consortium to reduce vermicomposting time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of solid bio-fertilizers is an alternative to avoid chemical degradation of soil. Anaerobic biodigestor effluents/digestates have been used effectively as fertilizers. However, they may have several risk factors such as the presence of pathogens and heavy metals. Vermicomposting could he...

  8. Study on shrimp waste water and vermicompost as a nutrient source for bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquaculture industry generates significant nutrient-rich wastewater that is released into streams and rivers causing environmental concern. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effect of waste shrimp water (SW), vermicompost (VC), at rates of 10%, 20%, 40%, and ...

  9. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-05-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs. PMID:26828795

  10. Housefly Larva Vermicomposting Efficiently Attenuates Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swine Manure, with Concomitant Bacterial Population Changes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Gilbert, Jack A; Li, Haibo; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Meng; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Qiansheng; Yuan, Junxiang; Zhang, Zhijian

    2015-11-01

    Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9 ARGs and the composition and structure of the bacterial communities in manure samples across 6 days of full-scale manure vermicomposting. On day 6, the abundances of genes encoding tetracycline resistance [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)] were reduced (P < 0.05), while those of genes encoding sulfonamide resistance (sul1 and sul2) were increased (P < 0.05) when normalized to 16S rRNA. The abundances of tetracycline resistance genes were correlated (P < 0.05) with the changing concentrations of tetracyclines in the manure. The overall diversity and richness of the bacteria significantly decreased during vermicomposting, accompanied by a 100 times increase in the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae spp. Variations in the abundances of ARGs were correlated with the changing microbial community structure and the relative abundances of the family Ruminococcaceae, class Bacilli, or phylum Proteobacteria. Vermicomposting, as a waste management practice, can reduce the overall abundance of ARGs. More research is warranted to assess the use of this waste management practice as a measure to attenuate the dissemination of antimicrobial residues and ARGs from livestock production before vermicompost can be safely used as biofertilizer in agroecosystems. PMID:26296728

  11. Housefly Larva Vermicomposting Efficiently Attenuates Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swine Manure, with Concomitant Bacterial Population Changes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Gilbert, Jack A.; Li, Haibo; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Meng; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Qiansheng; Yuan, Junxiang

    2015-01-01

    Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9 ARGs and the composition and structure of the bacterial communities in manure samples across 6 days of full-scale manure vermicomposting. On day 6, the abundances of genes encoding tetracycline resistance [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)] were reduced (P < 0.05), while those of genes encoding sulfonamide resistance (sul1 and sul2) were increased (P < 0.05) when normalized to 16S rRNA. The abundances of tetracycline resistance genes were correlated (P < 0.05) with the changing concentrations of tetracyclines in the manure. The overall diversity and richness of the bacteria significantly decreased during vermicomposting, accompanied by a 100 times increase in the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae spp. Variations in the abundances of ARGs were correlated with the changing microbial community structure and the relative abundances of the family Ruminococcaceae, class Bacilli, or phylum Proteobacteria. Vermicomposting, as a waste management practice, can reduce the overall abundance of ARGs. More research is warranted to assess the use of this waste management practice as a measure to attenuate the dissemination of antimicrobial residues and ARGs from livestock production before vermicompost can be safely used as biofertilizer in agroecosystems. PMID:26296728

  12. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J.; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A set of techniques was used to characterize humic acids content of vermicomposts. • The properties of the humic acids produced from different waste mixtures were similar. • This set of techniques allowed distinguishing the humic acids of each vermicomposts. • Increasing humic acid contents in initial mixtures would produce richer vermicomposts. - Abstract: A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV–visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs.

  13. Comparison of the chemical, physical and microbial properties of composts produced by conventional composting or vermicomposting using the same feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R J; Zhou, Y-F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical, physical and microbial properties of thermophilic composts and vermicomposts were compared using the same municipal green waste-based feedstocks: (i) municipal green waste alone, (ii) 75 % municipal green waste/25 % green garden waste and (iii) 75 % municipal green waste/25 % cattle manure. Temperatures reached 37 °C during composting of municipal green waste alone but when garden waste or cattle manure were added, temperatures reached 47 and 52 °C, respectively. At the end of vermicomposting (using Eisenia fetida), the number of earthworms present was greater than that added for the cattle manure-amended feedstock but much less for both the garden waste and municipal green waste alone treatments. The products formed in all treatments generally fell within suggested maturity indices for composts. Greater organic matter decomposition occurred during composting than vermicomposting resulting in composts having a significantly lower organic C content and a greater content of total N, extractable Mg, K, Na, P, and mineral N, a higher EC and a lower C/N ratio than the vermicomposts. For all three feedstocks, vermicomposts had a lower bulk density and greater total porosity and macroporosity than composts. For the garden waste- and cattle manure-amended feedstocks, vermicomposts had a higher microbial biomass C than the composts and for all three feedstocks, basal respiration and metabolic quotient were greatest for vermicomposts. It was concluded that composting is a robust process suitable for treatment of a range of organic wastes but, because of the nutritional requirements of the earthworms, vermicomposting is a much less robust and was only suitable for the cattle manure-amended feedstock. PMID:26888641

  14. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis). PMID:20922463

  15. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial community differences in composting and vermicomposting on the stabilization of mixed sewage sludge and cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Liangbo

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the microbial community structures and compositions in composting and vermicomposting processes. We applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria obtained from bio-stabilization of sewage sludge and cattle dung. Results demonstrated that vermicomposting process presented higher operational taxonomic units and bacterial diversity than the composting. Analysis using weighted UniFrac indicated that composting exhibited higher effects on shaping microbial community structure than the vermicomposting. The succession of dominant bacteria was also detected during composting. Firmicutes was the dominant bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting and shifted to Actinomycetes in the maturing stage. By contrast, Proteobacteria accounted for the highest proportions in the whole process of the vermicomposting. Furthermore, vermicomposting contained more uncultured and unidentified bacteria at the taxonomy level of genus than the composting. In summary, the bacterial community during composting significantly differed from that during vermicomposting. These two techniques played different roles in changing the diversity and composition of microbial communities. PMID:26318447

  16. Efficacy of Vermicompost against fertilizers on Cicer and Pisum and on population diversity of N2 fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Biswas, Chanchal Kumar; Ghosh, Arup; Saha, Amit

    2010-05-01

    Vermicompost is a very important biofertilizer produced through the artificial cultivation of worms i.e. Vermiculture. Vermicompost is enriched with all beneficial soil bacteria and also contain many of the essential plant nutrients like N, P, K and micronutrients. It increases soil aeration, texture and jilt. In this work, study is being carried out to find out the effect of different fertilizers such as DAF, FYM and Vermicompost on various morphological parameters and on the in vitro growth of bacterial colonies and its diversity in relation to two important leguminous plants such as Pisum sp. and Cicer sp. Results showed that plant grown in Vermicompost pretreated soil exhibited maximum increase in all morphological parameters such as root length, shoot length, number of root branches, number of stem branches, number of leaves, number of flowers, number of pods and number of root nodules in four months sampling in comparison to untreated, FYM treated and DAP treated soils. Further in Vermicompost pretreated soil, number of N2 fixing bacterial colony was maximum and showed highest diversity indices (1.6 and 0.99 and 2.0 and 0.99 for Cicer sp. and Pisum sp. respectively) than FYM, DAP and untreated control. Thus not only does the Vermicompost stimulate plant growth but also it increases the N2 fixing bacterial population in soil and also its diversity. PMID:21046998

  17. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV-visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs. PMID:25318702

  18. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, R M; Edwards, C A; Subler, S; Metzger, J D

    2001-05-01

    This experiment was designed to characterize the physical, chemical and microbial properties of a standard commercial horticultural, greenhouse container, bedding plant medium (Metro-Mix 360), that had been substituted with a range of increasing concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% by volume) of pig manure vermicompost and to relate these properties to plant growth responses. The growth trials used tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), grown in the substituted media for 31 days under glasshouse conditions, with seedling growth recorded in 20 pots for each treatment. Half of the tomato seedlings (10 pots per treatment) were watered daily with liquid inorganic fertilizer while the other half received water only. The percentage total porosity, percentage air space, pH and ammonium concentrations of the container medium all decreased significantly, after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with equivalent amounts of pig manure vermicompost; whereas bulk density, container capacity, electrical conductivity, overall microbial activity and nitrate concentrations, all increased with increasing substitutions of vermicompost. The growth of tomato seedlings in the potting mixtures containing 100% pig manure vermicompost was reduced, possibly as a result of high soluble salt concentrations in the vermicompost and poorer porosity and aeration. The growth of tomato seedlings was greatest after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with between 25% and 50% pig manure vermicompost, with more growth occurring in combinations of pig manure vermicompost treated regularly with a liquid fertilizer solution than in those with no fertilizer applied. Some of the growth enhancement in these mixtures seemed to be related to the combined effects of improved porosity, aeration and water retention in the medium and the high nitrate content of the substrate, which produced an increased uptake of nitrogen by the plant tissues, resulting in increased plant growth. When the tomato seedlings were watered daily with liquid inorganic fertilizer, substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with a very small amount (5%) of pig manure vermicompost resulted in a significant increase in the growth of tomato seedlings. Such effects could not be attributed solely to the nutritional or physical properties of the pig manure vermicompost. Therefore, it seems likely that the pig manure vermicompost provided other biological inputs, such as plant growth regulators into the container medium, that still need to be identified fully. PMID:11265782

  19. Direct, rapid and sustainable vermicomposting of the leaf litter of neem (Azadirachta indica).

    PubMed

    Nayeem-Shah, M; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed concept of high rate vermicomposting was successfully used to enable direct vermicomoposting of neem leaves-without any pre-composting or cow dung supplementation as previously reported processes had necessitated. All the three epigeic species of earthworms that were explored, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, provided efficient vermicast production with no mortality, persistent gain in body mass and good fecundity over the 16 months long period of reactor operation. In this period, all reactors were pulse-fed at the solid retention time of 20 days and were operated in the pseudo discretized continuous operation protocol developed earlier by the authors. With this, it was possible to almost completely dampen the influence of natural biodegradation of the feed or grazing by the earthworm born in the vermireactors. The findings, thus, conclusively prove that, all-through, the brisk vermicomposting was caused almost entirely by the action of the 'parent' earthworms on fresh feed. PMID:25344437

  20. Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

    2010-09-01

    The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

  1. Sustainable reuse of rice residues as feedstocks in vermicomposting for organic fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Shak, Katrina Pui Yee; Wu, Ta Yeong; Lim, Su Lin; Lee, Chieh Ai

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, rice (Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima) cultivation has increased in many rice-growing countries due to the increasing export demand and population growth and led to a copious amount of rice residues, consisting mainly of rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH), being generated during and after harvesting. In this study, Eudrilus eugeniae was used to decompose rice residues alone and rice residues amended with cow dung (CD) for bio-transformation of wastes into organic fertilizer. Generally, the final vermicomposts showed increases in macronutrients, namely, calcium (11.4-34.2%), magnesium (1.3-40.8%), phosphorus (1.2-57.3%), and potassium (1.1-345.6%) and a decrease in C/N ratio (26.8-80.0%) as well as increases in heavy metal content for iron (17-108%), copper (14-120%), and manganese (6-60%) after 60 days of vermicomposting. RS as a feedstock was observed to support healthier growth and reproduction of earthworms as compared to RH, with maximum adult worm biomass of 0.66 g/worm (RS) at 60 days, 31 cocoons (1RS:2CD), and 23 hatchlings (1RS:1CD). Vermicomposting of RS yielded better results than RH among all of the treatments investigated. RS that was mixed with two parts of CD (1RS:2CD) showed the best combination of nutrient results as well as the growth of E. eugeniae. In conclusion, vermicomposting could be used as a green technology to bio-convert rice residues into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers if the residues are mixed with CD in the appropriate ratio. PMID:23900949

  2. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:24835490

  3. Microbiological community analysis of vermicompost tea and its influence on the growth of vegetables and cereals.

    PubMed

    Fritz, J I; Franke-Whittle, I H; Haindl, S; Insam, H; Braun, R

    2012-07-01

    Vermicompost, the digestion product of organic material by earthworms, has been widely reported to have a more positive effect on plant growth and plant health than conventional compost. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different vermicompost elutriates (aerated compost teas) on soils and plant growth. The teas were analyzed by chemical, microbiological, and molecular methods accompanied by plant growth tests at laboratory and field scale. The number of microorganisms in the teas increased during the extraction process and was affected by substrate addition. The vermicompost tea found to increase plant growth best under laboratory tests was applied to cereals (wheat and barley) and vegetables (Raphanus sativus, Rucola selvatica, and Pisum sativum) in a field study. The results revealed no effects of tea application on plant yield; however, sensoric tests indicated an improvement in crop quality. The soils from laboratory and field studies were investigated to detect possible microbial or chemical changes. The results indicated that minor changes to the soil microbial community occurred following tea application by foliar spray in both the laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments. PMID:22712623

  4. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT50>200 day(-1), E2-DT50<16 day(-1)). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability. PMID:26590874

  5. Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Wang, Hang; Zhu, Jun; Suneethi, Sundar; Zheng, JianGuo

    2012-08-01

    Improper handling of animal manure generated from concentrated swine operations greatly deteriorates water ecosystems. In this study, a full-scale vermireactor using housefly larvae (Musca domestica) was designed to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of swine manure reduction, and to explore the associated biochemical-biological mechanisms. The one-week larvae vermireactor resulted in a total weight reduction rate of 106±17 kg/(m(3) d) and moisture reduction of 80.2%. Microbial activities in manure decreased by 45% after vermicomposting, while the activities of cellulose, proteases, and phosphatases in the vermicompost were significantly 69 times, 48%, and 82% lower than those in raw manure, respectively. The vermicompost was exclusively dominated by Entomoplasma somnilux, Proteobacterium, and Clostridiaceae bacterium where the microbial diversity was decreased from 2.57 in raw manure to 1.77. Correlation coefficients statistic showed that organic C might be a key indicator of the biochemical features and microbial functions of the larvae vermireactor. PMID:22728759

  6. Enhancement of wood waste decomposition by microbial inoculation prior to vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Shweta

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of microbial pre-decomposition of timber wastes to quality production of vermicompost with higher agronomic value, timber wastes were inoculated with different combinations of the fungi Phanerochete chrysosporium, Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger and the bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (MTCC 3853) and Bacillus cereus (MTCC 4079) and incubated at 28-30 °C in a mechanical composter. The inoculation enhanced the degradation of timber wastes, increased total nitrogen and improved the quality and enhanced production of vermicompost generated with the native earthworm Drawida willsi Michelsen. Total nitrogen increased from 0.16% to 1.52% and total organic carbon (TOC) decreased from 42% to 13%. Out of 10 microbial combinations tested for pre-decomposition, the combination of P. chrysosporium+T. reesei was found best in terms of ligno-cellulosic decomposition, and P. chrysosporium+A. niger+B. cereus with respect of cast output. The study shows that microbial pre-decomposition of timber wastes to produce quality vermicompost is a feasible technology. PMID:21036037

  7. Vermicomposting grape marc yields high quality organic biofertiliser and bioactive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Jorge; Martínez-Cordeiro, Hugo; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Grape is the largest fruit crop in the world, and most (80%) of the harvested fruit is used to make wine. The main by-product of the wine industry is called grape marc, which consists of the stalks, skin, pulp and seeds that remain after pressing the grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grape marc could be processed by vermicomposting on an industrial scale to yield both a high-quality organic, polyphenol-free fertiliser and grape seeds (as a source of bioactive polyphenols). Vermicomposting reduced the biomass of grape marc substantially (by 58%), mainly as a result of the loss of volatile solids. After 2 weeks, the process yielded a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active and stabilised peat-like material that was easily separated from the seeds by sieving. Although the polyphenol content of the seeds was considerably reduced, this disadvantage was outweighed by the ease of separation of the seeds. Separation of the seeds also eliminated the polyphenol-associated phytotoxicity from the vermicompost. The seeds still contained useful amounts of polyphenols, which could be directly extracted for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The procedure described is effective, simple and economical, and could easily be scaled up for industrial application. PMID:25349068

  8. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    PubMed

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts. PMID:23504062

  9. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  10. Effect of Vermicompost Alone and Its Combination with Recommended Dose of Fertilizers on Available Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium in Rice Field.

    PubMed

    Shwetha, S; Narayana, J

    2014-01-01

    Rice variety KMP101 was treated with both organic and inorganic manure. The field and experimental studies were conducted, before applying organic and inorganic manures.The values obtained for available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 360 kg/ha, 12 kg/ha and 166 kg/ha respectively. After treatment and harvest there was a gradual increase in available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ranging between 335-415, 14 -23 and 173- 235 kg/ha respectively among the treatments. Applying 15 t of vermicompost /ha and 10 t of vermicompost /ha and recommended dose of fertilizer showed a greater availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. It is revealed that after addition of organics into the soil year-wise, the soil became more stable. Also, the biological activity increased in the soil and was influenced to maintain the available nitrogen in the soil. Therefore, it is evident that vermicompost significantly increases the availability of available nutrients. PMID:26445754

  11. Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: a three year mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Doan, Thuy Thu; Henry-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Rumpel, Cornelia; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Compost, vermicompost and biochar amendments are thought to improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their long-term impact on crop yield and the environment in tropical agro-ecosystems. In this study we investigated the effect of organic amendments (buffalo manure, compost and vermicompost) and biochar (applied alone or with vermicompost) on plant yield, soil fertility, soil erosion and water dynamics in a degraded Acrisol in Vietnam. Maize growth and yield, as well as weed growth, were examined for three years in terrestrial mesocosms under natural rainfall. Maize yield and growth showed high inter-annual variability depending on the organic amendment. Vermicompost improved maize growth and yield but its effect was rather small and was only significant when water availability was limited (year 2). This suggests that vermicompost could be a promising substrate for improving the resistance of agrosystems to water stress. When the vermicompost-biochar mixture was applied, further growth and yield improvements were recorded in some cases. When applied alone, biochar had a positive influence on maize yield and growth, thus confirming its interest for improving long-term soil productivity. All organic amendments reduced water runoff, soil detachment and NH₄(+) and NO₃(-) transfer to water. These effects were more significant with vermicompost than with buffalo manure and compost, highlighting that the beneficial influence of vermicompost is not limited to its influence on plant yield. In addition, this study showed for the first time that the combination of vermicompost and biochar may not only improve plant productivity but also reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality. PMID:25659313

  12. Composting and vermicomposting experiences in the treatment and bioconversion of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luís Manuel; Gómez-Sobrino, Ernesto; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; del Carmen Ramos-Sánchez, María

    2008-04-01

    This work illustrates the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting in degrading fuel-in-water emulsions from oil spills (chapapote), and the isolation of potentially useful microorganisms for its biodegradation. Firstly, an alternative to the biodegradation of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill (still present in some chapapote rafts in the Cantabrian coast) by means of the application of composting techniques to a microbial partnership acclimated to fuel-oil is offered. Our aim is that, after a relatively short period of time, the microorganisms can obtain its source of carbon and energy from asphaltens. The addition of metabolic co-substrates, like cow bed and potato peelings, allows the fragmentation of complex compounds into smaller structures, susceptible to further degradation. Afterwards, a maturation of the compost by means of a treatment with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) is necessary. Thus, through the vermicomposting it will be possible to obtain a valued product, useful in the processes of ground amendment, with little presence of asphaltens and occluded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, rich in humus, and with an important bacterial flora of Bacillus genera, so that it can be typical of co-activators and accelerating products in composting processes. Along with this article, we show some parameters that control the evolution of the compost products (evolved gases, acidity, temperature and humidity); the chemical and microbiological analytical results; and the germination assays of vermicomposting. Results reveal that by using microorganisms living in either earthworm intestines (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) or vermiculture substrates (Scedosporium apiospermium), it is possible to degrade and to eliminate the polycyclic asphaltens into CO(2) and H(2)O, helped by evaporation, dissolution and/or photo-oxidation processes. The obtained end product has contents of interesting vegetal nutrients and, mainly, it displays very high germination indices. PMID:17512195

  13. Stocking Density Optimization for Enhanced Bioconversion of Fly Ash Enriched Vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu A; Mnkeni, Pearson N S

    2016-05-01

    Although it is widely agreed that stocking density critically affects the rate of vermicomposting, there is no established stocking density for mixtures of fly ash and other waste materials. This study sought to optimize (Savigny, 1826) stocking density for effective biodegradation and nutrient release in a fly ash-cow dung-waste paper (FCP) mixture. Four stocking densities of 0, 12.5, 25, and 37.5 g worms kg were evaluated. Although the 12.5, 25, and 37.5 g worms kg treatments all resulted in a mature vermicompost, stocking densities of 25 and 37.5 g worms kg resulted in faster maturity, higher humification parameters, and a significantly lower final C/N ratio (range 11.1-10.4). The activity of β-glucosidase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis enzymes showed faster stabilization at stocking densities of 25 and 37.5 g worms kg, indicating compost stability and maturity. Similarly, a stocking density of 25 g worms kg resulted in the highest release of Olsen-extractable P and (NO + NO)-N contents. The 0-, 12.5-, 25-, and 37.5-g treatments resulted in net Olsen P increases of 16.3, 38.9, 61.0, and 53.0%, respectively, after 10 wk. Although compost maturity could be attained at stocking densities of 12.5 g worms kg, for faster production of humified and nutrient-rich FCP vermicompost, a stocking density of 25 g worms kg seems most appropriate. PMID:27136178

  14. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Shen, Jianguo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, Longhua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Changfeng; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m-2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  15. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Shen, JianGuo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, LongHua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, HongYi; Zheng, ChangFeng; Xu, XinHua

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m(-2), respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting. PMID:25354896

  16. Vermicomposting of paper mill solid waste using epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Ponmani, S; Udayasoorian, C; Jayabalakrishnan, R M; Kumar, K Vinoth

    2014-07-01

    A 90 day study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic earthworm species (Eudrilus eugeniae) for decomposition of different types of organic substrates (mixed liquor suspended solids, cow dung and leaf litter) into valuable vermicompost. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and leaf litter (LL) were mixed with cow dung (CD) in eight different ratios with three replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH, organic carbon, C:N ratio and an increase in total nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. Overall, earthworms could maximize decomposition and mineralization efficiency in bedding with lower proportions of MLSS. Maximum value for earth worm zoo mass and higher concentration of nutrient content was observed in CD + MLSS + LL in 1:1:2 ratios. Earthworm mortality tended to increase with increasing proportion of MLSS and maximum mortality in E. eugeniae was recorded for MLSS treatment alone. Results indicate that vermicomposting might be useful for managing the energy and nutrient of MLSS on a low-input basis. Products of this process can be used for sustainable land restoration practices. PMID:25004743

  17. Enhancing nutrient recovery and compost maturity of coconut husk by vermicomposting technology.

    PubMed

    Swarnam, T P; Velmurugan, A; Pandey, Sanjay Kumar; Dam Roy, S

    2016-05-01

    Vermicompost was prepared by five different treatments from relatively resistant coconut husk mixed with either pig slurry or poultry manure. The recovery of vermicompost varied from 35% to 43% and it resulted in significant increase in pH, microbial biomass carbon, macro and micro nutrients concentration. Among the treatments highest relative N (1.6) and K (1.3) recovery were observed for 20% feedstock substitution by pig slurry while poultry manure substitution recorded highest P recovery (2.4). Compost maturity parameters significantly differed and well correlated. The characteristics of different treatments established the maturity indices as C/N 15-20; Cw<1.8; Cw/Norg<0.55; Lignin<10-12; CHA/CFA>1.5 and HI>15.0. The manurial value of the coconut husk compost was improved by feedstock substitution with pig slurry (80:20). The results revealed the technical feasibility of converting coconut husk into valuable compost by feedstock substitution with pig slurry. PMID:26871957

  18. The influence of earthworms on nutrient dynamics during the process of vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Jorge; Gómez-Brandón, María

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the potential of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to modify chemical and microbiological properties, with a special focus on the nutrient content of fresh organic matter, was evaluated during 16 weeks of vermicomposting of cattle manure and sewage sludge. Samples were periodically collected in order to determine the changes in inorganic nitrogen (N), in total microbial biomass and activity, as well as in the total and available content of macro- and micronutrients. An optimal moisture level, ranging from 75% to 88%, was maintained throughout the process. The content of organic matter decreased over time, but no changes were found in this parameter as a result of earthworm activity. The carbon/N ratio rapidly decreased, but only in the manure, reflecting rapid decomposition and mineralisation of the organic matter by the earthworms. An increase in N mineralisation was also attributable to the presence of earthworms, although in the manure this effect was hardly detectable before the eighth week of vermicomposting. Earthworm activity also enhanced the total content of potassium, calcium and iron together with an increase in the availability of phosphorus and zinc. We did not detect a significant earthworm effect on microbial respiration, but their activity increased greatly microbial biomass nitrogen in sewage sludge. PMID:23831778

  19. Bacterial community composition and chitinase gene diversity of vermicompost with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Kim, Seon Won; Lee, Seon-Woo; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial communities and chitinase gene diversity of vermicompost (VC) were investigated to clarify the influence of earthworms on the inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi in VC. The spore germination of Fusarium moniliforme was reduced in VC aqueous extracts prepared from paper sludge and dairy sludge (fresh sludge, FS). The bacterial communities were examined by culture-dependent and -independent analyses. Unique clones selected from 16S rRNA libraries of FS and VC on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fell into the major lineages of the domain bacteria Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Among culture isolates, Actinobacteria dominated in VC, while almost equal numbers of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were present in FS. Analysis of chitinolytic isolates and chitinase gene diversity revealed that chitinolytic bacterial communities were enriched in VC. Populations of bacteria that inhibited plant fungal pathogens were higher in VC than in FS and particularly chitinolytic isolates were most active against the target fungi. PMID:19423335

  20. Effects of earthworms on physicochemical properties and microbial profiles during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Fu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xuemin

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of earthworms on physicochemical and microbial properties during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) by contrasting two decomposing systems of FVW with and without earthworms for 5weeks. Compared to control treatment (without earthworms), vermicomposting treatment resulted in a rapid decrease of electrical conductivity and losses of total carbon and nitrogen from the 2nd week. Quantitative PCR displayed that earthworms markedly enhanced bacterial and fungal densities, showing the higher values than control, during the whole decomposition process. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing analysis revealed that earthworms pronouncedly modified bacterial and fungal community structures, through broadening the community diversities of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Ascomycotina. These results suggest that the presence of earthworms promoted the activity and population of bacteria and fungi, and modified their communities, thus altering the decomposition pathway of fresh FVW. PMID:25118152

  1. Comparative assessment of heavy metals content during the composting and vermicomposting of Municipal Solid Waste employing Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2015-05-01

    This study was undertaken to have comparative assessment of heavy metals content during composting and vermicomposting processing of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Six scenarios were set up in which three experiments were for composting (controls) denoted as S1 for food waste, S2 for paper waste and S3 for yard waste and the corresponding replicates for vermicomposting processes were S4, S5 and S6. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in Cd (43.3-73.5%), Cr (11.3-52.8%), Cu (18.9-62.5%), Co (21.4-47.6%), Zn (34.6%) and Ni (19.9-49.6%) compared to composting which showed a progressive increase. Addition of worms did not show any effect on Fe and Mn, most probably from the genesis of organic-bound complexes. The efficacy of utilizing Eudrilus eugeniae was indicated by the high values of bioconcentration factors (BCFs) which were in the order of Cd>Ni>Cu>Co>Cr>Zn and the increase amount of these metals in the earthworms' tissue after the vermicomposting processes. Different values of BCFs were obtained for different heavy metals and this accounted that earthworms exert different metabolic mechanisms. Regression analysis of the reduction percentages (R) in relation to BCF showed that RCdtot.S6, RCrtot.S5 and RCutot.S6 were significantly correlated with BCFCd.S6, BCFCr.S5 and BCFCu.S6 respectively. Thus, in comparison to simple composting processes, data analysis suggested the feasibility of inoculating E. eugeniae to MSW in order to mitigate the content of toxic heavy metals. PMID:25708402

  2. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months. PMID:26508073

  3. Winery vermicomposts to control the leaching of diuron, imidacloprid and their metabolites: role of dissolved organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bayo, Jesús D; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic amendment addition is an effective practice in Mediterranean areas due to its associated high agricultural benefits and its potential to reduce the pesticide impact on water resources. However, their metabolites have received scarce attention, even when they may pose more risk than their parent compounds. Two winery vermicomposts obtained from spent grape marc (V1) and the mixture vine shoot-biosolid vinasses (V2) have been investigated as low cost organic amendments to minimize the leaching of diuron, imidacloprid and their metabolites in columns packed with a sandy loam (S1) and a silty-clay loam soil (S2) under steady state flow conditions. In the unamended soil columns, leached amounts of diuron were 75% and 53% in S1 and S2, respectively. Its metabolites (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea, DPMU; and 3,4-dichlorophenylurea, DPU) percolated less than 35% of the total applied amount. The amount of the metabolite 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) was 2% and 30% for S1 and S2, respectively. Leaching of imidacloprid was 79% and 96% for S1 and S2, respectively, while its metabolite 6-chloronicotinic acid (CNA) was entirely leached. In the vermicompost-amended columns, the leaching of diuron was reduced 2 to 3-fold. DPMU and DPU were also significantly reduced (more than 6-fold). DCA did not appear in any of the leachates of the amended soil columns. Imidacloprid leaching was reduced 1 to 2-folds in the amended columns. The amendments did not affect the transport of CNA. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the vermicomposts did not enhance pesticide transport throughout the soil in any case. This qualitative study presents these vermicomposts as an effective potential low-cost tool in reducing pesticide and metabolite leaching. The next step would be to test them under more realistic conditions. PMID:25602152

  4. Stabilisation of sewage sludge and vinasse bio-wastes by vermicomposting with rabbit manure using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Molina, María José; Soriano, María Desamparados; Ingelmo, Florencio; Llinares, Josep

    2013-06-01

    Changes in the chemical characteristics and biological parameters of Eisenia fetida were assessed by VER using (CO+VE) rabbit manure (Vo) spiked with sewage sludge (SS) or vinasse (V). Seven mixtures were used: Vo, control; Vo+SS at 10%, 30%, and 50% (SS1, SS2, and SS3); Vo+V at 10%, 30%, and 50% (V1, V2, and V3). SS vermicomposts had higher humus, nutrient and total metal contents, but less soluble salts (EC) than V vermicomposts. The number and weight of worms were higher in Vo, followed by SS, at decreasing doses. V3 showed the smallest number and size. The EC of the initial mixtures explained reduced weight, whereas EC and avP2O5 accounted for lower numbers. Vermicomposting is an efficient biowaste recycling technology, but the total amount and composition of soluble salts in food influence the quality of end products and are of primary importance for biological parameters of worms. PMID:23584410

  5. [Vermicomposting of different organic materials and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of their dissolved organic matter].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Man-qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-xin; Huang, Zhong-yang; Chang, Yi-jun; Jiao, Jia-guo

    2015-10-01

    In this experiment, different proportions of the cattle manure, tea-leaf, herb and mushroom residues, were used as food for earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to study the growth of the earth-worm. Then the characteristics and transformation of nutrient content and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence (3DEEM) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during vermistabilization were investigated by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The result showed that the mixture of different ratios of cattle manure with herb residue, and cattle manure with tea-leaf were conducive to the growth of earthworm, while the materials compounded with mushroom residue inhibited the growth of earthworm. With the increasing time of verimcomposting, the pH in vermicompost tended to be circumneutral and weakly acidic, and there were increases in electrical conductivity, and the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus, while the total potassium and available potassium increased first and then decreased, and the organic matter content decreased. 3DEEM and fluorescence regional integration results indicated that, the fluorescence of protein-like fluorescence peaks declined significantly, while the intensity of humic-like fluorescence peak increased significantly in DOM. Vermicomposting process might change the compositions of DOM with elevated concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid in the organics. In all, this study suggested the suitability of 3DEEM for monitoring the organics transformation and assessing the maturity in the vermicomposting. PMID:26995929

  6. Short-Term Effect of Vermicompost Application on Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. PMID:25254238

  7. Effect of vermicomposting on calcium, sulphur and some heavy metal content of different biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculation.

    PubMed

    Das, Debabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Ghosh, B C; Banik, Pabitra

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the changes in total calcium and sulphur and some heavy metal (Zn, Cu, and Pb) concentration of different organic wastes affected by liming and microorganism inoculation. Vermicomposting was an effective technology for disposal of organic substrates like municipal solid wastes (MSW), possessing comparatively higher concentration of heavy metals. The addition of lime in initial organic substrates significantly (P ? 0.05) increased total calcium and total sulphur content of vermicomposts. Inoculation of microorganisms significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content of final products as compared to control. Fungal strains were comparatively more effective in detoxification of heavy metals than B. polymyxa. PMID:22375592

  8. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Harikesh B

    2013-05-01

    Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC-water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC-soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC. PMID:23481343

  9. Vermicomposting of different forms of water hyacinth by the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, Kinberg.

    PubMed

    Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2002-04-01

    Six-month long trials were conducted on different vermireactors fed with one of the following forms of water hyacinth: (a) fresh whole plants, (b) dried whole plants, (c) chopped pieces of fresh plants, (d) 'spent' weed taken from reactors after extracting volatile fatty acids (VFAs), (e) precomposted fresh weed and (f) precomposted spent weed. The first four forms were studied with and without cowdung. The experiments revealed three clear trends (i) of the various forms of the weed assessed, the precomposted forms were the most favoured as feed by Eudrilus eugeniae, Kinberg, while the fresh whole form was the least favoured, (ii) the different forms of spent weed were favoured over the corresponding forms of fresh weed, and (iii) blending of cowdung (approximately 14% of the feed mass) with different forms of water hyacinth had a significant positive impact on vermicast output, growth in worm zoomass, and production of offspring relative to the corresponding unblended feed. In all reactors, the 'parent' earthworms steadily grew in size over the six-month span, and produced offspring. There was no mortality. The experiments thus confirm that water hyacinth can be sustainably vermicomposted in any of the forms with E. eugeniae. PMID:12003318

  10. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Harikesh B.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  11. Vermicompost humic acids modulate the accumulation and metabolism of ROS in rice plants.

    PubMed

    García, Andrés Calderín; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrósio; Tavares, Orlando Carlos Huertas; Zonta, Everaldo; Gomes, Ernane Tarcisio Martins; García-Mina, José Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-03-15

    This work aims to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, gene expression, anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and derived effects on membrane lipid peroxidation and certain stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde-MDA) in the roots of unstressed and PEG-stressed rice plants associated with vermicompost humic acid (VCHA) application. The results show that the application of VCHA to the roots of unstressed rice plants caused a slight but significant increase in root ROS accumulation and the gene expression and activity of the major anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase). This action did not have negative effects on root development, and an increase in both root growth and root proliferation occurred. However, the root proline and MDA concentrations and the root permeability results indicate the development of a type of mild stress associated with VCHA application. When VCHA was applied to PEG-stressed plants, a clear alleviation of the inhibition in root development linked to PEG-mediated osmotic stress was observed. This was associated with a reduction in root ROS production and anti-oxidant enzymatic activity caused by osmotic stress. This alleviation of stress caused by VCHA was also reflected as a reduction in the PEG-mediated concentration of MDA in the root as well as root permeability. In summary, the beneficial action of VCHA on the root development of unstressed or PEG-stressed rice plants clearly involves the modulation of ROS accumulation in roots. PMID:26851887

  12. Effects of digestate on soil chemical and microbiological properties: A comparative study with compost and vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Juárez, Marina Fernández-Delgado; Zangerle, Matthias; Insam, Heribert

    2016-01-25

    Anaerobic digestion has become increasingly popular as an alternative for recycling wastes from different origins. Consequently, biogas residues, most of them with unknown chemical and biological composition, accrue in large quantities and their application into soil has become a widespread agricultural practise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of digestate application on the chemical and microbiological properties of an arable soil in comparison with untreated manure, compost and vermicompost. Once in the soil matrix either the addition of compost or digestate led to an increased nitrification rate, relative to unamended and manure-treated soil, after 15 and 60 days of incubation. Faecal coliform and E. coli colony forming units (CFUs) were not detected in any of the amended soils after 60 days. The highest number of Clostridium perfringens CFUs was recorded in manure-amended soil at the beginning of the experiment and after 15 days; whilst after 60 days the lowest CFU number was registered in digestate-treated soil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns also showed that besides the treatment the date of sampling could have contributed to modifications in the soil ammonia-oxidising bacteria community, thereby indicating that the soil itself may influence the community diversity more strongly than the treatments. PMID:26476314

  13. Removal of Congo Red and Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Vermicompost-Derived Biochars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gang; Wu, Lin; Xian, Qiming; Shen, Fei; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Yanzong

    2016-01-01

    Biochars, produced by pyrolyzing vermicompost at 300, 500, and 700°C were characterized and their ability to adsorb the dyes Congo red (CR) and Methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution was investigated. The physical and chemical properties of biochars varied significantly based on the pyrolysis temperatures. Analysis of the data revealed that the aromaticity, polarity, specific surface area, pH, and ash content of the biochars increased gradually with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the cation exchange capacity, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The adsorption kinetics of CR and MB were described by pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Both of Langmuir and Temkin model could be employed to describe the adsorption behaviors of CR and MB by these biochars. The biochars generated at higher pyrolysis temperature displayed higher CR adsorption capacities and lower MB adsorption capacities than those compared with the biochars generated at lower pyrolysis temperatures. The biochar generated at the higher pyrolytic temperature displayed the higher ability to adsorb CR owing to its promoted aromaticity, and the cation exchange is the key factor that positively affects adsorption of MB. PMID:27144922

  14. CH4 and N2O from mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting systems following in-vessel pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Hobson, A M; Frederickson, J; Dise, N B

    2005-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are included in the six greenhouse gases listed in the Kyoto protocol that require emission reduction. To meet reduced emission targets, governments need to first quantify their contribution to global warming. Composting has been identified as an important source of CH4 and N2O. With increasing divergence of biodegradable waste from landfill into the composting sector, it is important to quantify emissions of CH4 and N2O from all forms of composting and from all stages. This study focuses on the final phase of a two stage composting process and compares the generation and emission of CH4 and N2O associated with two differing composting methods: mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting. The first stage was in-vessel pre-treatment. Source-segregated household waste was first pre-composted for seven days using an in-vessel system. The second stage of composting involved forming half of the pre-composted material into a windrow and applying half to vermicomposting beds. The duration of this stage was 85 days and CH4 and N2O emissions were monitored throughout for both systems. Waste samples were regularly subjected to respirometry analysis and both processes were found to be equally effective at stabilising the organic matter content. The mechanically turned windrow system was characterised by emissions of CH4 and to a much lesser extent N2O. However, the vermicomposting system emitted significant fluxes of N2O and only trace amounts of CH4. In-vessel pre-treatment removed considerable amounts of available C and N prior to the second stage of composting. This had the effect of reducing emissions of CH4 and N2O from the second stage compared to emissions from fresh waste found in other studies. The characteristics of each of the two composting processes are discussed in detail. Very different mechanisms for emission of CH4 and N2O are proposed for each system. For the windrow system, development of anaerobic zones were thought to be responsible for CH4 release. High N2O emission rates from vermicomposting were ascribed to strongly nitrifying conditions in the processing beds combined with the presence of de-nitrifying bacteria within the worm gut. PMID:15869976

  15. Functional Response of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Effects of Vermicompost and Host Plant Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Mottaghinia, L; Hassanpour, M; Razmjou, J; Hosseini, M; Chamani, E

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between natural enemies and herbivores may be affected by application of fertilizers and different cultivars. We investigated the functional response of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae to the nymphs of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on two commonly grown cucumber cultivars in Iran (Khasib and Karim) treated with different vermicompost/soil ratios (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70%). Based on logistic regression analysis, A. aphidimyza revealed a type II functional response to the aphid in all treatments. Attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza larvae on different vermicompost/soil ratios ranged from 0.076 to 0.140 h(-1) and 0.969 to 1.164 h on Khasib and from 0.092 to 0.123 h(-1) and 0.905 to 1.229 h on Karim, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the density of the melon aphid on both cultivars amended with vermicompost/soil ratios resulted in increased prey consumption by the predator. Density of trichomes increased when plants received higher concentrations of vermicompost. So, trichomes may be responsible for different attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza on both cultivars. PMID:26563403

  16. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 {+-} 13.87 mL/g TS{sub added} was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 {+-} 11.01 mL/g TS{sub added} and methane yield of 259.35 {+-} 13.85 mL/g TS{sub added} were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  17. Chemical composition and bioactivity properties of size-fractions separated from a vermicompost humic acid.

    PubMed

    Canellas, Luciano P; Piccolo, Alessandro; Dobbss, Leonardo B; Spaccini, Riccardo; Olivares, Fbio L; Zandonadi, Daniel B; Faanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-01-01

    Preparative high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was applied to humic acids (HA) extracted from vermicompost in order to separate humic matter of different molecular dimension and evaluate the relationship between chemical properties of size-fractions (SF) and their effects on plant root growth. Molecular dimensions of components in humic SF was further achieved by diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR) based on diffusion coefficients (D), while carbon distribution was evaluated by solid state (CP/MAS) (13)C NMR. Seedlings of maize and Arabidopsis were treated with different concentrations of SF to evaluate root growth. Six different SF were obtained and their carbohydrate-like content and alkyl chain length decreased with decreasing molecular size. Progressive reduction of aromatic carbon was also observed with decreasing molecular size of separated fractions. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra showed that SF were composed of complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic and carbohydrates constituents that could be separated on the basis of their diffusion. All SF promoted root growth in Arabidopsis and maize seedlings but the effects differed according to molecular size and plant species. In Arabidopsis seedlings, the bulk HA and its SF revealed a classical large auxin-like exogenous response, i.e.: shortened the principal root axis and induced lateral roots, while the effects in maize corresponded to low auxin-like levels, as suggested by enhanced principal axis length and induction of lateral roots. The reduction of humic heterogeneity obtained in HPSEC separated size-fractions suggested that their physiological influence on root growth and architecture was less an effect of their size than their content of specific bioactive molecules. However, these molecules may be dynamically released from humic superstructures and exert their bioactivity when weaker is the humic conformational stability as that obtained in the separated size-fractions. PMID:19910019

  18. Vermicomposting of sludge from animal wastewater treatment plant mixed with cow dung or swine manure using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Weibing; Hao, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Dongmei; Li, Xuewei; Bai, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Vermicomposting of animal wastewater treatment plant sludge (S) mixed with cow dung (CD) or swine manure (SM) employing Eisenia fetida was tested. The numbers, weights, clitellum development, and cocoon production were monitored for 60 days at a detecting interval of 15 days. The results indicated that 100 % of the sludge can be the suitable food for growth and fecundity of E. fetida, while addition of CD or SM in sludge significantly (P < 0.05) increased the worm biomass and reproduction. The sludge amended with 40 % SM can be a great medium for the growth of E. fetida, and the sludge amended with 40 % CD can be a suitable medium for the fecundity of E. fetida. The addition of CD in sludge provided a better environment for the fecundity of earthworm than SM did. Moreover, vermicomposts obtained in the study had lower pH value, lower total organic carbon (TOC), lower NH4 (+)-N, lower C/N ratio, higher total available phosphorous (TAP) contents, optimal stability, and maturity. NH4 (+)-N, pH and TAP of the initial mixtures explained high earthworm growth. The results provided the theory basic both for management of animal wastes and the production of earthworm proteins using E. fetida. PMID:26755173

  19. Biodegradation of 3,4 dichloroaniline by fungal isolated from the preconditioning phase of winery wastes subjected to vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2014-02-28

    A hazardous contaminant, 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) is widespread in the environment due to its extensive use in the manufacture of chemicals and its application in different sectors. The ability of fungi grow on in winery wastes in the preconditioning period of vermicomposting to degrade DCA was investigated. Three filamentous fungi (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated and one identified as Aspergillus niger and two as Fusarium sp. strains. The culture media with the fungus alone or in consortium (Fmix) with DCA as the nitrogen source were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The fastest degradation rate was measured in Fmix with a DT50 of 0.85day(-1). Fusarium sp. and A. niger differed in the metabolism of DCA. Five metabolites were identified as a result of oxidation, co-denitrification, N-acetylation, and polymerization reactions. The major metabolites were 3,4-dichloroacetanilide and dichloroquinolines. The azo-metabolites tetrachloroazobenzene and tetracloroazoxybenzene and 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene were found in minor amounts but appeared to be the most persistent in the Fusarium cultures (half-lives ranging from 8.3 to 30.9 days). This study highlights the metabolic potential of microorganisms in the preconditioning period of the vermicomposting process and its possible application for in situ bioremediation strategies. PMID:24440653

  20. The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: A comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S S; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ullah, Md Ahsan; Goswami, L; Sahariah, B; Bhattacharyya, P; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Emission patterns of 13 VOCs were investigated in three types of vermicomposting systems (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire posthuma, and Lampito mauritii) in reference to a traditional aerobic composting system by feeding the systems with mixtures of three materials (coal ash (CA), municipal solid waste (MSW), and cow dung (CD)). On an average, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were two to three times higher than all other groups (aldehyde, ketones, esters, and alcohols) from all three types of feeding mixtures. However, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs were generally reduced over time in both aerobic composting and vermicomposting systems. Such reduction in the emission rates was most prominent from Eisenia-treated CD + MSW (1:1), Lampito-treated CD + CA (1:1), and Metaphire-treated CD. The results clearly indicated that the increase in humified organic C fractions (humic acid and fulvic acid) and the microbial biomass present during the biocomposting processes greatly reduced the emissions of VOCs. Hence, the study recommends that vermicomposting of coal ash and municipal solid waste in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio is an environmentally gainful proposition. PMID:26589098

  1. Hacer frente - La adaptación al cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información para ayudarle a usted y a su familia a enfrentar los desafíos que representa el cáncer en su vida. Incluye temas sobre cómo hablar con sus médicos, sugerencias para hablar con sus hijos, cambios en su familia e información sobre grupos de apoy

  2. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system. PMID:25982984

  3. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting systems following in-vessel pre-treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, A.M. . E-mail: a.m.hobson@open.ac.uk; Frederickson, J.; Dise, N.B.

    2005-07-01

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are included in the six greenhouse gases listed in the Kyoto protocol that require emission reduction. To meet reduced emission targets, governments need to first quantify their contribution to global warming. Composting has been identified as an important source of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. With increasing divergence of biodegradable waste from landfill into the composting sector, it is important to quantify emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from all forms of composting and from all stages. This study focuses on the final phase of a two stage composting process and compares the generation and emission of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with two differing composting methods: mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting. The first stage was in-vessel pre-treatment. Source-segregated household waste was first pre-composted for seven days using an in-vessel system. The second stage of composting involved forming half of the pre-composted material into a windrow and applying half to vermicomposting beds. The duration of this stage was 85 days and CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions were monitored throughout for both systems. Waste samples were regularly subjected to respirometry analysis and both processes were found to be equally effective at stabilising the organic matter content. The mechanically turned windrow system was characterised by emissions of CH{sub 4} and to a much lesser extent N{sub 2}O. However, the vermicomposting system emitted significant fluxes of N{sub 2}O and only trace amounts of CH{sub 4}. In-vessel pre-treatment removed considerable amounts of available C and N prior to the second stage of composting. This had the effect of reducing emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from the second stage compared to emissions from fresh waste found in other studies. The characteristics of each of the two composting processes are discussed in detail. Very different mechanisms for emission of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are proposed for each system. For the windrow system, development of anaerobic zones were thought to be responsible for CH{sub 4} release. High N{sub 2}O emission rates from vermicomposting were ascribed to strongly nitrifying conditions in the processing beds combined with the presence of de-nitrifying bacteria within the worm gut.

  4. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-20

    Six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced siderophores; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; CAI-13, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-85 and CAI-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in CAI-85 and CAI-93. PMID:24113511

  5. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

    Cancer.gov

    Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

  6. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  7. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  8. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  9. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Street NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted by The ALS Association. ©2015 Lou Gehrig® used with permission of the Rip Van Winkle Foundation / www.LouGehrig.com nonprofit software

  10. Al Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 μm were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

  11. Hacer frente - La vida día a día

    Cancer.gov

    Enfrentarse al cáncer incluye una serie de eventos que cambian la vida de la mayoría de las personas. Aunque puede ser difícil, hay medidas que usted puede tomar para ajustarse a su nueva forma de vida.

  12. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  13. Who Gets ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... world without ALS Start an Event Combine your passion and commitment to finding a cure for ALS while achieving ... 1275 K Street NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted ...

  14. Hacer frente - Supervivencia

    Cancer.gov

    Muchos supervivientes de cáncer dicen que cuando terminó el tratamiento, fue difícil ajustarse a una nueva forma de vida. Entérese de cómo ajustarse a nuevos sentimientos y problemas que aparecen después del tratamiento del cáncer.

  15. Analysis of phytohormones in vermicompost using a novel combinative sample preparation strategy of ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tan, Swee Ngin; Teo, Chee How; Yew, Yan Ru; Ge, Liya; Chen, Xin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2015-07-01

    Vermicompost (VC), a widely used premium organic fertilizer, is the by-product of symbiotic interactions between earthworms and microorganisms living within them. It has been postulated that phytohormones are plausible "magic compounds" in VC that are responsible for making them such good fertilizers. Thus, a novel approach involving ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed as a fast and efficient sample preparation method to screen for different classes of phytohormones in VC by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Nine phytohormones from three different classes, including trans-zeatin (tZ), kinetin (K), N(6)-[2-isopentyl]adenine (iP), N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-isopentenyladenosine (iPR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 4-[3-indolyl]butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and (+)-abscisic acid (ABA), were simultaneously screened. The extraction parameters influencing UAE efficiency were optimized to provide comparable recovery to the conventional mix-stirring (MSt) method. The optimized UAE method was subsequently applied on the analysis of phytohormones in VC, i.e. phytohormone extract was further pre-concentrated and purified using C18 and MCX SPE cartridges prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The following phytohormones, namely iP, iPR and IAA, were detected and quantified to be 0.49, 0.53, 79.78ngg(-1), respectively; tZ was found to be below the limit of quantitation. Recoveries of 10.2%, 9.1%, 18.9% and 0.3% for tZ, iP, iPR and IAA were obtained. This is one of the few reported works for the successful detection and quantitation of cytokinins and auxins in VC, that provided the key empirical evidence to explain the growth efficacy of applying VC in promoting plant growth. Additionally, this pioneering work could potentially be applicable for the analysis of other types of organic fertilizers such as composts and activated composted materials awaiting phytohormone analyzes for quality assessment and control. PMID:25882426

  16. Al-Anon/Alateen

    MedlinePlus

    Find an Al-Anon meeting Español | Français 2018 Int'l Convention Home About Group Meetings What If I'm not ready ... a meeting? What can I expect at an Al-Anon meeting? What was my first meeting like? ...

  17. Ventilatory Control in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Van Dyke, J.; Nashold, L.; Satriotomo, I.; Suzuki, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease. ALS selectively causes degeneration in upper and lower (spinal) motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. Although ventilatory failure is generally the cause of death in ALS, little is known concerning the impact of this disorder on respiratory motor neurons, the consequences of respiratory motor neuron cell death, or the ability of the respiratory control system to fight back via mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. Here we review known effects of ALS on breathing, including possible effects on rhythm generation, respiratory motor neurons, and their target organs: the respiratory muscles. We consider evidence for spontaneous compensatory plasticity, preserving breathing well into disease progression despite dramatic loss of spinal respiratory motor neurons. Finally, we review current and potential therapeutic approaches directed toward preserving the capacity to breathe in ALS patients. PMID:23692930

  18. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    PubMed

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  19. ALS2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  20. Genetic Testing for ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... called predictive testing. Some medical centers may require psychological assessment and counseling before predictive testing. If a person in the family with ALS has a negative genetic test result (no identified genetic mutation), testing family members ...

  1. All About ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder In the ... a coffee pot, or button a shirt. Eventually, all muscles under voluntary control are affected, and people ...

  2. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to scarring or hardening ("sclerosis") in the region. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal ... throughout the body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their demise. ...

  3. Leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/YSZ/Al devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Tsung-Her; Lin, Ruei-De; Cherng, Bo-Ruei; Cherng, Jyh-Shiarn

    2015-01-01

    The leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Al devices are investigated for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. A silicon oxide layer (450 nm) is first formed on a Si wafer by thermal oxidation. Onto it an Al bottom electrode (270 nm), a ZrO2 or YSZ nano-film (75 nm), and an Al top electrode (270 nm) are sequentially deposited by sputtering. These RRAM devices exhibit ohmic behaviors in the low-field region, while Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emissions take over in the high-field regions. Both the Schottky and trap barrier levels are decreased when monoclinic ZrO2 is replaced by cubic YSZ in the metal/oxide/metal structure. This is attributed not only to the higher symmetry crystal structure and lower binding energy of YSZ, but also to the formation of more oxygen vacancies and their re-distribution associated with yttria doping.

  4. Rapidly solidified NiAl and FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Crimp, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Melt spinning was used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons of the B2 intermetallics NiAl and FeAl. Both Fe-40Al and Fe-45Al possessed some bend ductility in the as spun condition. The bend ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-45Al, and equiatomic NiAl increased with subsequent heat treatment. Heat treatment at approximately 0.85 T (sub m) resulted in significant grain growth in equiatomic FeAl and in all the NiAl compositions. Low bend ductility in both FeAl and NiAl generally coincided with intergranular failure, while increased bend ductility was characterized by increasing amounts of transgranular cleavage fracture.

  5. ALS superbend magnet performance

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Steve; Zbasnik, John; Byrne, Warren; Calais, Dennis; Chin, Michael; DeMarco, Richard; Fahmie, Michael; Geyer, Alan; Krupnick, Jim; Ottens, Fred; Paterson, James A.; Pipersky, Paul; Robin, David S.; Schlueter, RossD.; Steier, Christoph; Wandesforde, Alan

    2001-12-10

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaged in the design, construction and testing of four superconducting dipoles (Superbends) that are installed in three arcs of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), with the fourth magnet as a spare. This represents a major upgrade to the ALS providing an enhanced flux and brightness at photon energies above 10 keV. In preparation for installation, an extensive set of tests and measurements have been conducted to characterize the magnetic and cryogenic performance of the Superbends and to fiducialize them for accurate placement in the ALS storage ring. The magnets are currently installed, and the storage ring is undergoing final commissioning. This paper will present the results of magnetic and cryogenic testing.

  6. Fosetyl-al

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fosetyl - al ; CASRN 39148 - 24 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  7. Al Shanker Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  8. ALS insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why is it necessary to provide my Social Security Number (SSN) when registering in the National ALS ... Why is it necessary to provide my Social Security Number (SSN) when registering in the National ALS ...

  10. Optical gain characteristics in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Oto, Takao; Banal, Ryan G.; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2014-05-05

    The optical gain characteristics of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells (QWs) were assessed by the variable stripe length method at room temperature. An Al{sub 0.79}Ga{sub 0.21}N/AlN QW with a well width of 5 nm had a large optical gain of 140 cm{sup −1}. Increasing the excitation length induced a redshift due to the gain consumption and the consequent saturation of the amplified spontaneous emission. Moreover, a change in the dominant gain polarization with Al composition, which was attributed to switching of the valence band ordering of strained AlGaN/AlN QWs at Al compositions of ∼0.8, was experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Al(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodupe, M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structure and determine the binding energies of Al(+) to a series of ligands. For Al(+)-CN, the bonding was found to have a large covalent component. For the remaining ligands, the bonding is shown to be electrostatic in origin. The results obtained for Al(+) are compared with those previously reported for Mg(+).

  13. Studies of 27Al NMR in EuAl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niki, H.; Nakamura, S.; Higa, N.; Kuroshima, H.; Toji, T.; Yogi, M.; Nakamura, A.; Hedo, M.; Nakama, T.; Ōnuki, Y.; Harima, H.

    2015-03-01

    EuAl4 orders antiferromagnetically at TN ≈ 16 K with an effective magnetic moment of 8.02 μB. In the paramagnetic phase, the magnetic susceptibility of EuAl4 follows the Curie-Weiss law with a positive Curie-Weiss temperature θP = +14 K. The antiferromagnetic state is changed into the field induced ferromagnetic state at a critical field Hc of approximately 2 T. In order to microscopically investigate the magnetic and electronic properties in EuAl4, the NMR measurements of EuAl4 have been carried out at temperatures between 2 and 300 K, applying an external magnetic field of approximately 6.5 T. The 27Al NMR spectra corresponding to Al(I) and Al(II) sites are obtained. From the 27Al NMR spectra, the isotropic part Kiso and anisotropic part Kaniso of Knight shift, and nuclear quadrupole frequncy νQ are obtained. The Kiso and Kaniso shift to negative side with decreasing temperature due to the RKKY interaction. These temperature dependences follow the Curie-Weiss law with θP = +14 K, which is consistent with that of the magnetic susceptibility. From the K - χ plot, the values of the hyperfine fields Hhf_iso and Hhf_aniso are -3.231 and -0.162 kOe/μB for Al(I) site, and -1.823 and -0.264 kOe/μB for Al(II) site, respectively. The values of νQ of 27Al nucleus for Al(I) and Al(II) sites are approximately 0.865 and 0.409 MHz, respectively. The nuclear relaxation time T1 of 27Al NMR for both sites is almost constant in the paramagnetic phase, while the value of 1/T1 is abruptly decreased in the ordered ferromagnetic state.

  14. Studies of 27Al NMR in SrAl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niki, Haruo; Higa, Nonoka; Kuroshima, Hiroko; Toji, Tatsuki; Morishima, Mach; Minei, Motofumi; Yogi, Mamoru; Nakamura, Ai; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Harima, Hisatomo

    A charge density wave (CDW) transition at TCDW = 243 K and a structural phase (SP) transition at approximately 100 K occur in SrAl4 with the BaAl4-type body center tetragonal structure, which is the divalent and non-4f electron reference compound of EuAl4. To understand the behaviors of the CDW and SP transitions, the 27Al NMR measurements using a single crystal and a powder sample of SrAl4 have been carried out. The line width below TCDW is modulated by an electrical quadruple interaction between 27Al nucleus and CDW charge modulation. The incommensurate CDW state below TCDW changes into a different structure below TSP. The temperature dependences of Knight shifts of 27Al(I) and 27Al(II) show the different behaviors. The temperature variation of 27Al(I) Knight shift shows anomalies at the CDW and SP transition temperatures, revealing the shift to negative side below TCDW, which is attributable to the core polarization of the d-electrons. However, 27Al(II) Knight shift keeps almost constant except for the small shift due to the SP transition. The 1/T1T of 27Al(I) indicates the obvious changes due to the CDW and SP transitions, while that of 27Al(II) takes a constant value. The density of state at the Fermi level at Al(I) site below 60 K would be about 0.9 times less than that above TCDW.

  15. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  16. Rub' al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth.

    The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  18. Undulators at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.

    1994-07-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/{minus} 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10{sup {minus}11} Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10{sup {minus}10} Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented.

  19. High Density Sliding at Ta/Al and Al/Al Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.

    2005-07-01

    We present 3D-NEMD results for the velocity dependence of the frictional force at smooth and roughened interfaces for Ta and Al single crystals. For Ta/Al we consider Ta (100)/Al (100) and Ta (110)/Al (111) interfaces sliding along [001] and [11&-circ;0]fcc/[001]bcc respectively. These are compared with Al (111)/Al (100) interfaces at the same loads, corresponding to a pressure of 15 GPa. Both interfacial pairs show similar behavior in the velocity dependence of the frictional force: a low velocity regime with an increasing frictional force, followed by a strain induced transformation regime at velocities above approximately 1/10 the transverse sound speed, followed by a fluidized interface at high velocities. For both interfacial pairs, the high velocity dependence of the frictional force exhibits power law behavior, v^-β, with β = 3/4. We discuss the structural changes that influence dissipation in these regimes.

  20. High Density Sliding at Ta/Al and Al/Al Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.

    2006-07-01

    We present 3D-nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results for the velocity dependence of the frictional force at smooth sliding interfaces for Ta and Al single crystals. For Ta/Al we consider Al(100)/Ta(100) and Al(111)/Ta(110) interfaces sliding along [001] and [11¯0]fcc /[001]bcc respectively. These are compared with Al(111)/Al(100) interfaces at the same loads, corresponding to a pressure of 15 GPa. Both interfacial pairs show similar behavior in the velocity dependence of the frictional force: a low velocity regime with an increasing frictional force followed by a strain induced transformation regime at velocities above approximately 1/10 the transverse sound speed, followed by a fluidized interface at high velocities. For both interfacial pairs, the high velocity dependence of the frictional force exhibits power law behavior, Ft ∝ v-β with β=3/4. We discuss the structural changes that influence dissipation in each of these regimes.

  1. Properties of HAlO, AlO, Al, and Al2O3 Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yi; Springborg, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Upon heating, nanostructured, stoichiometric HAlO looses its hydrogen. The resulting AlO material may be unstable against segregation into Al and Al2O3. In order to understand these processes further, we have carried through calculations on (HAlO)n, (AlO)n, (Al)n, and (Al2O3)n clusters and shall report the results of the study. The calculations were performed using a combination of genetic algorithms for the unbiased determination of the structure of the global total-energy minimum and of a parameterized, density-functional tight-binding method for the calculation of the properties for a given structure. We shall focus on structural motifs, stability, and the spatial distribution of the different types of atoms.

  2. Intercombination lines of Al VIII, Al IX, and Al X ions

    SciTech Connect

    Denne, B.; Hinnov, E.

    1984-06-01

    Several aluminum lines observed in the Princeton Large Torus tokamak discharges have been identified as intersystem transitions, establishing the energies of the Al VIII 2s2p/sup 3/ /sup 5/S, Al IX 2s2p/sup 2/ /sup 4/P, and Al X 2s2p /sup 3/P terms. Some observations of isoelectronic transitions in scandium and titanium ions are also reported.

  3. Al-26 and circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the radioactive decay of Al-26 on the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch stars are analyzed. The gamma-rays emitted by the product nucleus Mg-26 escape most envelopes, but the beta-decay positrons are stopped and can ionize and heat the gas. The ionization may produce observable effects in C-rich circumstellar envelopes, particularly if the photospheric Al-26 abundance is as large as inferred from measurements of live Al-26 in the primitive solar nebula or the observations of interstellar 1.8 MeV gamma-rays. For the nearby carbon star IRC +10216, the measured abundance of the molecular ion HCO(+) provides an upper limit of about 4 x 10(exp -3) for the photospheric Al-26/Al-27 ratio, consistent with presolar SiC grains with about the same C-12/C-13 ratio.

  4. Medical application of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  5. Reply to Gopalswamy et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Gopalswamy et al. (thereafter GMY) relates to a letter discussing coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary ejecta and geomagnetic storms. GMY contend that Cane et al. incorrectly identified ejecta (interplanetary CMEs) and hypothesize that this is because Cane et al. fail to understand how to separate ejecta from "shock sheaths" when interpreting solar wind and energetic particle data sets. They (GMY) are wrong be cause the relevant section of the paper was concerned with the propagation time to 1 AU of any potentially geoeffective structures caused by CMEs, i.e. upstream compression regions with or without shocks, or ejecta. In other words, the travel times used by Cane et al. were purposefully and deliberately distinct from ejecta travel times (except for those slow ejecta, approx. 30% of their events, which generated no upstream features), and no error in identification was involved. The confusion of GMY stems from the description did not characterize the observations sufficiently clearly.

  6. In memory of Al Cameron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, John; Truran, James W.

    Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning ele- ment formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

  7. Understanding ALS: new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Musarò, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor neuron degeneration, muscle atrophy and paralysis. Although numerous pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, ALS remains an invariably fatal disease in the absence of any effective therapy. The heterogeneity of the disease and the failure to develop satisfactory therapeutic protocols reinforce the view that ALS is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and study of the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes is required to ensure efficacious therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with ALS are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations of some new therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:23217177

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, A G.; Yu, Q P.; Piboolnurak, P; Tang, M X.; Fang, Y; Smith, W A.; Yim, J; Rowland, L P.; Mitsumoto, H; Pullman, S L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures as clinical correlates and longitudinal markers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: We prospectively studied 60 patients with ALS subtypes (sporadic ALS, familial ALS, progressive muscular atrophy, and primary lateral sclerosis) using single pulse TMS, recording from abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. We evaluated three measures: 1) TMS motor response threshold to the ADM, 2) central motor conduction time (CMCT), and 3) motor evoked potential amplitude (correcting for peripheral changes). Patients were evaluated at baseline, compared with controls, and followed every 3 months for up to six visits. Changes were analyzed using generalized estimation equations to test linear trends with time. Results: TMS threshold, CMCT, and TMS amplitude correlated (p < 0.05) with clinical upper motor neuron (UMN) signs at baseline and were different (p < 0.05) from normal controls in at least one response. Seventy-eight percent of patients with UMN (41/52) and 50% (4/8) of patients without clinical UMN signs had prolonged CMCT. All three measures revealed significant deterioration over time: TMS amplitude showed the greatest change, decreasing 8% per month; threshold increased 1.8% per month; and CMCT increased by 0.9% per month. Conclusions: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) findings, particularly TMS amplitude, can objectively discriminate corticospinal tract involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from controls and assess the progression of ALS. While central motor conduction time and response threshold worsen by less than 2% per month, TMS amplitude decrease averages 8% per month, and may be a useful objective marker of disease progression. GLOSSARY ADM = abductor digiti minimi; ALS = amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ANOVA = analysis of variance; CI = confidence interval; CMAP = compound motor action potential; CMCT = central motor conduction time; DTR = deep tendon stretch reflex; fALS = familial ALS; GEE = generalized estimation equations; LMN = lower motor neuron; MEP = motor evoked potential; PLS = primary lateral sclerosis; PMA = progressive muscular atrophy; sALS = sporadic ALS; TA = tibialis anterior; TMS = transcranial magnetic stimulation; UMN = upper motor neuron. PMID:19204259

  9. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  10. Corrosion Behavior of Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated by a Centrifugal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Kazuhiko; Miyahara, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    2008-02-01

    Intermetallic compounds, such as Al3Ni and Al2Cu, are effective for enhancing the mechanical properties of an alloy. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu functionally graded materials (FGMs) might be attractive materials for advanced materials. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs were fabricated by a centrifugal method; the centrifugal method is an extremely effective method for fabricating FGMs. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs that had a graded distribution of intermetallic compounds could be produced by this in-situ centrifugal method. Particle size, particle shape and the distribution of intermetallic compounds were controlled by varying the content of the alloy element (Ni, Cu) in the master alloy, the cooling rate in casting and the gravity number. The casting mechanism is explained in terms of the microstructures of the Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs fabricated by this method. The corrosion behavior of the FGMs was investigated by electrochemical analysis. Polarization curves of the FGMs in a borate solution were measured by a potentiodynamic method. The presence of Al2Cu exerted a larger effect on the corrosion behavior of the FGMs than Al3Ni. Analysis of the polarization curve parameters was effective for evaluating the corrosion resistance of the FGMs.

  11. Bound and resonant surface states at the (110) surfaces of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP

    SciTech Connect

    Beres, R.P.; Allen, R.E.; Buisson, J.P.; Bowen, M.A.; Blackwell, G.F.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Dow, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    The dispersion curves E(k-bar) have been calculated for bound and resonant (110) surface states of AlSb, AlAs, and AlP. AlSb is predicted to have no surface states within the bulk fundamental band gap, but AlAs and AlP are predicted to have surface state band minima which are very near the conduction band edge, and could lie either within the gap or immediately above the edge.

  12. 27Al NMR study in ZrNiAl.

    PubMed

    Nowak, B; Hayashi, S

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the microscopic properties of the hexagonal ZrNiAl, a model compound for a wide family of intermetallic compounds crystallizing in this type of structure, by using 27Al NMR spectroscopy. We have investigated the lineshape of static and MAS NMR spectra as a function of magnetic field strength (4.7-9.4 T) and temperature (5-300 K). Our data indicate that the 27Al NMR spectra result from a combined effect of quadrupole and anisotropic shift interactions. The 27Al nuclei are in an environment characterized by the quadrupole coupling constant e2qQ/h of 3.3 MHz, asymmetry parameter etaQ of 0.42, isotropic shift delta(iso) of 393 ppm, shift anisotropy delta(anis) = delta(zz) - (delta(xx) + delta(yy))/2 of 150 ppm, and asymmetry factor etaS of 0.5. They are found to be temperature independent. The spin-lattice relaxation rate measured at 7.05 T is proportional to the temperature with T1T = 135 s K. The mechanisms responsible for observed values of delta(iso), delta(anis), T1T, and the enhanced Korringa constant are discussed. PMID:11270742

  13. AlN/Fe/AlN nanostructures for magnetooptic magnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lišková-Jakubisová, E. Višňovský, Š.; Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J.

    2014-05-07

    AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu nanostructures with ultrathin Fe grown by sputtering on Si substrates are evaluated as probes for magnetooptical (MO) mapping of weak currents. They are considered for a laser wavelength of λ = 410 nm (3.02 eV) and operate at oblique light incidence angles, φ{sup (0)}, to enable detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. Their performance is evaluated in terms of MO reflected wave electric field amplitudes. The maximal MO amplitudes in AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu are achieved by a proper choice of layer thicknesses. The nanostructures were characterized by MO polar Kerr effect at φ{sup (0)} ≈ 5° and longitudinal Kerr effect spectra (φ{sup (0)} = 45°) at photon energies between 1 and 5 eV. The nominal profiles were refined using a model-based analysis of the spectra. Closed form analytical expressions are provided, which are useful in the search for maximal MO amplitudes.

  14. AlN/Fe/AlN nanostructures for magnetooptic magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lišková-Jakubisová, E.; VišÅovský, Š.; Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J.; Harward, I.; Celinski, Z.

    2014-05-01

    AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu nanostructures with ultrathin Fe grown by sputtering on Si substrates are evaluated as probes for magnetooptical (MO) mapping of weak currents. They are considered for a laser wavelength of λ = 410 nm (3.02 eV) and operate at oblique light incidence angles, φ(0), to enable detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. Their performance is evaluated in terms of MO reflected wave electric field amplitudes. The maximal MO amplitudes in AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu are achieved by a proper choice of layer thicknesses. The nanostructures were characterized by MO polar Kerr effect at φ(0) ≈ 5° and longitudinal Kerr effect spectra (φ(0) = 45°) at photon energies between 1 and 5 eV. The nominal profiles were refined using a model-based analysis of the spectra. Closed form analytical expressions are provided, which are useful in the search for maximal MO amplitudes.

  15. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  16. ASK Talks with Al Diaz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Alphonso; OKeefe, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Following the release of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) Report, Alphonso (Al) Diaz, Goddard Center director, was asked by NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe to head up the Agency's response. The Diaz team, as it came to be known, was changed with making sure the CAIB Report did not become another dusty volume on a shelf of old Agency reviews.

  17. Cdk5 sinks into ALS.

    PubMed

    Patzke, Holger; Tsai, Li Huei

    2002-01-01

    Recent research points to an involvement of deregulated cdk5 activity in the pathogenesis of mutant SOD1-mediated disease. In addition, inhibition of this activity might promote motor neuron survival. These observations have opened the door to further research into the role of cdk5 in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:11801324

  18. Thermodynamic modeling of Pt-Al and Pd-Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Derek

    2011-03-01

    Pure platinum and pure palladium are too soft for typical jewelry applications. Adding small amounts of other metals can significantly increase their performance. However, international hallmarking standards require the alloys to be 95% pure by weight. How does one achieve significant improvements in performance adding only small amounts (5 wt-%) of other metals? Significant improvements are possible even with small additions if precipitate hardening can be induced. Using a combination of first-principles, cluster expansion, and Monte Carlo modeling, we have identified new Pt-rich/Pd-rich phases in Pt-Al and Pd-Al that should be useful in precipitate hardening. Thermodynamical modeling indicates that the phases are experimentally feasible (not kinetically inhibited).

  19. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  20. Thermal conductance of a pressed Al-Al contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal conductance of a screw-fastened joint between two blocks of Al-alloys has been measured. An AlMg4.5Mn-block, the end of which is cooled by liquid helium, constitutes the upper part of the sample and the contact is formed at the face surface of a cylindrical extension of that block onto which a cylinder, made of AlMgSi1, is pressed by means of a copper-nickel screw. Pressing of the contact was carried out at room temperature by applying a defined torque, M, to the fastening screw. Three samples of the same shape but with differently treated surfaces of contact (machined flat, electro-chemically polished, with gold plated contacts) were studied. The results showed that the machined flat surfaces yield the best contact and that the contact conductance (measured in the range 4.2 K to 1.8 K) of all samples increased with increasing torque. In addition to thermal measurements, a study of the electrical conductance would be very interesting to determine the different contributions of phonon and electron heat conduction by means of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The work is useful for the GIRL (German Infra-Red Laboratory) space experiment.

  1. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  2. Tunneling through Al/AlOx/Al junction: Analytical models and first-principles simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemanová Diešková, M.; Ferretti, A.; Bokes, P.

    2013-05-01

    Ultrathin AlOx layers are nowadays widely employed to make tunneling junctions and, as a common practice, experimental transport data are often rationalized in terms of analytical models invoking effective electronic and geometric properties of the oxide layer. In this paper we examine the reliability of such models by performing first-principles simulations of the transport properties of Al/AlOx/Al junctions. The band gap, effective mass, and interface width obtained from ground state density-functional calculations are used within a potential barrier model, known also as the Simmons model, and its predictions of the conductance are compared with first-principles results. We also propose an analytical expression for the conductance based on a tight-binding model of the interface oxide. We show that the success of the potential barrier model in fitting experimental transport measurements rests on its formal similarity with the tight binding model which, in contrast to the former, is directly related to the realistic electronic structure of the interface.

  3. The effect of Si in Al-alloy on electromigration performance in Al filled vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Makiko; Hashimoto, Keiichi; Onoda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Electromigration performance of vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloys on Ti glue layers was investigated in comparison with W-stud vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, voids were formed at only a few locations in the test structure, while voids were formed at every via in W-stud via chains. It is supposed that Al moves through the Al-Si-Cu via during electromigration in spite of the existence of a glue layer at the via bottom. This phenomenon was observed only in the vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloy. Al movement was prohibited in Al-Cu filled vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, an Al-Ti-Si alloy was formed at the via bottom while Al3Ti was formed at Al-Cu filled vias. Al is speculated to move through this Al-Ti-Si alloy during electromigration.

  4. Dehydrogenation of benzene on liquid Al100(+).

    PubMed

    Leslie, Katheryne L; Jarrold, Martin F

    2013-03-14

    The reactions of benzene on Al100(+) have been investigated as a function of cluster temperature (300-1100 K) and relative kinetic energy (1-14 eV) by low-energy ion-beam methods and mass spectrometry. Benzene chemisorbs on both solid and liquid aluminum clusters to generate Al100C6D6(+). A series of Al(100-n)(+) (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) products was also observed. As the cluster temperature was raised above the melting temperature of Al100(+), the Al100C6D6(+) product dehydrogenates to form Al100C6D4(+), Al100C6D2(+), and Al100C6(+). The degree of dehydrogenation was measured as a function of temperature. Very little Al100C6D2(+) was observed, suggesting that the losses of the second and third D2 molecules are coordinated. PMID:23445466

  5. Emerging mechanisms of molecular pathology in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Owen M.; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Brown, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating degenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. Although defined as a motor disorder, ALS can arise concurrently with frontotemporal lobal dementia (FTLD). ALS begins focally but disseminates to cause paralysis and death. About 10% of ALS cases are caused by gene mutations, and more than 40 ALS-associated genes have been identified. While important questions about the biology of this disease remain unanswered, investigations of ALS genes have delineated pathogenic roles for (a) perturbations in protein stability and degradation, (b) altered homeostasis of critical RNA- and DNA-binding proteins, (c) impaired cytoskeleton function, and (d) non-neuronal cells as modifiers of the ALS phenotype. The rapidity of progress in ALS genetics and the subsequent acquisition of insights into the molecular biology of these genes provide grounds for optimism that meaningful therapies for ALS are attainable. PMID:25932674

  6. CO oxidation mechanism on AlAun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ling; An, Xiaoyu; Li, Shuying; Li, Aixia

    2015-04-01

    CO oxidation via LH mechanism on AlAun (n = 1-12) have been studied by density functional theory calculations with the aim to shed light on reaction mechanism and catalytic activity of AlAu alloy. The AlAun molecular structures and adsorption energies of a single CO or O2 molecule as well as coadsorption energies of CO + O2, CO2 + O, and CO + O on various distinctive sites of each AlAun are predicted. The calculated results show that the overall LH, AlAun + O2(gas) + CO(gas) ?A lAun-O2(ads) + CO(ads) ? AlAun-OOCO(ads) ? AlAun-O(ads) + CO2(gas) ? AlAun-O(ads) + CO(ads) ? AlAun-OCO(ads) ? AlAun + CO2(gas) is calculated to by exothermic by -144.8 kcal/mol. It suggests that the CO oxidation catalyzed by the AlAu6 and AlAu12 is likely to occur at or even below room temperature. AlAu6 and AlAu12 exhibit a larger catalytic activity for CO oxidation by O2 molecule.

  7. Synthesis of AlN/Al Polycrystals along with Al Nanoparticles Using Thermal Plasma Route

    SciTech Connect

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, A. B.; Kulkarni, N. V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper for the first time reports the (200) oriented growth of hexagonal Aluminum nitride crystals during synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles in dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by gas phase condensation in nitrogen plasma. The structural and morphological study of as synthesized AlN crystal and aluminium nanoparticles was done by using the x-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Reply to Pachai et al.

    PubMed

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited by the spacing between objects. When asked to report a target's identity, observers make erroneous reports that sometimes match the identity of a nearby distractor and sometimes match a combination of target and distractor features. The classification of these errors has previously been used to support competing 'substitution' [1] or 'averaging' [2] models of the phenomenon known as 'visual crowding'. We recently proposed a single model in which both classes of error occur because observers make their reports by sampling from a biologically-plausible population of weighted responses within a region of space around the target [3]. It is critical to note that there is no probabilistic substitution or averaging process in our model; instead, we argue that neither substitution nor averaging occur, but that these are misclassifications of the distribution of reports that emerge when a population response distribution is sampled. This is a fundamentally different way of thinking about crowding, and on this basis we claim to have provided a mechanism unifying categorically distinct perceptual errors. Our goal was not to model all crowding phenomena, such as the release from crowding when target and flanks differ in color or depth [4]. Pachai et al.[5] have suggested that our model is not unifying because it inaccurately predicts perceptual performance for a particular stimulus. Although we agree that our model does not predict their data, this specific demonstration overlooks the critical aspect of the model: perceptual reports are drawn from a weighted population code. We show that Pachai et al.'s [5] own data actually provide evidence for the population code we have described [3], and we suggest a biologically-plausible analysis of their stimuli that provides a computational basis for their 'grouping' account of crowding. PMID:27166690

  9. NiAl-base composite containing high volume fraction of AlN for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan (Inventor); Whittenbeger, John D. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy has a NiAl matrix and greater than about 13 volume percent fine particles of AlN within the matrix. The particles preferably have a diameter from about 15 nanometers to about 50 nanometers. The particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy may be prepared by cryomilling prealloyed NiAl in liquid nitrogen using grinding media having a diameter of from about 2 to 6 mm at an impeller speed of from about 450 RPM to about 800 RPM. The cryomilling may be done for a duration of from about 4 hours to about 20 hours to obtain a cryomilled powder. The cryomilled powder may be consolidated to form the particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy. The particulate reinforced alloy can further include a toughening alloy. The toughening alloy may include NiCrAlY, FeCrAlY, and FeAl.

  10. The ALS project: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monckton, Simon; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared; Broten, Greg; MacKay, David; Erickson, David; Verret, Sean; Digney, Bruce

    2006-05-01

    In support of Canadian Forces transformation, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has established an ongoing program to develop machine intelligence for semi-autonomous vehicles and systems. Focussing on mine clearance and remote scouting for over a decade, DRDC Suffield has developed numerous UGVs controlled remotely over point-to-point radio links. Though this strategy removes personnel from potential danger, DRDC recognized that human factors and communications bandwidth limit teleoperation and that only networked, autonomous unmanned systems can conserve these valuable resources. This paper describes the outcome of the first autonomy project, Autonomous Land Systems (ALS), designed to demonstrate basic autonomous multivehicle land capabilities.

  11. An XPS study of Al 2Au and AlAu 4 intermetallic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Sritharan, T.; Mhaisalkar, S. G.; Srinivasan, M.; Zhang, S.

    2007-05-01

    Samples of Al 2Au and AlAu 4 were examined using XPS after controlled oxidation in air. AlAu 4 showed a strong tendency to oxidize compared to Al 2Au. The binding energies (b.e.) of Au 4f and Al 2p XPS emissions were determined for both intermetallics. Heavy oxidation of AlAu 4 resulted in a unique Au 4f emission near the surface which was attributed to Au dissolved in aluminum oxide.

  12. 77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Matter of Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at al Tawhid wa'al-Jihad, aka The... al-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka al-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Iraq, aka al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka al-Qaida in the Land of the Two...

  13. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  14. Impurity effects on the solidification of primary Al3(Sc,Zr) phase in Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. H.; Schumacher, P.

    2016-03-01

    The nucleation and growth of primary Al3Sc phase has been investigated in high purity Al alloys and commercial purity Al alloys, with a special focus on the impurity effects. In the case of high purity Al alloys, most primary Al3Sc phases were pushed to grain boundaries during moving solidification front. Such type of primary Al3Sc phase does not contribute to the heterogeneous nucleation and thereby no significant grain refinement of Al alloys was observed, although some Al3Sc particles remain the same orientation with the Al matrix. In the case of commercial purity Al alloy, the presence of impurities, e.g. Ti, Fe and Si, enhances the heterogeneous nucleation of primary Al3Sc phase. Most primary Al3Sc phases are located within the Al matrix, and keep the same orientation with the Al matrix. Furthermore, the presence of impurities also changes the growth mode of primary Al3Sc phase. In the case of commercial purity Al alloy, a layer by layer growth was observed. This investigation demonstrates that impurities have important effects on the nucleation and growth of primary Al3Sc phases in Al based alloys.

  15. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2(Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Baibiao; Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2 (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO6-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.

  16. New synthetic route to Al4O4C reinforced Al-Al2O3 composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Sun, Jialin; Xue, Wendong; Chen, Junhong; Vasant Kumar, R.; Li, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Carbon free Al-Al2O3 composite sliding gate materials were successfully prepared by adding excess amount of Al powders through carbon burial sintering at 1450 °C for 6 h. Physical properties including apparent porosity, bulk density, ambient temperature crushing strength and hot rupture modulus were characterized for all the samples and addition of 9 at% aluminum powder was proved to exhibit optimal properties. The XRD and SEM results reveal that Al4O4C and AlN phases shown in the product samples are serving as reinforcement phase, contributing to better physical performances.

  17. Aluminium distribution in ZSM-5 revisited: The role of Al-Al interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Gray, Aileen E.; Lewis, Dewi W.

    2013-02-15

    We present a theoretical study of the distribution of Al atoms in zeolite ZSM-5 with Si/Al=47, where we focus on the role of Al-Al interactions rather than on the energetics of Al/Si substitutions at individual sites. Using interatomic potential methods, we evaluate the energies of the full set of symmetrically independent configurations of Al siting in a Si{sub 94}Al{sub 2}O{sub 192} cell. The equilibrium Al distribution is determined by the interplay of two factors: the energetics of the Al/Si substitution at an individual site, which tends to populate particular T sites (e.g., the T14 site), and the Al-Al interaction, which at this Si/Al maximises Al-Al distances in general agreement with Dempsey's rule. However, it is found that the interaction energy changes approximately as the inverse of the square of the distance between the two Al atoms, rather than the inverse of the distance expected if this were merely charge repulsion. Moreover, we find that the anisotropic nature of the framework density plays an important role in determining the magnitude of the interactions, which are not simply dependent on Al-Al distances. - Graphical abstract: Role of Al-Al interactions in high silica ZSM-5 is shown to be anisotropic in nature and not dependent solely on Coulombic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si-Al distribution in ZSM-5 is revisited, stressing the role of the Al-Al interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulomb interactions are not the key factors controlling the Al siting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisotropy of the framework is identified as a source of departure from Dempsey's rule.

  18. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  19. Cyclic oxidation resistance of a reaction milled NiAl-AlN composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon recent mechanical property tests a NiAl-AlN composite produced by cryomilling has very attractive high temperature strength. This paper focuses on the oxidation resistance of the NiAl-AlN composite at 1473 and 1573 K as compared to that of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr, one of the most oxidation resistant intermetallics. The results of cyclic oxidation tests show that the NiAl-AlN composite has excellent properties although not quite as good as those of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr. The onset of failure of the NiAl-AlN was unique in that it was not accompanied by a change in scale composition from alumina to less protective oxides. Failure in the composite appears to be related to the entrapment of AlN particles within the alumina scale.

  20. Wear behavior of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite manufactured by a centrifugal method

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Yamanaka, Noboru; Fukui, Yasuyoshi

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a wear-resistant, light Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite material. An Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite specimen was machined from a thick-walled tube of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti functionally graded material (FGM) manufactured by the centrifugal method from a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was heated to a temperature where solid Al{sub 3}Ti particles resided in a liquid Al matrix, and then the centrifugal method was carried out. Al{sub 3}Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot exist as platelets, and this shape was maintained through the casting. Three kinds of wear specimens were prepared, taking into account the morphology of the Al{sub 3}Ti particles in the thick-walled FGM tube; the Al{sub 3}Ti particles were arranged with their platelet planes nearly normal to the radial direction as a result of the applied centrifugal force. The wear resistance of the Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite was significantly higher than that of pure Al. Wear-resistance anisotropy and dissolution of the Al{sub 3}Ti into the Al matrix at the near-surface region, around 100 {micro}m in depth, were also observed. The mechanism of the supersaturated-layer formation and the origin of the anisotropic wear resistance are discussed.

  1. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR)

    This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.'

    The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth.

    The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers.

    Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars.

    Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can be seen in this color image to be dustier than the undisturbed or 'normal' plains soils in Meridiani. Since the time these ruts were made, some of the dust there has been blown away by the wind, reaffirming the dynamic nature of the martian environment, even in this barren, ocean-like desert of sand.

  2. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  3. Oxidation induced softening in Al nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Fatih G.; Qi, Yue; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Alpas, Ahmet T.

    2013-02-01

    The mechanical properties of metallic nanowires depend dramatically on the atmospheric conditions. Molecular-dynamics simulations with ReaxFF were conducted to study tensile elastic deformation of oxidized Al nanowires. The thin amorphous oxide shell formed around Al nanowires had a very low Young's modulus of 26 GPa, due to its low density and low Al-O coordination. Consequently, for diameters less than 100 nm, the composite Young's modulus of oxide-covered Al nanowires showed a size dependence implying that in this case "smaller is softer." The model developed also explained the discrepancies in the reported modulus values of nanometer-scale Al thin films.

  4. Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

    Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

  5. Formation of Al2O3/Al Composites by Directed Melt Oxidation of Al-Si-Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingzhong; Chai, Huiping; Zhang, Fajian

    2010-02-01

    Observations are presented on the initiation and growth of Al2O3/Al composites by the directed melt oxidation of Al-Si alloys containing metallic Zn or using external dopant ZnO. Thermal gravimetric analysis, optical microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis were employed to characterize the progress of oxidation and the nature of oxidation products. Both Zn and ZnO dopants were able to initiate the directed melt oxidation of Al-Si alloys without any Mg being present. Al2O3/Al composites were produced when the alloying Zn concentration exceeding 3 wt.%. The incubation period of the oxidation process for Al-Si-Zn alloys was shortened markedly and the amount of composite products increased with the increasing of Zn content in the alloy. In addition, doping with ZnO powder resulted in dense composite formation. A macroscopically planar surface and a fine microstructure promote oxidation growth in Al2O3/Al composites. Doping with ZnO powder offers a significant advantage over using metallic Zn for the directed melt oxidation of Al-Si alloy.

  6. Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine Al2O3/AlN Feedstock Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, AlN-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (Al2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine Al2O3/AlN mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick AlN/Al2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-AlN, c-AlN, Al5O6N, γ-Al2O3, and a small amount of α-Al2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the AlN additive improved the AlN content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-AlN phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the Al2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.

  7. Mg isotopic heterogeneity, Al-Mg isochrons, and canonical 26Al/27Al in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-There is variability in the Mg isotopic composition that is a reflection of the widespread heterogeneity in the isotopic composition of the elements in the solar system at approximately 100 ppm. Measurements on a single calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) gave a good correlation of 26Mg/24Mg with 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>/24Mg, yielding an isochron corresponding to an initial (26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>)o = (5.27 ± 0.18) × 10-5 and an initial (26Mg/24Mg)o = -0.127 ± 0.032‰ relative to the standard. This isochron is parallel to that obtained by <link href="#b41 #b42">Jacobsen et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2008), but is distinctively offset. This demonstrates that there are different initial Mg isotopic compositions in different samples with the same 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>. No inference about uniformity/heterogeneity of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> on a macro scale can be based on the initial (26Mg/24Mg)o values. Different values of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> for samples representing the same point in time would prove heterogeneity of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The important issue is whether the bulk solar inventory of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> was approximately 5 × 10-5 at some point in the early solar system. We discuss ultra refractory phases of solar type oxygen isotope composition with 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> from approximately 5 × 10-5 to below 0.2 × 10-5. We argue that the real issues are: intrinsic heterogeneity in the parent cloud; mechanism and timing for the later production of 16O-poor material; and the relationship to earlier formed 16O-rich material in the disk. 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-free refractories can be produced at a later time by late infall, if there is an adequate heat source, or from original heterogeneities in the placental molecular cloud from which the solar system formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..292..620C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..292..620C"><span id="translatedtitle">Influences of <span class="hlt">Al</span> particles on the microstructure and property of electrodeposited Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cai, Fei; Jiang, Chuanhai</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite coatings with different contents of <span class="hlt">Al</span> microparticles were prepared from a conventional Watt bath. The influences of <span class="hlt">Al</span> particle loadings in the bath on the surface morphology, composition, texture, grain size, microstrain, residual stress and anti-corrosion of the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite coating were investigated. The friction coefficients of the coatings at 200 °C were also evaluated by a pin-on-disctribometer. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from pyramid + colonied structure to colonied structure with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> particle loadings. The (2 0 0) preferred orientation for pure Ni coating evolved to random orientation with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> particle loadings. The grain size obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm at <span class="hlt">Al</span> particle loading of 100 g/L and the microstrain of the coating increased with increasing the <span class="hlt">Al</span> particle loadings. The incorporation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> particles decreased the residual stress of the electro-deposited coating and all the coatings deposited at different <span class="hlt">Al</span> particle loadings possessed low residual stress. As the <span class="hlt">Al</span> particle loading increased, the anti-corrosion of the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> coatings increased owing to the combined effect of increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> content in the coatings and the texture evolution from (2 0 0) plane to (1 1 1) plane. The wear result suggested that the increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> particle content did not improve the wear performance of the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/443755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/443755"><span id="translatedtitle">Reply to Vance et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Woon-Chee Yee; Elliott, J.L; Kwon, J.M.; Goodfellow, P.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>In our report of a family with a motor and sensory polyneuropathy that was linked to chromosome 3q, we classified this neuropathy as a form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy II (HMSN II, also known as {open_quotes}CMT2{close_quotes}). Doubts have been raised by Vance et <span class="hlt">al</span>. as to whether this neuropathy should be classified as hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy I (HSAN I) instead of HMSN II. While it is reasonable to raise such doubts, we believe that the neuropathy is best designated as HMSN II for the reasons described below. The group of disorders described as HSAN are characterized by primary or predominant involvement of sensory and autonomic neurons that fail to develop or that undergo atrophy and degeneration. These disorders were extensively reviewed by Dyck and Ohta, who initially described them as the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN). It was Dyck who subsequently suggested that these disorders be designated HSAN rather than HSN, because of the presence of autonomic involvement. 8 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8817656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8817656"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure and regulation of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> gene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ooi, G T; Cohen, F J; Hsieh, S; Seto, D; Rechler, M M; Boisclair, Y R</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The mouse <span class="hlt">ALS</span> gene spans at least 6 kb. It contains 2 exons which encode a protein highly homologous to human and rat <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. It was localized to mouse chromosome 17 by flourescent in situ hybridization. The 5' flanking region lacks a TATA box but contains GC boxes that may be recognised by transcription factors such as Spl. Hepatic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> mRNA is decreased in rats following hypophysectomy, and restored by stimulated <span class="hlt">ALS</span> promoter activity in a rat hepatoma cell line, but not in 3T3-F442A mouse preadipocyte fibroblasts, suggesting that utilisation of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> promoter is cell-type specific. The rat hepatoma system is a promising system to study the regulation of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> gene expression, and the signalling pathways of CH regulation. PMID:8817656</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...518554L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...518554L"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Layers in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N-TiN Multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N to wurzite <span class="hlt">Al</span>N phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681109"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Layers in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N-TiN Multilayers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N to wurzite <span class="hlt">Al</span>N phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N. PMID:26681109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4683522','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4683522"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Layers in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N-TiN Multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N to wurzite <span class="hlt">Al</span>N phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N. PMID:26681109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118m5305S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118m5305S"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical mixing at "<span class="hlt">Al</span> on Fe" and "Fe on <span class="hlt">Al</span>" interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Süle, P.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Horváth, Z. E.; Nakanishi, A.; Balogh, J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The chemical mixing at the "<span class="hlt">Al</span> on Fe" and "Fe on <span class="hlt">Al</span>" interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp "<span class="hlt">Al</span> on Fe" interfaces were found when <span class="hlt">Al</span> grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the "Fe on <span class="hlt">Al</span>" interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—<span class="hlt">Al</span>/57Fe/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>/57Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4815872','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4815872"><span id="translatedtitle">Orientation relationship of eutectoid Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scherf, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Scherer, T.; Li, X.; Stein, F.; Heilmaier, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fe–<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys in the aluminium range of 55–65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and triclinic Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2, which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe5<span class="hlt">Al</span>8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2 has previously been studied by Bastin et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43, 745] and Hirata et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88, 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2, the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2 phase provided by Chumak et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C66, i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> or by applying the inversion symmetry of the Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by (01)Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> || (114) and [111]Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> || [10]. There is no evidence for twinning within Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> lamellae or alternating orientations of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe5<span class="hlt">Al</span>8, Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be accommodated at the interface of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>2. PMID:27047304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00821132','CLINICALTRIALS'); return false;" href="https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00821132"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetics of Familial and Sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/screen/SimpleSearch">ClinicalTrials.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-03-21</p> <p>Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMBM...24...18F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMBM...24...18F"><span id="translatedtitle">Strengthening of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg alloy wires by melt inoculation with <span class="hlt">Al</span>/MgB2 nanocomposite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Florián-Algarín, David; Marrero, Raúl; Padilla, Alexandra; Suárez, Oscar Marcelo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study hinges on the feasibility of strengthening <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg wires by adding <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanocomposite pellets containing MgB2 nanoparticles into the melt upon fabrication. These MgB2 nanoparticles were obtained by fragmentation using a high-energy ball mill, and were, afterward, mechanically alloyed with pure aluminum. The resulting MgB2/<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanocomposite pellets were sintered at 260°C to be subsequently added into molten aluminum and an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg alloy melt. Cold rolling intercalated with stepwise annealing allowed the fabrication of 1 mm diameter wires with a final area reduction of 96%. Mechanical and physical properties of the treated wire specimens were compared to those of similarly processed pure aluminum wire. The ultimate tensile strength of the treated wires increased approximately double fold with respect to untreated wires at the expense of some loss in electrical conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24..426N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24..426N"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Methods of Soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC Particle Composite <span class="hlt">Al</span> Foams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nowacki, Jerzy; Moraniec, Kacper</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The cellular structure and unique properties of aluminum foams are the reason of their numerous applications and interests in respect of their joining. The paper includes the characterization of the essence of properties and application of aluminum and aluminum composite foams, the limitations, and possibilities of their soldering. The aim of the research is the consideration of methods of soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si foams and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC composite foams, and the joint structure. EDS and XRD investigations of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC composite foams' joints were done. The possibility of soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si9 foams and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si9-SiC composite foams using S-Bond 220 solder was confirmed, and higher tensile strength of the joint than the parent material was also ascertained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=+%22youth+population+growth%22+OR+%22u.s.+national+security%22++OR+%22potential+impacts%22++OR+%22presidential+administration%22++OR+%22middle+east%22+&pg=6&id=EJ997797','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=+%22youth+population+growth%22+OR+%22u.s.+national+security%22++OR+%22potential+impacts%22++OR+%22presidential+administration%22++OR+%22middle+east%22+&pg=6&id=EJ997797"><span id="translatedtitle">Diana <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid: Identity and Heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Diana <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cultural+AND+Heritage%2c&pg=5&id=EJ997797','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cultural+AND+Heritage%2c&pg=5&id=EJ997797"><span id="translatedtitle">Diana <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid: Identity and Heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Diana <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149231"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitatively Probing the <span class="hlt">Al</span> Distribution in Zeolites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K.; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Lercher, Johannes A.</p> <p>2014-06-11</p> <p>The degree of substitution of Si4+ by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (<span class="hlt">Al</span> T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. As the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about <span class="hlt">Al</span> T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the <span class="hlt">Al</span> absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different <span class="hlt">Al</span>-distributions. A preference of <span class="hlt">Al</span> for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in the HBEA150 sample has been determined from a combination of these methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LanB..44A..174F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LanB..44A..174F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>As: camel's back parameter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandes da Silva, E. C.</p> <p></p> <p>This document is part of Volume 44 `Semiconductors', Subvolume A `New Data and Updates for I-VII, III-V, III-VI and IV-VI Compounds' of Landolt-Börnstein Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains data on <span class="hlt">Al</span>As (aluminum arsenide), Element System <span class="hlt">Al</span>-As.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047349','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047349"><span id="translatedtitle">Durability Assessment of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The durability of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> is a prime concern for the implementation of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy (Ti-45<span class="hlt">Al</span>-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48<span class="hlt">Al</span>-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47<span class="hlt">Al</span>-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45<span class="hlt">Al</span>-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..116a2012G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..116a2012G"><span id="translatedtitle">Contact hardening of <span class="hlt">Al</span> interlayer in laminated Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> composites during compressive and tensile loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gurevich, L.; Pronichev, D.; Trunov, M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The study presents result of the FEM simulation of Mg alloy/<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti alloy composite under tensile and compression loads. The simulation revealed the strength of <span class="hlt">Al</span> interlayer at its various thickness values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020715','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15020715"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress Corrosion Cracking of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg and Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jones, Russell H.; Vetrano, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Aluminum and magnesium based alloys are being used for reducing the weight of automobiles. For structural applications they must have adequate stress corrosion resistance and yet, under some circumstances, stress corrosion cracking can occur in both alloy systems. Precipitation of the Mg rich Beta-phase (<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Mg2) at grain boundaries of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg alloys and the Beta-phase (Mg17<span class="hlt">Al</span>12) at grain boundaries of the Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys are critical factors in their stress corrosion performance. In Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, the Beta-phase is cathodic to the matrix while in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg case, the Beta-phase is anodic to the matrix. These phases produce localized galvanic induced-corrosion that leads to intergranular stress corrosion cracking and cracking growth rates of 5 and 103 times faster than the solution treated condition, for <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg and Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/353217','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/353217"><span id="translatedtitle">U-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy charge makeup equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rhode, F.C.</p> <p>1988-12-13</p> <p>The {sup 235}U content in fuel tubes (g{sup 235}U/ft) is directly proportional to the {sup 235}U concentration (g{sup 235}U/cc) in the U-<span class="hlt">Al</span> core alloy. In order to prepare enriched uranium metal, aluminum, and U-<span class="hlt">Al</span> scrap for U-<span class="hlt">Al</span> production melts, the overall alloy composition (wt % U-<span class="hlt">Al</span>) must be calculated for the desired {sup 235}U concentration (g{sup 235}U/cc) and uranium enrichment (*wt % {sup 235}U). This memorandum documents an alternative equation for calculation of U-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy casting compositions in Building 321-M. This equation confirms the results of another, undocumented equation that has been used in the past.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890868"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Akhawayni's description of pulmonary circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Dalfardi, Behnam; Rezaian, Jafar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Since antiquity, heart function and the mechanism of blood circulation within the human body have been the focus of attention of scientists from different parts of the world. Over the passage of time, the theories and works of these scientists have resulted in the achievement of today's knowledge of circulation. The medieval Persian scholar, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Akhawayni Bukhari (?-983AD), is among the physicians who investigated both the anatomy and the physiology of the human body. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Akhawayni describes the mechanism of pulmonary circulation in his only extant book, "Hidayat <span class="hlt">al</span>-Muta`llemin fi <span class="hlt">al</span>-Tibb" (A Scholar's Guide to Medicine) with which he made a contribution to the development of knowledge regarding this mechanism in the medicine of the Islamic world. In this paper, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Akhawayni's viewpoints on anatomy and the function of the heart, its related vessels, and also pulmonary circulation will be briefly discussed. PMID:23890868</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007975','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007975"><span id="translatedtitle">Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys for structural uses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koss, D. A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Alloys based on the intermetallic compound Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the conventional sense requires ductile powder particles which, through a cold welding and fracture process, can be dispersion strengthened by submicron-sized oxide particles. Using both the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe alloys to contain approx. 1 v/o Y2O3. Preliminary results indicate that mechanically alloyed and extruded Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe + Y2O3 alloys when heat treated to a grain-coarsened condition, exhibit improved creep resistance at 1000 C when compared to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>; oxidation resistance comparable to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>; and fracture toughness values a factor of three better than Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. As a result of the research initiated on this NASA program, a subsequent project with support from Inco Alloys International is underway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053031&hterms=Trigger+points&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DTrigger%2Bpoints','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053031&hterms=Trigger+points&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DTrigger%2Bpoints"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 in the interstellar medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clayton, D. D.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The amount of dispersed interstellar <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 detected by the HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectrometer cannot have been synthesized by supernova explosions if current calculations of the production ratio p(26)/p(27) approximately equal to 0.001 are correct. Simple models of chemical evolution of the Galaxy are presented to explain this point. The observed <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 is more likely due to about 100 million dispersed novae, or to a single old (10,000-1,000,000 yr) supernova remnant that today surrounds the solar system. If the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 is dispersed, the high interstellar ratio today <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-27 about equal to 0.00002 calls into question the requirement that a supernova trigger for formation of the solar system was the cause of a concentration 3-times larger. Also discussed is p-process production in novae with application to the question of live Sm-146 in the solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980019510','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980019510"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion Studies of 2195 <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li Alloy and 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Corrosion studies of 2195 <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li and 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of <span class="hlt">Al</span>203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14868S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14868S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AL</span>(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic <span class="hlt">Al</span> particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes <span class="hlt">Al</span>(0) occurred inside glassy globes of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced <span class="hlt">Al</span> through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApPhL..82.2832D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApPhL..82.2832D"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of Simmons' equation to quantify the insulating barrier parameters in <span class="hlt">Al/AlOx/Al</span> tunnel junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorneles, L. S.; Schaefer, D. M.; Carara, M.; Schelp, L. F.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>We have analyzed the electron transport processes in <span class="hlt">Al/AlOx/Al</span> junctions. The samples were produced by glow-discharge-assisted oxidation of the bottom electrode. The nonlinear I-V curves of 17 samples were measured at room temperature, being very well fitted using the Simmons' equation with the insulating barrier thickness, barrier height, and the junction area as free parameters. An exponential growth of the area normalized electrical resistance with thickness is obtained, using just values from I-V curve simulations. The effective tunneling area corresponding to the "hot spots" can be quantified and is five orders of magnitude smaller than the physical area in the studied samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910043314&hterms=1573&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231573','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910043314&hterms=1573&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231573"><span id="translatedtitle">Reaction of Ti and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with alumina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Misra, Ajay K.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The reaction of single-crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 with pure Ti and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with different <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations was examined in the temperature range of 1173 to 1573 K. Significant reaction occurred between <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations lower than that corresponding to the gamma-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase. The reaction mechanism was determined to be simultaneous diffusion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and atomic oxygen from <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 into Ti and the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22335280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22335280"><span id="translatedtitle">Localized <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis: a suicidal neoplasm?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Westermark, Per</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis usually is a systemic disease, strictly localized <span class="hlt">AL</span> deposits are not exceptionally rare. Such case reports form a considerable body of published articles. Although both <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis types are formed from an N-terminal segment of a monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain, a typical localized <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloid differs from the systemic counterpart by the morphological appearance of the amyloid, and presence of clonal plasma cells and of giant cells. In this article it is pointed out that localized <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis ('amyloidoma') represents a true plasma cell neoplasm and not a pseudotumor. The pathogenesis of localized <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis may differ from that of the systemic type, a suggestion underlined by the fact that localized <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis of kappa type is as common as that of lambda origin, in contrast to the systemic form where lambda chains constitute the overwhelming majority of cases. It is suggested that oligomeric assemblies of the produced immunoglobulin light chain are toxic to plasma cells, which in this way commit suicide. PMID:22335280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003A%26A...412L..47K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003A%26A...412L..47K"><span id="translatedtitle">Line shape diagnostics of Galactic 26<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kretschmer, K.; Diehl, R.; Hartmann, D. H.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The shape of the gamma-ray line from radioactive 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>, at 1808.7 keV energy in the frame of the decaying isotope, is determined by its kinematics when it decays, typically 106 y after its ejection into the interstellar medium from its nucleosynthesis source. Three measurements of the line width exist: HEAO-C's 1982 value of (0+3) keV FWHM, the GRIS 1996 value of (5.4+/- 1.3) keV FWHM, and the recent RHESSI value of (2.0+/- 0.8) keV FWHM, suggesting either ``cold'', ``hot'', or ``warm'' 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> in the ISM. We model the line width as expected from Galactic rotation, expanding supernova ejecta, and/or Wolf-Rayet winds, and predict a value below 1 keV (FWHM) with plausible assumptions about 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> initial velocities and expansion history. Even though the recent RHESSI measurement reduces the need to explain a broad line corresponding to 540 km s-1 mean 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> velocity through extreme assumptions about grain transport of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> or huge interstellar cavities, our results suggest that standard 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> ejection models produce a line on the narrow side of what is observed by RHESSI and INTEGRAL. Improved INTEGRAL and RHESSI spatially-resolved line width measurements should help to disentangle the effects of Galactic rotation from the ISM trajectories of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991MTA....22..183N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991MTA....22..183N"><span id="translatedtitle">Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Based microstructurally toughened composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nardone, Vincent C.; Strife, James R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Intermetallic Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based composites with dramatically higher energy absorption capability and damage tolerance have been demonstrated. The approach consisted of incorporating continuous tubular 304 stainless steel toughening regions throughout the majority phase Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix. To compensate for the increase in density resulting from the 304 stainless steel, B4C particulate was added to the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> so that the overall composite density was within 5 pct of the value for monolithic Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The notched Charpy impact energy absorption of the B4C/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>/304 stainless steel composites was in the range of 15 to 90 J/cm2, compared to a value of 0.8 J/cm2 for Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The higher energies were measured on samples that deflected the crack front more extensively during failure. A model has been developed that is consistent with the energy absorption values measured during notched impact testing of the composites. Finally, significant room-temperature tensile strains (20 to 35 pct) were achieved due to constrained yielding of the 304 stainless steel, which prevented composite failure after the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> regions had cracked.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/414333','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/414333"><span id="translatedtitle">Wet oxidation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs vs. <span class="hlt">Al</span>As: A little gallium is good</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Lear, K.L.; Chui, H.C.; Hammons, B.E.; Nevers, J.A.; Hull, R. |</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>Buried oxides formed from the wet oxidation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs alloys, rather than <span class="hlt">Al</span>As, are found to be superior in terms of oxidation isotropy, mechanical stability, and strain. It is not surprising that vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs oxide layers as current apertures have shown promising reliability as compared to VCSELs using <span class="hlt">Al</span>As layers. Comparisons of lifetime data for VCSELs with differing oxide layers is presented. The beneficial properties of oxides converted from <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs alloys are found to provide robust device processing of reliable VCSELs and may play an important role in other advanced optoelectronic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296638"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of hydrogen absorption in TbNi<span class="hlt">Al</span> and UNi<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bordallo, H.N.; Nakotte, H.; Schultz, A.; Kolomiets, A.V.; Havela, L.; Andreev, A.V.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Although hydrides of intermetallic compounds are used extensively as hydrogen-storage media, little is known about the exact nature of metal-hydrogen interactions. However, this knowledge is of essential importance for the understanding of thermodynamics and other properties. Hydrides (deuterides) of TbNi<span class="hlt">Al</span> and UNi<span class="hlt">Al</span> have been widely studied because of drastic increase of magnetic ordering temperature under hydrogenation. Here the authors report neutron-diffraction results of the three deuterides, TbNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>D{sub 1.28}, TbNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>D{sub 0.8}a nd UNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>D{sub 2.23}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/756425','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/756425"><span id="translatedtitle">A new discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMC: <span class="hlt">Al+Al</span>B{sub 2} flakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>HALL,AARON C.; ECONOMY,J.</p> <p>2000-06-08</p> <p>Development of a novel metal matrix composite based on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloy system has been undertaken. Preparation of this discontinuously reinforced material is based on the precipitation of high aspect ratio <span class="hlt">Al</span>B{sub 2} from an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloy. This paper describes a number of efforts forced on preparing high volume fractions (> 30 v%) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>B{sub 2} in aluminum. New insights into the behavior of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloys system allowed this effort to be successful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5857468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5857468"><span id="translatedtitle">Extended <span class="hlt">Al</span>(Mn) solution in a rapidly solidified <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li-Mn-Zr alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ruhr, M.; Baram, J.C. ); Lavernia, E.J. )</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>This paper reports the effect of coolingrate on the extension of Mn solid solubility in <span class="hlt">Al</span> and on the relative amount of Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span> (Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 6} and Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 4}) secondary phases during gas atomization and spray deposition critically examined. An alloy of composition <span class="hlt">Al</span>-6.5Mn-2.3Li-0.65Zr (wt pct) currently being investigated for applications requiring high strength and low density at high temperatures was selected for this study. The material was exposed to various solidification histories by altering gas pressure and powder size during solidification.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020071128','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020071128"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomistic Modeling of Ru<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (RuNi) <span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Atomistic modeling of Ru<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ru<span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni alloys, using the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is performed. The lattice parameter and energy of formation of B2 Ru<span class="hlt">Al</span> as a function of stoichiometry and the lattice parameter of (Ru(sub 50-x)Ni(sub x)<span class="hlt">Al</span>(sub 50)) alloys as a function of Ni concentration are computed. BFS based Monte Carlo simulations indicate that compositions close to Ru25Ni25<span class="hlt">Al</span>50 are single phase with no obvious evidence of a miscibility gap and separation of the individual B2 phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107y3502P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107y3502P"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental determination of tunneling characteristics and dwell times from temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patiño, Edgar J.; Kelkar, N. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Measurements of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a high quality <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> junction at temperatures ranging from 3.5 K to 300 K have been used to extract the barrier properties. Fitting results using Simmons's model led to a constant value of barrier width s ˜ 20.8 Å and a continuous increase in the barrier height with decreasing temperature. The latter is used to determine the energy band gap temperature dependence and average phonon frequency ω = 2.05 × 1013 s-1 in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, which adds confidence to the precision of our measurements. The barrier parameters are used to extract the temperature dependent dwell times in tunneling (τD = 3.6 × 10-16 s at mid-barrier energies) and locate resonances above the barrier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JaJAP..55eFH01Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JaJAP..55eFH01Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative study on interface and bulk charges in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructures with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, <span class="hlt">Al</span>N, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N laminated dielectrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Wei-Wei; Hou, Bin; Xie, Yong; Hao, Yue</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, the interface and bulk charges in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) heterostructures with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N laminated dielectrics were studied. In situ plasma pretreatment resulted negligible interface trap states and voltage hysteresis. The fixed charge density at <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N (or <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/barrier) interface was estimated to be 1.66 × 1013 cm-2 by using flat-band voltage shift, and the oxide bulk charge concentration was 2.86 × 1017 cm-3. The interface charge density at other interfaces were at the order of 1011 cm-2. Simulation results using the above charge density/concentration indicated that <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N interface fixed charges dominated the dielectric-related voltage shift in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN MIS heterostructures, which caused a large voltage shift of -3 V with 10 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thickness, while the flat-band voltage variety resulting from other types of charges was within 0.1 V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26613179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26613179"><span id="translatedtitle">Arsenate uptake by <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters and other <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based sorbents during water treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mertens, Jasmin; Rose, Jérôme; Wehrli, Bernhard; Furrer, Gerhard</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In many parts of the world, arsenic from geogenic and anthropogenic sources deteriorates the quality of drinking water resources. Effective methods of arsenic removal include adsorption and coagulation with iron- and aluminum-based materials, of which polyaluminum chloride is widely employed as coagulant in water treatment due to its low cost and high efficiency. We compared the arsenic uptake capacity and the arsenic bonding sites of different <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based sorbents, including <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum granulate, and gibbsite. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that As(V) forms bidentate-binuclear complexes in interaction with all <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based removal agents. The octahedral configuration of nanoclusters and the distribution of sorption sites remain the same in all types of removal agents consisting of nano-scale <span class="hlt">Al</span> oxyhydroxide particles. The obtained distances for As(V)-O and As(V)-<span class="hlt">Al</span> agreed with previously published data and were found to be 1.69 ± 0.02 Å and 3.17-3.21 Å, respectively. Our study suggests that As(V) binds to <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters as strongly as to <span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide surfaces. The As sorption capacity of <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters was found to be very similar to that of <span class="hlt">Al</span> clusters in a polyaluminum chloride. The most efficient <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based sorbents for arsenic removal were <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters, followed by polyaluminum granulate. PMID:26613179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJMPB...7.4261K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJMPB...7.4261K"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">AL</span> on Electric Conductivity and Superconductivity of NB-Si-<span class="hlt">AL</span>-O Ceramic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koba, S.; Higo, S.; Hakuraku, Y.; Kawano, I.; Ogushi, T.; Nakao, A.</p> <p></p> <p>Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity with changing <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition were observed in the Nb-Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system. Semiconductor-like characteristic and normal conductive characteristic were observed for <span class="hlt">Al</span><40% and <span class="hlt">Al</span>>50% respectively. Super-conductive compositions are distributed around the boundary between those two types of conductivity, such as NbxSi<span class="hlt">Al</span>(α-x)Oz((α, x)=(1.5, 0.7), (2.0,0.8), (3.0, 0.7~1.4)). The superconductivity was confirmed by resistive transitions and diamagnetic transitions. The superconductors in this study have Tc=10.0~11.5 K with resistive transitions, and the amplitudes of the diamagnetism reach 30~58% of that of pure Nb powder. X-ray diffraction patterns of any other superconducting Nb-systems such as Nb, Nb3<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Nb3Si, NbN, and NbC, have not been observed in Nb-Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat.tmp..235C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat.tmp..235C"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">AlInN/Al</span>N/GaN Heterostructures with Different <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Buffer Thickness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Çörekçi, S.; Dugan, S.; Öztürk, M. K.; Çetin, S. Ş.; Çakmak, M.; Özçelik, S.; Özbay, E.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">AlInN/Al</span>N/GaN heterostructures with 280-nm- and 400-nm-thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>N buffer grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL) and Hall-effect measurements. The symmetric (0002) plane with respect to the asymmetric (10bar{1} 2) plane in the 280-nm-thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>N buffer has a higher crystal quality, as opposed to the 400-nm-thick buffer. The thinner buffer improves the crystallinity of both (0002) and (10bar{1} 2) planes in the GaN layers, it also provides a sizeable reduction in dislocation density of GaN. Furthermore, the lower buffer thickness leads to a good quality surface with an rms roughness of 0.30 nm and a dark spot density of 4.0 × 108 cm-2. The optical and transport properties of the <span class="hlt">AlInN/Al</span>N/GaN structure with the relatively thin buffer are compatible with the enhancement in its structural quality, as verified by XRD and AFM results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...111f3708H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...111f3708H"><span id="translatedtitle">Electroforming and Ohmic contacts in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickmott, T. W.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown process that changes the diode from its initial high resistance state (HRS) to a low resistance state (LRS). After electroforming, resistance switching memories (RSMs) use voltages to switch from HRS to LRS and back. Many MIM combinations are proposed for use in RSMs. In many cases conduction in the LRS is nearly temperature independent at low temperatures; an Ohmic contact with a barrier to electron injection of ˜0 eV results from electroforming. Electroforming of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes with amorphous anodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thicknesses between 12 and 41 nm has been studied. Two anodizing electrolytes have been used; 0.1 M ammonium pentaborate (bor-H2O) and a solution of 0.1 M of ammonium pentaborate per liter of ethylene glycol (bor-gly). Polarization of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and negative charge in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 are much larger when <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 is formed in bor-H2O solution than when <span class="hlt">Al</span> is anodized in bor-gly solution. Electroforming of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes results in an Ohmic contact at the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 interface, voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM) from filamentary conducting channels. Two distinct modes of electroforming occur for <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes. α-forming occurs for 2.5 V ≲ VS ≲ 5 V, where VS is the applied voltage. It is characterized by an abrupt current jump with the simultaneous appearance of EL and EM. β-forming occurs for VS ≳ 7 V. I-V curves, EL, and EM develop gradually and are smaller than for α-forming. Electroforming occurs more readily for diodes with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 formed in bor-H2O that have greater defect densities. Fully developed I-V curves have similar VCNR, EL, and EM after α-forming or β-forming. A model is proposed in which excited states of F-centers, oxygen vacancies in amorphous anodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, form defect conduction bands. Electroforming that results in an Ohmic contact requires injection of positive charge at the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 interface. α-forming is the result of ionization of F-center recombination centers with energies that are close to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> Fermi level. Hole injection by high-field ionization of valence band states of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 causes β-forming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971365','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971365"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. D. Keiser, Jr.; E. Perez; B. Yao; Y. H. Sohn</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-<span class="hlt">Al</span> system was examined using solid-tosolid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure <span class="hlt">Al</span>, annealed at 600°C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure <span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-2wt.%Si, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-5wt.%Si annealed at 550°C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-<span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion couples annealed at 600°C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43, and UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of “local thermodynamic equilibrium,” and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43, UAl4 and UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. <span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion couples annealed at 550°C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in <span class="hlt">Al</span> significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27113253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27113253"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span>: Recent Developments from Genetics Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Therrien, Martine; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a fatal disorder that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease. High-throughput DNA sequencing and related genomic capture tools are methodological advances which have rapidly contributed to an acceleration in the discovery of genetic risk factors for both familial and sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. It is interesting to note that as the number of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> genes grows, many of the proteins they encode are in shared intracellular processes. This review will summarize some of the recent advances and gene discovery made in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:27113253</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/90466','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/90466"><span id="translatedtitle">Wet chemical etching of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mileham, J.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Shul, R.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.</p> <p>1995-08-21</p> <p>Single-crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span>N grown on <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} is found to be wet etched by AZ400K photoresist developer solution, in which the active component is KOH. The etching is thermally activated with an activation energy of 15.5{plus_minus}0.4 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}, and the etch rate is found to be strongly dependent on the crystalline quality of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. There was no dependence of etch rate on solution agitation or any crystallographic dependence noted, and the etching is selective over other binary group III nitrides (GaN, InN) and substrate materials such as <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaAs. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23186722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23186722"><span id="translatedtitle">Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mazzini, Letizia; Vercelli, Alessandro; Ferrero, Ivana; Boido, Marina; Cantello, Roberto; Fagioli, Franca</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a devastating incurable, neurodegenerative disease that targets motor neurons (MNs) in the primary motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord, leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death due to respiratory failure within 2-5 years. Currently, there is no cure for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. The development of a therapy that can support or restore MN function and attenuate toxicity in the spinal cord provides the most comprehensive approach for treating <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Mesenchymal stem cells might be suitable for cell therapy in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> because of their immunomodulatory and protective properties. In this review, the authors discuss the major challenges to the translation of in vitro and animal studies of MSCs therapy in the clinical setting. PMID:23186722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866720','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866720"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thakur, Keshav; Gupta, Pawan Kumar</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human <span class="hlt">ALS</span> in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:24367722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650295','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650295"><span id="translatedtitle">Substitutional alloy of Ce and <span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Ding, Yang; Mao, Wendy L.; Luo, Wei; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev; Yang, Wenge; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas V.; Meng, Yue; Brewe, Dale L.; Jiang, Jian-Zhong; Mao, Ho-kwang</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The formation of substitutional alloys has been restricted to elements with similar atomic radii and electronegativity. Using high-pressure at 298 K, we synthesized a face-centered cubic disordered alloy of highly dissimilar elements (large Ce and small <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms) by compressing the Ce3<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compound >15 GPa or the Ce3<span class="hlt">Al</span> metallic glass >25 GPa. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Ce L3-edge absorption spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations revealed that the pressure-induced Kondo volume collapse and 4f electron delocalization of Ce reduced the differences between Ce and <span class="hlt">Al</span> and brought them within the Hume-Rothery (HR) limit for substitutional alloying. The alloy remained after complete release of pressure, which was also accompanied by the transformation of Ce back to its ambient 4f electron localized state and reversal of the Kondo volume collapse, resulting in a non-HR alloy at ambient conditions. PMID:19188608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-20/pdf/2011-15290.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-20/pdf/2011-15290.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 35938 - The Designation of Othman <span class="hlt">al</span>-Ghamdi Also Known as <span class="hlt">Al</span> Umairah <span class="hlt">al</span>-Ghamdi, Also Known as Uthman <span class="hlt">al</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-20</p> <p>... Othman <span class="hlt">al</span>-Omirah as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order... of terrorism that threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national security, foreign...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.3037L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.3037L"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Conductivity of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Salt Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-<span class="hlt">Al</span> was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic <span class="hlt">Al</span> content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic <span class="hlt">Al</span> particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped <span class="hlt">Al</span> in the salt cake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625409"><span id="translatedtitle">Glial cells in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: the missing link?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raibon, Elsa; Todd, Lisa Marie; Möller, Thomas</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) was initially known as Charcot's sclerosis, named after the French neurobiologist and physician Jean-Martin Charcot who first described this type of muscular atrophy in the early nineteenth century. In the United States, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> became widely known as Lou Gehrig's disease after the famous baseball player who succumbed to the disease in the late 1930s. Currently, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is the most common motor neuron disease, with a worldwide incidence of 8 cases per 100,000 population per year. Familial forms constitute approximately 5% to 10% of all cases. Onset increases with age, with a peak in the seventh decade and a slight preponderance (relative risk, 1.3-1.5) among men compared with women. Rapid progression of motor neuron loss leads to death an average of 3 to 5 years after symptom onset. The cause of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> remains unknown and there is still no curative therapy. PMID:18625409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792926"><span id="translatedtitle">12th Annual <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Users' Association Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, Arthur L.</p> <p>1999-12-17</p> <p>Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an <span class="hlt">ALS</span> highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> into the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.mda.org/sites/default/files/publications/Everyday_Life_with_ALS_P-532.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.mda.org/sites/default/files/publications/Everyday_Life_with_ALS_P-532.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Everyday Life with <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: A Practical Guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... accuracy. Software programs such as Dragon NaturallySpeaking or IBM ViaVoice are appropriate for people with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> who ... housekeeper, 33 housework, 31 Hoyer lift, 94 I IBM ViaVoice, 85 ILC, see independent living centers immobility, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123918"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic architecture of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> in Sardinia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borghero, Giuseppe; Pugliatti, Maura; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Murru, Maria Rita; Floris, Gianluca; Cannas, Antonino; Parish, Leslie D; Occhineri, Patrizia; Cau, Tea B; Loi, Daniela; Ticca, Anna; Traccis, Sebastiano; Manera, Umberto; Canosa, Antonio; Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Barberis, Marco; Brunetti, Maura; Pliner, Hannah A; Renton, Alan E; Nalls, Mike A; Traynor, Bryan J; Restagno, Gabriella; Chiò, Adriano</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Conserved populations, such as Sardinians, displaying elevated rates of familial or sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) provide unique information on the genetics of the disease. Our aim was to describe the genetic profile of a consecutive series of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients of Sardinian ancestry. All <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients of Sardinian ancestry, identified between 2008 and 2013 through the Italian <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Genetic Consortium, were eligible to be included in the study. Patients and controls underwent the analysis of TARDBP, C9ORF72, SOD1, and FUS genes. Genetic mutations were identified in 155 out of 375 Sardinian <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cases (41.3%), more commonly the p.A382T and p.G295S mutations of TARDBP and the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion of C9ORF72. One patient had both p.G295S and p.A382T mutations of TARDBP and 8 carried both the heterozygous p.A382T mutation of TARDBP and a repeat expansion of C9ORF72. Patients carrying the p.A382T and the p.G295S mutations of TARDBP and the C9ORF72 repeat expansion shared distinct haplotypes across these loci. Patients with cooccurrence of C9ORF72 and TARDBP p.A382T missense mutation had a significantly lower age at onset and shorter survival. More than 40% of all cases on the island of Sardinia carry a mutation of an <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-related gene, representing the highest percentage of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cases genetically explained outside of Scandinavia. Clinical phenotypes associated with different genetic mutations show some distinctive characteristics, but the heterogeneity between and among families carrying the same mutations implies that <span class="hlt">ALS</span> manifestation is influenced by other genetic and nongenetic factors. PMID:25123918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862324"><span id="translatedtitle">17th Annual <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Users' Association Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori</p> <p>2004-11-29</p> <p>It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patio.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1349.1191N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1349.1191N"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Properties of Disordered Fe3<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nehra, J.; Kabra, K.; Jani, S.; Ranjith, P. M.; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The magnetic properties of Fe3<span class="hlt">Al</span> powders prepared by filing the ingot in both as-filed and annealed form are studied. Results of Mössbauer, X-ray diffraction and DC magnetization studies show that the magnetic properties are modified due to formation of non-magnetic Fe3<span class="hlt">Al</span>C0.5 phase due to C intercalated on filing. The hyperfine fields obtained are explained in terms of nearest and next nearest neighbor configurations of 57Fe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175632"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> injection system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, C.H.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> injection system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6395567','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6395567"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetism of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn quasicrystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, F.; Khanna, S.N.; Magaud, L.; Jena, P. ); de Coulon, V.; Reuse, F. ); Jaswal, S.S.; He, X. ); Cyrot-Lackman, F. )</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>The effect of symmetry and concentration of Mn on the magnetism of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn quasicrystals has been investigated through self-consistent density-functional calculations using molecular clusters and supercell band-structure schemes. A single Mn atom surrounded by 54 <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms in an icosahedral or a cuboctahedral structure is found to be nonmagnetic. However, as the Mn concentration is increased, moments develop on Mn sites whose magnitude and coupling depend on their location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4793781','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4793781"><span id="translatedtitle">How common are <span class="hlt">ALS</span> plateaus and reversals?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vaughan, Timothy; Wicks, Paul; Heywood, Jamie; Sinani, Ervin; Selsov, Roger; Macklin, Eric A.; Schoenfeld, David; Cudkowicz, Merit; Sherman, Alex</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To determine the frequency of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) plateaus and reversals in the Pooled Resource Open-Access <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database. Methods: We analyzed Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) and ALSFRS–revised (ALSFRS-R) data from PRO-ACT participants. The frequencies of participants experiencing plateaus (periods where scores did not change) were calculated over 6-, 12-, and 18-month epochs. The percentage of participants ever experiencing reversals (periods where scores improved) of different lengths were also calculated and plotted. Results: Over 6 months, 25% of 3,132 participants did not decline. Over 12 months, 16% of 2,105 participants did not decline. Over 18 months, 7% of 1,218 participants did not decline. Small <span class="hlt">ALS</span> reversals were also common, especially over shorter follow-up intervals; 14% of 1,343 participants had a 180-day interval where their ALSFRS-R slope was greater than zero. Fewer than 1% of participants ever experienced improvements of 4 or more ALSFRS-R points lasting at least 12 months. Conclusion: <span class="hlt">ALS</span> plateaus and small reversals are common, especially over brief intervals. In light of these data, stable disease, especially for a short period of time, should not be interpreted as an <span class="hlt">ALS</span> treatment effect. Large sustained <span class="hlt">ALS</span> reversals, on the other hand, are rare, potentially important, and warrant further study. PMID:26658909</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20406180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20406180"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical trials for neuroprotection in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for <span class="hlt">ALS</span> based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and developing more effective therapies. PMID:20406180</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/516447','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/516447"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of precipitation in <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ag, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in <span class="hlt">Al</span>. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185327','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1185327"><span id="translatedtitle">Metastability in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. The solvus line between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 has been dened at 79.6 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1500C, 83.0 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1600C, and 86.5 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1700C. A metastable region has been dened at temperatures up to 1700C which could have signicant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on nal chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an innite solid solution with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at elevated temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975C and a chemistry of 96 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742954"><span id="translatedtitle">Next-generation sequencing of 28 <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-related genes in a Japanese <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cohort.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Ryoichi; Sone, Jun; Atsuta, Naoki; Tohnai, Genki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Yokoi, Daichi; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Li, Yuanzhe; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Kano, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Abe, Koji; Aiba, Ikuko; Okamoto, Koichi; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Aoki, Masashi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakashima, Kenji; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We investigated the frequency and contribution of variants of the 28 known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>)-related genes in Japanese <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients. We designed a multiplex, polymerase chain reaction-based primer panel to amplify the coding regions of the 28 <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-related genes and sequenced DNA samples from 257 Japanese <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. We also performed exome sequencing and identified variants of the 28 genes in an additional 251 <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We identified the known <span class="hlt">ALS</span> pathogenic variants and predicted the functional properties of novel nonsynonymous variants in silico. These variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Known pathogenic variants were identified in 19 (48.7%) of the 39 familial <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients and 14 (3.0%) of the 469 sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients. Thirty-two sporadic ALS patients (6.8%) harbored 1 or 2 novel nonsynonymous variants of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-related genes that might be deleterious. This study reports the first extensive genetic screening of Japanese <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients. These findings are useful for developing genetic screening and counseling strategies for such patients. PMID:26742954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185327-metastability-mgal2o4-al2o3-system','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185327-metastability-mgal2o4-al2o3-system"><span id="translatedtitle">Metastability in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. The solvus line between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 has been dened at 79.6 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1500C, 83.0 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1600C, and 86.5 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1700C. A metastable region has been dened at temperatures up to 1700C which could have signicant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on nal chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an innite solid solution with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975C and a chemistry of 96 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidication.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1426..275Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1426..275Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Air blast characteristics of laminated <span class="hlt">al</span> and NI-<span class="hlt">AL</span> casings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fan; Ripley, Robert; Wilson, William</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Air blast characteristics of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> laminated materials were experimentally investigated in a 23 m3 closed chamber. Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span> foils, 50 to 100 micrometers in thickness, were rolled and compacted to form a cylindrical casing with a density of 95% TMD through an explosive formation technique. Charges were prepared using 2 kg C4 explosive packed in the laminated casing to a metal-explosive mass ratio of 1.75. The blast pressure history measured on the chamber wall showed a double-shock front structure with a precursor shock followed by the primary blast. The front peak pressure for the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> cased charge reaches 1.5-2 times that of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> cased, consistent with the larger fireball recorded for the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> cased. The long time quasi-static explosion pressure (QSP) from the Ni- <span class="hlt">Al</span> cased charge is 0.8 of that of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> cased, due to half of <span class="hlt">Al</span> mass in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114w3702H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114w3702H"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickmott, T. W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes with anodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 30 nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0 eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0 eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ˜1.5 V. VLP is nearly independent of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3-0.6 V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0 eV when the bias voltage, VS ≲ 7 V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0 V in the plateau region depend exponentially on <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295 K for a diode with 12 nm of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25 nm of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 is ˜140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ˜3 and ˜35; it depends on <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and <span class="hlt">Al</span> films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JIEIC..94...93S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JIEIC..94...93S"><span id="translatedtitle">Process Capability Analysis of Vacuum Moulding for Development of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 MMC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study is to investigate process capability of vacuum moulding (VM) for development of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC). Starting from the identification of component, prototypes were prepared (with three different input parameters namely: vacuum pressure; component volume and sand grit size to give output in form of dimensional accuracy). Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 MMC prepared. Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). The results of study suggest that VM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (σ) limit as regard to dimensional accuracy of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 MMC is concerned. This process ensures rapid production of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107g2105L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107g2105L"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering induced by <span class="hlt">Al</span> segregation in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiwen; Ji, Dong; Lu, Yanwu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing <span class="hlt">Al</span> segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by <span class="hlt">Al</span> segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 103 cm2/Vs to 106 cm2/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterojunctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093153','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093153"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Properties in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 through spinodal decomposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001234','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001234"><span id="translatedtitle">The lowest ionization potentials of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RJPCA..88..729S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RJPCA..88..729S"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic properties of alloys of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shevchenko, M. A.; Berezutskii, V. V.; Ivanov, M. I.; Kudin, V. G.; Sudavtsova, V. S.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Enthalpies of mixing for melts of the binary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co system at 1870 K in the range 0 < x Co < 0.25, and at 1620 K, 0 < x Co < 0.12, are investigated by means of isoperibolic calorimetry. Enthalpies of mixing for melts of the ternary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc system are investigated at 1870 K for sections <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.75(1 - x)Co0.25(1 - x)Sc x , 0 < x < 0.024, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.88(1 - x)Co0.12(1 - x)Sc x , 0 < x < 0.044. Using the literature data on the enthalpies of mixing for liquid and solid alloys, the activities of melt components, and the phase diagram of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co system, the thermodynamic properties of liquid and solid alloys of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co system over a wide range of temperatures and compositions are calculated using a software package of our own design, based on the model of ideal associated solutions (IAS). The enthalpies of mixing and the liquidus surface of the phase diagram of the ternary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc system over the interval of concentrations are estimated by modeling with data on binary boundary subsystems. All of the components of both the binary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co and ternary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc systems tend to interact with one another quite strongly: Δ H min(<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co) = -32.5 kJ/mol at x Co = 0.44; Δ H min(<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc) = -46 kJ/mol for <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.4Co0.3Sc0.3 (estimated).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..114a2100B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..114a2100B"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of RCS on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhovi, Prabhakar M.; Venkateswarlu, K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>An influence of repetitive corrugation and straightening (RCS) was studied on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys up to eight passes. Each pass consist of a corrugation and followed by straightening. This has resulted in introducing large plastic strain in sample, and thus led to formation of sub-micron grain sizes with high angle grain boundaries. These sub grain formation was eventually resulted in improved mechanical properties. The average grain size of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg-0.25Sc alloy after 8 passes yielded to ∼0.6pm. Microhardness, strength properties were evaluated and it suggests that RCS was responsible for high hardness values as compared to the as cast samples. The microhardness values after RCS were 105 HV and 130 HV for <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys, respectively. Similarly, ∼ 40% improvement in tensile strength from 240 MPa to 370 MPa was observed for <span class="hlt">Al</span>- 3Mg-0.25Sc alloy after RCS process.<span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg-0.25Scalloys exhibited maximum strength of 220 MPa and 370 MPa, respectively. It is concluded that RCS process has a strong influence on <span class="hlt">Al</span>- 3Mg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys for obtaining improved mechanical properties and grain refinement. In addition to RCS process and presence of AESc precipitates in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg-0.25Sc alloy had a significant role in grain refinement and improved mechanical properties as compared to <span class="hlt">Al</span>-3Mg alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008594','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008594"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-Phase (Ti<span class="hlt">Al+TiCrAl</span>) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> gamma + Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span> (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)<span class="hlt">Al</span>(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435199','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435199"><span id="translatedtitle">Remarks on Peinado et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> Analysis of J3Gen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi; Melià-Seguí, Joan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Peinado et <span class="hlt">al</span>. analyzed the security of the J3Gen pseudorandom number generator proposed by Melià-Seguí et <span class="hlt">al</span>., and claimed weaknesses regarding its security properties. They also presented a deterministic attack based on the decimation of the J3Gen output sequences. We show that the assumptions made by Peinado et <span class="hlt">al</span>. are not correct and that the proposed deterministic attack against J3Gen does not hold in practice. PMID:25781510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25781510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25781510"><span id="translatedtitle">Remarks on Peinado et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> Analysis of J3Gen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi; Melià-Seguí, Joan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Peinado et <span class="hlt">al</span>. analyzed the security of the J3Gen pseudorandom number generator proposed by Melià-Seguí et <span class="hlt">al</span>., and claimed weaknesses regarding its security properties. They also presented a deterministic attack based on the decimation of the J3Gen output sequences. We show that the assumptions made by Peinado et <span class="hlt">al</span>. are not correct and that the proposed deterministic attack against J3Gen does not hold in practice. PMID:25781510</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ges..conf..247A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ges..conf..247A"><span id="translatedtitle">Another Security Improvement over the Lin et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> E-voting Scheme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud</p> <p></p> <p>In 2003, Lin et <span class="hlt">al</span>. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CP....465....9S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CP....465....9S"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum chemical study of the reactions of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>O and <span class="hlt">Al</span>OH with H2O2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharipov, Alexander S.; Starik, Alexander M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Quantum chemical calculations with the use of hybrid density functional with perturbative second-order correlation and dispersion correction are carried out to study the reactions of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>O and <span class="hlt">Al</span>OH with the H2O2 molecule. The values of energy barriers are estimated by means of extrapolation to the basis set limit. The energetically favorable reaction pathways have been revealed during the examination of the potential energy surfaces. Complex character of the processes under study has been established. It has been found that the initial stages of the considered processes are barrierless. Appropriate rate constants for principal channels of the reactions under study have been estimated by using capture model and canonical variational theory. The Arrhenius approximations for these channels have been proposed for the temperature range T = 300-4000 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/919660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/919660"><span id="translatedtitle">The Stability of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 11Sm3 (<span class="hlt">Al</span>4Sm) Phases in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sm Binary System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S.H.Zhou; R.E. Napolitano</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The relative stability of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 11}Sm{sub 3} (<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 4}Sm) intermetallic phases was experimentally investigated through a series of heat treatments followed by microstructural, microchemical, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The principal findings are that the high-temperature tetragonal phase is stable from 1655 to 1333 K and that the low-temperature orthorhombic phases, {alpha} and {gamma}, have no range of full stability but are metastable with respect to the crystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Sm reference states down to 0 K. Thermodynamic modeling is used to describe the relative energetics of stable and metastable phases along with the associated two-phase mixtures. Issues regarding transition energetics and kinetics are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27053603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27053603"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of core-shell <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH hollow nanospheres by reacting <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoparticles with water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lozhkomoev, A S; Glazkova, E A; Bakina, O V; Lerner, M I; Gotman, I; Gutmanas, E Y; Kazantsev, S O; Psakhie, S G</p> <p>2016-05-20</p> <p>A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH nanosheets by oxidizing <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of <span class="hlt">Al</span> transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic <span class="hlt">Al</span> accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of <span class="hlt">Al</span> from the particle interior and the deposition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers. PMID:27053603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001647"><span id="translatedtitle">Microsample testing of single crystalline Ti-52 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ti-55.5 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zupan, M.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Hemker, K.J.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Dislocation activity in two-phase commercial Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys occurs most readily in the {gamma}-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase, and measurements of the CRSS of single crystalline {gamma}-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> provides a solid foundation for understanding the mechanical performance of these alloys. Single crystals of {gamma}-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> with greater than 54.5 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> have been grown using the optical float zone crystal growing technique, but single crystals with lower <span class="hlt">Al</span> content, closer to that of commercial alloys, have not. In the present study, polycrystalline ingots of Ti-52 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> have been heat treated to form very large grains, and microsample tensile specimens, which have a nominal gage cross-section of 250{micro}m x 300{micro}m, a gage length of 250{micro}m and an overall length of 3 mm, have been machined from within single grains. Microsample high-temperature stress-strain curves for Ti-55.5 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> single crystals oriented along the [001] and [010] are presented. Tensile test results for Ti-52 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> tested at 1,073K along the[{bar 2}37], [{bar 1}73] and [{bar 3}44] orientations will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020041465&hterms=Alessandra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAlessandra','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020041465&hterms=Alessandra&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAlessandra"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dissociation Energies of <span class="hlt">Al</span>H2 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ricca, Alessandra; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Visscher, Luuk; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The D(sub 0) values for <span class="hlt">Al</span>H2 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ar are computed using the coupled cluster approach in conjunction with large basis sets. Basis set superposition and spin-orbit effects are accounted for as they are sizeable due to the small binding energy. The computed dissociation energy for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ar is 101 /cm , which is 83% of the experimental value (122.4/ cm). Our best estimate for the H2 binding energy in <span class="hlt">Al</span>H2 is 40 +/- 28 /cm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100049"><span id="translatedtitle">Solid state reaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Zr in <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Zr multilayers: A calorimetry study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blobaum, K.J.; Weihs, T.P.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Wall, M.A.</p> <p>1995-04-14</p> <p>The exothermic, solid state reaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Zr has been studied in thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Zr multilayers using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The multilayer samples were magnetron sputter deposited into highly textured alternate layers of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Zr with nominal composition <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Zr. The samples used in this study were 47{mu}m thick with a 427{Angstrom} period. When samples were isochronally scanned from 25 to 725C, a large exotherm at {approximately}350C was followed by one or two smaller exotherms at {approximately}650C. The first exotherm is dominated by a diffusion based reaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Zr that produces two phases in isochronal scans: amorphous <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr and cubic <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Zr, and two additional phases in isothermal anneals: <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}Zr and tetragonal <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Zr. The exothermic heat from this multi-phase reaction is measured using isochronal scans and isothermal anneals, and the heat flow is analyzed using a 1-D diffusion based model. An average activation energy and a diffusion constant are determined. In the isothermal scans, the total exothermic heat increases linearly with {radical}time, and layer thicknesses vary linearly with heat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830003032&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcoal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830003032&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcoal"><span id="translatedtitle">High temperature deformation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nix, W. D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The high temperature mechanical properties of the aluminides are reviewed with respect to their potential as high temperature structural materials. It is shown that Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> are substantially stronger than the pure metals Ni and Co at high temperatures and approach the strength of some superalloys, particularly when those superalloys are tested in "weak" directions. The factors that limit and control the high temperature strengths of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> are examined to provide a basis for the development of intermetallic alloys of this type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241194"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>3AuIr: A New Compound in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Au-Ir System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kadok, Joris; de Weerd, Marie-Cécile; Boulet, Pascal; Gaudry, Émilie; Grin, Yuri; Fournée, Vincent; Ledieu, Julian</p> <p>2015-08-17</p> <p>A new ternary phase with a composition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3AuIr has been found in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich area of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Au-Ir system. Differential thermal analysis indicates a melting point of 990 °C, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that this ternary phase adopts a Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 structure type (space group P3̅m1) with a = 4.2584(5) Å and c = 5.1991(7) Å. This compound is isostructural to the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Cu1.5Co0.5 phase also found in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich part of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Co ternary diagram. Experimental evidence combined with ab initio calculations point toward an <span class="hlt">Al</span>3AuIr phase stabilized by a Hume-Rothery mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations indicate two-center and multicenter interactions in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3AuIr phase. Layered distribution of two-center interactions separated by regions with four- and five-center bonds suggests a preferential cleavage of the material at puckered planes perpendicular to the [001] direction. PMID:26241194</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870064653&hterms=cluster+wave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcluster%2Bwave','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870064653&hterms=cluster+wave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcluster%2Bwave"><span id="translatedtitle">Small <span class="hlt">Al</span> clusters. II - Structure and binding in <span class="hlt">Al</span>(n) (n = 2-6, 13)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Halicioglu, Timur</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The structure and stability of aluminum clusters containing up to six atoms have been studied using correlated wave functions and extended basis sets. The lowest energy structure is planar for <span class="hlt">Al</span>4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>5, but three dimensional for <span class="hlt">Al</span>6. The icosahedral, hcp, fcc, and two planar structures of <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 were considered at the SCF level. The lowest energy structure is the icosahedron, but the planar structures are fairly low lying even in this case. A simplified description using two- and three-body interaction potentials is found to agree well with the ab initio structures and binding energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27t5603L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27t5603L"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of core–shell <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH hollow nanospheres by reacting <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoparticles with water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH nanosheets by oxidizing <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of <span class="hlt">Al</span> transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic <span class="hlt">Al</span> accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of <span class="hlt">Al</span> from the particle interior and the deposition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized <span class="hlt">Al</span>OOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SurSc.624....1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SurSc.624....1L"><span id="translatedtitle">First-principle study of adhesion, wetting and bonding on <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>3V(001) interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jian; Qi, Yuning; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Yong; Li, Xiao</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The adhesion, wetting, and bonding on fcc-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(001)/D022-<span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) interface were investigated using density functional calculations. Considering different terminations of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) (<span class="hlt">Al</span>- and <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated) and stacking sites (center-, hollow- and top-sites), six <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>3V(001) models were calculated. For the models with same stacking site, <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated model has larger work of adhesion (Wad) than the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-terminated one. For the models with same termination, the work of adhesion decreases, and the interface energy (γint) increases as the order of top-, bridge- and center-sites. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-terminated-center-sited and <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated-center-sited models are more stable among six models. After complete structure relaxation, both models have the same epitaxial stacking style. Therefore, the both models can be regarded as of the same and most stable one (noted as CSI model), but separating along <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>+V inter-planes. Based on the perfect wetting and strong adhesion in CSI model, the heterogeneous nucleation of α-<span class="hlt">Al</span> on <span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) was interpreted in terms of crystallography and thermodynamics. The interfacial bonding was discussed with analysis of valence electron density distribution and partial density of states (PDOS). The bonding is mainly contributed from <span class="hlt">Al</span>V covalent bonds and <span class="hlt">AlAl</span> metallic interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616445','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616445"><span id="translatedtitle">Long range order and vacancy properties in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>(Cr) alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, S.M.; Morris, D.G.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>Neutron powder diffraction measurements have been carried out in situ from room temperature to about 100 C in Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span> (28 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>), Fe32.5<span class="hlt">Al</span> (32.5 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>) and Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span>15Cr (28 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>, 5 at.% Cr) alloys. X-ray diffraction and TEM studies provided supporting information. The data were analyzed to obtain information about the temperature dependence of the DO{sub 3} and B2 long range order parameters, the location of the Cr atoms and their effect on the ordering energies, and on the vacancy formation and migration properties in Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe32.5<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The location of the ternary alloying addition in DO{sub 3} and B2 ordered <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> is shown to be consistent with considerations of interatomic bond energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524174"><span id="translatedtitle">The new structure type Gd3Ni7<span class="hlt">Al</span>14.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pukas, Svitlana; Gladyshevskii, Roman</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The crystal structure of Gd3Ni7<span class="hlt">Al</span>14 (trigadolinium heptanickel tetradecaaluminide) belongs to a family of two-layer structures and can be described as an assembly of interpenetrating centred straight prisms. For the Ni atoms, trigonal prisms (<span class="hlt">Al</span>4Gd2 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>6) are observed, the <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms are inside tetragonal (Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>2Gd4, Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>4Gd2, <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Gd4, Ni4<span class="hlt">Al</span>4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>8) and pentagonal (Ni4<span class="hlt">Al</span>6 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>10) prisms, while the Gd atoms are at the centres of pentagonal (Ni4<span class="hlt">Al</span>6) and hexagonal (Ni4<span class="hlt">Al</span>8) prisms. In each case, the true coordination polyhedron is a capped prism, also including atoms from the same layer. The structural features of Gd3Ni7<span class="hlt">Al</span>14 are similar to those of the intermetallides PrNi2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 and ZrNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>. In all these structures, Ni-centred trigonal prisms form infinite columns via common triangular faces. The columns share prism edges and form a three-dimensional framework with six-membered rings in the (001) plane in the case of the PrNi2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 and ZrNi<span class="hlt">Al</span> types. In the case of Gd3Ni7<span class="hlt">Al</span>14, six-membered rings are also observed, but only two-thirds of the rings are interconnected via prism edges. PMID:26524174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1653b0023B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1653b0023B"><span id="translatedtitle">The formation of (<span class="hlt">Al</span>8Fe2Si, <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Fe4) phases from <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe-Si system by TE mode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulouma, A.; Drici, A.; Benaldjia, A.; Guerioune, M.; Vrel, D.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This work prepared <span class="hlt">Al</span>8Fe2Si, <span class="hlt">Al</span>13Fe4 mixed sample by ball milling and thermal explosion techniques applying <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Fe and Si powders as precursors. Thermal combustion of powder mixes of composition 24, 37 <span class="hlt">Al</span>+ 50, 36 Fe + 25, 27 Si in mass reveals production of several binary and ternary intermetallic phases such: A113Fe4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>8Fe2Si.. Synthesis conditions were optimized to fabricate these phases having many potential applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6542417','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6542417"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustion synthesis of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>-matrix composites in the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-BN system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mabuchi, H.; Tsuda, H.; Nakayama, Y. . Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science)</p> <p>1995-01-15</p> <p>The intermetallic compound Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> has attracted much attention for its potential use as a structural high-temperature material. However, its use has been limited because of its negligible low-temperature ductility and fracture toughness and low high-temperature strength and creep. To improve these properties, recently this compound has been made as a composite material containing a secondary phase such as boride, carbide, nitride, or oxide. Recently, combustion synthesis or self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis (SHS) using powder compacts has been developed to produce intermetallics or ceramics. It is also possible to form intermetallic-intermetallic, intermetallic-ceramic, or ceramic-ceramic composites from combustion reactions between corresponding elemental constituents. It has the advantage of an in-situ forming technique compared with conventional artificial composite production approaches. In the previous studies using elemental powders, combustion reaction was carried out to form intermetallic-ceramic composites in the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-C, or Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-N system. The compacts of Ti and <span class="hlt">Al</span> powders with carbon powder or in gaseous nitrogen reacted exothermically, and formed a mixture product which had a fine distribution of the Ti[sub 2]<span class="hlt">Al</span>C or Ti[sub 2]<span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles in the matrix Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> with a small amount of Ti[sub 3]<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The processing technique, therefore, is of interest as a combustion reaction synthesis to make in-situ intermetallic-based composite materials. In the present work, to investigate the effect of BN addition on the reaction of Ti And <span class="hlt">Al</span> powder mixtures, combustion synthesis of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>-matrix composites has been performed for the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-BN system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/434994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/434994"><span id="translatedtitle">The mechanical properties of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, I.; George, E.P.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3423946','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3423946"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> and Frontotemporal Dysfunction: A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Achi, Eugene Y.; Rudnicki, Stacy A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Though once believed to be a disease that was limited to the motor system, it is now apparent that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) may be associated with cognitive changes in some patients. Changes are consistent with frontotemporal dysfunction, and may range from mild abnormalities only recognized with formal neuropsychological testing, to profound frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Executive function, behavior, and language are the most likely areas to be involved. Screening helpful in detecting abnormalities includes verbal or categorical fluency, behavioral inventories filled out by the caregiver, and evaluation for the presence of depression and pseudobulbar affect. Patients with cognitive dysfunction have shortened survival and may be less compliant with recommendations regarding use of feeding tubes and noninvasive ventilation. Evolving knowledge of genetic and pathological links between <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and FTD has allowed us to better understand the overlapping spectrum of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and FTD. PMID:22919484</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3639398','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3639398"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress granules as crucibles of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> pathogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>King, Oliver D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a fatal human neurodegenerative disease affecting primarily motor neurons. Two RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 and FUS, aggregate in the degenerating motor neurons of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients, and mutations in the genes encoding these proteins cause some forms of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. TDP-43 and FUS and several related RNA-binding proteins harbor aggregation-promoting prion-like domains that allow them to rapidly self-associate. This property is critical for the formation and dynamics of cellular ribonucleoprotein granules, the crucibles of RNA metabolism and homeostasis. Recent work connecting TDP-43 and FUS to stress granules has suggested how this cellular pathway, which involves protein aggregation as part of its normal function, might be coopted during disease pathogenesis. PMID:23629963</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.Q2002H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.Q2002H"><span id="translatedtitle">Frictional interactions at compressed <span class="hlt">Al</span> interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.; Holian, B. L.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>We discuss the velocity and temperature dependence of the frictional force at sliding <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> interfaces. A series of 3-D 1.5 million atom Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulations for single crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span> incommensurate interfaces have been carried out for a range of imposed boundary temperatures and sliding velocities at an imposed boundary pressure of 15 GPa in the solid state. Velocities in the range 50-2000 m/s are considered for temperatures of 232, 464, and 696 K. We discuss the regimes of interfacial stability, from stable, anharmonic phonon dominated at low velocities, through plasticity dominated interfacial instability at intermediate velocities, to high velocity Couette flow, and present a scaled model for the frictional force in the intermediate to high velocity regimes. Connection will be made to recent dynamic friction experiments carried out at the DOE ATLAS pulsed power facility.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955..309H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955..309H"><span id="translatedtitle">Frictional Interactions at Compressed <span class="hlt">al</span> Interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.; Holian, B. L.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>We discuss the velocity and temperature dependence of the frictional force at sliding <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> interfaces. A series of 3-D 1.4 million atom Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulations for single crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span> incommensurate interfaces have been carried out for a range of imposed boundary temperatures and sliding velocities at an imposed boundary pressure of 15 GPa in the solid state. Velocities in the range 50-3000 m/s are considered for temperatures of 232, 464, and 696 °K. We discuss the regimes of interfacial stability, from stable anharmonic phonon dominated at low velocities, through plasticity dominated interfacial instability at intermediate velocities, to high velocity Couette flow, and present a scaled model for the frictional force in the intermediate to high velocity regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676870"><span id="translatedtitle">Boron strengthening in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C.; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % <span class="hlt">Al</span>), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10386051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10386051"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni--a universal scientist].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kujundzić, E; Masić, I</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab <span class="hlt">al</span>-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others. PMID:10386051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4712627','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4712627"><span id="translatedtitle">Complementary and Alternative Therapies in <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:26515629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22150063','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22150063"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of nanostructured <span class="hlt">Al</span>N by solid state reaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and diaminomaleonitrile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rounaghi, S.A.; Eshghi, H.; Kiani Rashid, A.R.; Vahdati Khaki, J.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scudino, S.; Eckert, J.; TU Dresden, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Dresden D-01062 </p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>The solid state reaction of diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) with aluminum via both mechanochemical and thermal treatment routes was studied by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the milling process, the reaction starts with the deammoniation of the DAMN molecules, followed by the formation of nanostructured <span class="hlt">Al</span>N powder as the main solid product after milling for 7 h. The reactivity of the mixed powder was also investigated during the conventional thermal treatment process using differential scanning calorimetry, derivative thermogravimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The results reveal that DAMN starts to polymerize at 192 Degree-Sign C by the elimination of the amine groups. Furthermore, increasing the annealing temperature leads to the formation of a nitrogen-containing carbonaceous material with the structure similar to non-crystalline carbon. However, no evidence for the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N was observed in the annealed samples even at temperatures as high as the <span class="hlt">Al</span> melting point. - Graphical abstract: <span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanoparticles obtained after milling of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) for 12 h. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid state reaction of diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) with <span class="hlt">Al</span> was studied via mechanochemical and thermal treatment routs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span>N was successfully synthesized by the mechanochemical process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C/N material was formed by polymerization of DAMN during the thermal treatment process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No reaction between DAMN and <span class="hlt">Al</span> was detected during the thermal treatment method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JMMM...54..473L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JMMM...54..473L"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic properties of Tb<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2 and Er<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leson, A.; Schelp, W.; Drewes, W.; Purwins, H.-G.</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>Magnetization measurements parallel and perpendicular to the applied field are reported for single crystals of Tb<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2 and Er<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2. In addition the low temperature specific heat for different magnetic fields has been determined. The results are interpreted using a cubic crystalline field and a molecular field approximation for the exchange interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JPCM...15.8103L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JPCM...15.8103L"><span id="translatedtitle">Adhesion of metal carbide/nitride interfaces: <span class="hlt">Al</span>/TiC and <span class="hlt">Al</span>/TiN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, L. M.; Wang, S. Q.; Ye, H. Q.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare <span class="hlt">Al</span>/TiC and <span class="hlt">Al</span>/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent <span class="hlt">Al</span>3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872577','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872577"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic circuits having Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni.sub.3 <span class="hlt">Al</span> substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and/or Ni.sub.3 <span class="hlt">Al</span>, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cho&pg=4&id=EJ689425','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cho&pg=4&id=EJ689425"><span id="translatedtitle">An Alternative Perspective on von Winterfeldt et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> (1997) Test of Consequence Monotonicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Regenwetter, Michel; Niederee, Reinhard; Heyer, Dieter</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>D. von Winterfeldt, N.-K. Chung, R. D. Luce, and Y. Cho (see record 1997-03378-008) provided several tests for consequence monotonicity of choice or judgment, using certainty equivalents of gambles. The authors reaxiomatized consequence monotonicity in a probabilistic framework and reanalyzed von Winterfeldt et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> main experiment via a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reason+NOT+buying+AND+original+AND+goods&pg=7&id=EJ821622','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reason+NOT+buying+AND+original+AND+goods&pg=7&id=EJ821622"><span id="translatedtitle">Replication and Extension of Little et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> (2003) Forms and Functions of Aggression Measure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fite, Paula J.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The goal of the current study was to replicate the confirmatory factor analysis of Little et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> (2003) aggression measure in an American sample of 69 children (mean age = 12.93 years; SD = 1.27). Although an exact replication of the original model could not be estimated given the small sample, a modified model representing a conceptual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOM....66i1785S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOM....66i1785S"><span id="translatedtitle">Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-C Based Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> are potential lightweight steels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JTST...14..264K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JTST...14..264K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich precipitation in CoNiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bondcoat at high temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koomparkping, T.; Damrongrat, S.; Niranatlumpong, P.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>A thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied on a surface of a gas turbine blade to provide a thermal barrier and oxidation resistant properties for the components. The ability to resist oxidation of the coating arises from the self-healing, protective <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale on top of the bondcoat, which is formed during service. However, if <span class="hlt">Al</span> depletion occurs within the bondcoat, the protective scale will lose its self-healing ability, and hence, its oxidation-resistant property. This paper investigated the depletion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> within the bondcoat by studying the microstructure of the bondcoat on a gas turbine blade after it has been in 4000 h service at 1200 °C. The results showed that <span class="hlt">Al</span> depletion had occurred at different levels throughout the turbine blade. In the area where <span class="hlt">Al</span> depletion had not yet occurred, precipitation of an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich phase was detected. Most of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> was contained within this phase, leaving only small amount of <span class="hlt">Al</span> in the surrounding matrix. A well-defined boundary was observed between the depleted and non-depleted regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980028484','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980028484"><span id="translatedtitle">Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of Ni<span class="hlt">Al-NiAl</span>Ta Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al-NiAl</span>Ta alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Ta.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910034051&hterms=Stuttgart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DStuttgart','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910034051&hterms=Stuttgart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DStuttgart"><span id="translatedtitle">1300 K compressive properties of a reaction milled Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Arzt, Eduard; Luton, Michael J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>When B2 crystal-structure nickel aluminide is subjected to high-intensity mechanical ball milling in a liquid nitrogen bath, or 'cryomilling', an Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite is obtained which contains about 10 vol pct <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles. This composition arises from the incorporation of N during cryomilling; during subsequent thermomechanical processing, the N reacts with <span class="hlt">Al</span>. While compressive testing of extruded or isostatically pressed specimens at 1300 K indicated that strength at relatively fast strain rates is slightly dependent on consolidation method, slower strain rates indicate no clear dependency on densification technique: four different consolidation methods were found to yield similar creep strengths. The creep properties of Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N are similar to those of the single-crystal Ni-base superalloy NASAIR 100.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21013666','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21013666"><span id="translatedtitle">Intersubband absorption in <span class="hlt">AlN/GaN/Al</span>GaN coupled quantum wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Kristina; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Paiella, Roberto; Zhou, Lin; Smith, David J.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AlN/GaN/Al</span>GaN coupled quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been developed and characterized via intersubband absorption spectroscopy. In these structures, an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layer of sufficiently low <span class="hlt">Al</span> content is used to achieve strong interwell coupling without the need for ultrathin inner barriers. At the same time, <span class="hlt">Al</span>N is used in the outer barriers to provide the large quantum confinement required for near-infrared intersubband transitions. The composition of the inner barriers also provides a continuously tunable parameter to control the coupling strength. Double intersubband absorption peaks are measured in each sample, at photon energies in good agreement with theoretical expectations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97m3104S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97m3104S"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/WO3 thermites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sullivan, Kyle T.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard; Zachariah, Michael R.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span> thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span> was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5188197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5188197"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kingsley, L.M.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Adherence of protective oxides on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> and CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980210984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980210984"><span id="translatedtitle">CVD Fiber Coatings for <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boss, Daniel E.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This process was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.105x1908H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.105x1908H"><span id="translatedtitle">Alloy inhomogeneity and carrier localization in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN sections and <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N nanodisks in nanowires with 240-350 nm emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Himwas, C.; den Hertog, M.; Dang, Le Si; Monroy, E.; Songmuang, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present structural and optical studies of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN sections and <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N nanodisks (NDs) in nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ga intermixing at <span class="hlt">Al</span>(Ga)N/GaN interfaces and the chemical inhomogeneity in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN NDs evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy are attributed to the strain relaxation process. This interpretation is supported by the three-dimensional strain distribution calculated by minimizing the elastic energy in the structure. The alloy inhomogeneity increases with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> content, leading to enhanced carrier localization signatures in the luminescence characteristics, i.e., red shift of the emission, s-shaped temperature dependence, and linewidth broadening. Despite these effects, the emission energy of <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N NDs can be tuned in the 240-350 nm range with internal quantum efficiencies around 30%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042390','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042390"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) equals gamma'(+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Copland, Evan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The activities of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) = gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) = gamma'(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047352','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047352"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Copeland, Evan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The activities of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%<span class="hlt">al</span> (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...75a2034P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...75a2034P"><span id="translatedtitle">Wear characteristics of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites produced in-situ by nitrogenation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pradhan, S.; Jena, S. K.; Patnaik, S. C.; Swain, P. K.; Majhi, J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In the present scenario most of the parts used in automobile and aerospace industries are made of composites. Aluminium metal has a very high strength to weight ratio. <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N metal matrix composites have excellent mechanical properties like good wear resistance, high hardness and high strength to weight ratio which are obtained from low density of aluminium and high hardness and wear resistance of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. Therefore, use of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N MMC leads to advantages in automobile industries as it reduces fuel consumption and gives better structural strength. The composites can be produced ex-situ by introducing <span class="hlt">Al</span>N as reinforcement into the metal matrix and in- situ by nitrogenation process. In the present process <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites were fabricated by treating molten aluminium with a mixture of CaO and NH4Cl and held at temperature range at 750-930°C and then cast into a metal mould. Addition of CaO to NH4Cl is found to have a more pronounced effect as a nitrogenation agent in comparison with NH4Cl in the molten aluminium in the temperature range of 700- 1000°C. Castings of aluminium and <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites were prepared by mixing different ratios of aluminium and NH4Cl, at different casting temperatures and holding time. Wear resistance and hardness of the samples were determined, and microstructure studies were carried out. The composite formed using higher amount of NH4Cl had higher hardness and wear resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APExp...9e1001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APExp...9e1001H"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of stress on the <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition evolution in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Two series of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN samples with different stresses were designed to investigate the effect of stress on the <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping (XRD RSM) demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN epilayers with different stresses have large <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition differences despite the same growth conditions. The largest <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition difference reached up to 21.3%, which was also confirmed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). This result is attributed to a large stress discrepancy in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN epilayers. Finally, the dependences of the solid-phase <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition on the gas-phase <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition under different stresses were systematically analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED542783.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED542783.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">U-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Green+AND+movement&pg=5&id=EJ869605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Green+AND+movement&pg=5&id=EJ869605"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11465924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11465924"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetics of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> in Italian families.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gellera, C</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons. The majority of the patients are sporadic cases (SALS), while 10-15% of patients has a family history of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> (familial <span class="hlt">ALS</span> or FALS). Mutations in the gene coding for cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been identified in 20% of FALS. We found SOD1-gene mutations in 7 of 36 unrelated FALS and in 3 of 48 SALS patients. Four FALS patients carried previously described mutations, the A4V (2 cases), the L84F mutations (1 case), and the G93D (1 case), while three FALS patients carried new missense mutations: the G12R mutation, the F45C mutation and the V47F mutation, respectively. Two SALS patients carried previously reported mutations: the homozygous D90A and the heterozygous I113T mutation, respectively. In addition, in one SALS patient we identified an apparently non-pathogenic SOD1 variant: the A95T mutation. Our study contributes to expand the number of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-associated SOD1 gene mutations. PMID:11465924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=word+AND+lends&pg=5&id=EJ734728','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=word+AND+lends&pg=5&id=EJ734728"><span id="translatedtitle">Correction to Rothermund et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk; De Houwer, Jan</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This article reports an error in the article "Retrieval of Incidental Stimulus-Response Associations as a Source of Negative Priming" by Rothermund et <span class="hlt">al</span>. ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," Vol 31(3) May 2005, 482-495). Table 1 (p. 484) was incorrectly typeset. The correct layout is provided. (The following…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-23/pdf/2013-01210.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-23/pdf/2013-01210.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00046</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-23</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated 01/10... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/87741','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/87741"><span id="translatedtitle">Ternary Dy-Er-<span class="hlt">Al</span> magnetic refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki</p> <p>1995-07-25</p> <p>A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869994','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869994"><span id="translatedtitle">Ternary Dy-Er-<span class="hlt">Al</span> magnetic refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki</p> <p>1995-07-25</p> <p>A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-03/pdf/2013-10506.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-03/pdf/2013-10506.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 26100 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00050</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-03</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-10/pdf/2011-11428.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-10/pdf/2011-11428.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 27141 - Alabama Disaster # <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00036</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-05-10</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-05/pdf/E9-31259.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-05/pdf/E9-31259.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 474 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00026</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-05</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-07/pdf/2011-25927.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-07/pdf/2011-25927.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-07</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Incapital LLC, et <span class="hlt">al</span>.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-23/pdf/2011-12524.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-05-23/pdf/2011-12524.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 29810 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00037</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-05-23</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-12/pdf/2010-11199.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-12/pdf/2010-11199.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 26813 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00029</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-05-12</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-01/pdf/2012-24147.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-01/pdf/2012-24147.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 60003 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00044</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-12/pdf/2010-11201.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-12/pdf/2010-11201.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 26814 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00031</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-05-12</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-15/pdf/2013-08761.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-15/pdf/2013-08761.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 22361 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00049</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-10/pdf/2012-3083.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-10/pdf/2012-3083.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 7227 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00040</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-10</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856645"><span id="translatedtitle">Sirtuins as therapeutic targets of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Bilski, Amanda E; Zhao, Wei</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Sirtuins have received a lot of attention in biological functions associated with metabolism, survival development, and most recently, neurodegeneration. The versatile role of sirtuins can be readily redirected for drug discovery studies for novel treatment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>), as presented in this highlight, by sirtuin-mediated ketogenic responses influencing mitochondrial function. PMID:23856645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pattern+AND+recognition+AND+letters+AND+pattern+AND+recognition+AND+letters&pg=5&id=EJ734728','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pattern+AND+recognition+AND+letters+AND+pattern+AND+recognition+AND+letters&pg=5&id=EJ734728"><span id="translatedtitle">Correction to Rothermund et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk; De Houwer, Jan</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This article reports an error in the article "Retrieval of Incidental Stimulus-Response Associations as a Source of Negative Priming" by Rothermund et <span class="hlt">al</span>. ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," Vol 31(3) May 2005, 482-495). Table 1 (p. 484) was incorrectly typeset. The correct layout is provided. (The following</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=morality+AND+education&pg=2&id=EJ775716','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=morality+AND+education&pg=2&id=EJ775716"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ghazali on Moral Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alavi, Hamid Reza</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE) is probably the most influential scholar, philosopher, theologian, legal expert, religious reformer and mystic in the history of Islam. Although he wrote extensively about education, and particularly about moral education, this writing is scattered through a number of different works and has received less scholarly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARF19012G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARF19012G"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Criticality in YFe2<span class="hlt">Al</span>10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gannon, William; Wu, Liusuo; Zaliznyak, Igor; Qiu, Yiming; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose; Aronson, Meigan</p> <p></p> <p>Quantum criticality has been studied in many systems, but there are few systems where observed scaling can be unified with a critical free energy F, or where the critical exponents form the basis for QC universality classes. We have identified a new layered material YFe2<span class="hlt">Al</span>10 that shows remarkably strong QC behavior, where the scaling properties of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat are consistent with the same F. Recent neutron scattering results paint a remarkable picture of the QC fluctuations in YFe2<span class="hlt">Al</span>10. In contrast to classical transitions, where fluctuations are relatively long ranged and inelastic scattering is observed at a magnetic zone center, in YFe2<span class="hlt">Al</span>10 the scattering is independent of wave vector in the critical plane, indicating that the fluctuations are spatially localized, while out of plane scattering indicates that the interplaner interactions are restricted to nearest neighbors. The dynamical susceptibility χ'' ~=E-2 , and is wholly temperature independent, indicating that E/T scaling is present, the signature of QC fluctuations. These results hint that the the criticality in YFe2<span class="hlt">Al</span>10 is local, which until now has only been found in a few f-electron based compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/791807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/791807"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint SSRTNet/<span class="hlt">ALS</span>-MES Workshop report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shuh, David; Van Hove, Michel</p> <p>2001-11-30</p> <p>This joint workshop brought together experimentalists and theorists interested in synchrotron radiation and highlighted subjects relevant to molecular environmental science (MES). The strong mutual interest between the participants resulted in joint sessions on the first day, followed by more specialized parallel sessions on the second day. Held in conjunction with the Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) Users' Association Annual Meeting at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the Synchrotron Radiation Research Theory Network (SRRTNet) workshop was co-organized by Michel Van Hove (Berkeley Lab and University of California, Davis) and Andrew Canning (Berkeley Lab), while David Shuh (Berkeley Lab) organized the <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-MES workshop. SRRTNet is a global network that promotes the interaction of theory and experiment (http://www.cse.clrc.ac.uk/Activity/SRRTnet). The <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-MES project is constructing Beamline 11.0.2.1-2, a new soft x-ray beamline for MES investigations at photon energies from 75 eV to 2 keV, to provide photons for wet spectroscopy end stations and an upgraded scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). The <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-MES beamline and end stations will be available for users in the late fall of 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030513"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical epidemiology of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> in Liguria, Italy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bandettini di Poggio, Monica; Sormani, Maria Pia; Truffelli, Romina; Mandich, Paola; Origone, Paola; Verdiani, Simonetta; Mantero, Vittorio; Scialò, Carlo; Schenone, Angelo; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Caponnetto, Claudia</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Our objective was to assess the incidence and trends of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) in Liguria, a north-west region of Italy, utilizing a prospective design. Liguria (1,615,064 residents in 2010) is the site of a multicentre-multisource prospective population based registry called LIGALS (Liguria Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Registry). All incident <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cases during the period 2009-2010 were enrolled and followed up. Cases were identified using several concurrent sources. <span class="hlt">ALS</span> diagnosis was based on the revised El Escorial criteria. One hundred and four cases were enrolled, generating an annual crude incidence of 3.22/100,000 (95% CI 2.66-3.90), with a male/female ratio of 1.34. The annual standardized incidence, age and gender adjusted to the 2001 Italian population, was 2.51. At last observation on 1 March 2012, 45% of patients registered in the LIGALS had died, with a median survival of 45 months from symptoms onset. According to capture-recapture estimation, three patients were unobserved. For both genders, demographic and clinical features were collected. In conclusion, comparing these data to those of epidemiological studies with a similar prospective design, the occurrence of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is similar. The observed crude incidence was higher compared to other Italian studies, due in part to a very careful case ascertainment and in part to a high percentage of the elderly in Liguria. PMID:23030513</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994HyInt..83..327M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994HyInt..83..327M"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal mixing of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, M.; Mendoza Zélis, L.; Sánchez, F. H.; Traverse, A.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe multilayers have been mixed by thermal treatment and their evolution followed by conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The initial and final states have been characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The results are compared with those previously obtained in the ion beam mixing of similar systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=track+AND+field&pg=7&id=EJ1019783','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=track+AND+field&pg=7&id=EJ1019783"><span id="translatedtitle">Hughes et <span class="hlt">al</span>.: Science or Promotion?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Loman, L. Anthony; Siegel, Gary L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Hughes et <span class="hlt">al</span>. paper is critiqued generally and in specific areas. The weak nature of the authors' empirical work is discussed along with their enigmatic writing and vague and incorrect use of references, and their simultaneous use of sweeping statements of opinion and narrow analytical focus. This review examines the authors' errors…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503734','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503734"><span id="translatedtitle">Bierman {ital et <span class="hlt">al</span>.}Reply:</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>reply to the Comment by C.H.Dasso et <span class="hlt">al</span>., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,XXX(1997). A Reply to the Comment by C.H. Dasso and J. Fern{acute a}ndez-Niello. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNuM..452..197L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNuM..452..197L"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemical formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Tm intermetallics in eutectic LiCl-KCl melt containing Tm and <span class="hlt">Al</span> ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xing; Yan, Yong-De; Zhang, Mi-Lin; Tang, Hao; Ji, De-Bin; Han, Wei; Xue, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Jian</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>This work focuses on investigating the electrochemical formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Tm and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li-Tm alloys in LiCl-KCl-<span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3-Tm2O3 melt on both W and <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrodes. Thermodynamic calculation and electrochemical behavior of LiCl-KCl melt containing both <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3 and Tm2O3 showed that <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3 can chlorinate Tm2O3 to release Tm(III) ions. Three kinds of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Tm intermetallics at about -1.26, -1.32 and -1.43 V were detected by means of various electrochemical measurement techniques, i.e. cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. Potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis were carried out on <span class="hlt">Al</span> and W electrodes to prepare <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Tm and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li-Tm alloys, respectively. The composition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li-Tm alloys was analyzed by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..317..140C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApSS..317..140C"><span id="translatedtitle">Wetting of polycrystalline SiC by molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cong, Xiao-Shuang; Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Qichuan</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The wetting of α-SiC by molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum. In the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-SiC system, representative wetting stages were identified. The liquid spreading was initially controlled by the deoxidation of the SiC surface and then by the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 at the interface. The intrinsic contact angle for molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the polycrystalline α-SiC surface was suggested to be lower than 90̊ provided that the oxide films covering the <span class="hlt">Al</span> and SiC surfaces were removed, i.e., the system is partial wetting in nature. An increase in the Si concentration in liquid <span class="hlt">Al</span> weakened the interfacial reaction but improved the final wettability. The role of the Si addition on the wetting was presumably attributed to its segregation at the interface and the formation of strong chemical bonds with the SiC surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237777"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of speciation transformation on the coagulation behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) aggregates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Xiaohong; Ye, Changqing; Wang, Dongsheng; Ge, Xiaopeng; Tang, Hongxiao</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Flocculation of kaolin suspension with aluminium fractal polycations was investigated as a function of aluminium concentration and pH. Aluminium flocculants included <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) aggregates with OH/<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio of 2.6 and 2.8, respectively. The flocculation kinetics and floc size distribution were monitored by light scattering. The characterization of flocculants showed that the tridecatmer <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and bridged [<span class="hlt">Al</span>(13)](n) with out-sphere structure were the dominant species for all flocculants in a wide pH range. The coagulation results indicated that the pre and in situ-formed [<span class="hlt">Al</span>(13)](n) play a key role in removing particles. With the increasing concentration of [<span class="hlt">Al</span>(13)](n), coagulation mechanisms were transformed from charge-neutralization, electro-patch coagulation to bridge-aggregation. Moreover, sweep-flocculation was involved at higher dosage besides other three mechanisms when amorphous aluminium oxides formed. Hence, chemical interaction between particles and flocculants evolved from surface adsorption to surface precipitation for aluminium polycations by virtue of species transformation. PMID:19237777</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21175660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21175660"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron irradiation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN heterojunctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Markov, A. V.; Pearton, S. J.; Dabiran, A. M.; Wowchak, A. M.; Cui, B.; Osinsky, A. V.; Chow, P. P.; Kolin, N. G.; Boiko, V. M.; Merkurisov, D. I.</p> <p>2008-10-13</p> <p>The effects of 10 MeV electron irradiation on <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. The irradiation increases the resistivity of the GaN buffer due to compensation by radiation defects with levels near E{sub c}-1 eV and decreases the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) near the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN (or <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN) interface. The bulk carrier removal rate in the GaN buffer is the same for both types of structures and similar to carrier removal rates for undoped n-GaN films. In structures with a density of residual donors of {approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, irradiation with electron doses of {approx}5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} renders the buffer semi-insulating. The 50% degradation of the 2DEG conductivity happens at several times higher doses (close to 3x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} versus 6.5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}) for <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN than for <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN structures, most likely because of the lower thickness of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N barrier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JNET...26..125F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JNET...26..125F"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoelectric Powers of Cells With NaF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flem, Belinda E.; Xu, Qian; Kjelstrup, Signe; Sterten, Åsmund</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>A thermodynamic description of the Peltier heat at the aluminum and the oxygen electrode in the system NaF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 is given. The thermoelectric power in melts with molar ratios <italic>n</italic> NaF/<italic>n</italic> <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 from 3.0 to 1.0, saturated with alumina are measured. Seebeck coefficients for molten fluoride electrolytes saturated with alumina, electrolytes that are relevant for aluminum electrowinning electrolysis cells, are reported. The results allow determinations of Peltier heats of aluminum, oxygen and carbon electrodes in NaF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 electrolytes saturated with alumina. For molar ratios of <italic>n</italic> NaF/<italic>n</italic> <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 between 2.6 and 1.2, there is a Peltier heating of the aluminum cathode. This heating is in the same order of magnitude as the electrolyte Joule heat, when the current density is 0.7 A cm-2. For molar ratio <italic>n</italic> NaF/<italic>n</italic> <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 equal to 1.0 the Peltier effect at the aluminum electrode approaches zero. From theoretical considerations we expect a drop also for molar ratio 3.0. For the anode we report a Peltier cooling that is larger than the heat produced by the anodic overvoltage, in melts with NaF/<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 molar ratio between 2.6 and 1.2 saturated with alumina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JaJAP..45.3176N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JaJAP..45.3176N"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-volatile <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Memory using Nanoscale <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Thin Film as a Charge Storage Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakata, Shunji; Saito, Kunio; Shimada, Masaru</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>This article describes the fabrication process and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a new non-volatile <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 memory with nanoscale thin film deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 shows characteristics somewhere between <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 in the refractive index and wet etching rate. C-V characteristics of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 memory show a large hysteresis window due to the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich structure, while there is no hysteresis window in the case of stoichiometric <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. This memory is expected to stay non-volatile for several years or more because the capacitance value after writing and erasing operation remained almost unchanged after 4 h at T=85 C. Also, another new memory structure comprising SiO2/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 structure is proposed, which features increased mobility due to the reduction of electron scattering at the Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880027"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Al</span>-inducible MATE gene is involved in external detoxification of <span class="hlt">Al</span> in rice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yokosho, Kengo; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A number of plant species, including rice, secretes citrate from roots in response to <span class="hlt">Al</span> stress. Here we characterized the functions of a gene, OsFRDL4 (Os01g0919100) that belongs to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family in rice (Oryza sativa). Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocyte showed that the OsFRDL4 protein was able to transport citrate and was activated by <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The expression level of the OsFRDL4 gene in roots was very low in the absence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, but was greatly enhanced by <span class="hlt">Al</span> after short exposure. Furthermore, the OsFRDL4 expression was regulated by ART1, a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor for <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance. Transient expression of OsFRDL4 in onion epidermal cells showed that it localized to the plasma membrane. Immunostaining showed that OsFRDL4 was localized in all cells in the root tip. These expression patterns and cell specificity of localization of OsFRDL4 are different from other MATE members identified previously. Knockout of OsFRDL4 resulted in decreased <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance and decreased citrate secretion compared with the wild-type rice, but did not affect citrate concentration in the xylem sap. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between OsFRDL4 expression level and the amount of citrate secretion in rice cultivars that are differing in <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance. Taken together, our results show that OsFRDL4 is an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-induced citrate transporter localized at the plasma membrane of rice root cells and is one of the components of high <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance in rice. PMID:21880027</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587753','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587753"><span id="translatedtitle">An Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Gharbi, Libya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; El-Mabrouk, Khamis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its <span class="hlt">Al</span>-jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at <span class="hlt">Al</span>-jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at <span class="hlt">Al</span>-jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed. PMID:23467624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GeCoA..56.3831F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GeCoA..56.3831F"><span id="translatedtitle">The formation of polynuclear <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 under simulated natural conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furrer, Gerhard; Trusch, Bernhard; Mller, Christian</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Polynuclear aluminum species can be formed in nature by the dissolution of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing minerals, as a consequence of soil and surface water acidification, followed by neutralization processes. Under simulated natural conditions in the laboratory, i.e., by allowing acidic <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) solutions to flow over granulated marble at flow velocities of 3-4 mm/min, large fractions of monomeric <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) were transformed to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13O 4(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ polymer (thereafter referred to as <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 or <span class="hlt">Al</span> 137+), which was measured by 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>-NMR spectroscopy. Over two-thirds of the monomeric <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) was converted to polynuclear <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 even when gibbsite particles were mixed with the marble granules. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 polymer was also formed in stirred batch experiments containing marble granules and dissolved phthalate or salicylate. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13formation is easily possible in nature if the total <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) concentration is high enough. In these experiments, <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 was detected when the total dissolved <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) was 1.9 10 -4 mol/L. The minimum total <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) concentration required to produce <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13, which can be predicted from available thermodynamic data, is on the order of 10 -5mol/L.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7286075','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7286075"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of the structure of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(331) stepped surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, J.S.; Feibelman, P.J. )</p> <p>1992-04-06</p> <p>Car-Parinello-like calculations have been used to compute the relaxation of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(331) surface, with results that are in remarkable agreement with the low-energy electron-diffraction analysis of Adams and So( )renson. Rapid screening of the steps on <span class="hlt">Al</span>(331) is illustrated by comparing its charge density and relaxations to those of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(110) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(111).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MMTA...40.2919K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MMTA...40.2919K"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffusion of Au in the Intermetallic Compound Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koizumi, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Minamino, Y.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Au diffusion in the Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span> compound was investigated at six compositions from 25 to 35 at. pct <span class="hlt">Al</span> by using the diffusion couples (Ti- X at. pct <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti- X at. pct <span class="hlt">Al</span>-2 at. pct Au; X = 25, 27, 29, 31, 32, and 35) at 1273 to 1423 K. The diffusion coefficients of Au in Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span> left( {D_{text{Au}}^{{{text{Ti}}3 {text{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}}}} } right) are relatively close to those of Ti. The {D}_{text{Au}}^{{{text{Ti}}3 {text{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}}}} {text{s}} slightly increase with <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentration within the same order of magnitude. The activation energies of Au diffusion, Q_{text{Au}}^{{{text{Ti}}3 {text{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}}}} {text{s}}, evaluated from the Arrhenius plots were relatively close to those of Ti diffusion, Q_{text{Ti}}^{{{text{Ti}}3 {text{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}}}} {text{s}}, rather than those of <span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion, {Q}_{text{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}}^{{{text{Ti}}3 {text{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}}}} {text{s}}; therefore, it was suggested that Au atoms diffuse by the sublattice diffusion mechanism in which Au atoms substitute for Ti sites preferentially in Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span> and diffuse by vacancy mechanism on Ti sublattice. The influence of the D019 ordered structure (hcp base) of Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span> on diffusion of Au and other elements is discussed by comparing the diffusivities in Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span> and α-Ti.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27123890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27123890"><span id="translatedtitle">Announcement: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) Awareness Month - May 2016.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>May is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) Awareness Month. <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons. The cause of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is not known, and no cure exists. Persons with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> usually die within 2-5 years of diagnosis. PMID:27123890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJTP...50.2790H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJTP...50.2790H"><span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting Deng et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chun-Wei; Li, Chuan-Ming</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol [Deng et <span class="hlt">al</span>. in Chin. Phys. Lett. 23: 1084-1087, 2006] is revisited in this study. It is found that the performance of Deng et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> protocol can be much improved by using the techniques of block-transmission and decoy single photons. As a result, the qubit efficiency is improved 2.4 times and only one classical communication, a public discussion, and two quantum communications between each agent and the secret holder are needed rather than n classical communications, n public discussions, and 3n/2 quantum communications required in the original scheme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772671"><span id="translatedtitle">A 25-year replication of Katz et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> (1988) metaphor norms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campbell, Spencer J; Raney, Gary E</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Research in metaphor processing has made extensive use of the normed metaphor database created by Katz, Paivio, Marschark, & Clark (Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 3, 191-214, 1988). Because of the plasticity of figurative language, we conducted a renorming of selected metaphors from the database on a new student population. Correlations between Katz et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> and the present data showed that the pattern of responses has remained highly consistent across time and populations. The consistency of the normative ratings allows us to be confident in future research that will use the Katz et <span class="hlt">al</span>. collection. PMID:25772671</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMMM..387...72M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMMM..387...72M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ferromagnetic ordering in Np<span class="hlt">Al</span>2: Magnetic susceptibility and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclear magnetic resonance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martel, L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Selfslag, C.; Colineau, E.; Caciuffo, R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We report on the magnetic properties of the neptunium based ferromagnetic compound Np<span class="hlt">Al</span>2. We used magnetization measurements and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR spectroscopy to access magnetic features related to the paramagnetic and ordered states (TC=56 K). While very precise DC SQUID magnetization measurements confirm ferromagnetic ordering, they show a relatively small hysteresis loop at 5 K reduced with a coercive field HCo~3000 Oe. The variable offset cumulative spectra (VOCS) acquired in the paramagnetic state show a high sensitivity of the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclei spectral parameters (Knight shifts and line broadening) to the ferromagnetic ordering, even at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB...46..485V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB...46..485V"><span id="translatedtitle">Density of Low-Temperature KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 Aluminum Baths with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4 Additives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasková, Zuzana; Kontrík, Martin; Mlynáriková, Jarmila; Boča, Miroslav</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The density of the KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 melts of various KF and <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 ratio with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4 addition has been measured using the Archimedean method. On the basis of the obtained density data the molar volumes of the melts were calculated. These molar volumes decrease with concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 or <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4. In the system containing <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4, the relation between cryolite ratios (CRs) vs slopes of molar volume trend lines was identified with excellent correlation factor of R 2 = 0.9844, while in the system containing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 a discontinuity at CR = 2.5 can be observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhRvB..32.5525K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhRvB..32.5525K"><span id="translatedtitle">Core-excitonic lines at the <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2p surface optical-absorption threshold of <span class="hlt">Al</span>As and <span class="hlt">Al</span>P</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kelly, M. K.; Niles, D. W.; Perfetti, P.; Colavita, E.; Savoia, A.; Margaritondo, G.; Henzler, M.</p> <p>1985-10-01</p> <p>The optical-absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">Al</span>As and <span class="hlt">Al</span>P exhibit unusual features-strong <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2p core-excitonic lines. The data were obtained with synchrotron-radiation photoemission in the partial-yield mode. The analysis was based on the approach proposed by Johnson, Fock, Ley, and Cardona for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb and on Onodera and Toyozawa's exciton theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=193650','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=193650"><span id="translatedtitle">TRANSCRIPTIONAL ANALYSIS BETWEEN TWO WHEAT NEAR-ISOGENIC LINES CONTRASTING IN ALUMINUM (<span class="hlt">AL</span>) TOLERANCE UNDER <span class="hlt">AL</span> STRESS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To understand the mechanisms of aluminum (<span class="hlt">Al</span>) tolerance and identify genes responsible for <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from <span class="hlt">Al</span>-stressed roots for two wheat near- isogenic lines (NILs), Chisholm-T (<span class="hlt">Al</span>-tolerant) a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20971833','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20971833"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Si on the <span class="hlt">Al</span> behavior in the reaction layer of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/UMo diffusion couples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garces, Jorge E.; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Hofman, Gerard; Rest, Jeffrey</p> <p>2007-02-12</p> <p>The basic experimental features characterizing the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si/U-Mo interface are identified in this atomistic modeling effort, such as the formation of interfacial compounds, Si depletion in the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix near the interface, reduced <span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion in the UMo solid solution, and the interaction between Mo and Si which inhibits <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Si diffusion to the UMo bulk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17654976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17654976"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis and characterization of <span class="hlt">Al-Zn/Al</span>2O3 nano-powder composites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Durai, T G; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Composites consisting of <span class="hlt">Al-Zn/Al</span>2O3 have been synthesized using high energy mechanical milling. High energy ball milling increases the sintering rate of the composite powder due to increased diffusion rate. Owing to the finer microstructure, the hardness of the sintered composite produced by using the mechanically milled nanocomposite powder is significantly higher than that of the sintered composite produced by using the as-mixed powder. The mean crystallite size of the matrix has been determined to be 27 nm by Scherrer equation using X-ray diffraction data. The powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The effect of high-energy ball milling and subsequent annealing on a mixture of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and ZnO has also been investigated. DTA result show that the reaction temperature of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-ZnO decreases with the increase in the ball milling time. PMID:17654976</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1007835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1007835"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in the Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span> system and Intrinsic Diffusion in (<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Mg2) Phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Sohn, Yong Ho</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Increasing use and development of lightweight Mg-alloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As a strengthening component, <span class="hlt">Al</span> is one of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple techniques were employed to examine the interdiffusion between pure Mg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>. Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to observe the formation of the intermetallics -<span class="hlt">Al</span>12Mg17 and -<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Mg2, but not -phase. Concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The growth constants and activation energies were determined for each intermetallic phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311190','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311190"><span id="translatedtitle">Local stress-induced effects on <span class="hlt">AlGaAs/Al</span>Ox oxidation front shape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chouchane, F.; Almuneau, G. Arnoult, A.; Lacoste, G.; Fontaine, C.; Cherkashin, N.</p> <p>2014-07-28</p> <p>The lateral oxidation of thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs layers (>500 nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ox confinement layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720050230&hterms=Rechargeable+Batteries&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRechargeable%2BBatteries','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720050230&hterms=Rechargeable+Batteries&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRechargeable%2BBatteries"><span id="translatedtitle">Rechargeable <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Cl2 battery with molten <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl4/-/ electrolyte.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A molten salt system based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the <span class="hlt">Al</span> anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863724','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863724"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonstatistical fluctuations for deep inelastic processes in {sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span>+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berceanu, I.; Duma, M.; Moisa, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pop, A.; Simion, V.; Zoppo, A. Del; D'Erasmo, G.; Imme, G.; Lanzano, G.; Pagano, A.; Pantaleo, A.; Raciti, G.</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>The excitation functions (EFs) for different fragments produced in the {sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span>+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> dissipative collisions have been measured in steps of 250 keV in the incident energy range 122-132 MeV. Deep inelastic processes have been selected by integrating events on a total kinetic energy loss window of 12 MeV between 20 and 32 MeV. Large fluctuations are observed in all the studied EFs. Large-channel cross-correlation coefficients confirm the nonstatistical origin of these fluctuations. The energy autocorrelation function (EAF) shows damped oscillation structure as expected when a dinuclear system with a lifetime [{tau}=(5.1{+-}2.1){center_dot}10{sup -21}s], similar with its revolution period (T=4.9{center_dot}10{sup -21}sec), is formed. From the periodicity of the EAF oscillations, information on the deformation of the {sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span>+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> dinucleus is inferred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930070119&hterms=fgm+materials&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfgm%2Bmaterials','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930070119&hterms=fgm+materials&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfgm%2Bmaterials"><span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication and properties of functionally graded Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, D. P.; Lannutti, J. J.; Noebe, R. D.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A modified sedimentation process was used in the production of a functionally gradient material (FGM), Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3. A simple finite element model was used to guide our design and fabrication efforts by estimating residual stress states as a function of composite structure. This approach could lead to tailored designs that enhance or avoid specific residual stress states. Thermal cycling tests were factored into the model to predict time dependent or steady-state internal temperature and stress profiles. Four-point bend tests were conducted to establish the mechanical load-displacement behavior of a single interlayer FGM at room temperature, 800 and 1000 K. Room temperature bend strength of the FGM was 3-4 times that of the base Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. At elevated temperatures, composite fracture occurred in a gradual, noncatastrophic mode involving Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> retardation of a succession of cracks originating in the alumina face.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21054813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21054813"><span id="translatedtitle">Fusion cross sections for the 6,7Li+27<span class="hlt">Al</span>, 9Be+27<span class="hlt">Al</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barbara, E. de; Marti, G. V.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Figueira, J. M.; Pacheco, A. J.; Ramirez, M.; Rodriguez, M. D.; Testoni, J. E.; Verruno, M.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P. R. S.</p> <p>2007-02-12</p> <p>We present the results of total fusion cross sections measurements for the 6,7Li + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>, 9Be + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>, systems at energies above and below the Coulomb barrier (0.8Vb {<=} E {<=} 2.0Vb). The experimental evidence at the measured energy regime show that the total fusion cross sections of 6Li and 9Be with a light mass target are not affected by the break-up process. The elastic break up cross sections for the 6Li + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> system were also measured and the results are being presented in this issue. The data for the 7Li + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> system are still being analyzed and therefore these results should be considered preliminary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025087"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Si<span class="hlt">Al</span>ON materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Layden, G. K.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic test specimens in which the major phase was either Si3N4 or a solid solution having the beta Si3N4 structure. Additional components were incorporated to promote liquid phase sintering. Glass and/or crystalline phase were consequently retained in boundaries between Si3N4 grains which largely determined the physical properties of the bodies. Systems investigated most extensively included R-Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-N (R = rare earth element) Zr-Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-N, Y-Si-Be-O-N, and R1-R2-Si-O-N. Room temperature and 1370 C modulus of ruptured, 1370 C creep, and oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of phase relationships in a parent quinery, and relavent oxide systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001590','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001590"><span id="translatedtitle">The mechanical properties of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, I.; George, E.P.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for binary Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large equilibrium vacancy concentrations that exist in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> at high temperature are easily retained during cooling, and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that room-temperature ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. The purpose of this paper is to highlight their understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed from the discovery of the above two effects. 94 refs., 8 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16523990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16523990"><span id="translatedtitle">[Symptomatic management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Czaplinski, A; Schweikert, K; Strobel, W; Steck, A J; Weber, M</p> <p>2006-02-22</p> <p>Although disease-specific treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is still unsatisfactory, a number of advances have been made in the symptomatic therapy of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients within the last decade. Current data suggest that active and aggressive multidisciplinary management of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients improve their quality of life and prolong their survival. Patient and caregiver communications and decisions are increasingly recognized to be a relevant part of this management. A wide range of supportive and palliative measures, in particular the widely use of symptomatic drugs for pseudobulbar affect, sialorrhea, and sleep disorders is available to relieve patients symptomatology. In addition, patients quality of life has been profoundly improved by the introduction of enteral nutrition and non-invasive ventilation. PMID:16523990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292005"><span id="translatedtitle">[Communication with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients: neurosurgical approach].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Sawada, Jin-Ichi; Hazama, Takanori; Mochizuki, Hideki; Hirata, Masayuki</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>By progression of the disease, motor neurons degenerate in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) eventually lose nearly all voluntary muscles in the body. They are awake and aware but cannot move or communicate (locked-in state). Since the function of the brain is preserved, one possible measure to support their communication is to interpret their motor intention by decoding (deciphering) brain signals and present it with external devices. This technology called "brain-machine interface (BMI)" is now close to clinical use in Japan and USA.In our system, we record electrocorticogram (ECoG) obtained with subudural electrodes during their motor imagery, decode it and determine the movement they intended. So far, one patient of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> with severe paralysis, implanted with this electrodes, successfully operated the PC communication tool only by thinking. PMID:24292005</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3096454','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3096454"><span id="translatedtitle">Communication Support for People with <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beukelman, David; Fager, Susan; Nordness, Amy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 95% of people with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention; therefore, appropriate timing of referral for AAC assessment and intervention continues to be a most important clinical decision-making issue. AAC acceptance and use have increased considerably during the past decade. Many people use AAC until within a few weeks of their deaths. PMID:21603029</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...61a2005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...61a2005A"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress evolution during ultrasonic <span class="hlt">Al</span> ribbon bonding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ando, Masaya; Takashima, Kazumasa; Maeda, Masakatsu; Takahashi, Yasuo</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The present study reveals the stress distribution in the substrate during ultrasonic bonding. The deformations of the Si substrate, <span class="hlt">Al</span> ribbon, and <span class="hlt">Al</span> pad were numerically analyzed using a finite element method. Experimental observation of the interface using a highspeed video camera was also conducted to determine the actual interfacial slip amplitude. This amplitude becomes smaller than that of tool-tip with bonding time. It was suggested from the numerical simulations that frictional adhesion enhanced the friction force, resulting in an increase in the equivalent stress in the ribbon and pad. As a result, very large stresses occur in the substrate during ultrasonic bonding. These stresses evolve with the progress of ultrasonic bonding, i.e., frictional adhesion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179461','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10179461"><span id="translatedtitle">Forging of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L.; Schneibel, J.H.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1051528.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1051528.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Indigenous Students' Attitudes towards Learning English through a Virtual Program: A Study in a Colombian Public University (Actitudes de estudiantes indígenas <span class="hlt">frente</span> <span class="hlt">al</span> aprendizaje de inglés a través de un programa virtual: un estudio en una universidad pública colombiana)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cuasialpud Canchala, Ruth Elena</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article reports an exploratory study carried out at a public university in Bogotá, Colombia, with two indigenous students who took a level I virtual English-course during the second term of 2008 and the first term of 2009. The aim was to analyse their attitudes towards the learning of English through the virtual modality. Interviews,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RuMet2013..633L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RuMet2013..633L"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aluminothermic smelting of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr-Mo-Sn alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larionov, A. V.; Chumarev, V. M.; Udoeva, L. Yu.; Mansurova, A. N.; Rylov, A. N.; Raikov, A. Yu.; Aleshin, A. P.; Trubachev, M. V.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Aluminothermic smelting of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr-Mo-Sn alloys has been simulated in terms of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties of molybdenum and zirconium intermetallic compounds are calculated. It is demonstrated that, with consideration for their formation, the calculated compositions of aluminothermic blends and the forecasted extraction of target metals into an alloy are in good agreement with the data obtained during pilot tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11207932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11207932"><span id="translatedtitle">Transmission electron microscopy studies of squeeze cast <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chdru, M.; Vicens, J.; Chermant, J. L.; Mordike, B. L.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>Aluminium-matrix composites containing approximately 45 vol.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles were fabricated by melt infiltration of aluminium into an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N preform under a pressure up to 130 MPa. Three types of aluminium alloy (2024, 6060 and 5754) were used. The as-prepared composites were studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result of the melt infiltration process, the composites are very dense and the microstructure shows a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement. The interfaces are clean with very little porosity. Composites with 2024 and 6060 matrices were carefully studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) after heat treatments. Dislocation density in the matrix of the reinforced material increases due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of aluminium alloys and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. This can induce an accelerated ageing response of the coherent and semicoherent precipitations of age-hardened matrices. This behaviour has been studied in the 2024 and 6060 composites by using microhardness measurements and TEM. Reactions between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N reinforcement and aluminium matrices (6060 and 5754) were observed and analysed by TEM. Matrices containing some of magnesium display a Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 spinel formation at the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/matrix interface. The spinel formation is probably due to the reaction between magnesium of the matrix and the thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 layer on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N surfaces. This reaction can affect the mechanical behaviour of the composite infiltrated with the 5754 matrix. This has been confirmed by overageing some samples at high temperatures (300 degrees C and 550 degrees C) for 10 days in order to emphasize the interfacial reactions. PMID:11207932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27232539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27232539"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">Al</span>30 in commercial poly-aluminum chlorohydrate by solid-state (27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phillips, Brian L; Vaughn, John S; Smart, Scott; Pan, Long</p> <p>2016-08-15</p> <p>Investigation of commercially produced hydrolysis salts of aluminum by solid-state (27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) reveals well-defined and distinct <span class="hlt">Al</span> environments that can be related to physicochemical properties. (27)<span class="hlt">Al</span> MAS and MQ-MAS NMR spectroscopic data show that the local structure of the solids is dominated by moieties that closely resemble the <span class="hlt">Al</span>30 polyoxocation (<span class="hlt">Al</span>30O8(OH)56(H2O)26(18+)), accounting for 72-85% of the total <span class="hlt">Al</span>. These <span class="hlt">Al</span>30-like clusters elute as several size fractions by SEC. Comparison of the SEC and NMR results indicates that the <span class="hlt">Al</span>30-like clusters includes intact isolated clusters, moieties of larger polymers or aggregates, and possibly fragments resembling δ-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 Keggin clusters. The coagulation efficacy of the solids appears to correlate best with the abundance of intact <span class="hlt">Al</span>30-like clusters and of smaller species available to promote condensation reactions. PMID:27232539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409689"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on the hydrolysis/precipitation behavior of Keggin <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>30 polymers in polyaluminum solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Zhaoyang; Luan, Zhaokun; Jia, Zhiping; Li, Xiaosen</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The hydrolysis/precipitation behaviors of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+), <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(30) under conditions typical for flocculation in water treatment were investigated by studying the particulates' size development, charge characteristics, chemical species and speciation transformation of coagulant hydrolysis precipitates. The optimal pH conditions for hydrolysis precipitates formation for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3), PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) and PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) were 6.5-7.5, 8.5-9.5, and 7.5-9.5, respectively. The precipitates' formation rate increased with the increase in dosage, and the relative rates were <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3)>PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30)>PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13). The precipitates' size increased when the dosage increased from 50 microM to 200 microM, but it decreased when the dosage increased to 800 microM. The Zeta potential of coagulant hydrolysis precipitates decreased with the increase in pH for the three coagulants. The iso-electric points of the freshly formed precipitates for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3), PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) and PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) were 7.3, 9.6 and 9.2, respectively. The Zeta potentials of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) hydrolysis precipitates were lower than those of PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) and PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) when pH>5.0. The Zeta potential of PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) hydrolysis precipitates was higher than that of PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) at the acidic side, but lower at the alkaline side. The dosage had no obvious effect on the Zeta potential of hydrolysis precipitates under fixed pH conditions. The increase in Zeta potential with the increase in dosage under uncontrolled pH conditions was due to the pH depression caused by coagulant addition. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ferron research indicated that the hydrolysis precipitates of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) were composed of amorphous <span class="hlt">Al</span>(OH)(3) precipitates, but those of PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) and PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) were composed of aggregates of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(30), respectively. <span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+) was the most un-stable species in coagulants, and its hydrolysis was remarkably influenced by solution pH. <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(30) species were very stable, and solution pH and aging had little effect on the chemical species of their hydrolysis products. The research method involving coagulant hydrolysis precipitates based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ferron reaction kinetics was studied in detail. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> species classification based on complex reaction kinetic of hydrolysis precipitates and Ferron reagent was different from that measured in a conventional coagulant assay using the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ferron method. The chemical composition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(a), <span class="hlt">Al</span>(b) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(c) depended on coagulant and solution pH. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>(b) measured in the current case was different from Keggin <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13), and the high <span class="hlt">Al</span>(b) content in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) hydrolysis precipitates could not used as testimony that most of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+) was converted to highly charged <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) species during <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) coagulation. PMID:19409689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568392','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568392"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychosocial adjustment to <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: a longitudinal study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:26441696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5197016','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5197016"><span id="translatedtitle">Commissioning experiences of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> booster synchrotron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, C.</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Installation of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> booster synchrotron proper was completed on April 30, 1991, and commissioning has just begun. Circulating beam around the booster was observed on the first day of operation, May 3, 1991. The beam was visible for about 400 turns. In this paper we describe the status and commissioning experience of the 1.5-GeV electron synchrotron accelerator. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=23345638&dopt=AbstractPlus','TOXNETTOXLINE'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=23345638&dopt=AbstractPlus"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> dysphagia pathophysiology: differential botulinum toxin response.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?TOXLINE">TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information</a></p> <p>Restivo DA; Casabona A; Nicotra A; Zappia M; Elia M; Romano MC; Alfonsi E; Marchese-Ragona R</p> <p>2013-02-12</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: This study looked at the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoTox-A) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) with dysphagia due to isolated upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement or combined UMN/lower motor neuron (LMN) impairment associated with oral phase or oropharyngeal muscles involvement. Establishing whether different pathophysiologic mechanisms underlie different responses to BoTox-A treatment may have important implications for patient management.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We screened 35 patients with sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> with dysphagia and included in the study 20 out of 35 with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) hyperactivity. We divided these 20 patients into 2 groups, based on the presence or absence of LMN impairment. Irrespective of the groups, we treated all 20 patients with BoTox-A injected into the UES. The study outcome was dysphagia severity scored using the Penetration/Aspiration Scale (PAS), measured before and 2, 4, and 20 weeks after injection.RESULTS: Significant mean PAS reduction was noted at weeks 2 and 4. The botulinum-dependent PAS reduction was entirely associated with the variability shown by the group of patients with no sign of LMN impairment (group 2) and was not observed in group 1.CONCLUSIONS: The significant improvement observed in patients with isolated UES dysfunction suggests that a different pathophysiology of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> dysphagia predisposes patients to a different response to treatment with BoTox-A. This treatment may represent an alternative treatment to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or prolong PEG-free time.CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that botulinum is more effective at 2 and 4 weeks in improving dysphagia in patients with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> with UES hyperactivity without LMN involvement (vs those with LMN involvement).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27046810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27046810"><span id="translatedtitle">Response to de la Iglesia et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yetish, Gandhi; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael; Wood, Brian; Pontzer, Herman; Manger, Paul R; Wilson, Charles; McGregor, Ronald; Siegel, Jerome M</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We wish to respond to the commentary of de la Iglesia et <span class="hlt">al</span>. [1]. Studies comparing sleep in different communities have different goals. One frequent goal has been to determine how sleep is affected by manipulating specific 'modern' conditions. Many studies have investigated the effect of artificial light and electronic entertainment. Such studies have clearly shown that light, particularly blue light, delays sleep onset [2]. Studying the effect of artificial light on sleep was not a goal of our study. PMID:27046810</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923240','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16923240"><span id="translatedtitle">Diet and dietetics in <span class="hlt">al</span>-Andalus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Huetos-Solano, Maria D; García-Lorda, Pilar; Bulló, Mònica</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Andalus society (711-1492) based its idea of health on the wisdom of Classical Greece, the Hippocratic-Galenic theories, as well as the Persian and Hindu cultures. The twelfth century in <span class="hlt">al</span>-Andalus is considered to be the most prolific period for works of a scientific and technical nature. At the time, the main treatises on dietetics were written and this science reached its widest expression with such leading figures as Ibn Wāfīd, Avenzoar, Averroes and Maimonides, whose works revealed the first scientific knowledge on the nutritional processes of the human body. Diet was regarded as being essential for health and the prevention of disease. Dietary guidelines were written for different age groups, different body types and different seasons of the year. The amount of food to be ingested, the number of meals recommended and the order in which the food should be consumed were all issues that were discussed. A variety of foods were thought to have medicinal properties, some of which are known today. The diet in <span class="hlt">al</span>-Andalus was varied and very probably made a substantial contribution to the origin of the present-day Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables, fish, lamb, poultry, nuts and spices. We also find that many of the terms in current use in diet and agriculture are a living testimony to the Arabic influence, as are many of the dishes of our varied Mediterranean gastronomy. PMID:16923240</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3515205','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3515205"><span id="translatedtitle">Prognostic factors in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: A critical review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chio, Adriano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Hardiman, Orla; Swingler, Robert; Mitchell, Douglas; Beghi, Ettore; Traynor, Bryan G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We have performed a systematic review to summarize current knowledge concerning factors related to survival in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and to evaluate the implications of these data for clinical trials design. The median survival time from onset to death ranges from 20 to 48 months, but 10–20% of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients have a survival longer than 10 years. Older age and bulbar onset are consistently reported to have a worse outcome. There are conflicting data on gender, diagnostic delay and El Escorial criteria. The rate of symptom progression was revealed to be an independent prognostic factor. Psychosocial factors, FTD, nutritional status, and respiratory function are also related to <span class="hlt">ALS</span> outcome. The effect of enteral nutrition on survival is still unclear, while NIPPV has been found to improve survival. There are no well established biological markers of progression, although some are likely to emerge in the near future. These findings have relevant implications for the design of future trials. Randomization, besides the type of onset, should take into account age, respiratory status at entry, and a measure of disease progression pre-entry. Alternative trial designs can include the use of natural history controls, the so-called minimization method for treatment allocation, and the futility approach. PMID:19922118</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11732280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11732280"><span id="translatedtitle">[Symptomatic treatment and palliative care of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwieci?ski, H</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a neurodegenerative disease, affecting upper and lower motor neurons, which eventually progresses to respiratory deterioration and death in most of the patients. Only one drug, riluzole, has been approved for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. The drug has a benefit, prolonging life by 3-6 months, but the disease progresses inexorably, with no better quality of life. The fundamental role of medicine is sometimes to cure, but always to bring comfort. In current situation, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients need adequate palliative care more than anything else. Prognosis and treatment options should be discussed with the patient and the relatives, but full information about the prognosis may deprive the patient of hope. However, disclosure of the prognosis is necessary to obtain informed consent for management decisions such as tracheostomy and artificial ventilation. Nasal positive-pressure ventilation (BiPAP) is an alternative to tracheostomy, at least for some patients without advanced bulbar impairment. Nutritional status in patients who cannot swallow can be efficiently improved by a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. (PEG). PMID:11732280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21137056','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21137056"><span id="translatedtitle">Devitrification of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Y-Ni Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vasiliev, A. L.; Aindow, M.</p> <p>2008-04-10</p> <p>Crystallization of gas-atomized <span class="hlt">Al</span>-4.3Y-3.8Ni alloy powder during consolidation has been studied ex-situ in a transmission electron microscope using high-resolution lattice imaging together with the image simulations, selected-area diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry experiments. The as-atomized powder is predominantly amorphous but some particles others show evidence of decomposition. On the application of heat and pressure two types of decomposition product are formed initially; equiaxed nanoscale {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span> grains embedded in an amorphous matrix, and dendritic aluminum grains containing complex ordered structures. The ordered structures in the {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span> were identified as Guinier-Preston like zones: thin sheets of solute rich material parallel to {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} aluminum planes with ordered cubic symmetry. Amorphous and micro-crystalline phases are in between the aluminum-rich regions. The second and third stages of crystallization involve the conversion of these ordered phases and embryonic precipitates to the better-known binary and ternary compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..999..257V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AIPC..999..257V"><span id="translatedtitle">Devitrification of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Y-Ni Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasiliev, A. L.; Aindow, M.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Crystallization of gas-atomized <span class="hlt">Al</span>-4.3Y-3.8Ni alloy powder during consolidation has been studied ex-situ in a transmission electron microscope using high-resolution lattice imaging together with the image simulations, selected-area diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry experiments. The as-atomized powder is predominantly amorphous but some particles others show evidence of decomposition. On the application of heat and pressure two types of decomposition product are formed initially; equiaxed nanoscale α-<span class="hlt">Al</span> grains embedded in an amorphous matrix, and dendritic aluminum grains containing complex ordered structures. The ordered structures in the α-<span class="hlt">Al</span> were identified as Guinier-Preston like zones: thin sheets of solute rich material parallel to {100} and {110} aluminum planes with ordered cubic symmetry. Amorphous and micro-crystalline phases are in between the aluminum-rich regions. The second and third stages of crystallization involve the conversion of these ordered phases and embryonic precipitates to the better-known binary and ternary compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261715','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261715"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative wear study on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li/SiC composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Okumus, S. Cem Karslioglu, Ramazan Akbulut, Hatem</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (<span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090) alloy and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms{sup −1} and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109893"><span id="translatedtitle">Room temperature radiolytic synthesized Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O(2)-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(2)O(3) nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Colloidal Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O(2)-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(2)O(3) bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a (60)Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O(2)-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(2)O(3) nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O(2)-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(2)O(3) nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..NWS.B2009N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..NWS.B2009N"><span id="translatedtitle">Jump frequencies of tracer atoms on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-sites in <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Ba phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newhouse, Randal; Collins, Gary S.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Ba structure has two inequivalent <span class="hlt">Al</span> sites with collinear electric field gradients (EFGs) of unequal magnitude. Nuclear quadrupole interactions (NQIs) were measured at ^111In/Cd probe atoms in <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Ba, In4Ba and <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Eu phases using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC). The probes were found to occupy both <span class="hlt">Al</span>-type sites. At low temperature, two NQI frequencies were detected that, with increasing temperature, approached each other and merged at 400 C, above which only a single NQI was observed. This is attributed to rapid jumping of probe atoms between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-sites, leading to motional averaging of the EFGs. Merging occurs at the temperature for which the jump frequency equals the difference between static NQI frequencies. Since differences in static frequencies were all about 20 Mrad/s, we conclude that the jump frequencies equaled about 3 MHz at 400 C in each phase. This type of motional averaging differs from motional averaging through reorientation of EFGs observed in previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225901 (2004)]. This work was supported in part by the NSF under grant DMR 05-04843 (Metals Program).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3472785','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3472785"><span id="translatedtitle">Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Colloidal Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.1279P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.1279P"><span id="translatedtitle">Softening Kinetics in High <span class="hlt">Al</span> and High <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb-Microalloyed Steels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereda, B.; Aretxabaleta, Z.; López, B.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Double-hit torsion tests were performed in order to study the effect of high <span class="hlt">Al</span> levels (up to 2 wt.%) and Nb microalloying (up to 0.07 wt.%) on the static softening kinetics of 0.2%C-2%Mn steels. The addition of 1%<span class="hlt">Al</span> leads to a delay in the softening kinetics due to solute-drag effect, equivalent to that exerted by 0.027%Nb. For the 2%<span class="hlt">Al</span> steels, at temperatures below 1000 °C, γ → α phase transformation occurs after deformation, resulting in a larger retardation of the softening kinetics. At temperatures higher than 1000 °C, Nb in solid solution also contributes to the retardation of the static softening kinetics, and at lower temperatures NbC strain-induced precipitation leads to incomplete softening for the 1%<span class="hlt">Al</span> steel, and to a complex interaction between softening, phase transformation, and NbC strain-induced precipitation for the 2%<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb steels. The effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the static softening kinetics was quantified and introduced in a model developed in previous works for the prediction of the austenite microstructural evolution. In order to validate the results of the model, multipass torsion tests were carried out at conditions representative of hot strip and plate rolling mills. Model predictions show reasonable agreement with the results obtained at different deformation conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvB..54.8501K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvB..54.8501K"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic structure of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni3 alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovcs, Zs.; Kvr, L.; Weightman, P.; Varga, D.; Sanjins, R.; Plinks, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Adachi, H.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>Experimental <span class="hlt">Al</span> KL23V and Ni LMM Auger and high-resolution valence band XPS spectra of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni3 alloys are presented and compared to the corresponding spectra of pure metals. The spectra are interpreted in terms of the results of the discrete-variational (DV)-X? cluster MO model using atomic Auger transition probabilities. Good agreement has been obtained between the theory and experiment concerning the energy widths of the spectra. For <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni the total number of electrons at the Fermi level obtained from the calculations agrees better with the experimental value than those from previous calculations. In the case of the alloys, the calculated charge transfer is small (<0.4 electrons), playing only a minor role in the filling of the Ni d band. The hybridization between the Ni d and <span class="hlt">Al</span> s and p bands can be deduced from the reduction of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> s and p DOS at the Ni d resonance energy. Our results suggest that for these alloys the corresponding Auger matrix elements do not depend on the Auger transition energy. The Ni LMM spectra of the alloys demonstrate the localization of the Ni d band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.Q2004Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.Q2004Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Air Blast Characteristics for Laminate <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fan</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Air blast characteristics of laminate <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni composites were investigated in a 23 m3 closed chamber. 50 to 100 μm thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni or <span class="hlt">Al</span> foils were rolled to form a cylindrical shell, which was then compacted to a density larger than 99% TMD through an explosive formation technique. Charges were prepared using 2 kg C4 explosive packed in the laminate metal shell to a metal-explosive mass ratio of 1.75. Pressure and temperature were measured through transducers on the chamber wall and pyrometry sensors facing the charge center. The pressure history showed a double-shock front structure with an accelerating precursor shock of high amplitude followed by the primary blast, suggesting considerable early-time reaction of small laminate fragments. Significant enhanced explosion pressure (QSP) was observed as compared with baseline charges in solid shell. Recovered residue showed fragments in flakes with a considerable fraction in the molten. The pressure and temperature results are further analyzed to distinguish the reaction properties between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni (gasless reaction for them alone) and <span class="hlt">Al</span> laminates as well as their effect on air blast. The results are also compared with previous investigations using various shell materials and compositing techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JTST...18..536G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JTST...18..536G"><span id="translatedtitle">Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 Intermetallic-HVOF Coatings: Structure and Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guilemany, J. M.; Cinca, N.; Dosta, S.; Cano, I. G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Transition metal aluminides in their coating form are currently being explored in terms of resistance to oxidation and mechanical behavior. This interest in transition metal aluminides is mainly due to the fact that their high <span class="hlt">Al</span> content makes them attractive for high-temperature applications. This is also a reason to study their resistance to wear; they may be suitable for use in applications that produce a lot of wear in aggressive environments, thus replacing established coating materials. In this study, the microstructure, microhardness, and wear and oxidation performance of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 coatings produced by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying are evaluated with two main aims: (i) to compare these two coating systems—a commonly studied aluminide (Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>) and, Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3, an aluminide whose deposition by thermal spraying has not been attempted to date—and (ii) to analyze the relationship between their microstructure, composition and properties, and so clarify their wear and oxidation mechanisms. In the present study, the higher hardness of niobium aluminide coatings did not correlate with a higher wear resistance and, finally, although pesting phenomena (disintegration in oxidizing environments) were already known of in bulk niobium aluminides, here their behavior in the coating form is examined. It was shown that such accelerated oxidation was inevitable with respect to the better resistance of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>, but further improvements are foreseen by addition of alloying elements in that alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MS%26E...39a2010T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MS%26E...39a2010T"><span id="translatedtitle">Reactive HIPIMS with auxiliary <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrode for ZnO:<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin film deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiron, Vasile; Costin, Claudiu; Sirghi, Lucel; Popa, Gheorghe</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>In this paper a new technique is proposed for precise doping control of ZnO:<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin films deposited in reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS). An auxiliary aluminum electrode was added to a reactive Ar/O2 pulsed magnetron with planar Zn target in order to obtain a controlled doping of ZnO films. <span class="hlt">Al</span> neutral density in gas phase has been controlled by the discharge current and the biasing voltage on the auxiliary electrode (which influence the ion bombardment of the electrode) and measured by laser resonant absorption spectroscopy. The fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> dopant in the deposited films was estimated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The goal of this work was to correlate <span class="hlt">Al</span> density measured in the gas phase with <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentration in the deposited films. It was also investigated the effect of the aluminum concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO:<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin films deposited by HIPIMS. The internal microstructure and chemical composition of the deposited films was examined by X-ray difractometry (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of the deposited films were studied by UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717713"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ Absorption and Assimilation by Four Ectomycorrhizal Fungi].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ming-xia; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-guo; Zhou, Zhi-feng</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The present experiment was carried out in order to know the resistance mechanism of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi under <span class="hlt">Al</span> stress, to establish the theoretical foundation to alleviate the <span class="hlt">Al</span> toxicity of trees, to guide the selection of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-resisted ECM fungi and preserve forest health. The absorption and assimilation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ by four ECM fungi [Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt 715), Suillus luteus (Sl 08 and Sl 14), Gyroporus cyanescens (Gc 99)], which were isolated from different forest soils, were investigated in pure culture in liquid media. The growths of Pt 715 and Sl 08 were less affected by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+, but growths of S114 and Gc 99 were obviously inhibited by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+. With the increasing of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ concentration in culture, the absorption and assimilation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ by four ECM fungi increased. It indicated that the concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ in environments might be the primary factor determining the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ content in the cell of each tested fungi. Amounts of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ absorbed (in total or calculated in unit hyphae) by the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ tolerant strains (Pt 715 and Sl 08) were significantly lower than those by the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ sensitive strains (S1 14 and Gc 99), which illustrated that reducing the absorption of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ under <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ stress environment might be an effective approach to alleviate the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ poison for these <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ tolerant strains. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ stress could stimulate the ECM fungi to assimilate more N, P, and K, which might indicate that increasing requirement of the nutrients also could be helpful for ECM fungi to fight against the harmful effects caused by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ stress. PMID:26717713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021778','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021778"><span id="translatedtitle">Solidification Behavior of gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> Containing Alloys in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Copland, Evan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The chemical activities of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni in gamma(prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing systems were measured using the multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry technique (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K. From these measurements a better understanding of the equilibrium solidification behaviour of gamma(prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing alloys in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system was established. Specifically, these measurements revealed that (1) gamma(prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> forms via the peritectiod reaction, gamma + Beta (+ A12O3) = gamma (prime) (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K, (2) the {gamma + Beta + <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 through 1640 K, and (3) equilibrium solidification occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) = gamma + Beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> (at an unknown oxygen content). When projected onto the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> binary, this behaviour is inconsistent with the current Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7216E..21H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7216E..21H"><span id="translatedtitle">222-282 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN and In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality <span class="hlt">Al</span>N template</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirayama, Hideki; Noguchi, Norimichi; Fujikawa, Sachie; Norimatsu, Jun; Kamata, Norihiko; Takano, Takayoshi; Tsubaki, Kenji</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>We demonstrate 222-282 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN and In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on low threading dislocation density (TDD) <span class="hlt">Al</span>N template. Low TDD <span class="hlt">Al</span>N templates were realized by using ammonia (NH3) pulse-flow multilayer (ML) growth technique. The edge- and screw-type dislocation densities of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer were reduced to 7.5×108 and 3.8×107, respectively. We obtained significant increase of an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN quantum well (QW) emission (by more than 50 times) by fabricating them on a low TDD ML-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N template. We fabricated <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN multi (M)QW DUV-LEDs with emission range of 222-273 nm on ML-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N templates. Single-peaked electroluminescence (EL) was obtained for <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN DUV-LEDs. We obtained the maximum output power of 1.1, 2.4 and 3.3 mW for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN LEDs with wavelengths of 241, 253 and 273 nm, respectively, under RT CW operation. The maximum output power of 227 and 222 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN-QW were 0.15mW and 0.014mW, respectively, under RT pulsed operation. The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the 227 and 250 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN LEDs were 0.2% and 0.43 %, respectively. We also fabricated 280 nm-band quaternary In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN-MQW DUV-LEDs with p-type In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layers on low TDD ML-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N templates. We obtained significant increase of photoluminescence (PL) intensity by introducing Si-doped In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN buffer and barrier layers and undoped In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN interlayer. We then demonstrated high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 284 nm In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN-QW emission, which was confirmed by the fact that the ratio of the integrated intensity of the RT-PL against the 77K-PL was 86%. The maximum output power and EQE of the 282 nm In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN LED were 10.6 mW and 1.2%, respectively, under RT CW operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.665a2018B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.665a2018B"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>(n,p)26Mg and 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>(n,α)23Na reactions using the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(p,p')27<span class="hlt">Al</span> inelastic scattering reaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benamara, S.; de Séréville, N.; Adsley, P.; Laird, A. M.; Hammache, F.; Stefan, I.; Roussel, P.; Ancelin, S.; Assié, M.; Barton, C.; Coc, A.; Diget, C.; Deloncle, I.; Fox, S.; Guillot, J.; Hamadache, C.; Kiener, J.; Le Crom, B.; Lefebvre, L.; Lefebfre-Schuhl, A.; Marquinez Duran, G.; Mavilla, G.; Morfouace, P.; Mutschler, A.; Nsangu, C. T.; Perrot, L.; Oulebsir, N.; Sánchez-Benítez, Á.-M.; Suzuki, D.; Tatischeff, V.; Vandebrouck, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>26<span class="hlt">Al</span> was the first cosmic radioactivity ever detected in the galaxy as well as one of the first extinct radioactivity observed in refractory phases of meteorites. Its nucleosynthesis in massive stars is still uncertain mainly due to the lack of nuclear information concerning the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>(n,p)26Mg and 26 <span class="hlt">Al</span>(n,α)23Na reactions. We report on a single and coincidence measurement of the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(p,p')27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(p)26Mg and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(p,p')27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(α)23Na reactions performed at the Orsay TANDEM facility aiming at the spectroscopy study of 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> above the neutron threshold. Fourteen states are observed for the first time within 350 keV above the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>+n threshold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RuMet2015...51B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RuMet2015...51B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the composition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li alloys on the quantitative relation between the δ'(<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Li), S1(<span class="hlt">Al</span>2MgLi), and T1(<span class="hlt">Al</span>2CuLi) phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Grushin, I. A.; Knyazev, M. I.; Khokhlatova, L. B.; Alekseev, A. A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li alloys are considered. A quantitative approach to the determination of the ratio of the fractions of the binary and ternary intermetallic phases in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg(Cu)-Li alloys is developed on the basis of chemical and phase composition balance equations and the experimentally measured lattice parameter of the α solid solution. The ratio of the fractions of the δ'(<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Li) and S1(T1) phases in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg(Cu)-Li alloys is shown to be determined by the ratio of the mole fractions of Li and Mg(Cu). Equations are proposed for calculating the weight fractions of the S1(<span class="hlt">Al</span>2MgLi), T1(<span class="hlt">Al</span>2CuLi) and δ'(<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Li) phases in domestic and foreign <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg-Li alloys 1420, 1424, 5090 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Li alloys 1440, 1460, 1461, 1441, 1469, 2090, 2095, 8090, and Weldalite 049.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010060374','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010060374"><span id="translatedtitle">Creep and Toughness of Cryomilled Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> Containing Cr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Aikin, Beverly; Salem, Jon</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N + Cr composites were produced by blending cryomilled Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> powder with approx. 10 vol % Cr flakes. In comparison to the as-consolidated matrices, hot isostatically pressed Cr-modified materials did not demonstrate any significant improvement in toughness. Hot extruded Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N+10.5Cr, however, possessed a toughness twice that determine for the base Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N alloy. Measurement of the 1200 to 1400 K plastic flow properties revealed that the strength of the composites was completely controlled by the properties of the Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N matrices. This behavior could be successfully modeled by the Rule-of-Mixtures, where load is shed from the weak Cr to the strong matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005862','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005862"><span id="translatedtitle">The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The oxidation of Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic alloys in the beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field and in the two phase beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>/gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy <span class="hlt">Al</span> content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900037800&hterms=phase-field&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dphase-field','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900037800&hterms=phase-field&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dphase-field"><span id="translatedtitle">The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Doychak, J.; Smialek, J. L.; Barrett, C. A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The oxidation of Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic alloys in the beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field and in the two phase beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>/gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy <span class="hlt">Al</span> content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-<span class="hlt">Al</span>203 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/39889','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/39889"><span id="translatedtitle">Elevated temperature wear of <span class="hlt">Al</span>6061 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>6061-20%<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Singh, J.; Alpas, A.T.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>Both current and potential applications of particulate reinforced aluminum alloys involve components which are required to operate under sliding contact conditions at elevated temperatures. Examples include brake rotors, piston and cylinder liners in automotive engines where operating temperatures can reach 0.5--0.8 of the melting temperature of the matrix alloy. For this reason, study of the high temperature wear resistance of aluminum alloys reinforced by <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiC particles is important. These studies are also of interest for the problem of die wear during hot extrusion of aluminum matrix composites and to rationalize the process of frictional welding involved in joining of the composites. Although the room temperature tribological and mechanical behaviors of aluminum matrix composites have received considerable attention, their high temperature properties have only recently started being considered. It has been shown that <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Mg (A356) alloys with or without SiC particles show a transition from mild to severe wear when a critical temperature (at about 0.4 T{sub m}, where T{sub m} is the melting temperature of aluminum) is reached as a result of frictional heating under dry sliding conditions. In this work, high temperature wear of A16061 and A16061-20%<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied at temperatures between 25--500 C. The microstructural changes that occurred during wear have been delineated in order to understand the wear mechanisms that operate at high temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379597','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/379597"><span id="translatedtitle">Reactive plasma spraying of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Entezarian, M.; Shanker, K.; Tsantrizos, P.G.; Allaire, F.; Immarigeon, J.P.; Drew, R.A.L.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Reactive plasma spraying was used to synthesize <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys containing a dispersion of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3} intermetallics. Either <span class="hlt">Al</span> powder or <span class="hlt">Al</span> wire and TiCl{sub 4} were the raw materials used. The size, distribution, and morphology of the intermetallic phase were a function of the injection manner of the starting materials, the plasma process parameters, and the molar ratio of the reactants (TiCl{sub 4}/<span class="hlt">Al</span>). Under optimum conditions, a fine dispersion of micron sized intermetallics was obtained. Investigation of the reaction mechanism showed that the particle`s temperature was a critical factor in producing a fine dispersion of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3} phase in an <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix. Materials produced at temperatures below the melting point of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3} resulted in a microstructure containing an <span class="hlt">Al</span> core with a Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3} shell. In contrast, materials produced at higher temperatures resulted in a fine Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3} phase precipitating from the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti melt during the solidification process. Products were collected as porous deposited layers whose surface was contaminated with chlorides. The products were subjected to purification followed by hot rolling for further consolidation. The effectiveness of vacuum thermal treatment on the removal of Cl was investigated. <span class="hlt">Al</span> chlorides could be removed by thermal treatments at temperatures below the melting point of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, while some of the Ti subchlorides required higher temperatures. The mechanical properties of the consolidated materials were also determined and are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22.2098S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22.2098S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Nature of Interfaces in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/Mg-AZ31 Couples Joined by Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, A.; Aizenshtein, M.; Moshe, G.; Cohen, S. R.; Frage, N.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The microstructure and the phase composition of the interfaces of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/Mg-AZ31 magnetic pulse welding (MPW) joints were characterized by SEM and TEM analyses. The mechanical properties were tested by nanoindentation. Properties of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050 interface joint were established. The interface is almost free from <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Fe precipitates, which are present in the base metal. The hardness value is higher than that of the base metal; however, values of the Young's modulus of the interface and base metal are similar. It was suggested that the interface evolution in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050 system includes local melting and rapid solidification of the base materials. A wavy shaped heterogeneous interface was detected in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/Mg-AZ31 joints. Some areas are free from visible intermetallic phases (IMPs), while others contain pockets of relatively coarse intermetallic precipitates. The presence of a relatively large fraction of globular porosity at the interface indicates that local melting takes place in the course of MPW. TEM characterization of regions free of IMPs at the interface reveals regions consisting of fcc supersaturated <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg solid solution, apparently formed as a result of local mechanical alloying during MPW. In other regions, the composition and structure correspond to the Mg17<span class="hlt">Al</span>12 phase, which was probably formed by local melting and rapid solidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29j8501L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29j8501L"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced Light Extraction in <span class="hlt">Al</span>InGaN UV Light-Emitting Diodes by an Embedded <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>GaN Distributed Bragg Reflector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Hui; Zhao, Heng; Hou, Jin; Liu, Dan; Gao, Yi-Hua</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A novel kind of <span class="hlt">Al</span>InGaN ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) with an embedded <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>0.3Ga0.7N distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) is proposed to enhance light extraction efficiency (LEE). The simulation technique we adopt to calculate the LEE of LEDs is based on the theory of spontaneous emission in a layered medium, the well-known mode-matching technique and the scattering matrix approach. The <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>0.3Ga0.7N DBR was intentionally designed to have peak reflectivity at the LED emission wavelength and the optical properties of the DBR were simulated by using the transfer matrix method. A high LEE of 45.7% at 370 nm wavelength was predicted for a proposed <span class="hlt">Al</span>InGaN UV LED consisting of 24 periods of the <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>0.3Ga0.7N DBR, which is 1.5 times of that of the conventional <span class="hlt">Al</span>InGaN UV LED. The investigation shows that the <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>0.3Ga0.7N DBR grown on GaN templates with sapphire as a substrate by MOCVD can enhance the LEE effectively and would be very promising for the fabrication of high performance GaN-based UV LEDs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ZPhyD..33..281C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ZPhyD..33..281C"><span id="translatedtitle">Gaussian density-functional study for small neutral (<span class="hlt">Al</span> n ), positive (<span class="hlt">Al</span>{/n +}) and negative (<span class="hlt">Al</span>{/n -}) aluminium clusters ( n=2 5)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Calaminici, Patrizia; Russo, Nino; Toscano, Marirosa</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>The structures and properties of <span class="hlt">Al</span> n , <span class="hlt">Al</span>{/n +}, <span class="hlt">Al</span>{/n -} ( n=1,5) clusters have been investigated by using the Linear Combination of Gaussian Type Orbitals (LCGTO) method, considering Local (LSD) and Non Local (NLSD) Spin Density Approximations and employing a Model Core Potential (MCP) that allows the explicit treatment of 3 s 2 3 p 1 valence electrons. For each system different geometrical structures and electronic states have been considered. For <span class="hlt">Al</span>3, <span class="hlt">Al</span>{3/+}, <span class="hlt">Al</span>{3/-} the most stable geometry proved to be the equilateral triangle ( D 3 h ). <span class="hlt">Al</span>4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{4/+} prefer the rhombus ( D 2 h ) structure, while the corresponding anion prefers the square ( D 4 h ) one. The trapezoidal form ( C 2 v ) is the most stable isomer for <span class="hlt">Al</span>5, <span class="hlt">Al</span>{5/+} and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{5/-} clusters. The analysis of vibrational frequencies shows that these structures are minima in the potential energy surface. The binding energies ( D e), the adiabatic ionization potentials (IP) and electron affinities (EA), the chemical potentials or absolute hardnesses (η) and electronegativities (χ) have been computed. Results are in good agreement with the available experimental data and the previous high level theoretical computations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APExp...9e3004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APExp...9e3004S"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical ordering and large tunnel magnetoresistance in Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al/MgAl</span>2O4/Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>(001) junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheike, Thomas; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Inomata, Koichiro; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Seiji</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>/CoFe (0.5 nm)/Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4/Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>(001) structure were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. High-temperature in situ annealing led to a high degree of B2-order in the Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> layers and cation order of the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 barrier. Large tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of up to 342% was obtained at room temperature (616% at 4 K), in contrast to the TMR ratio ( ≲ 160%) suppressed by the band-folding effect in Fe/cation-ordered Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4/Fe MTJs. The present study reveals that the high degree of B2-order and the resulting high spin polarization in the Co2Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> electrodes enable us to bypass the band-folding problem in spinel barriers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..361...90W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..361...90W"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite coating on γ-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy and evaluating the oxidation performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jiqiang; Kong, Lingyan; Li, Tiefan; Xiong, Tianying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A novel Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite coating was prepared on γ-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy. The process included two steps: (1) Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite powders were prepared by high energy ball milling of pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> and nano-TiO2 powders, followed by a heat-treatment; (2) the as-prepared composite powders were deposited on γ-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> substrate by cold spray. The cyclic oxidation was conducted at 900 °C to test the performance of the composite coating. The results showed that the composite coating had good crack resistance and effectively decreased the oxidation rate of the substrate.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20634400','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20634400"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-period superlattices of <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N grown on <span class="hlt">Al</span>N substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nikishin, S.A.; Borisov, B.A.; Chandolu, A.; Kuryatkov, V.V.; Temkin, H.; Holtz, M.; Mokhov, E.N.; Makarov, Yu.; Helava, H.</p> <p>2004-11-08</p> <p>High-quality short-period superlattices of <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N have been grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy with ammonia on <span class="hlt">Al</span> face of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N (0001) substrates. A significant reduction was achieved in the dislocation density, down to 3x10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}. Complete removal of residual <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface oxide is needed in order to obtain low dislocation density in homoepitaxy on <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. We show that the presence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} islands with the surface coverage as low as 0.2% results in increased dislocation density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048512"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ca and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyong June</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> + Ca microstructures to <span class="hlt">Al</span> + various <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-11/pdf/2012-29868.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-11/pdf/2012-29868.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 73732 - In the Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at <span class="hlt">al</span> Tawhid wa...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-11</p> <p>... Matter of the Amendment of the Designation of <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka Jam'at <span class="hlt">al</span> Tawhid wa'<span class="hlt">al</span>-Jihad, aka... fi Bilad <span class="hlt">al</span>-Rafidayn, aka The Organization of <span class="hlt">al</span>-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida of Jihad in Iraq, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida in Iraq, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida in Mesopotamia, aka <span class="hlt">al</span>-Qaida in the Land of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/953776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/953776"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Reaction with XeF2 on Surface Adhesion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Tianfu; Park, Jeong Y.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.</p> <p>2008-07-28</p> <p>The change of surface adhesion after fluorination of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces using XeF{sub 2} was investigated with atomic force microscopy. The chemical interaction between XeF{sub 2} and <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces was studied by in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Fresh <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces were obtained by etching top silicon layers of Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} with XeF{sub 2}. The surface adhesion and chemical composition were measured as a function of time after the exposure to air or annealing (at 200 C under vauum). The correlation between the adhesion force increase and presence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3} on the surface was revealed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102c2103C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102c2103C"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of thin <span class="hlt">AlSb/Al</span>As barriers on InAs by mid-infrared intersubband absorption measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castellano, Fabrizio; Ohtani, Keita; Nevou, Laurent; Faist, Jerome</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We present mid-infrared intersubband absorption measurements on InAs/<span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb coupled-quantum-wells systems with thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb barriers. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb barrier width in our samples is varied between 1 and 4 monolayers, with a strained <span class="hlt">Al</span>As boundary layer used for strain compensation. The optical absorption energy difference between the 1-4 and 2-3 transitions is used as a measure of the barrier coupling strength and modeled by a one-band Schroedinger solver. Our results let us conclude that the composite <span class="hlt">AlSb/Al</span>As barrier behaves like an effective <span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb barrier with an effective thickness that does not include the last As layer. This observation must be taken into account when designing complex heterostructures relying on very thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb, like in InAs/<span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb quantum cascade lasers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCS...89...84L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCS...89...84L"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical and experimental investigation on structural and electronic properties of <span class="hlt">Al/O/Al</span>, O-doped WS2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Ning; Su, Jie; Xu, Zhuo; Li, Da-Peng; Liu, Zheng-Tang</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Effects of the doping atom (O, <span class="hlt">Al</span>, and (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O)) on structural and electronic properties of the monolayer WS2 have been studied by using first-principles calculations. Results show that the covalent character of W-S bonding has been enhanced after doping. Meanwhile, W-O, <span class="hlt">Al-S</span> and W-S bonds of (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 monolayer have higher covalent character compared with O-doped and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-doped WS2 monolayer of this work. After doping with <span class="hlt">Al</span> (or <span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) atoms, Fermi level moves close to the valence band and the dopant atoms produce the defect energy levels, indicating that <span class="hlt">Al</span> doped and (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 monolayer both have p-type conductivity. O-doped and (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 ultrathin films was prepared on Si substrates. Results of Raman spectra show the formation of the O-doped and (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 films. Moreover, compared with the pure WS2, the approximate reduction of 0.43 eV and 0.46 eV for W 4f and S 2p in binding energy after (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped shows that p-type doping of (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 has been verified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/29452','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/29452"><span id="translatedtitle">TEM characterization of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite fabricated by reactive metal infiltration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gao, Y.; Jia, J.; Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The microstructure of <span class="hlt">Al/{alpha}-Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} composites made by infiltrating <span class="hlt">Al</span> into dense mullite preforms has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Observations revealed that the formation of the <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} composites involves three stages. Initially, <span class="hlt">Al</span> infiltrates into a dense mullite preform through grain boundary diffusion, and reacts with mullite at grain boundaries to form a partial reaction zone. Then, a complete reaction takes place in the reaction region between the partial reaction zone and the full reaction zone to convert the dense mullite preform to a composite of {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} (matrix) and an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si phase (thin channels). Finally, the reduced Si from the reaction diffuses out of the <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} composite through the metal channels, whereas <span class="hlt">Al</span> from the molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> pool is continuously drawn to the reaction region until the mullite preform is consumed or the sample is removed from the molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> pool. Based on the observed microstructure, infiltration mechanisms have been discussed, and a growth model of the composites is proposed in which the process involves repeated nucleation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} grains and grain growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NIMPB.172..925Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NIMPB.172..925Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Transplacental passage of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K.</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>Aluminium (<span class="hlt">Al</span>) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because <span class="hlt">Al</span> lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> (a radioisotope of <span class="hlt">Al</span> with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate <span class="hlt">Al</span> incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> ( 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl 3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26<span class="hlt">Al</span> subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JNuM..395..162K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JNuM..395..162K"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion between U(Mo,Pt) or U(Mo,Zr) and <span class="hlt">Al</span> or <span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Komar Varela, C.; Mirandou, M.; Aricó, S.; Balart, S.; Gribaudo, L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Solid state reactions in chemical diffusion couples U-7 wt.%Mo-0.9 wt.%Pt/<span class="hlt">Al</span> at 580 °C and U-7 wt.%Mo-0.9 wt.%Pt/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 alloy, U-7 wt.%Mo-1 wt.%Zr/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and U-7 wt.%Mo-1 wt.%Zr/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 alloy at 550 °C were characterized. Results were obtained from optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. The UAl 3, UAl 4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span> 20Mo 2U phases were identified in the interaction layers of γU(Mo,Pt)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and γU(Mo,Zr)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion couples. <span class="hlt">Al</span> 43Mo 4U 6 ternary compound was also identified in γU(Mo,Zr)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> due to the decomposition of γU(Mo,Zr) phase. The U(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Si) 3 and U 3Si 5 phases were identified in the interaction layers of γU(Mo,Pt)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 and γU(Mo,Zr)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 diffusion couples. These phases are formed due to the migration of Si to the interaction layer. In the diffusion couple U(Mo,Zr)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356, Zr 5<span class="hlt">Al</span> 3 phase was also identified in the interaction layer. The use of synchrotron radiation at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS, CNPq, Campinas, Brazil) was necessary to achieve a complete crystallographic characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117u4904G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117u4904G"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of nanoscale Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> multilayer foils with intermediate Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunduz, I. E.; Onel, S.; Doumanidis, C. C.; Rebholz, C.; Son, S. F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Nanoscale multilayers of binary metallic systems, such as nickel/aluminum, exhibit self-propagating exothermic reactions due to the high formation enthalpy of the intermetallic compounds. Most of the previous modeling approaches on the reactions of this system rely on the use of mass diffusion with a phenomenological derived diffusion coefficient representing single-phase (Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>) growth, coupled with heat transport. We show that the reaction kinetics, temperatures, and thermal front width can be reproduced more satisfactorily with the sequential growth of Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 followed by Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, utilizing independently obtained interdiffusivities. The computational domain was meshed with a dynamically generated bi-modal grid consisting of fine and coarse zones corresponding to rapid and slower reacting regions to improve computational efficiency. The PDEPE function in MATLAB was used as a basis for an alternating direction scheme. A modified parabolic growth law was employed to model intermetallic growth in the thickness direction. A multiphase enthalpy function was formulated to solve for temperatures after discrete phase growth and transformations at each time step. The results show that the Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 formation yields a preheating zone to facilitate the slower growth of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. At bilayer thicknesses lower than 12 nm, the intermixing layer induces oscillating thermal fronts, sharply reducing the average velocities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPB..23.1407S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPB..23.1407S"><span id="translatedtitle">Tribological Properties of Ti(<span class="hlt">Al,O)/Al</span>2O3 Composite Coating by Thermal Spraying</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salman, Asma; Gabbitas, Brian; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Deliang</p> <p></p> <p>The use of thermal spray coatings provides protection to the surfaces operating in severe environments. The main goal of the current work is to investigate the possibility of using a high velocity air fuel (HVAF) thermally sprayed wear resistant Ti(<span class="hlt">Al,O)/Al</span>2O3 coating on tool steel (H13) which is used for making dies for aluminium high pressure die casting and dummy blocks aluminium extrusion. A feedstock of Ti(<span class="hlt">Al,O)/Al</span>2O3 composite powder was produced from a mixture of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and TiO2 powders by high energy mechanical milling, followed by a thermal reaction process. The feedstock was then thermally sprayed using a high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) technique onto H13 steel substrates to produce a composite coating. The present study describes and compares the tribological properties such as friction and sliding wear rate of the coating both at room and high temperature (700°C). The wear resistance of the coating was investigated by a tribometer using a spherical ended alumina pin as a counter body under dry and lubricating conditions. The results showed that composite coating has lower wear rate at high temperature than at room temperature without using lubricant. The composite coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). This paper reports the experimental observations and discusses the wear resistance performance of the coatings at room and high temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967201','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967201"><span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting the <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; Lazi?, Ivan; Valone, Steven M.; Liu, Xiang-Yang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We study the coherent and semi-coherent <span class="hlt">Al/?-Al</span>2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both <span class="hlt">Al</span>-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface. Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. Our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of <span class="hlt">Al/?-Al</span>2O3 composite heterostructures. PMID:24670940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPSJ...81b3703O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPSJ...81b3703O"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconductivity in the Einstein Solid AxV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 (A= <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ga)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onosaka, Atsushi; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Hiroi, Zenji</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>A cage compound of the form AxV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 (<span class="hlt">Al</span>10V), which was called an Einstein solid by Caplin and coworkers 40 years ago, is revisited to investigate the low-energy, local vibrations of the A atoms and their effects on the electronic and superconducting properties of the compound. Polycrystalline samples with A= <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ga, Y, and La are studied through resistivity and heat capacity measurements. Weak-coupling BCS superconductivity is observed below Tc = 1.49, 1.66, and 0.69 K for Ax= <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.3, Ga0.2, and Y, respectively, but not above 0.4 K for Ax= La. Low-energy modes are detected only for A= <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ga, which are approximately described by the Einstein model with Einstein temperatures of 24 and 8 K, respectively. A weak but significant coupling between the low-energy modes, which are almost identical to those called rattling in a recent study, and conduction electrons manifests itself as anomalous enhancement in resistivity at low temperatures approximately corresponding to the Einstein temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMiMi..25h7002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMiMi..25h7002B"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep SiO2 etching with <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N masks for MEMS devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bliznetsov, Vladimir; Mao Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yue Jia; Johnson, David</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Silicon oxide-based materials such as quartz and silica are widely used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). One way to enhance the capability of their deep plasma etching is to increase selectivity by the use of hard masks. Although this approach was studied previously, information on the use of hard masks for the etching of silicon-oxide based materials on 200 mm substrates is scarce. We present the results of etching process development for amorphous silicon oxide using <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N masks with a view of the application of the results for the etching of silica and quartz. Three gas chemistries (C4F8/O2, CF4 and SF6) and their mixtures were compared in an industrial reactive ion etch (RIE) chamber with two plasma sources. It was established that pure SF6 is the best etchant and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N is a better mask than <span class="hlt">Al</span> for providing higher selectivity and a sidewall angle close to vertical. A range of etching parameters for micromasking-free etching was established and etched structures of up to a 4 : 1 aspect ratio were created in 21 μm-thick oxide using the process with an etch rate of 0.32-0.36 μm min-1 and a selectivity to <span class="hlt">Al</span>N mask of (38-49) : 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JaJAP..52jMA07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JaJAP..52jMA07K"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical Characteristics of Ti/<span class="hlt">Al</span> Contacts on <span class="hlt">Al</span>InN:Mg/GaN Heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Seongjun; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Suk; Lochner, Zachary; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Dupuis, Russell D.; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Hyunsoo</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The electrical characteristics of a Ti/<span class="hlt">Al</span> metal contact on Mg-doped <span class="hlt">Al</span>InN/GaN heterostructures were investigated using a transmission line model. The as-deposited Ti/<span class="hlt">Al</span> contact exhibited near Ohmic contact with a specific contact resistance of 1.78×10-2 Ω cm2, while the thermal annealing performed at 600 °C led to better Ohmic contact with a contact resistance of 9.38×10-4 Ω cm2. This could be attributed to the formation of a direct Ohmic path connecting the contact and the two-dimensional electron gas beneath an <span class="hlt">Al</span>InN:Mg barrier upon thermal annealing, namely, a spike contact through the indiffusion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> as verified from secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Current-voltage-temperature measurements showed an insignificant temperature dependence in both the sheet resistance and the contact resistance, which seemed to be associated with the distinctive feature of the spike contact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114f3712I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114f3712I"><span id="translatedtitle">Hf dopants in ?'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanovski, V. N.; Ceki?, B.; Umi?evi?, A.; Beloevi?-?avor, J.; Schumacher, G.; Koteski, V.; Barudzija, T.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The Time Differential Perturbed Angular (TDPAC) measurements of nuclear quadrupole interactions (NQIs) at 181Ta ion probe in the polycrystalline intermetallic alloy ?'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> doped with 0.2 at. % Hf were performed in the temperature range 78-1230 K, in order to determine the lattice location of Hf atoms in the ordered ?'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> structure. The two NQIs obtained are discussed within the present L12 cubic structure and a tetragonal distortion of L12 to another two DO22 and L60 type structures. The first low frequency NQI at the site of the 181Ta ion-probe after substitution of aluminum for hafnium in DO22 at ambient temperature, is vQ1(300 K) = 39(1) MHz with ?1 = 0. The corresponding high frequency value on the second crystallographic site in L60, is vQ2(300 K) = 204(14) MHz with ?2 = 0.47(11). These two NQI's have different temperature behavior. The presence of both DO22 and L60 tetragonal distortions of the parent cubic L12 lattice, detected after adding 0.2 at. % Hf, are with modulations to the lattice constant (a) with a ratio (c/a), 2.04 and 0.87, respectively. Ab initio calculations of electronic and structural properties and hyperfine parameters at the 181Ta ion probe of the ?'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-0.2 at. % Hf alloy were performed using the full potential augmented plane wave plus local-orbital (APW+lo) method as implemented in the WIEN2k code. The accuracy of the calculations and comparison with the experimental results enabled us to identify the observed hyperfine interactions and to infer the EFG sign that cannot be measured in conventional TDPAC measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RMxAC..44Q.167S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RMxAC..44Q.167S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> 2883: Analysis of spectroscopic features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, A. R.; Levenhagen, R. S.; Künzel, R.; Leister, N. V.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">ALS</span> 2883 (RA 13^{h} 02^{m} 47^{s}, DEC -63^{o} 50' 08'', M_{v} 10.1) is the first known radio pulsar with an emission B-type companion system, discovered in 1992. The Be companion of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> 2883 has all line profiles in the visible range in emission. This emission is a common hallmark among many Be stars, and this effect is thought to be due to the presence of a circumstellar environment. Also, the star is orbiting a X-ray source as has been detected by the XMM-Newton Science Operation Center. In this study, we present the observations of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> 2883 made at the OPD/LNA 1.60 m telescope with the Coudé spectrograph in the range 4000 to 5000 Å and S/N simeq 200, performed in April 2011. First-order estimations of T_{eff} and log g parameters have been performed through Johnson's UBV and JHK photometric calibrations. Projected rotation velocity V sin i has been estimated through the mean of the first zeroes of the Fourier transforms of neutral helium rotation profiles adopting linear, quadratic and square-root limb-darkening laws. The physical conditions of the circumstellar envelope were estimated through the solution of the radiative transport equation assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium within a disk-shaped circumstellar environment with a Keplerian velocity field. The radiative transport equation is solved assuming the Roche model as a boundary condition in the circumstellar environment. Iterating the computations with a downhill-simplex algorithm, this analysis leads to a best solution for an envelope with T simeq 9500 K, gas density ρ simeq 2 × 10^{-15} g.cm^{-3}, internal radius r_{i} simeq 8 R_{odot} and external radius r_e simeq 30 R_{odot}, rotating with V_{rot} simeq 140 km.s^{-1} and expanding with V_{exp} simeq 90 km.s^{-1}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972820"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed diagnosis in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: the problem continues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nzwalo, Hipolito; de Abreu, Daisy; Swash, Michael; Pinto, Susana; de Carvalho, Mamede</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>We studied the limitations to early diagnosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). The diagnostic process was assessed in 120 consecutive patients, including onset, interval to diagnosis, investigations, specialist assessment and pre-diagnostic management. Times from onset to first consultation (T1), second consultation (T2) and diagnosis (TD) were considered. Predictors of diagnostic delay were determined by multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for gender, age, clinical manifestations, and specialism of the first and second consultants. There were 101 consecutive <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients with complete datasets (69% men; median age at diagnosis 61.5 years). The mean TD and median TD were respectively 10.1 and 9.5 months. In 55%, the first consultant was a general practitioner (GP), in 16% a neurologist and in 14% an orthopedist. The diagnosis of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> was made by non-neurologists in 9 patients. The odds of delayed diagnosis (≥ 12 months) were higher (1.56; 0.19-12.56) in younger patients (≤ 45 years) (p<0.05). Female gender (0.56; 0.29-1.70) and bulbar-onset (0.56; 0.29-1.70) were independently associated with earlier diagnosis (p<0.05). Assessment by a neurologist at the first (0.32; 0.19-2.46) or second consultation (0.87; 0.21-1.21) was associated with a shorter diagnosis time (< 12 months) (p<0.05). We conclude that diagnostic delay mainly resulted from delayed referral from non-neurologist physicians to a neurologist. Moreover, incomplete neurophysiological investigation had a relevant impact. PMID:24972820</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JTST..tmp...28T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JTST..tmp...28T"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot Corrosion Performance of <span class="hlt">AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa and <span class="hlt">AlO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, Chong; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Nailiang; Hu, Hengfa; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa and <span class="hlt">AlO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel substrate using atmospheric plasma spraying, respectively, in order to improve the oxidation and corrosion resistance. The hot corrosion performance of the coatings at 700 and 900 °C were studied, and the detailed microstructures and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, and transmission electron microscope. The results show that both coatings are structurally featured by slatted layers, consisting of amorphous phase, Cr2O3, Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. The hot corrosion resistance of <span class="hlt">AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa coating is better than that of <span class="hlt">AlO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa coating. This improvement is attributed to lower porosity and more compact Cr2O3 in <span class="hlt">AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa coating which performs better than <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 in blocking further inward progress of corrosion and oxidization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JTST...25..797T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JTST...25..797T"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot Corrosion Performance of <span class="hlt">AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa and <span class="hlt">AlO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, Chong; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Nailiang; Hu, Hengfa; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa and <span class="hlt">AlO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel substrate using atmospheric plasma spraying, respectively, in order to improve the oxidation and corrosion resistance. The hot corrosion performance of the coatings at 700 and 900 °C were studied, and the detailed microstructures and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, and transmission electron microscope. The results show that both coatings are structurally featured by slatted layers, consisting of amorphous phase, Cr2O3, Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. The hot corrosion resistance of <span class="hlt">AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa coating is better than that of <span class="hlt">AlO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa coating. This improvement is attributed to lower porosity and more compact Cr2O3 in <span class="hlt">AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAl</span>YTa coating which performs better than <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 in blocking further inward progress of corrosion and oxidization.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780013346','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780013346"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Si<span class="hlt">Al</span>ON materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Layden, G. K.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic bodies in which the major phase was beta prime Si3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-N4 solid solution. A variety of foreign oxides were used to promote liquid phase sintering, and this resulted in the incorporation of additional solid phases in the ceramic bodies which controlled elevated temperature properties. None of the bodies studied to date exhibited both adequate high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Criteria are suggested to guide the formulation of bodies with improved high temperature properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/495821','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/495821"><span id="translatedtitle">Orbit stability of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> storage ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, R.; Nishimura, H.; Biocca, A.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>The Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) storage ring, a synchrotron light source of the third generation, is specified to maintain its electron orbit stable within one tenth of the rms beam size. In the absence of a dedicated orbit feed-back system, several orbit-distorting effects were investigated, aided by a new interactive simulation tool, the code TRACY V. The effort has led to a better understanding of the behavior of a variety of accelerator subsystems and in consequence produced a substantial improvement in day-to-day orbit stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSCom.148...59A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSCom.148...59A"><span id="translatedtitle">First principles study of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Bi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amrani, B.; Achour, H.; Louhibi, S.; Tebboune, A.; Sekkal, N.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Using the first principles method of the full potential linear augmented plane waves (FPLAPW), the structural and the electronic properties of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Bi are investigated. It is found that this compound has a small and direct semiconducting gap at Γ. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the phononic effects are considered, the dependences of the volume, the bulk modulus, the variation of the thermal expansion α, as well as the Debye temperature θD and the heat capacity Cv are successfully obtained in the whole range from 0 to 30 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 1200 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258886"><span id="translatedtitle">Theory and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Aluminum Coordination Complexes <span class="hlt">Al</span> K-Edge Studies of Charge and Bonding in (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>, (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>R2, and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2 Complexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altman, Alison B; Pemmaraju, C D; Camp, Clment; Arnold, John; Minasian, Stefan G; Prendergast, David; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek</p> <p>2015-08-19</p> <p>Polarized aluminum K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and first-principles calculations were used to probe electronic structure in a series of (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>, (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2, and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>R2 coordination compounds (X = F, Cl, I; R = H, Me; BDI = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl-?-diketiminate). Spectral interpretations were guided by examination of the calculated transition energies and polarization-dependent oscillator strengths, which agreed well with the XANES spectroscopy measurements. Pre-edge features were assigned to transitions associated with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3p orbitals involved in metal-ligand bonding. Qualitative trends in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 1s core energy and valence orbital occupation were established through a systematic comparison of excited states derived from <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3p orbitals with similar symmetries in a molecular orbital framework. These trends suggested that the higher transition energies observed for (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2 systems with more electronegative X(1-) ligands could be ascribed to a decrease in electron density around the aluminum atom, which causes an increase in the attractive potential of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> nucleus and concomitant increase in the binding energy of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> 1s core orbitals. For (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>H2 the experimental <span class="hlt">Al</span> K-edge XANES spectra and spectra calculated using the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach had nearly identical energies for transitions to final state orbitals of similar composition and symmetry. These results implied that the charge distributions about the aluminum atoms in (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>H2 are similar relative to the (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2 and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>Me2 compounds, despite having different formal oxidation states of +1 and +3, respectively. However, (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> was unique in that it exhibited a low-energy feature that was attributed to transitions into a low-lying p-orbital of b1 symmetry that is localized on <span class="hlt">Al</span> and orthogonal to the (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> plane. The presence of this low-energy unoccupied molecular orbital on electron-rich (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> distinguishes its valence electronic structure from that of the formally trivalent compounds (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2 and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>R2. The work shows that <span class="hlt">Al</span> K-edge XANES spectroscopy can be used to provide valuable insight into electronic structure and reactivity relationships for main-group coordination compounds. PMID:26258886</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865693','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865693"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic resonator with <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrodes on an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer and using a GaAs substrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kline, Gerald R.; Lakin, Kenneth M.</p> <p>1985-12-03</p> <p>A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer between two <span class="hlt">Al</span> layers and another layer of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N on an exterior of one of said <span class="hlt">Al</span> layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21194991','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21194991"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and characterization of Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N superlattices prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barshilia, Harish C.; Deepthi, B.; Rajam, K. S.; Bhatti, Kanwal Preet; Chaudhary, Sujeet</p> <p>2009-01-15</p> <p>Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N coatings were prepared using a reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system from Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span> targets. Structural characterization of the coatings using x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the B1 NaCl structure of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N coatings with a prominent reflection along the (111) plane. The XPS data confirmed the bonding structures of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N single layer coatings. Subsequently, nanolayered multilayer coatings of Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N were deposited on silicon and mild steel (MS) substrates at different modulation wavelengths ({lambda}) with a total thickness of approximately 1.0 {mu}m. The modulation wavelengths were calculated from the x-ray reflectivity data using modified Bragg's law. Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings were textured along (111) for {lambda}<200 A and the XRD patterns showed the formation of superlattice structure for coatings deposited at {lambda}=102 A. The x-ray reflectivity data showed reflections of fifth and seventh orders for multilayer coatings deposited at {lambda}=102 and 138 A, respectively, indicating the formation of sharp interfaces between Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N layers. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy image of Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings indicated a noncolumnar and dense microstructure. A maximum hardness of 39 GPa was observed for Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings deposited at {lambda}=93 A, which was higher than the rule-of-mixture value (30 GPa) for Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N. Study of thermal stability of the coatings in air using micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings were stable up to 900 deg. C in air. Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings also exhibited improved corrosion resistance when compared to the MS substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045624&hterms=rich&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drich%2Bk','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045624&hterms=rich&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drich%2Bk"><span id="translatedtitle">Compressive strength of directionally solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al-NiAl</span>Nb intermetallics at 1200 and 1300 K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J. D.; Reviere, R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Results are presented from measurements of 1200 K and 1300 K compressive properties of two directionally solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al-NiAl</span>Nb compositions (in at. pct): Ni-41.75<span class="hlt">Al</span>-16.5Nb (eutectic composition) and Ni-47.5<span class="hlt">Al</span>-8.9Nb-1.3C (<span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich composition). Results showed that the strength of the eutectic was a factor of 2 greater than that of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich composition. However, the analysis of the compressive stress-strain data indicated that the deformation mechanism was the same in both materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930041111&hterms=therms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtherms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930041111&hterms=therms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtherms"><span id="translatedtitle">Transformation to Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 in a 63.0 at. pct Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khadkikar, P. S.; Locci, I. E.; Vedula, K.; Michal, G. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Microstructures of 63 at. pct P/M Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with a composition close to the stoichiometry of the Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 phase were investigated using homogenized and quenched specimens aged at low temperatures for various times. Results of analyses of XRD data and electron microscopy observations were used for quantitative phase analysis, performed to calculate the (Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> + Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3)/Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 phase boundary locations. The measured lattice parameters of Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 phase formed at 823, 873, and 923 K indicated an increase in tetragonality of the phase with increasing nickel content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/958938','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/958938"><span id="translatedtitle">FORMING <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 NANOCOMPOSITE SURFACES USING FRICTION STIR PROCESSING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qu, Jun; Xu, Hanbing; Feng, Zhili; An, Ke; Battiste, Rick; An, Linan; Heinrich, Helge</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study presents a solid state surface engineering process to form a nanocomposite layer on aluminum surface. Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to stir and mix nano-sized <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 particles into a commercially pure aluminum surface to form an <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 nanocomposite layer of up to several millimeters thick. Compared with a non-processed aluminum surface, a nanocomposite surface with 15 vol% nano-particles has demonstrated increased hardness (by 3X) and yield strength (by 10X), and reduced friction coefficient (by 55%) and wear rate (by 100X). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has revealed high matrix dislocation density in the nanocomposite surface that is believed to be largely responsible to such significant property improvements. Neutron diffraction measurements suggested tensile residual stress in the aluminum matrix. The stress was mainly induced by thermal-expansion-mismatch between aluminum and alumina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1110976','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1110976"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy localization on the <span class="hlt">Al</span> sublattice of Pt3<span class="hlt">Al</span> with L12 order</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Medvedev, Nikolay N; Starostenkov, Mikhail D; Manley, Michael E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional molecular-dynamics model of with order was developed and found to support the excitation of discrete breathers (DBs) and energy localization on the <span class="hlt">Al</span> sublattice. For an initial lattice temperature of 0 K, large-amplitude DBs polarized along [100] are found to be very weakly damped, retaining most of their initial energy for more than 2000 cycles, while DBs polarized along [111] damped out over ~30 cycles. Because the DBs and their dissipation channels are confined to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> sublattice, long-lived nonequilibrium states with large energy differences between the <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Pt sublattices occur. Since collisions during irradiation more efficiently generate lattice vibrations in light atoms than heavy atoms, such nonequilibrium states may occur and alter the relaxation processes occurring during radiation damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001568','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001568"><span id="translatedtitle">High-temperature deformation of uniaxially aligned lamellar Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heinrich, H.; Abaecherli, V.; Wilkins, D.J.; Kostorz, G.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Uniaxially aligned polysynthetically twinned two-phase Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> material is produced by induction zone melting and deformed in uniaxial compression. Above 1,000 K the strain rate sensitivity is independent of the lamellar orientation and increases strongly with increasing deformation temperature. Results for the strain rate sensitivity parameters are somewhat lower than those obtained for {gamma}-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> single- and polycrystals. If the lamellae are oriented parallel or perpendicular to the deformation axis, the flow stress decreases with increasing strain. After plastic deformation the dislocation density in the lamellae is remarkably low indicating recovery processes. At the lamellar interfaces misfit dislocations and periodic arrangements of dislocations with Burgers vectors inclined to the lamellar boundaries are found. In contrast to deformation at lower temperatures, deformation twinning is rare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARL32009H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MARL32009H"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of defect structure on the dynamic frictional force at sliding <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span> interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammerberg, J. E.; Holian, B. L.; Ravelo, R. J.; Germann, T. C.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>For moderate sliding velocities, less than velocities which induce structural or phase transformations, the defect and dislocation densities determine the local plastic flow characteristics near a sliding interface. We present the results of large-scale NEMD simulations for the tangential frictional force at an <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span> interface in the velocity range 10 - 500 m/s for pressures of 15 GPa. The defect structures in the initial state are similar to those used in NEMD simulations to characterize the effect of defect densities on the high strain rate branch of the flow stress for Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span> (R.Ravelo, B.L.Holian and T.C.Germann, SCCM-2009). We discuss the contribution to dissipation of pre-existing defects and dynamically generated defects and their influence on the resulting steady state frictional force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069154&hterms=MULTICOMPONENT+REACTIONS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMULTICOMPONENT%2BREACTIONS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069154&hterms=MULTICOMPONENT+REACTIONS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMULTICOMPONENT%2BREACTIONS"><span id="translatedtitle">Reaction diffusion in the NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> and CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, S. R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The paper assesses the effect of overlay coating and substrate composition on the kinetics of coating depletion by interdiffusion. This is accomplished by examining the constitution, kinetics and activation energies for a series of diffusion couples primarily of the NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ni-10Cr or CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ni-10Cr type annealed at temperatures in the range 1000-1205 C for times up to 500 hr. A general procedure is developed for analyzing diffusion in multicomponent multiphase systems. It is shown that by introducing the concept of beta-source strength, which can be determined from appropriate phase diagrams, the Wagner solution for consumption of a second phase in a semiinfinite couple is successfully applied to the analysis of MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> couples. Thus, correlation of beta-recession rate constants with couple composition, total and diffusional activation energies, and interdiffusion coefficients are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20879955','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20879955"><span id="translatedtitle">The microstructure and stability of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N multilayered films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xiao, X. L.; McCulloch, D. G.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N multilayers with bilayer thicknesses ranging from 10 to 50 nm were fabricated using a filtered cathodic arc deposition system. The effects on the microstructure of using two different deposition rates and applying an 8 kV pulsed voltage (plasma immersion ion implantation or PIII) to the substrate were explored. The microstructure was found to undergo a transition in which the <span class="hlt">Al</span> transformed from layers to an aggregated phase under some conditions. This behavior is explained by a model in which the aggregation process is limited by diffusion. High deposition rates and the application of PIII were both found to encourage the transition by increasing diffusion. The model defines a phase diagram which predicts whether a multilayer or an aggregated structure will occur. A maximum in intrinsic stress was found to occur when the average feature size was 15 nm for both layers and aggregates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.105d1909C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.105d1909C"><span id="translatedtitle">Local stress-induced effects on <span class="hlt">AlGaAs/Al</span>Ox oxidation front shape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chouchane, F.; Almuneau, G.; Cherkashin, N.; Arnoult, A.; Lacoste, G.; Fontaine, C.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The lateral oxidation of thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs layers (>500 nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ox confinement layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060673&hterms=etching+aluminum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Detching%2Baluminum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060673&hterms=etching+aluminum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Detching%2Baluminum"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of etching techniques for superconductive Nb/<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3/Nb fabrication processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lichtenberger, A. W.; Lea, D. M.; Lloyd, F. L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Wet etching, CF4 and SF6 reactive ion etching (RIE), RIE/wet hybrid etching, Cl-based RIE, ion milling, and liftoff techniques have been investigated for use in superconductive Nb/<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3/Nb fabrication processes. High-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions have been fabricated using a variety of these etching methods; however, each technique offers distinct tradeoffs for a given process an wafer design. In particular, it was shown that SF6 provides an excellent RIE chemistry for low-voltage anisotropic etching of Nb with high selectivity to <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The SF6 tool has greatly improved the trilevel resist junction insulation process. Excellent repeatability, selectivity with respect to quartz, and submicron resolution make Cl2 + BCl3 + CHCl3 RIE a very attractive process for trilayer patterning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJAP..45b0502L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJAP..45b0502L"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopic study of interfaces in <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ni periodic multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Guen, K.; Gamblin, G.; Jonnard, P.; Salou, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Rioual, S.; Rouvellou, B.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Using electron-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), we have studied two <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ni periodic multilayers that differ only by their annealing temperature: as-deposited and annealed at 115 °C. Our aim is to show that XES can provide further details about the chemistry at the metal-metal interface, in addition to what is obtained by X-ray diffraction. The distribution of valence states exhibiting <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3p and Ni 3d character is determined from the analysis of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Kβ and NiLα emission bands respectively. The multilayer emission bands are compared to those of reference materials: pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni metals as well as <span class="hlt">Al</span>{3}Ni, <span class="hlt">Al</span>{3}Ni{2} and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni intermetallics. We provide evidence that, for temperatures up to 115 °C, <span class="hlt">Al</span>{3}Ni is the major component of the multilayer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.1220Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.1220Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Density functional theory study and kinetic analysis of the formation mechanism of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 30O 8(OH) 56(H 2O) 2618+ (<span class="hlt">Al</span> 30) in aqueous solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Wenjing; Qian, Zhaosheng; Lu, Bangmei; Zhang, Jing; Bi, Shuping</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>The formation mechanism of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 30O 8(OH) 56(H 2O) 2618+ (<span class="hlt">Al</span> 30) has been investigated by the density functional theory based on the supermolecule model and kinetic analysis on the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experimental results in monitoring <span class="hlt">Al</span> 30 synthesis process. The theoretical chemistry calculations on the four possible schemes show that δ-Na-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 is the reasonable intermediate followed by the substitution of Na with <span class="hlt">Al</span> to form δ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 14, and Na + plays an important role in stabilizing the intermediate (δ-Na-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13) in the transformation. The kinetic analysis on the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR experimental data indicates that ɛ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 decomposes and isomerizes in the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 30, while <span class="hlt">Al</span> monomers facilitate the decomposition of ɛ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 and so the isomerization of ɛ-isomers to δ-isomers effectively. The favorable formation mechanism of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 30 includes three steps: (1) ɛ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 decomposes and rearranges into the isomer δ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13; (2) Na + reacts with δ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 to stabilize the intermediate δ-Na-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13, followed by <span class="hlt">Al</span> monomers replacing Na to form δ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 14; (3) δ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 14 reacts with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> monomers in the solution to finally form <span class="hlt">Al</span> 30. Both <span class="hlt">Al</span> monomers and Na + are important in the transformation. <span class="hlt">Al</span> monomers are the basic building units and helpful to the isomerization while Na + can well stabilize the isomer δ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 to yield intermediate δ-Na-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13. The results also show that other isomers of ɛ-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 (β-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 and α-<span class="hlt">Al</span> 13) form in the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 30, and their calculated 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR tetrahedral resonance shifts are consistent with the experimental 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR tetrahedral signals in the preparation process of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 30.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005369','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005369"><span id="translatedtitle">Carb<span class="hlt">Al</span> Heat Transfer Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fink, Richard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The increasing use of power electronics, such as high-current semiconductor devices and modules, within space vehicles is driving the need to develop specialty thermal management materials in both the packaging of these discrete devices and the packaging of modules consisting of these device arrays. Developed by Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI), Carb<span class="hlt">Al</span> heat transfer material is uniquely characterized by its low density, high thermal diffusivity, and high thermal conductivity. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to most power electronic materials, making it an effective base plate substrate for state-of-the-art silicon carbide (SiC) super junction transistors. The material currently is being used to optimize hybrid vehicle inverter packaging. Adapting Carb<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based substrates to space applications was a major focus of the SBIR project work. In Phase I, ANI completed modeling and experimentation to validate its deployment in a space environment. Key parameters related to cryogenic temperature scaling of CTE, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In Phase II, the company concentrated on improving heat sinks and thermally conductive circuit boards for power electronic applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809...31G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809...31G"><span id="translatedtitle">Inferred Initial 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> Ratios in Presolar Stardust Grains from Supernovae are Higher than Previously Estimated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Groopman, Evan; Zinner, Ernst; Amari, Sachiko; Gyngard, Frank; Hoppe, Peter; Jadhav, Manavi; Lin, Yangting; Xu, Yuchen; Marhas, Kuljeet; Nittler, Larry R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We performed an in-depth exploration of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg system for presolar graphite, SiC, and Si3N4 grains found to contain large excesses of 26Mg, indicative of the initial presence of live 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Ninety of the more than 450 presolar grains processed in this study contain well-correlated {δ }26{Mg}{/}24{Mg} and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>/24Mg ratios, derived from Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer depth profiles, whose isochron-like regression lines yield inferred initial {}26{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}{/}27{<span class="hlt">Al</span>} ratios that, on average, are ˜1.5-2 times larger than the ratios previously reported for the grains. The majority of presolar graphite and SiC grains are heavily affected by <span class="hlt">Al</span> contamination, resulting in large negative {δ }26{Mg}{/}24{Mg} intercepts of the isochron lines. <span class="hlt">Al</span> contamination is potentially due to etching of the grains’ surfaces and subsequent capture of dissolved <span class="hlt">Al</span> during the acid dissolution of their meteorite host rocks. From the isochron fits, the magnitude of <span class="hlt">Al</span> contamination was quantified for each grain. The amount of <span class="hlt">Al</span> contamination on each grain was found to be random and independent of grain size, following a uniform distribution with an upper bound at 59% contamination. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> contamination causes conventional whole-grain estimates to underpredict the initial {}26{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}{/}27{<span class="hlt">Al</span>} ratios. The presolar grains with the highest {}26{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}{/}27{<span class="hlt">Al</span>} ratios are from Type II supernovae whose isochron-derived initial {}26{<span class="hlt">Al</span>}{/}27{<span class="hlt">Al</span>} ratios greatly exceed those predicted in the He/C and He/N zones of SN models.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47...89W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47...89W"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation Study of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while <span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMoSt1100..154M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMoSt1100..154M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison on the interaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+/nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 with calf thymus DNA /salmon sperm DNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Fei; Ma, Yue; Du, Changwen; Yang, Xiaodi; Shen, Renfang</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The conformation change, binding mode and binding site between <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+/nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and calf thymus DNA/salmon sperm DNA were investigated by UV-vis absorption, FTIR spectra, Raman spectroscopy and CD spectra, as well as melting curves measurement. The UV-vis spectra and circular dichroism spectra results suggested that the phosphate group structure was changed when <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ interacted with DNA, while the double-helix was distorted when nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 interacted with DNA. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the binding sites were <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ … PO2, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ … N7/guanine PO2 … <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 … N7-C8/guanine with calf thymus DNA, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ … N3-O2/cytosine, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 … N1/adenine with salmon sperm DNA, respectively. The electrostatic binding was existed between <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ and DNA, and the electrostatic binding and complexing were found between nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and DNA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA...46.4783L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA...46.4783L"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the Wetting Behavior Between TiC x and Molten Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xuyang; Lv, Xuewei; Dong, Hongbiao; Li, Chunxin; Bai, Chenguang</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The wetting behavior and the interfacial reactions between TiC x substrate and molten Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with different <span class="hlt">Al</span> contents were studied using the Sessile Drop method at 1758 K (1485 °C) in argon atmosphere. It is found that the wettability and interface reaction products depend on <span class="hlt">Al</span> content in the molten alloy. The initial contact angles between the molten Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy and TiC0.78 surface reduces from 110 to 80 deg when <span class="hlt">Al</span> content in the alloy changes from 40 to 80 wt pct. The reduction in the initial contact angle is due to the decrease of surface tension of the molten Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> contents. The segregation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms to the surface occurred at all bulk concentrations of Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. <span class="hlt">Al</span> with lower surface tension tends to segregate on the surface of liquid Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy. In the spreading stage, the interfacial reaction led to the decrease in the contact angle. The adhesion in Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/TiC x system can be interpreted in terms of strong chemical interactions, which is greatly affected by the diffusion of C. The equilibrium contact angle was measured less than 10 deg. Finally, the reaction sequence at the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> melt and TiC x substrate interface is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26373112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26373112"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> Doping on Optical Band Gap Energy of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 Thin Films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Yo-Seung; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Deuk Yong</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 thin films were prepared using a sol-gel derived spin coating by varying the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> doping on the optical band gap energy (Eg) of the films. GAXRD results indicated that <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 is composed of anatase and FTO phases when the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti molar ratio was less than 0.18. Above 0.38, no other peaks except FTO were found and transparency of the films was severely deteriorated. Eg of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 decreased from 3.20 eV to 2.07 eV when the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti ratio was raised from 0 to 0.38. Eg of 2.59 eV was found for the anatase <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 films having the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti ratio of 0.18. The absorption band of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 coatings shifted dramatically from the UV region to the visible region with increasing the amount of <span class="hlt">Al</span> dopant. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> doping was mainly attributed to the optical band gap energy of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2. PMID:26373112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890030007&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcoal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890030007&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcoal"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of elevated-temperature deformation in the B2 aluminides Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yaney, D. L.; Nix, W. D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A strain rate change technique, developed previously for distinguishing between pure-metal and alloy-type creep behavior, was used to study the elevated-temperature deformation behavior of the intermetallic compounds Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Tests on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> were conducted at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 K while tests on Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> were performed at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 K. Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> exhibits pure-metal type behavior over the entire temperature range studied. Co<span class="hlt">Al</span>, however, undergoes a transition from pure-metal to alloy-type deformation behavior as the temperature is decreased from 1400 to 1200 K. Slip appears to be inherently more difficult in Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> than in Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, with lattice friction effects limiting the mobility of dislocations at a much higher tmeperature in Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> than in Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The superior strength of Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> at elevated temperatures may, therefore, be related to a greater lattice friction strengthening effect in Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> than in Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/421419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/421419"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe-Ni (Aluminum-Iron-Nickel)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raghavan, V.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>[88Ray] reviewed the experimental results on the phase equilibria of this system. The reviewed results were presented as: (1) liquidus and solidus projections for <span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor Fe-Ni alloys and for compositions near the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-corner; (2) a reaction sequence for the solidification reactions; (3) isothermal sections at 1250, 950, 850, and 750{degrees}C for <span class="hlt">Al</span>-poor Fe-Ni compositions; and (4) an isothermal section at 600{degrees}C near the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-corner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JEE....65..174P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JEE....65..174P"><span id="translatedtitle">Ac Impedance Spectroscopy Of <span class="hlt">Al/A-Sic/C-Si(P)/Al</span> Heterostructure under Illumination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Váry, Michal; Mikolášek, Miroslav; Huran, Jozef; Packa, Juraj</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The amorphous silicon carbide/crystalline silicon heterojunction was prepared and analyzed. The current-voltage (I - V ) measurements showed the barrier properties of prepared sample. Biased impedance spectra of <span class="hlt">Al/a-SiC/c-Si(p)/Al</span> heterojunction under the standard illumination are reported and analyzed. AC measurements in the illuminated conditions were processed in order to identify electronic behavior using equivalent AC circuit which was suggested and obtained by fitting the measured impedance data. A phenomenon of negative capacitance/resistance in certain frequency range has been observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003IJMPB..17..751C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003IJMPB..17..751C"><span id="translatedtitle">NB/<span class="hlt">AL</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">AL</span>/MGB2 Large Area Thin Films Heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carapella, G.; Martucciello, N.; Costabile, G.; Ferdeghini, C.; Ferrando, V.; Grassano, G.</p> <p></p> <p>We report the demonstration of dc and ac Josephson effects as well as conductance spectra measurements on Nb/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>/MgB2 thin films heterostructure. The heterostructure exhibits moderately hysteretic current-voltage characteristic with a dc Josephson current branch and regular microwave-induced Shapiro steps. Conductance spectra measurements point toward a two-gap scenario and are explained with the probable presence of tunneling both from dirty limit regions, reflecting a proximized order parameter Δdirty ~ 2 meV, and from clean limit regions, reflecting a proximized order parameter Δ3D ~ 0.9 meV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/428172','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/428172"><span id="translatedtitle">Wet chemical etching of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N in KOH solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Lee, J.W.; Abernathy, C.R.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.; Ren, F.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Wet chemical etching of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and In{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 1{minus}x}N was investigated in KOH-based solutions as a function of etch temperature and material quality. The etch rates for both materials increased with increasing etch temperatures, which was varied from 20 to 80 C. The crystal quality of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N prepared by reactive sputtering was improved by rapid thermal annealing at temperatures to 1,100 C, with a decreased wet etch rate of the material measured with increasing anneal temperature. The etch rate decreased approximately an order of magnitude at 80 C etch temperature after an 1,100 C anneal. The etch rate for In{sub 0.19}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 0.81}N grown by metallorganic molecular beam epitaxy was approximately three times higher for material on Si than on GaAs. This corresponds to the superior crystalline quality of the material grown on GaAs. Etching of In{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 1{minus}x}N was also examined as a function of In composition. The etch rate initially increased as the In composition changed from 0 to 36%, and then decreased to 0 {angstrom}min for InN. The authors also compared the effect of doping concentration on etch rate. Two In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N samples of similar crystal quality were also etched; one was fully depleted with n < 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} (2.6% In) and the other n {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3} (3.1% In). At low etch temperature, the rates were similar, but above 60 C the n-type sample etched faster, approximately three times faster at 80 C. The activation energy for these etches is very low, 2.0 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol for the sputtered <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. The activation energies for In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N were dependent on In composition and were in the range 2 to 6 kcal/mol. GaN and InN layers did not show any etching in KOH at temperatures up to 80 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67h1881Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67h1881Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Molar Volume Modeling of Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo Ternary Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Chuan; Cao, Weisheng; Chen, Shuanglin; Zhang, Fan; Park, Joon Sik; Yi, Seonghoon</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Molar volume modeling was performed for both Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo ternary systems based on the thermodynamic modeling of these two systems. Comparison between the calculated phase equilibria and the experimental data proved the accuracy of thermodynamic modeling. With the calculated density contour curves superimposed on the equilibrium phase diagram, it provides a map for alloy developers to identify the promising alloy compositions that satisfy both the phase stability and density requirements and rule out those that fail to meet the requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA...46.4772N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA...46.4772N"><span id="translatedtitle">Through Thickness Microstructural and Texture Inhomogeneity Within <span class="hlt">Al</span> Layers in ARB-Produced <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>(Sc) Layered Composite Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Najafzadeh, Niloofar; Quadir, M. Z.; Munroe, Paul</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Alternatively layered composite sheets of commercially pure (99.8 pct purity) aluminum and an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-0.3wtpctSc alloy (either in the supersaturated solid solution or age-hardened conditions) were generated through accumulative roll bonding for up to 5 cycles. The transverse sections of the sheets were examined to investigate the microstructure and texture inhomogeneities developed during the rolling process. Electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy was used for this investigation. It was found that an inhomogeneous microstructure and texture was developed through the aluminum layers of the sheet thickness. The nature of inhomogeneities changes as the ARB bonding progresses to higher cycles. Microstructural inhomogeneities remain prominent in the first ARB cycle and diminish during the subsequent cycles. Texture inhomogeneities appear in different forms as rolling progresses. High frictional shear forces in the surface and in-plane shear forces across bonding interfaces derive these inhomogeneities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JTST...25..509Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JTST...25..509Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> Content on Microstructure and Bonding Strength of Plasma-Sprayed FeCr<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 Coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liang; Luo, Fa; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Low-power plasma-sprayed FeCr<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 composite coatings with 1.5 mm thickness have been fabricated for radar absorption applications. The effects of FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content on the coating properties were studied. The FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> presents in the form of a few thin lamellae and numerous particles, demonstrating relatively even distribution in all the coatings. Results show that the micro-hardness and porosity decrease with the increase in FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content. With FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content increasing from 28 to 47 wt.%, the bonding strength of the coatings with 1.5 mm thickness increases from 10.5 to 27 MPa, and the failure modes are composed of cohesive and adhesive failure, which are ascribed to the coating microstructure and the residual stress, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST..tmp..151Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST..tmp..151Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> Content on Microstructure and Bonding Strength of Plasma-Sprayed FeCr<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 Coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liang; Luo, Fa; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Low-power plasma-sprayed FeCr<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 composite coatings with 1.5 mm thickness have been fabricated for radar absorption applications. The effects of FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content on the coating properties were studied. The FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> presents in the form of a few thin lamellae and numerous particles, demonstrating relatively even distribution in all the coatings. Results show that the micro-hardness and porosity decrease with the increase in FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content. With FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content increasing from 28 to 47 wt.%, the bonding strength of the coatings with 1.5 mm thickness increases from 10.5 to 27 MPa, and the failure modes are composed of cohesive and adhesive failure, which are ascribed to the coating microstructure and the residual stress, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178259','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178259"><span id="translatedtitle">MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bond coat with enhanced Yttrium layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jablonski, Paul D; Hawk, Jeffrey A</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>One or more embodiments relates to an MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bond coat comprising an MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y layer in contact with a Y--<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the <span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. Both the MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y layer and the Y--<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y--<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxides, providing advantage in the maintainability of the Yttrium reservoir within the MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bulk. The MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bond coat may be fabricated through application of a Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste to an MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y material, followed by heating in a non-oxidizing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..500R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhA.122..500R"><span id="translatedtitle">Laser ablation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni alloys and multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roth, Johannes; Trebin, Hans-Rainer; Kiselev, Alexander; Rapp, Dennis-Michael</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Laser ablation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni alloys and multilayers has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The method was combined with a two-temperature model to describe the interaction between the laser beam, the electrons, and the atoms. As a first step, electronic parameters for the alloys had to be found and the model developed originally for pure metals had to be generalized to multilayers. The modifications were verified by computing melting depths and ablation thresholds for pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni. Here known data could be reproduced. The improved model was applied to the alloys <span class="hlt">Al</span>_3Ni, <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni_3. While melting depths and ablation thresholds for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni behave unspectacular, sharp drops at high fluences are observed for <span class="hlt">Al</span>_3Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni_3. In both cases, the reason is a change in ablation mechanism from phase explosion to vaporization. Furthermore, a phase transition occurs in <span class="hlt">Al</span>_3Ni. Finally, <span class="hlt">Al</span> layers of various thicknesses on a Ni substrate have been simulated. Above threshold, 8 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span> films are ablated as a whole while 24 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span> films are only partially removed. Below threshold, alloying with a mixture gradient has been observed in the thin layer system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-09/pdf/2012-16620.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-09/pdf/2012-16620.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 40265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Tennessee River, Decatur, <span class="hlt">AL</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-09</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Tennessee River, Decatur, <span class="hlt">AL</span> AGENCY... across the Tennessee River, mile 304.4, at Decatur, <span class="hlt">AL</span>. The deviation is necessary to install new rail..., at Decatur, <span class="hlt">AL</span>. The vertical clearance of the bridge in the closed position is 10.5 feet. The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607221"><span id="translatedtitle">Motor neuron death in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: programmed by astrocytes?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pirooznia, Sheila K; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Motor neurons in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> die via cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2014), in this issue of Neuron, discover that familial and sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4040524','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4040524"><span id="translatedtitle">Motor neuron death in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> – programmed by astrocytes?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Motor neurons in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> die via cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et <span class="hlt">al</span> (2014) discover that familial and sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5k7115F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5k7115F"><span id="translatedtitle">Screw dislocation-induced growth spirals as emissive exciton localization centers in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N quantum wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Funato, Mitsuru; Banal, Ryan G.; Kawakami, Yoichi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Screw dislocations in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N quantum wells cause growth spirals with an enhanced Ga incorporation, which create potential minima. Although screw dislocations and their surrounding potential minima suggest non-radiative recombination processes within growth spirals, in reality, screw dislocations are not major non-radiative sinks for carriers. Consequently, carriers localized within growth spirals recombine radiatively without being captured by non-radiative recombination centers, resulting in intense emissions from growth spirals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21518326','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21518326"><span id="translatedtitle">Ab initio molecular dynamics of <span class="hlt">Al</span> irradiation-induced processes during <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Music, Denis; Nahif, Farwah; Friederichsen, Niklas; Schneider, Jochen M.; Sarakinos, Kostas</p> <p>2011-03-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span> bombardment induced structural changes in {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R-3c) and {gamma}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Fd-3m) were studied using ab initio molecular dynamics. Diffusion and irradiation damage occur for both polymorphs in the kinetic energy range from 3.5 to 40 eV. However, for {gamma}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) subplantation of impinging <span class="hlt">Al</span> causes significantly larger irradiation damage and hence larger mobility as compared to {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Consequently, fast diffusion along {gamma}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) gives rise to preferential {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) growth, which is consistent with published structure evolution experiments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.683a2015K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.683a2015K"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>- and 93Nb-NMR spectra of PrNb2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 single crystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kubo, Tetsuro; Kotegawa, Hisashi; Tou, Hideki; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Nakama, Akihiro; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We report the results of 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>- and 93Nb- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements in PrNb2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 single crystals. The field angle dependence of the observed 93Nb-NMR lines for the single crystal at around 5 T and at 50 K is reproduced by a simulation using previously reported NQR parameters νQ,Nb ≈ 1.82 MHz and ηNb ≈ 0, while 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>-NMR lines were not reproduce by the previously reported NQR parameters νQ,<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3) ≈ 1.53 MHz and η<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3) ≈ 0.17. By reexamining and reconsidering the NMR and NQR lines for powder samples, we obtained a correct NQR parameters for <span class="hlt">Al</span>(3) site to be νQ,<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3),new ≈ 1 MHz and η<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3),new ≈ 0.4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790027929&hterms=phase-field&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dphase-field','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790027929&hterms=phase-field&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dphase-field"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion and intrinsic diffusion in the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> /delta/ phase of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shankar, S.; Seigle, L. L.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Interdiffusion coefficients at 950 to 1150 C and the ratio of intrinsic diffusion coefficients at 1100 C were measured as functions of composition in the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> (delta) phase of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni system, using a vapor-solid technique. Diffusivity values were also obtained for the Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> (epsilon) and Ni (<span class="hlt">Al</span>) solid solution (zeta) phases from 950 to 1150 C. The interdiffusion coefficient in Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> (delta) varies several orders of magnitude over the delta phase field with a deep minimum in the diffusivity-composition curve at 48 to 49 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The ratio of intrinsic diffusion coefficients DNi/DAl, in the delta phase also varies with composition from a value of 3 to 3.5 below 50 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> to 0.1 or less above 50 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22475623','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22475623"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of oxides prepared by decomposition of layered double Mg–<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni–<span class="hlt">Al</span> hydroxides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Leont’eva, Natalya N.; Arbuzov, Aleksey B.; Drozdov, Vladimir A.; Belskaya, Olga B.; Antonicheva, Nina V.</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Abstracts: Thermal decomposition of Mg–<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni–<span class="hlt">Al</span> layered double hydroxides LDH at temperatures lower than 800 °C leads to the formation of oxides with different structures. Mg–<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide has a very defective structure and consists of octahedral layers as in periclase MgO and mixed octahedral–tetrahedral layers as in spinel Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Mixed Ni–<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide has a sandwich-like structure, consisting of a core with <span class="hlt">Al</span>-doped NiO-like structure and some surface layers with spinel Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure epitaxial connected with the core. Suggested models were verified by simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns using DIFFaX code, as well as HRTEM, IR-, UV-spectroscopies, and XPS. - Graphical abstract: In the Mg–<span class="hlt">Al</span> layered double hydroxide <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup 3+} ions migrate into interlayers during decomposition. The Mg–<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide represents sequence of octahedral and octahedral–tetrahedral spinel layers with vacancies. The Ni–<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers as a result of migration of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sup 3+} ions on the surface. The models explain the presence and absence of “memory effect” for the Mg–<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni–<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxides, respectively. - Highlights: • We study products of Mg(Ni)–<span class="hlt">Al</span> LDH decomposition by calcination at 500(400)–800 °C. • In Mg–<span class="hlt">Al/Ni–Al</span> LDH <span class="hlt">Al</span> ions migrate into interlayers/on the surface during decomposition. • Mg–<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide represents sequence of periclase- and spinel-like layers with vacancies. • Ni–<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers. • The models explain the presence/absence of “memory effect” for Mg–<span class="hlt">Al/Ni–Al</span> oxides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000030652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000030652"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclic Oxidation of FeCr<span class="hlt">AlY/Al</span>2O3 Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Three-ply FeCr<span class="hlt">AlY/Al</span>2O3 composites and FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApSS..257.3489A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApSS..257.3489A"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced fibroblast cell adhesion on <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aktas, O. C.; Sander, M.; Miró, M. M.; Lee, J.; Akkan, C. K.; Smail, H.; Ott, A.; Veith, M.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Biological cells stick together via transmembrane proteins, which are linked to receptor molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This specific biochemical adhesion plays a leading role in many cellular processes, among them cell differentiation, morphogenesis, and wound healing. Various medical applications require endogen cells to bind to an exogene substrate as in the case of an implant. Coatings with proteins that naturally belong to the ECM are known to enhance the cell adhesion. However, the choice of inorganic materials, which promote cell adhesion, is limited. Here, we report on a new engineered surface composed of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 bi-phasic nanowires (NWs), which promotes the adhesion of fibroblast cells. Fibroblasts grow well on this inorganic layer and keep proliferating. Using the cell monolayer rheology (CMR) technique, we show that the adhesion of fibroblasts on <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 NWs is comparable to fibronectin coated surfaces. To our knowledge, this is one of the strongest cell adhesions on an inorganic surface, which has been reported on so far, since it compares to bio-organic layers such as fibronectin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108f3104L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108f3104L"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic transport through <span class="hlt">Al</span>/InN nanowire/<span class="hlt">Al</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, T. M.; Wang, G. T.; Pan, W.; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We report non-linear electronic transport measurement of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Si-doped n-type InN nanowire/<span class="hlt">Al</span> junctions performed at T = 0.3 K, below the superconducting transition temperature of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrodes. The proximity effect is observed in these devices through a strong dip in resistance at zero bias. In addition to the resistance dip at zero bias, several resistance peaks can be identified at bias voltages above the superconducting gap of the electrodes, while no resistance dip is observed at the superconducting gap. The resistance peaks disappear as the <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrodes turn normal beyond the critical magnetic field except one which remains visible at fields several times higher than critical magnetic field. An unexpected non-monotonic magnetic field dependence of the peak position is observed. We discuss the physical origin of these observations and propose that the resistance peaks could be the McMillan-Rowell oscillations arising from different closed paths localized near different regions of the junctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MMTA...42..170M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MMTA...42..170M"><span id="translatedtitle">X-Ray Videomicroscopy Studies of Eutectic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si Solidification in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mathiesen, R. H.; Arnberg, L.; Li, Y.; Meier, V.; Schaffer, P. L.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Dahle, A. K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si eutectic growth has been studied in-situ for the first time using X-ray video microscopy during directional solidification (DS) in unmodified and Sr-modified <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu alloys. In the unmodified alloys, Si is found to grow predominantly with needle-like tip morphologies, leading a highly irregular progressing eutectic interface with subsequent nucleation and growth of <span class="hlt">Al</span> from the Si surfaces. In the Sr-modified alloys, the eutectic reaction is strongly suppressed, occurring with low nucleation frequency at undercoolings in the range 10 K to 18 K. In order to transport Cu rejected at the eutectic front back into the melt, the modified eutectic colonies attain meso-scale interface perturbations that eventually evolve into equiaxed composite-structure cells. The eutectic front also attains short-range microscale interface perturbations consistent with the characteristics of a fibrous Si growth. Evidence was found in support of Si nucleation occurring on potent particles suspended in the melt. Yet, both with Sr-modified and unmodified alloys, Si precipitation alone was not sufficient to facilitate the eutectic reaction, which apparently required additional undercooling for <span class="hlt">Al</span> to form at the Si-particle interfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SHK.B5002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SHK.B5002B"><span id="translatedtitle">Constitutive Model Constants for <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T651 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant; Harris, Bryan</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these material. J-C strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250^oC. J-C strength model constants for <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T651 are: A=527 MPa, B=676 MPa, n=0.71, C=0.017, and m=1.61 and for <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T6: A = 546 MPa, B = 674 MPa, n = 0.72, C = 0.059, and m =1.56. J-C fracture model constants are determined form quasi-static and high strain rate/high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. J-C fracture model constants for the two alloys are: <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T651; D1 = 0.110, D2 = 0.573, D3= -3.4446, D4 = 0.016, and D 5= 1.099 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T6; D1= 0.451 D2= -0.952 D3= -.068, D4 =0.036, and D5 = 0.697.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat..44..194K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat..44..194K"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural, Optical, and Electrical Characterization of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ n-ZnO/ p-Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span> Heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Rajender; Chand, Subhash</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For heterojunction fabrication, zinc oxide thin films were grown on p-Si by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to study the grain size and morphology of the films. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Experimental observations confirmed that the deposited films have potential for sharp emission in the visible region. High-purity (99.999%) vacuum evaporated aluminium metal was used to make contacts to the n-ZnO and p-Si. The current-voltage characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ n-ZnO/ p-Si(100)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> heterostructure measured over the temperature range 60-300 K were studied on the basis of the thermionic emission diffusion mechanism. The equivalent Schottky barrier height and the diode ideality factor were determined by fitting measured current-voltage data to the thermionic emission diffusion equation. It was observed that the barrier height decreased and the ideality factor increased with decreasing temperature, and that the activation energy plot was non-linear at low temperature. These characteristics are attributed to the Gaussian distribution of barrier heights. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ n-ZnO/ p-Si(100)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> heterostructure diode were studied over a wide temperature range. The impurity concentration in deposited n-type ZnO films was estimated from measured capacitance-voltage data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPB..23.1377P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJMPB..23.1377P"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic <span class="hlt">Al-Si/Al</span>Np Composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Seulki; Choi, Jinmyung; Park, Bonggyu; Park, Ikmin; Park, Yongho; Kim, Yongjin</p> <p></p> <p>Hypereutectic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys with fine and evenly distributed Si precipitates have superior mechanical properties In this study, hypereutectic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloy powders which contained 15 and 20wt% Si were prepared by a gas atomization process. 1, 3 and 5wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles were blended with the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloy powders using turbular mixer. The mixture was consolidated by Hot Press at 550°C for 1h under 60MPa. Relative density of the sintered samples was about 98% of theoretical density. This study was investigated by two ways. One is the effect of reinforcement weight fraction and the other is the effect of Silicon contents on the mechanical properties of the composite. Microstructural characterization and phase evaluation were carried out using X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. The results showed that the smaller the reinforcement particle size was and the better its distribution was, the higher ultimate tensile strength and hardness were.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1239365-electronic-transport-through-al-inn-nanowire-al-junctions','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1239365-electronic-transport-through-al-inn-nanowire-al-junctions"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic transport through <span class="hlt">Al</span>/InN nanowire/<span class="hlt">Al</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Lu, Tzu -Ming; Wang, George T.; Pan, Wei; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We report non-linear electronic transport measurement of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Si-doped n-type InN nanowire/<span class="hlt">Al</span> junctions performed at T = 0.3 K, below the superconducting transition temperature of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrodes. The proximity effect is observed in these devices through a strong dip in resistance at zero bias. In addition to the resistance dip at zero bias, several resistance peaks can be identified at bias voltages above the superconducting gap of the electrodes, while no resistance dip is observed at the superconducting gap. The resistance peaks disappear as the <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrodes turn normal beyond the critical magnetic field except one which remains visible atmore » fields several times higher than critical magnetic field. An unexpected non-monotonic magnetic field dependence of the peak position is observed. As a result, we discuss the physical origin of these observations and propose that the resistance peaks could be the McMillan-Rowell oscillations arising from different closed paths localized near different regions of the junctions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cronbach+AND+alpha+AND+reliability&pg=6&id=EJ923625','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cronbach+AND+alpha+AND+reliability&pg=6&id=EJ923625"><span id="translatedtitle">Aesthetic Leadership (<span class="hlt">AL</span>): Development and Implementation of Aesthetic Leadership Scale (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) of the School Directors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Polat, Soner; Oztoprak-Kavak, Zehra</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study aims to develop a scale for measuring the aesthetic leadership (<span class="hlt">AL</span>) characteristics of the school directors and to show that it can be applicable. The population of the study is composed of the teachers who are on duty in the elementary, secondary and high schools located in Izmit, Kocaeli. Sample of this descriptive study comprises 400…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897563"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetization anomaly of Nb3<span class="hlt">Al</span> strands and instability of Nb3<span class="hlt">Al</span> Rutherford cables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamada, Ryuji; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Using a Cu stabilized Nb{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> strand with Nb matrix, a 30 meter long Nb{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> Rutherford cable was made by a collaboration of Fermilab and NIMS. Recently the strand and cable were tested. In both cases instability was observed at around 1.5 Tesla. The magnetization of this Nb{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> strand was measured first using a balanced coil magnetometer at 4.2 K. Strands showed an anomalously large magnetization behavior around at 1.6 T, which is much higher than the usual B{sub c2} {approx} 0.5 Tesla (4.2 K) of Nb matrix. This result is compared with the magnetization data of short strand samples using a SQUID magnetometer, in which a flux-jump signal was observed at 0.5 Tesla, but not at higher field. As a possible explanation for this magnetization anomaly, the interfilament coupling through the thin Nb films in the strands is suggested. The instability problem observed in low field tests of the Nb{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> Rutherford cables is attributed to this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.M1382H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.M1382H"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced TC in granular and thin film <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Higgins, J. S.; Greene, R. L.</p> <p></p> <p>It is known since the 1970s that the superconducting transition temperature of granular aluminum films can be as high as two to three times the transition temperature of bulk aluminum, depending on the grain size and how strongly the nanometer size grains are connected1,2. As the strength of the grain connectivity becomes increasingly weak, the enhanced TC is suppressed. The mechanism behind this enhancement is still under debate. Recently, work on larger aluminum nanoparticles (18nm) embedded in an insulating <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 matrix showed an onset of the superconducting transition as high as three times that of bulk aluminum3. In this situation, the <span class="hlt">Al</span> grains are electrically disconnected and in a regime far removed from that of the granular films. Here we compare the two situations through electronic and thermal measurements in order to help elucidate the mechanism behind the enhancements. 1S. Pracht, et <span class="hlt">al</span>., arXiv:1508.04270v1 [cond-mat.supr-con] (2015). 2G. Deutscher, New Superconductors From Granular to High TC, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006, p. 72-74. 3V. N. Smolyaninova, et <span class="hlt">al</span>., Sci. Rep. 5, 15777 (2015). Funding by NSF DMR # 1410665.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6473E..1HS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6473E..1HS"><span id="translatedtitle">High reflectivity ultraviolet distributed Bragg reflector based on <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>GaN multilayer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shimada, Ryoko; Xie, Jinqiao; Morkoç, Hadis</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) designed for the ultraviolet spectral region have been attained. The crack-free structures were grown on c-plane sapphire by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To minimize the built-in strain in DBRs, a thin buffer layer was used directly on c-plane sapphire. A peak reflectivity of 95% at 381 nm with a 21 nm stop band width was obtained at room temperature (RT) using a 32.5 pairs <span class="hlt">Al</span> 0.7Ga 0.3N/<span class="hlt">Al</span> 0.15Ga 0.85N DBR. With a driving force for DBRs and emitting regions in wide band gap semiconductor microcavities, such as those based on GaN and ZnO, is the quest for cavity polariton which is the coupled mode between the exciton and photon modes. Moreover, the exploitation of cavity polaritons could be expected in the course of the development of extremely low-threshold optoelectronics devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011519','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011519"><span id="translatedtitle">A sulfur segregation study of PWA 1480, NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jayne, D. T.; Smialek, J. L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Some nickel based superalloys show reduced oxidation resistance from the lack of an adherent oxide layer during high temperature cyclic oxidation. The segregation of sulfur to the oxide-metal interface is believed to effect oxide adhesion, since low sulfur alloys exhibit enhanced adhesion. X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was combined with an in situ sample heater to measure sulfur segregation in NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, PWA 1480, and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The polished samples with a 1.5 to 2.5 nm (native) oxide were heated from 650 to 1100 C with hold times up to 6 hr. The sulfur concentration was plotted as a function of temperature versus time at temperature. One NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> sulfur study was performed on the same casting used by Browning to establish a base line between previous Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results and the XPS results of this study. Sulfur surface segregation was similar for PWA 1480 and NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> and reached a maximum of 30 at% at 800 to 850 C. Above 900 C the sulfur surface concentration decreased to about 3 at% at 1100 C. These results are contrasted to the minimal segregation observed for low sulfur hydrogen annealed materials which exhibit improved scale adhesion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990021236','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990021236"><span id="translatedtitle">High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 /<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27058131"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing phosphate adsorption by Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> layered double hydroxide functionalized biochar with different Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratios.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhou, Baoyue; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Ali, Amjad; Zhang, Zengqiang; Gaston, Lewis A; Lahori, Altaf Hussain; Mahar, Amanullah</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio plays a significant role for anion adsorption by Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-layered double hydroxides (Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-LDHs) modified biochar. In this study, Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-LDHs biochar with different Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratios (2, 3, 4) were prepared by co-precipitation for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. Factors on phosphate adsorption including Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio, pH, and the presence of other inorganic anions were investigated through batch experiments. Increasing Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratio in the Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-LDHs biochar composites generally enhanced phosphate adsorption with Langmuir adsorption maximum calculated at 81.83mg phosphorous (P) per gram of 4:1Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-LDHs biochar at pH3.0. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Solution pH had greater effects on the phosphate adsorption by Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> LDHs biochar composites with lower Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> ratios. The presence of other inorganic anions decreased the phosphate adsorption efficiency in the order of F(-) > SO4(2-) > NO2(-) >Cl(-). Phosphate adsorption mechanism involves ion exchange, electrostatic attraction and surface inner-sphere complex formation. Overall, Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-LDHs biochar composites offer a potential alternative of carbon-based adsorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. PMID:27058131</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..326..174Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..326..174Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalytic effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer on the growth and properties of containing carbon films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Bing; Liu, Zhubo; Tang, Bin; Rogachev, A. V.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and carbon nitride (CNx) bilayer films with <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer were fabricated by pulse cathode arc technique. The structure, composition, morphology and mechanical properties of the films were investigated by Raman, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Knoop sclerometer and surface profilometer. The results indicated that the complete diffusion between C and <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms occurs in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/DLC and <span class="hlt">Al</span>/CNx bilayer. <span class="hlt">Al</span> interlayer induces the increase of the size and ordering of Csp2 clusters in the films but <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer increases the disordering degree of Csp2 clusters. XPS results showed that a higher content of Csp3/Csp2 bonds presents in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/CNx bilayer, and <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer decreases the atomic ratio of N/C. AFM with phase contrast mode illustrated the morphologic characteristics of the bilayer films. All the bilayers show a nano-structural surface. The morphology changes of the bilayer were well explained by the surface state of the substrate and the growth mechanism of DLC films. The hardness of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/DLC bilayer decreases but it increases for the other bilayers compared to the corresponding DLC (CNx) monolayer. The internal stress of the bilayer is significantly lower than that of the monolayer except for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/CNx bilayer. These studies could make the difference at the time of choosing a suitable functional film for certain application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1805...54K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1805...54K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu/TiN multilayer interconnection and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge reflow sputtering technologies for quarter-micron devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kikkawa, Takamaro; Kikuta, Kuniko</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>Issues of interconnection technologies for quarter-micron devices are the reliability of metal lines with quarter-micron feature sizes and the formation of contact-hole-plugs with high aspect ratios. This paper describes a TiN/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu/TiN/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu/TiN/Ti multilayer conductor structure as a quarter-micron interconnection technology and aluminum-germanium (<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge) reflow sputtering as a contact-hole filling technology. The TiN/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu/TiN/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu/TiN/Ti multilayer conductor structure could suppress stress-induced voiding and improve the electromigration mean-time to failure. These improvements are attributed to the fact that the grain boundaries for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu film and the interfaces between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Cu and the TiN films are strengthened by the rigid intermetallic compound, Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge alloy reflow sputtering is a candidate for contact- and via-hole filling technologies in terms of reducing fabrication costs. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge reflow sputtering achieved low temperature contact hole filling at 300 degree(s)C. Contact holes with a diameter of 0.25 micrometers and aspect ratio of 4 could be filled. This is attributed to the low eutectic temperature for <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge (424 degree(s)C) and the effect of thin polysilicon underlayer on the enhancement of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge reflow.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-26/pdf/2012-15587.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-26/pdf/2012-15587.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 38126 - The Designation of Khalid <span class="hlt">al</span>-Barnawi, Also Known as Khalid Barnawi, Also Known as Khaled <span class="hlt">al</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-26</p> <p>... Designation of Khalid <span class="hlt">al</span>-Barnawi, Also Known as Khalid Barnawi, Also Known as Khaled <span class="hlt">al</span>-Barnawi, Also Known as Khaled el- Barnaoui, Also Known as Mohammed Usman, Also Known as Abu Hafsat, as a Specially Designated... that the individual known as Khalid <span class="hlt">al</span>- Barnawi, also known as Khalid Barnawi, also known as Khaled...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4848514','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4848514"><span id="translatedtitle">Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by <span class="hlt">Al</span>P in hypereutectic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>P. Although P, in the form of <span class="hlt">Al</span>P particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys. P, in the form of <span class="hlt">Al</span>P particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of <span class="hlt">Al</span>P particles (or <span class="hlt">Al</span>P ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by <span class="hlt">Al</span>P in hypereutectic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.2877S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.2877S"><span id="translatedtitle">Metallurgical Characteristics of Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>CrN Coating Synthesized by the PVD Process on a Cutting Insert</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sampath Kumar, T.; Balasivanandha Prabu, S.; Manivasagam, Geetha</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>CrN coating was deposited on a tungsten carbide insert, using the plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition (PEPVD) process. The microstructure of the coating was examined and it was found that the Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>CrN coating was uniform, highly dense, and less porous. The different phases formed in the coating were analyzed using the x-ray diffraction. The hardness and scratch resistance were measured using the nanoindentation tester and scratch tester, respectively. Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>CrN exhibited higher hardness, higher Young's modulus, and superior scratch resistance when compared to the conventional coatings, such as Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N, <span class="hlt">Al</span>CrN, and TiN. The surface morphology of the coating was characterized using the atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface roughness was found to be lesser in the Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>CrN coating. The Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>CrN coating has proved to have better corrosion resistance, compared to the uncoated carbide substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJMPB..24.3203Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJMPB..24.3203Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">al</span> Content on the Combustion Synthesis of (TiB2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> Products from AN <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2-B2O3 System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhan, Lei; Shen, Ping; Jiang, Qichuan</p> <p></p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> content on the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction among <span class="hlt">Al</span>, TiO2 and B2O3 was experimentally investigated. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> content plays an important role in controlling the reaction behaviors. With the increase in reactant <span class="hlt">Al</span>, the maximum combustion temperature decreases, the propagating wave velocity first increases and then decreases, while the ignition delay time shows an opposite tendency. More importantly, the increase of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> content in the reactants has an insignificant effect on the phase constitutions of the synthesized products but reduces the size of the synthesized TiB2 particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..706..565H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..706..565H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sliding Friction at Compressed Ta/<span class="hlt">Al</span> Interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammerberg, J. E.; Ravelo, R.; Germann, T. C.; Kress, J. D.; Holian, B. L.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The physics of sliding at compressed Ta/<span class="hlt">Al</span> interfaces is discussed based upon the results of large scale 3D NEMD simulations. A new set of Embedded Atom Method potentials has been constructed to treat the Ta-<span class="hlt">Al</span> interaction. Pressures of order 15 GPa are studied and the velocity dependence of the frictional force is studied for several interfacial configurations including <span class="hlt">Al</span>(100)/Ta(100) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(111)/Ta(110). Generic behavior is observed, characterized by a linear increase at low velocities followed by a power law decrease at high velocities associated with near interface structural transformation in <span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023304"><span id="translatedtitle">Creep in Directionally Solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo Eutectics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dudova, Marie; Kucharova, Kveta; Bartak, Tomas; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Somsen, Ch.; Dlouhy, A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A directionally solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo eutectic and an Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic, having respective nominal compositions Ni-45.5<span class="hlt">Al</span>-9Mo and Ni-45.2<span class="hlt">Al</span> (at.%), were loaded in compression at 1073 and 1173 K. Formidable strengthening by regularly distributed Mo fibres (average diameter 600 nm, volume fraction 14%) was observed. The fibres can support compression stresses transferred from the plastically deforming matrix up to a critical stress of the order of 2.5 GPa, at which point they yield. Microstructural evidence is provided for the dislocation-mediated stress transfer from the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> to the Mo phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MMTA...30..335A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MMTA...30..335A"><span id="translatedtitle">Cavitation erosion of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akhtar, A.; Salvi, R.; Sikka, V. K.</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>Vibratory cavitation erosion tests were carried out on as-cast Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compounds containing 46.5 to 62.1 at pct Ni. The erosion rate decreased with increasing nickel content by over two orders of magnitude, from a high of 16.4 to 0.11 mg·h-1. These low erosion rates exhibited by the nickel-rich alloys containing 58 and 62.1 at. pct Ni, the interruptions in their mass loss with time, and the unusual effects associated with surface finish and intensity of cavitation were found to be associated with the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Alloys containing 58 to 62 at. pct Ni have the potential for use as materials for the cavitation protection of hydraulic machinery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/108179','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/108179"><span id="translatedtitle">Beam lifetime and beam brightness in <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, C.; Jackson, A.; Warwick, A.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>Beam lifetime in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is dominated by the Touschek scattering. Measurements of lifetime in single-bunch mode with estimates of bunch dimensions obtained from undulator radiation data are consistent with expectations (t=1.8 hours at 1.25 mA per bunch). However, the lifetime is significantly longer in multi-bunch mode (t=ll hours at 400 mA per 320 bunches). This discrepancy has been traced to an increase in the momentum spread and bunch length in the beam caused by longitudinal coupled-bunch motions driven by higher-order modes in the rf cavities. The increased momentum spread leads to a significant degradation in the undulator spectral performance. Feedback stabilization of the coupled-bunch motion improves the spectral characteristics of the undulator beam at the expense of beam lifetime. We observe an increase of {approximately}200% in beam lifetime by operating at the betatron coupling resonance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19417280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19417280"><span id="translatedtitle">Single-crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanonecklaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Huatao; Xie, Zhipeng; Wang, Yiguang; Yang, Weiyou; Zeng, Qingfeng; Xing, Feng; An, Linan</p> <p>2009-01-14</p> <p>Distinct single-crystal aluminum nitride nanonecklaces with uniform [1011] faceted beads are synthesized via catalyst-assisted nitriding of <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The detailed morphology and structure of the nanonecklaces have been characterized. The growth process has been investigated by comparing the products obtained at different synthesis times. The results reveal that the formation of the nanonecklaces is via a process consisting of facet formation and bead unification. The formation of the [1011] facets is due to the presence of a liquid phase that lowers the surface tension of otherwise high-energy [1011] planes. The bead unification is driven by minimizing the energy contributed by surface energy and electrostatic energy. The unique morphology of the nanonecklaces could be useful for studying fundamental physical phenomena and fabricating nanodevices. PMID:19417280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/197802','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/197802"><span id="translatedtitle">An elliptical wiggler beamline for the <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martynov, V.V. |; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>A beamline for circularly polarized radiation produced by an elliptical wiggler has been designed at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> covering the broad energy range from 50 eV to 2000 eV. The rigorous theory of grating diffraction efficiency has been used to maximize transmitted flux. The nature of the elliptical wiggler insertion device creates a challenging optical problem due to the large source size in the vertical and horizontal directions. The requirement of high resolving power, combined with the broad tuning range and high heat loads complicate the design. These problems have been solved by using a variable included angle monochromator of the ``constant length`` type with high demagnification onto its entrance slit, and cooled optics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARM14006N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARM14006N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span> Nanowire Arrays For Plasmonic Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nesbitt, Nathan T.; Rose, Aaron H.; Calm, Yitzi M.; Merlo, Juan M.; Shepard, Steve; McMahon, Greg; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Aluminum nanowires have been fabricated in ordered vertical arrays on bulk <span class="hlt">Al</span> foil with controlled wire dimensions and spacing. Large aspect ratio wires were obtained, including sub-micron wire diameters and supra-10 μm height. The somewhat novel method of fabrication utilizes nanoimprint lithography and the economical electrochemical anodization process used to make anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, suggesting potential facile production and scalability. To our knowledge, arrays of vertical metallic nanowires (i.e. differing from semiconductor nanowire or carbon nanofiber arrays) of the obtained dimensions have not previously been reported. These dimensions may be favorable for nanoscale photonic and plasmonic transmission, nanocoax solar cells, and non-diffaction-limited optical microscopy. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foun- dation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JAP....53.2368G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JAP....53.2368G"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic viscosity in Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span>C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaunt, P.; Kenning, G.; Ram, U. S.</p> <p>1982-03-01</p> <p>Magnetic viscosity has been measured in aged Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span>C alloys having an intrinsic coercive force of 1.44 kOe at 295 K rising to 1.97 kOe at 77 K. The measurements are used to estimate the derivative (∂E/∂H) of the activation energy E which must be supplied thermally to move segments of domain wall through coherent jumps. This derivative is found to vary linearly with the reciprocal of the effective applied field. These results are consistent with a domain wall pinning model which allows a range parameter 4b to be deduced, from the viscosity results, as 44 Å. This result is close to the estimated wall width of 49 Å.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26803101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26803101"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the Heavy Metals in <span class="hlt">Al</span> Asfar Lake, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hussein, Adel H A; El Mahmoudi, Ahmed S; Al Naeem, Ahmed A</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span> Asfar Lake is a shallow wetland and habitat for wildlife and birds in a desert environment. The water of this lake is originated from the drainage water collected by earthen drainage network and discharged into the lake. The purpose of this study was to assess physico- chemical characteristics and some of heavy metals in <span class="hlt">Al</span> Asfar lake water. The studied parameters are iron, manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, pH, electrical conductivity, and nitrate. Forty-five surface water samples were collected in March 2013. The results revealed that the pH ranged from 7.33 to 8.67, electrical conductivity ranged from 8.28 to 11.34 dS/m, and NO(3)(-) ranged from 0.84 to 2.29 mg/L. In addition, heavy metals concentrations in water were found in the following order: Fe > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cd > Cr = Pb. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in surface water of <span class="hlt">Al</span> Asfar lake ranged from 0.027 to 0.159 ppm, 0.007 to 0.142 ppm, 0.005 to 0.017 ppm, 0.005 to 0.066 ppm, 0.001 to 0.033 ppm, 0 ppm, and 0 ppm for iron, manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium, and lead, respectively. Moreover, pH, NO(3)(-), Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations in the surface water of <span class="hlt">Al</span> Asfar Lake were found to be within the international permissible limits. On the other hand, Cu and Cd concentrations exceeded the international permissible limits. The high level of some parameters of the measured heavy metals could be attributed to the contamination of <span class="hlt">Al</span> Asfar Lake with discharge water enriched with chemical fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial effluents. PMID:26803101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6433498','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6433498"><span id="translatedtitle">Infiltration of Saffil alumina fiber with <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garbellini, O.; Morando, C.; Biloni, H.; Palacio, H. . Inst. de Fisica de Materiales)</p> <p>1999-06-18</p> <p>Currently there is a considerable scientific and technological interest in the composite materials, which a strong ceramic reinforcement is incorporated into a metal matrix (MMC) to tailor its properties for specific applications. Among the various techniques for fabricating MMC, the liquid metal infiltration process by means of a pressurized gas is an attractive fabrication route for near net shaped metal matrix composite and has been successfully used to fabricate <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Mg and more recently, Ni and Ni aluminide matrix composites, which can be reinforced by SiC or <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 2]O[sub 3] particles, whiskers, or short fibers. This paper describes the experimental technique used and presents an experimental investigation of the effects of the process parameters employed, such as the preform and melt temperatures, the volume fraction of fibers in the preform and the applied pressure upon the infiltration length of a chopped preform during a unidirectional infiltration aided by gas pressure casting. The experiments of the present work were conducted to provide kinetic data with a view to optimizing the selection of the process initial conditions for infiltration which have an effect on the infiltration length of the molten matrix alloy into a preform and it is a first step in investigating the correlation between the infiltration length (fluidity) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>CuSi matrix alloys and the microstructure of the composites fabricated by pressure casting. For this purpose, this paper focuses on <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si matrix alloys reinforced by short-fibers [delta]-alumina SAFFIL. The experiments reported here were performed with the fibers initially at a temperature significantly below the metal melting point. This is the case of practical interest for the fabrication of many fiber-reinforced metal components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MS%26E....4a2006S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MS%26E....4a2006S"><span id="translatedtitle">Tribological properties of thermally sprayed Ti<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 composite coating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salman, A.; Gabbitas, B.; Li, J.; Zhang, D.</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The use of thermal spray coatings provides protection to the surfaces operating in severe environments. The main goal of the current work is to investigate the possibility of using a high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) thermally sprayed wear resistant Ti<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 coating on tool steel (H13) which is used for making dies for aluminium high pressure die casting. A feedstock of Ti<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 composite powder was produced from a mixture of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and TiO2 powders by high energy mechanical milling, followed by a thermal reaction process. The feedstock was then thermally sprayed using a high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique onto H13 steel substrates to produce a composite coating. The present study describes and compares the tribological properties such as friction and sliding wear rate of the coating both at room and high temperature (700°C). The results showed that the composite coating has lower wear rate at high temperature (700°C) than the uncoated H13 sample. At Room temperature without using lubricant there is no much significant difference between the wear rate of the coated and uncoated samples. The experimental results showed that the composite coating has great potential for high temperature application due to its lower wear rate at high temperature in comparison with the uncoated sample at the same temperature. The composite coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). This paper reports the experimental observations and discusses the wear resistance performance of the coatings at room and high temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27093557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27093557"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Energy and Work Function Control of <span class="hlt">AlOx/Al</span> Surfaces by Fluorinated Benzylphosphonic Acids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abraham, Ffion; Ford, William E; Scholz, Frank; Nelles, Gabriele; Sandford, Graham; von Wrochem, Florian</p> <p>2016-05-11</p> <p>The performance of organic electronic devices can be significantly improved by modifying metal electrodes with organic monolayers, which alter the physical and chemical nature of the interface between conductor and semiconductor. In this paper we examine a series of 12 phosphonic acid compounds deposited on the native oxide layer of aluminum (<span class="hlt">AlOx/Al</span>), an electrode material with widespread applications in organic electronics. This series includes dodecylphosphonic acid as a reference and 11 benzylphosphonic acids, seven of which are fluorinated, including five newly synthesized derivatives. The monolayers are experimentally characterized by contact angle goniometry and by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and work function data obtained by low-intensity XPS are correlated with molecular dipoles obtained from DFT calculations. We find that monolayers are formed with molecular areas ranging from 17.7 to 42.9 Å(2)/molecule, and, by the choice of appropriate terminal groups, the surface energy can be tuned from 23.5 mJ/m(2) to 70.5 mJ/m(2). Depending on the number and position of fluorine substituents on the aromatic rings, a variation in the work function of <span class="hlt">AlOx/Al</span> substrates over a range of 0.91 eV is achieved, and a renormalization procedure based on molecular density yields a surprising agreement of work function changes with interface dipoles as expected from Helmholtz' equation. The ability to adjust energetics and adhesion at organic semiconductor/<span class="hlt">Al</span>Ox interfaces has immediate applications in devices such as OLEDs, OTFTs, organic solar cells, and printed organic circuits. PMID:27093557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6294055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6294055"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of Nb/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> in powder processed Nb-<span class="hlt">Al</span> superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Johnson, P.E.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>In high magnetic fields, the critical current density is strongly dependent on the upper critical field, which is determined primarily by the stoichiometry of the Nb/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The critical temperature (T/sub c/), like the upper critical field, is considered to be a measure of the ''intrinsic'' quality of the superconductor, indicating the stoichiometry, order, and strain. If the A15 phase is stoichiometric and well ordered, a high T/sub c/ (and high H/sub C/sub 2//) is expected, regardless of the volume fraction of superconductor. On the other hand, if sigma phase is present with the A15, the resultant composition gradient across the sigma-A15 interface(s) requires that some of the A15 be off-stoichiometric, and therefore that the T/sub c/ (and H/sub C/sub 2//) be low. Thus the extent of the A15 (Nb/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>) reaction and the quality of the A15 formed are interdependent. This work focuses on the factors that control the extent of Nb/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> formation in Nb/<span class="hlt">Al</span> powder wires. The morphology and content of the reacted and unreacted wires are studied in optical, SEM, and TEM micrographs. Critical current density data and its dependence on processing are explained in terms of the unreacted microstructure and its effect on the extent of Nb/sub 3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> formation. As a method of improving the critical current density, a new variation of the conventional powder process for wire manufacturing is developed and tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348927','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348927"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface structures of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Pd-Mn and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, Z.</p> <p>1999-02-12</p> <p>In this dissertation, the author reports on the surface structure of i-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Pd-Mn twofold, threefold, fivefold and i-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Fe fivefold surfaces. The LEED studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages in the regrowth of all four surfaces after Ar{sup +} sputtering. In the first stage, upon annealing at relatively low temperature: 500K--800K (depending on different surfaces), a cubic phase appears. The cubic LEED patterns transform irreversibly to unreconstructed quasicrystalline patterns upon annealing to higher temperatures, indicating that the cubic overlayers are metastable. Based upon the data for three chemically-identical, but symmetrically-inequivalent surfaces, a model is developed for the relation between the cubic overlayers and the quasicrystalline substrate. The model is based upon the related symmetries of cubic close-packed and icosahedral-packed materials. These results may be general among <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich, icosahedral materials. STM study of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Pd-Mn fivefold surface shows that terrace-step-kink structures start to form on the surface after annealing above 700K. Large, atomic ally-flat terraces were formed after annealing at 900K. Fine structures with fivefold icosahedral symmetry were found on those terraces. Data analysis and comparison of the STM images and structure model of icosahedral <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Pd-Mn suggest that the fine structures in the STM images may be the pseudo Mackay (PMI) clusters which are the structure units of the structure model. Based upon his results, he can conclude that quasicrystalline structures are the stable structures of quasicrystal surfaces. In other words, quasicrystalline structures extend from the bulk to the surface. As a result of the effort reported in this dissertation, he believes that he has increased his understanding of the surface structure of icosahedral quasicrystals to a new level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27221345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27221345"><span id="translatedtitle">The immiscibility of In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N ternary alloy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Guijuan; Xu, Xiaoqing; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Ji, Zesheng; Meng, Yulin; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We have used two models based on the valence force field and the regular solution model to study the immiscibility of In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N ternary alloy, and have got the spinodal and binodal curves of In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N. Analyzing the spinodal decomposition curves, we obtain the appropriate concentration region for the epitaxial growth of the InN-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N pseudobinary alloy. At a temperature most common for the epitaxial growth of In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N (1000 K), the solubility of InN is about 10%. Then we introduce the mismatch strain item into the Gibbs free energy, and the effect of different substrates is taken into consideration. Considering Si, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, InN, GaN, <span class="hlt">Al</span>N as a substrate respectively, it is found that all the five systems are stabilized with the upper critical solution temperature largely reduced. Finally, InN and GaN are potential substrates for In-rich In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N, while <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and GaN substrates are recommended in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich region. Si and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 may be ideal substrates for thin In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N film. PMID:27221345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-09/pdf/2010-31001.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-09/pdf/2010-31001.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 76771 - In the Matter of the Designation of Fahd Mohammed Ahmed <span class="hlt">al</span>-Quso, also known as Fahd <span class="hlt">al</span>-Quso, also...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-09</p> <p>... Huthaifah <span class="hlt">al</span>-Yemeni, also known as Abu Huthaifah <span class="hlt">al</span>-Abu <span class="hlt">al</span>-Bara', also known as Fahd Muhammad Ahmad <span class="hlt">al</span>-Kusso...-Abu <span class="hlt">al</span>-Bara', also known as Fahd Muhammad Ahmad <span class="hlt">al</span>-Kusso, committed, or poses a significant risk...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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