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Sample records for vermicompost frente al

  1. ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF VERMICOMPOSTING MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vermicomposting -- the biological degradation of organic matter that occurs as earthworms feed on waste materials -- has been advocated by some as a means of stabilizing and disposing of municipal wastewater sludges. Vermicomposting is being attempted on an experimental scale, th...

  2. COMPENDIUM ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT BY VERMICOMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vermicomposting of municipal solid wastes has been attempted only in the last five years and there are presently no full-scale operations. This report assesses the technical and economic feasibility of vermicomposting and is based on several pilot-scale studies conducted by priva...

  3. Stabilization of primary sewage sludge during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Renuka; Garg, V K

    2008-05-30

    In India, over the last few decades, there has been a remarkable increase in sewage sludge production due to population increase and unplanned urbanization. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform primary sewage sludge (PSS) amended with cow dung (CD) into value added product, i.e., vermicompost in laboratory scale experiments. Two approaches investigated in the study were: (1) evaluation of vermistabilization of PSS and CD mixtures after 15 weeks in terms of fertilizer quality of the products and; (2) growth and reproduction of Eisenia foetida up to 11 weeks in different vermireactors. In all the PSS and CD mixtures, a decrease in pH, TOC and C:N ratio, but increase in EC, TKN, TK and TP was recorded. The heavy metals' content in the vermicomposts was higher than initial mixtures. Maximum worm biomass was attained in 10% PSS+90% CD mixture while, the worm growth rate was highest in 30% PSS+70% CD feed mixture. It was inferred from the study that addition of 30-40% of PSS with CD had no adverse effect on the fertilizer value of the vermicompost as well as growth of Eisenia foetida. The results indicated that PSS could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed in appropriate ratio (30-40%) with cow dung. PMID:17950995

  4. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the suitability of vermicomposting technology for processing source-separated human faeces. Since the earthworm species Eisenia fetida could not survive in fresh faeces, modification in the physical characteristics of faeces was necessary before earthworms could be introduced to faeces. A preliminary study with six different combinations of faeces, soil and bulking material (vermicompost) in different layers was conducted to find out the best condition for biomass growth and reproduction of earthworms. The results indicated that SVFV combination (soil, vermicompost, faeces and vermicompost - bottom to top layers) was the best for earthworm biomass growth indicating the positive role of soil layer in earthworm biomass growth. Further studies with SVFV and VFV combinations, however, showed that soil layer did not enhance vermicompost production rate. Year-long study conducted with VFV combination to assess the quality and quantity of vermicompost produced showed an average vermicompost production rate of 0.30kg-cast/kg-worm/day. The vermicompost produced was mature as indicated by low dissolved organic carbon (2.4+/-0.43mg/g) and low oxygen uptake rate (0.15+/-0.09mg O(2)/g VS/h). Complete inactivation of total coliforms was noted during the study, which is one of the important objectives of human faeces processing. Results of the study thus indicated the potential of vermicomposting for processing of source-separated human faeces. PMID:19850460

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of vermicompost for determination of nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Subhash Kumar, M; Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2015-01-25

    Spectroscopic analysis has been carried out to examine the compost quality, maturity and nutritional levels of vermicompost and compost of Eichhornia. 50% Eichhorniacrassipes and 50% cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) and collected on different days' time intervals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra reveal the presence of humic substance from compost and vermicompost, which improves the soil fertility. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis shows maximum level of Benzene propanoic acid (95.98%) and by 2-Propanone, 1-Phenyl-, OXIM (10.10%) from vermicompost through earthworms activity. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) results reported high level of micronutrient from Eichhornia mediated compost and vermicompost. PMID:25068838

  6. Spectroscopic analysis of vermicompost for determination of nutritional quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash Kumar, M.; Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis has been carried out to examine the compost quality, maturity and nutritional levels of vermicompost and compost of Eichhornia. 50% Eichhorniacrassipes and 50% cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) and collected on different days' time intervals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra reveal the presence of humic substance from compost and vermicompost, which improves the soil fertility. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis shows maximum level of Benzene propanoic acid (95.98%) and by 2-Propanone, 1-Phenyl-, OXIM (10.10%) from vermicompost through earthworms activity. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) results reported high level of micronutrient from Eichhornia mediated compost and vermicompost.

  7. Vermicomposting of food waste: assessing the stability and maturity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The vermicompost using earthworms (Eisenia Fetida) was produced from food waste and chemical parameters (EC, pH, carbon to nitrogen contents (C/N)) and germination bioassay was examined in order to assess the stability and maturity indicators during the vermicomposting process. The seed used in the germination bioassay was cress. The ranges of EC, pH, C/N and germination index were 7.5-4.9 mS/cm, 5.6-7.53, 30.13-14.32% and 12.8-58.4%, respectively. The germination index (GI) value revealed that vermicompost rendered as moderate phytotoxic to cress seed. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between the parameters. High statistically significant correlation coefficient was calculated between the GI value and EC in the vermicompost at the 99% confidence level. The C/N value showed that the vermicompost was stable. As a result of these observations, stability test alone, was not able to ensure high vermicompost quality. Therefore, it appears that determining vermicompost quality requires a simultaneous use of maturity and stability tests. PMID:23369642

  8. Vermicomposting of food waste: assessing the stability and maturity.

    PubMed

    Majlessi, Monireh; Eslami, Akbar; Najafi Saleh, Hossein; Mirshafieean, Simin; Babaii, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The vermicompost using earthworms (Eisenia Fetida) was produced from food waste and chemical parameters (EC, pH, carbon to nitrogen contents (C/N)) and germination bioassay was examined in order to assess the stability and maturity indicators during the vermicomposting process. The seed used in the germination bioassay was cress. The ranges of EC, pH, C/N and germination index were 7.5-4.9 mS/cm, 5.6-7.53, 30.13-14.32% and 12.8-58.4%, respectively. The germination index (GI) value revealed that vermicompost rendered as moderate phytotoxic to cress seed. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between the parameters. High statistically significant correlation coefficient was calculated between the GI value and EC in the vermicompost at the 99% confidence level. The C/N value showed that the vermicompost was stable. As a result of these observations, stability test alone, was not able to ensure high vermicompost quality. Therefore, it appears that determining vermicompost quality requires a simultaneous use of maturity and stability tests. PMID:23369642

  9. Qualitative analysis of the stability of a continuous vermicomposting system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Enzhu; Liu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    A mathematical model was established to describe ecological relationships in a continuous vermicomposting system. The distributions of organic matter, microbes and earthworms on non-dimensional specific growth rates were simulated. The range of specific growth rates were visualized utilizing three-dimensional reconstruction technology. The stability of a vermicomposting system was not influenced by the initial concentrations of microbes and earthworms, only their species. The coordinates of the stable point depended on the dilution rate and initial amount of organic matter. The method described could be help for establishing a stable continuous vermicomposting system. PMID:23127841

  10. Nutrient recovery from apple pomace waste by vermicomposting technology.

    PubMed

    Hanc, Ales; Chadimova, Zuzana

    2014-09-01

    The present work was focused on vermicomposting apple pomace waste and its mixtures with straw in volume proportions of 25%, 50%, and 75%. The feasibility was evaluated on the basis of agrochemical properties and earthworm biomass. Vermicomposting was able to reduce the weight and volume of the feedstock by 65% and 85%, respectively. The resulting vermicomposts were characterized by slightly acidic to neutral pH (5.9-6.9), and optimal EC (1.6-4.4mS/cm) and C:N ratios (13-14). The total content of nutrients increased during vermicomposting for all of the treatments with the following average final values: N=2.8%, P=0.85%, K=2.3%, and Mg=0.38%. The addition of straw to apple pomace did not enhance earthworm biomass, but did increase the available content of nutrients during vermicomposting. The data reveals that vermicomposting is a suitable technology for the decomposition of apple pomace waste into a value added product. PMID:24582426

  11. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"…

  12. Feasibility of nutrient recovery from industrial sludge by vermicomposting technology.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V K

    2009-08-30

    Transformation of industrial sludges into vermicompost is of double interest: on the one hand, a waste is converted into value added product, and, on the other, it controls a pollutant that is a consequence of increasing industrialization. This paper reports the feasibility of utilization of vermicomposting technology for nutrient recovery from industrial sludge in laboratory scale experiment employing Eisenia fetida earthworm. A total of nine vermireactors, having different percentage of wastewater treatment plant sludge of a food industry and cow dung, were established and monitored for fertilizer quality of vermicompost and growth and fecundity of the earthworms for 3 months. The earthworms were unable to survive in 100% FIS. There was a decrease in pH, organic carbon content, organic matter, C:N ratio, and increase in ash content, EC, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content in all the vermireactors. Total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN) content increased in the range of 12.2-28.7 g kg(-1) in different vermireactors after vermicomposting. C:N ratio was 1.59-5.24 folds lesser in final vermicomposts than initial raw substrate. The heavy metals' content in final vermicomposts was higher than initial feed mixtures. Maximum worm biomass was observed in control, i.e., 100% CD (836 mg earthworm(-1)) and the lowest in 30% CD+70% FIS feed mixture (280 mg earthworm(-1)). Cocoon production was started during 6-7th week in all feed mixture except in feed mixture no. 9. After 12 weeks maximum cocoons (57) were counted in 100% CD and minimum (2) in 30% CD+70% FIS feed. The results indicated that food industry sludge could be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if mixed up to 30% with cow dung. PMID:19297091

  13. Microbiological characterization of vermicomposts by the method of multisubstrate testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, A. V.; Byzov, B. A.

    2008-11-01

    A new modification of the method of multisubstrate testing (MST, BIOLOG) is suggested. It is based on the kinetic description of bacterial growth on nutrient media during 50 h. The results of the MST represent a set of three parameters (the initial optical density, the maximum specific growth rate, and the maximum optical density) of an equation describing the growth of microbial communities on individual substrates. Methods of multivariate statistics (cluster and discriminant analyses) have been used to compare these parameters for 24 organic substrates. It is supposed that a more detailed description of the growth of microorganisms should improve the information capacity of the MST method. The effect of earthworms on vermicomposting has been studied experimentally with the MST method. An empirical rule allowing one to distinguish between vermicomposts and ordinary composts using the results of MST is suggested. Manure, earthy matter from the intestinal tracts of earthworms ( Eisenia andrei), and their coprolites have been subjected to MST. A functional similarity between manure and fresh coprolites has been found. Also, three different lots of industrial vermicomposts have been compared. The cluster analysis has demonstrated a significant difference between them. The clusters depend on the nature of the initial substrates used for preparing these vermicomposts. Thus, unification of the initial substrates used for composting is necessary to obtain standardized vermicomposts.

  14. The use of vermicompost in organic farming: overview, effects on soil and economics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Lim, Pei Nie; Shak, Katrina Pui Yee

    2015-04-01

    Vermicomposting is a process in which earthworms are used to convert organic materials into humus-like material known as vermicompost. A number of researchers throughout the world have found that the nutrient profile in vermicompost is generally higher than traditional compost. In fact, vermicompost can enhance soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Physically, vermicompost-treated soil has better aeration, porosity, bulk density and water retention. Chemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity and organic matter content are also improved for better crop yield. Nevertheless, enhanced plant growth could not be satisfactorily explained by improvements in the nutrient content of the soil, which means that other plant growth-influencing materials are available in vermicomposts. Although vermicomposts have been shown to improve plant growth significantly, the application of vermicomposts at high concentrations could impede growth due to the high concentrations of soluble salts available in vermicomposts. Therefore, vermicomposts should be applied at moderate concentrations in order to obtain maximum plant yield. This review paper discusses in detail the effects of vermicompost on soil fertility physically, chemically and biologically. Future prospects and economy on the use of organic fertilizers in the agricultural sector are also examined. PMID:25130895

  15. Management of food industry waste employing vermicomposting technology.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Suthar, S; Yadav, Anoop

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the vermicomposting of food industry sludges (FIS) mixed with different organic wastes employing Eisenia fetida. A total of 10 vermicomposting units containing different wastes combinations were established. After 15 weeks significant increase in total nitrogen (N(total)) (60-214%), total available phosphorous (P(avail)) (35.8-69.6%), total sodium (Na(total)) (39-95%), and total potassium (K(total)) (43.7-74.1%), while decrease in pH (8.45-19.7%), total organic carbon (OC(total)) (28.4-36.1%) and C:N ratio (61.2-77.8%) was recorded. The results indicated that FIS may be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if spiked with other organic wastes in appropriate quantities. PMID:22197330

  16. Agricultural use of leachates obtained from two different vermicomposting processes.

    PubMed

    Tejada, M; Gonzalez, J L; Hernandez, M T; Garcia, C

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the possible agricultural use of the vermicomposting process leachates. Two leachates coming, respectively, from the vermicomposting of cow dung (SCD) and the vermicomposting of green forages (SGF), as well as solution of Hewitt (C) were used at a dose of 1 ml 500 ml(-1) in the foliar fertilization of tomato plants. Treatments were applied 30, 60 and 90 days after planting (DAP). The obtained results showed that foliar fertilization with SCD and SGF increased the morphological and chemical parameters on tomato crop with respect to the plants receiving foliar treatment with SH and C, possibly due to the humic substances content in SCD and SGF. The higher content of humic substances in SGF with respect to the SCD are possibly the responsible of the higher chlorophyll contents observed in the plants receiving the former treatment. This aspect possibly promoted an increase in plant photosynthesis and therefore an increase in fruit quality. PMID:18215517

  17. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.

    1983-12-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

  18. The potential reuse of biodegradable municipal solid wastes (MSW) as feedstocks in vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Sim, Edwin Yih Shyang; Wu, Ta Yeong

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need globally to find alternative sustainable steps to treat municipal solid wastes (MSW) originated from mismanagement of urban wastes with increasing disposal cost. Furthermore, a conglomeration of ever-increasing population and consumerist lifestyle is contributing towards the generation of more MSW. In this context, vermicomposting offers excellent potential to promote safe, hygienic and sustainable management of biodegradable MSW. It has been demonstrated that, through vermicomposting, MSW such as city garbage, household and kitchen wastes, vegetable wastes, paper wastes, human faeces and others could be sustainably transformed into organic fertiliser or vermicompost that provides great benefits to agricultural soil and plants. Generally, earthworms are sensitive to their environment and require temperature, moisture content, pH and sometimes ventilation at proper levels for the optimum vermicomposting process. Apart from setting the optimum operational conditions for the vermicomposting process, other approaches such as pre-composting, inoculating micro-organisms into MSW and redesigning the conventional vermireactor could be introduced to further enhance the vermicomposting of MSW. Thus the present mini-review discusses the potential of introducing vermicomposting in MSW management, the benefits of vermicomposted MSW to plants, suggestions on how to enhance the vermicomposting of MSW as well as risk management in the vermicomposting of MSW. PMID:20718020

  19. Utilizing heavy metal-laden water hyacinth biomass in vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, Natalya N; Akimova, Elena E; Pisarchuk, Anna D; Yunusova, Tatyana V; Minaeva, Oksana M

    2015-05-01

    We studied the efficiency of water treatment by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu), as well as a possibility of using water hyacinth biomass obtained during treatment for vermicomposting by Eisenia fetida and the vermicompost quality in a model experiment. The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals in the trials with water hyacinth decreased within 35 days. We introduced water hyacinth biomass to the organic substrate for vermicomposting, which promoted a significant weight gain of earthworms and growth in their number, as well as a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in coprolite production. In the trial with 40 % of Eichhornia biomass in the mixture, we observed a 26-fold increase in the number and a 16-fold weight gain of big mature individuals with clitellum; an increase in the number of small individuals 40 times and in the number of cocoons 140 times, as compared to the initial substrate. The utilization of water hyacinth biomass containing heavy metals in the mixture led to a 10-fold increase in the number of adult individuals and cocoons, which was higher than in control. We found out that adding 10 % of Eichhornia biomass to the initial mixture affected slightly the number of microorganisms and their species diversity in the vermicompost. Adding Eichhornia biomass with heavy metals reduced the total number of microorganisms and sharply diminished their species diversity. In all trials, adding water hyacinth in the mixture for vermicomposting had a positive impact on wheat biometric parameters in a 14-day laboratory experiment, even in the trial with heavy metals. PMID:25501861

  20. [Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

  1. Waste recycling: utilization of coffee grounds and kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Adi, A J; Noor, Z M

    2009-01-01

    Vermicomposting using Lumbricus rubellus for 49 days was conducted after 21 days of pre-composting. Three different combination of treatments were prepared with eight replicates for each treatment namely cow dung: kitchen waste in 30:70 ratio (T(1)), cow dung: coffee grounds in 30:70 ratio (T(2)), and cow dung: kitchen waste: coffee grounds in 30:35:35 ratio (T(3)). The multiplication of earthworms in terms of numbers and weight were measured at the end of vermicomposting. Consequently, only T(2) showed significant increase (from it initial stage) compared to other treatments. The presence of coffee grounds in T(2) and T(3) showed higher percentage of nutrient elements in vermicompost produced. The data reveal that coffee grounds can be decomposed through vermicomposting and help to enhance the quality of vermicompost produced rather than sole use of kitchen waste in vermicomposting. PMID:18752936

  2. Speciation and transformation of heavy metals during vermicomposting of animal manure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of vermicomposting on the speciation and mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, and Cu) in cattle dung (CD) and pig manure (PM) using tessier sequential extraction method. Results showed that the pH, total organic carbon and C/N ratio were reduced, while the electric conductivity and humic acid increased after 90days vermicomposting. Moreover, the addition of earthworm could accelerate organic stabilization in vermicomposting. The total heavy metals in final vermicompost from CD and PM were higher than the initial values and the control without worms. Sequential extraction indicated that vermicomposting decreased the migration and availability of heavy metals, and the earthworm could reduce the mobile fraction, while increase the stable fraction of heavy metals. Furthermore, these results indicated that vermicomposting played a positive role in stabilizing heavy metals in the treatment of animal manure. PMID:26976060

  3. Feasibility of vermicomposting for vegetable greenhouse waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the feasibility of Eisenia andrei for vermicomposting heterogeneous-plant (HP), tomato-plant (P), and damaged tomato-fruit (T) greenhouse vegetable wastes. Earthworm growth and reproduction were monitored over a 12-week period, and variations in chemical parameters, enzyme activity, phytotoxicity test, and genetic fingerprinting of bacterial communities were evaluated. While high rates of salinity prevented earthworm survival in HP and P (>10 dS m(-1)), T was vermicomposted recording an adequate earthworm growth and cocoon production. The latter waste was successfully stabilized, as indicated by the significant decrease in its TOC content ( approximately 13-26%) and C:N ratio ( approximately 16-36%) and its high germination indices ( approximately 39-72%). The similar enzyme activities levels and bacterial community fingerprintings recorded in diverse vermicomposts obtained from T waste indicate that this type of waste favoured the existence of analogous bacterial communities responsible for the high degree of stabilization and maturity detected. PMID:20727739

  4. Influence of vermicomposting on solid wastes decomposition kinetics in soils.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid

    2007-10-01

    The effect of vermicomposting on kinetic behavior of the products is not well recognized. An incubation study was conducted to investigate C mineralization kinetics of cow manure, sugarcane filter cake and their vermicomposts. Two different soils were treated with the four solid wastes at a rate of 0.5 g solid waste C per kg soil with three replications. Soils were incubated for 56 d. The CO(2)-C respired was monitored periodically and a first-order kinetic model was used to calculate the kinetic parameters of C mineralization. Results indicated that the percentage of C mineralized during the incubation period ranged from 31.9% to 41.8% and 55.9% to 73.4% in the calcareous and acidic soils, respectively. The potentially mineralizable C (C(0)) of the treated soils was lower in the solid waste composts compared to their starting materials. Overall, it can be concluded that decomposable fraction of solid wastes has decreased due to vermicomposting. PMID:17910115

  5. Influence of vermicomposting on solid wastes decomposition kinetics in soils*

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid

    2007-01-01

    The effect of vermicomposting on kinetic behavior of the products is not well recognized. An incubation study was conducted to investigate C mineralization kinetics of cow manure, sugarcane filter cake and their vermicomposts. Two different soils were treated with the four solid wastes at a rate of 0.5 g solid waste C per kg soil with three replications. Soils were incubated for 56 d. The CO2-C respired was monitored periodically and a first-order kinetic model was used to calculate the kinetic parameters of C mineralization. Results indicated that the percentage of C mineralized during the incubation period ranged from 31.9% to 41.8% and 55.9% to 73.4% in the calcareous and acidic soils, respectively. The potentially mineralizable C (C 0) of the treated soils was lower in the solid waste composts compared to their starting materials. Overall, it can be concluded that decomposable fraction of solid wastes has decreased due to vermicomposting. PMID:17910115

  6. Evaluation of vermicompost maturity using scanning electron microscopy and paper chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, D; Satheesh Kumar, P; Rajendran, N M; Uthaya Kumar, V; Anbuganapathi, G

    2014-04-01

    Vermicompost was produced from flower waste inoculated with biofertilizers using the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were carried out on the basis of physicochemical parameters of vermicomposted samples. From the results of the PCA and CA, it was possible to classify two different groups of vermicompost samples in the following categories: E2 and E5; and E1, E3, E4, and control. Scanning electron microscopy and biodynamic circular paper chromatography analysis were used to investigate the changes in surface morphology and functional groups in the control and vermicompost products. SEM analysis of E1-E5 shows more fragment and pores than the control. Chromatographic analysis of vermicompost indicated the mature condition of the compost materials. PMID:24634991

  7. Changes in labile phosphorus forms during maturation of vermicompost enriched with phosphorus-solubilizing and diazotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Busato, Jader G; Lima, Lívia S; Aguiar, Natália O; Canellas, Luciano P; Olivares, Fábio L

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of N(2)-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria during maturation of vermicompost on phosphorus availability. A bacterial suspension containing Burkholderia silvatlantica, Burkholderia spp. and Herbaspirillum seropedicae was applied at the initial stage of vermicomposting. At the end of the incubation time (120days), the nitrogen content had increased by18% compared to uninoculated vermicompost. Water-soluble P was 106% higher in inoculated vermicompost while resin-extractable P increased during the initial vermicomposting stage and was 21% higher at 60days, but was the same in inoculated and uninoculated mature compost. The activity of acid phosphatase was 43% higher in inoculated than uninoculated vermicompost. These data suggest that the introduction of the mixed culture had beneficial effects on vermicompost maturation. PMID:22342081

  8. Re-use of invasive plants (water hyacinth) as organic fertilizer through composting and vermicomposting (Extremadura, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Moreno, Marta M.

    2015-04-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive plant that is native of the Amazon basin and whose capacity for growth and propagation causes major conservation problems with considerable socioeconomic repercussions. The greatest damage due to its fast expansion has been in the middle reaches of the River Guadiana in the SW Iberian Peninsula, where was detected in the Autumn of 2004. Due to its rapid expansion, mechanical extraction was carried out by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (CHG) of Spain's Ministry of the Environment since the affected zone is an important area of irrigation farming and hydraulic works and this alien plant weed provoked acute social alarm (Ruiz et al., 2008). In this work we used composting and vermicomposting techniques as an environmental alternative to assess the possibilities of biotransformation of the water hyacinth biomass removed mechanically from the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Four compost piles 1.5 x 10 m size, mechanically tumbled and with no forced ventilation (turning windrows system), were constructed outdoor. Each compost pile was considered as a different treatment: CC1: fresh water hyacinth / wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC2: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC3: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (2:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2) to favor the composting process; CC4: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2). The vermicomposting process was performed on mesh coated wooden boxes (0.34 m3) covered with a shadow mesh with the aim of harmonizing the environmental conditions. The quantities of water hyacinth biomass used were identical in volume (120 l) but with different state or composition: fresh and chopped biomass (VCF); dry and chopped biomass (VCS); fresh and pre-composted biomass with sheep manure rich in wheat straw (VCP). Identical worm density, irrigation type (microaspersion), irrigation period and vermicomposting process duration (four months) were adopted. Phytotoxicity tests were performed on Lactuca sativa cv. "cuatro estaciones" with the aim of finding the appropriate concentrations to be incorporated to the soil. The composting process required water hyacinth to be crushed, because only chopping made the process very slow. The greatest effectiveness was observed with the vermicomposting trials. In the phytotoxicity tests, the vermicompost extracts did not cause any toxicity at any of the concentrations studied; however, compost extracts obtained in CC1 and CC3 caused problems in root development. Key words: composting, vermicomposting, water hyacinth. References Ruiz T., Martín de Rodrigo E., Lorenzo G., Albano E., Morán R., Sánchez J.M. 2008. The Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions Volume 3, Issue 1: 42-53.

  9. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses. PMID:21882707

  10. Effects of combined composting and vermicomposting of waste sludge on arsenic fate and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ma?áková, Blanka; Kuta, Jan; Svobodová, Markéta; Hofman, Jakub

    2014-09-15

    Composting and vermicomposting are traditional processes for the treatment of sludge. During these processes, the humification of organic matter has a significant effect on the physicochemical form and distribution of heavy metals. In this study, industrial sludge (groundwater treatment waste) contaminated by arsenic (396 ± 1 mg kg(-1)) was used. Such sludge poses a significant challenge with respect to effective treatment. Composting, vermicomposting (with Eisenia fetida), and the combined approach of composting and vermicomposting were performed to determine the evolution of arsenic speciation, mobility and bioavailability. The composting/vermicomposting was done with sludge, horse manure, and grass in the ratios of 3:6:1. A solution of 0.1M NH4COOCH3 was used as a single extraction solvent for determination of the mobile arsenic pool and targeted arsenic species (As(III), As(V), monomethylarsenic acid - MMA(V), dimethylarsenic acid - DMA(V)). The analysis of arsenic in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-ICP-MS spectrometry. In addition, the earthworm species E. fetida was used for bioaccumulation tests that followed the compost and vermicompost processes. The obtained results indicate a reduction in arsenic mobility and bioavailability in all matured composts and vermicomposts. The combined process exhibited a greater effect than compost or vermicompost alone. PMID:25209831

  11. Effects of a precomposting step on the vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mupondi, Lushian T; Mnkeni, Pearson N S; Muchaonyerwa, Pardon

    2011-02-01

    Thermophilic composting is being promoted as a means of sanitizing waste materials prior to vermicomposting. The precomposting duration is, however, critical to the success of the vermicomposting phase as it affects worm biomass. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different precomposting periods (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) on the sanitization and vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures. The parameters measured were coliform bacteria and protozoa oocyst numbers, earthworm growth, as well as stabilization and nutrient content of vermicomposts. Over 95% of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and of E. coli 0157 were eliminated from the waste materials within 1 week of precomposting and total elimination of these and protozoan oocysts was achieved after 3 weeks of precomposting. Microbial biomass carbon and water soluble carbon of waste mixtures decreased with increase in precomposting time and impacted negatively on earthworm growth and subsequent stabilization of the dairy manure-paper waste mixtures. Vermicomposts from waste mixtures precomposted for over 2 weeks were less stabilized, less humified and had lower nutrient contents than vermicomposts from waste mixtures precomposted for 1 week or less. A precomposting period of 1 week was found to be ideal for the effective vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures. PMID:20421247

  12. Feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids using a modified system to avoid earthworm mortality.

    PubMed

    Nogales, R; Elvira, C; Benítez, E; Thompson, R; Gomez, M

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids (dairy sludge), either alone or with either of the bulking agents-cereal straw or wood shavings, using the epigeic earthworm-Eisinea andrei. Earthworms added directly to these three substrates died within 48 hours. A system was developed to overcome the toxic effect of unprocessed dairy biosolids. The substrates were placed over a layer of vermicomposted sheep manure into which the earthworms were inoculated. Within two weeks, all earthworms were within the upper layer of substrate. Compared to sheep manure which is a favourable substrate for vermicomposting, the three substrates containing dairy biosolids were more effective in supporting earthworm growth and reproduction. The final products obtained after 63 days of vermicomposting had 39-53% less organic carbon than the initial substrates. Organic fractionation indicated that vermicomposting increased the stability of the materials to biological decomposition. The vermicomposts obtained from the three substrates with dairy biosolids had low heavy metal contents and electrical conductivities, and did not inhibit plant growth when compared with a commercial vermicompost in a bioassay. PMID:10048210

  13. Characterization of Matured Vermicompost Derived from Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Byproduct.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong

    2016-03-01

    The valorization process involves transforming low-value materials such as wastes into high-value-added products. The current study aims to determine the potential of using a valorization process such as vermicomposting technology to convert palm oil mill byproduct, namely, decanter cake (DC), into organic fertilizer or vermicompost. The maturity of the vermicompost was characterized through various chemical and instrumental characterization to ensure the end product was safe and beneficial for agricultural application. The vermicomposting of DC showed significantly higher nutrient recovery and decreases in C:N ratio in comparison with the controls, particularly in the treatment with 2 parts DC and 1 part rice straw (w/w) (2DC:1RS). 2DC:1RS vermicompost had a final C:N ratio of 9.03 ± 0.12 and reasonably high levels of calcium (1.13 ± 0.05 g/kg), potassium (25.47 ± 0.32 g/kg), magnesium (4.87 ± 0.19 g/kg), sodium (7.40 ± 0.03 g/kg), and phosphorus (3.62 ± 0.27 g/kg). In addition, instrumental characterization also revealed a higher degree of maturity in the vermicompost. Ratios of 2921:1633 and DTG2:DTG3 also showed significant linear correlations with the C:N ratio, implying that those ratios could be used to characterize the progression of vermicompost maturity during the valorization process of DC. PMID:26844586

  14. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  15. Copper, nickel and zinc accumulations in lettuce grown in soil amended with contaminated cattle manure vermicompost after sequential cultivations.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Cláudio P; de Andrade, Renato P; Cotta, Aloísio J B; Cecon, Paulo R; Neves, Júlio C L; Fontes, Mauricio P F; Fernandes, Raphael B A

    2013-01-01

    The Cu, Ni and Zn accumulations in leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) grown in soil amended with natural and contaminated cattle manure vermicompost were evaluated. The vermicompost residues containing relatively high metal concentrations used in this work were obtained from a previous experiment, in which vermicompost was applied to removing metals from electroplating wastes. Sequential lettuce cultivations were conducted in pots containing the residual substrates from the first cultivation by adding metal-enriched vermicompost residues. In general, the Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations in leaves and roots of lettuce plants grown in vermicompost enriched with these metals were higher than in the treatment using the natural vermicompost. The metal concentrations in leaves from treatments with natural vermicompost were below the critical concentrations of toxicity to plants. However, the metal concentrations in leaves of the third cultivation in which metal-enriched vermicompost was applied were greater than the upper limit that causes plant toxicity, but no visual damage was observed in the plants. Treatment with Zn-enriched vermicompost resulted in toxicity symptoms, but plant damage did not result in the death of the plant. The chemical fractionation of Cu, Ni and Zn in residues from lettuce cultivation was evaluated by using a sequential extraction procedure and metal concentrations were increased in the different chemical fractions according to the increase of vermicompost dose. PMID:23837328

  16. Use of DGGE and COMPOCHIP for investigating bacterial communities of various vermicomposts produced from different wastes under dissimilar conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Insam, Heribert; Romero, Esperanza; Goberna, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and COMPOCHIP (i.e. a microarray targeting typical bacteria of stabilized organic materials and pathogenic bacteria) for investigating the bacterial communities of four different vermicomposts. These included a commercial vermicompost produced from cattle manure (CM) and three vermicomposts produced at pilot-scale by recycling: damaged tomato fruits (DT); olive-mill waste mixed with biosolids (OB); and winery wastes (WW). DGGE provided distinctive fingerprints of each vermicompost, which were statistically related to their particular chemical features. The comparison of the various vermicompost fingerprints showed that they contained bacterial communities with an average similarity coefficient of close to 80%. COMPOCHIP detected the presence of Sphingobacterium, Streptomyces, Alpha-Proteobacteria, Delta-Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes in all the vermicomposts. COMPOCHIP showed differences in the abundance of particular bacterial taxa among the vermicomposts, giving an idea about the usefulness of each vermicompost in the search for bacteria valuable to biotechnology. The joint use of DGGE and COMPOCHIP is a useful tool to compare vermicompost bacterial communities and to assess the potential of different vermicomposts as bioactive organic materials. PMID:22154215

  17. Vermicomposting of Solid Waste Using Local and Exotic Earthworms: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Amit, Krishan; Ajit, Kumar; Arthanareeswari, M; Kamaraj, P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the decomposition efficiency of earthworms, local (L.mauritii) as well as exotic (Eisenia foetida) in vermicomposting of garden litter in SRM University campus. The vermicompost produced through vermicomposting of garden litter mixed with cow dung in the ratio of 3:1 by using local and exotic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) was rich in ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus, total potassium and TKN, and there was a reduction in total organic carbon and carbon to nitrogen ratio. The study reveals that the decomposition efficiency of exotic earthworms is better compared to local earthworms. PMID:26563089

  18. Hygienic quality of faeces treated in urine diverting vermicomposting toilets.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia H; Hill, Geoffrey B; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-11-01

    On-site sanitation solutions have gained much interest in recent years. One such solution is the urine diverting vermicomposting toilet (UDVT). This study evaluated the hygienic quality of the composted material in six UDVTs in operation in France. Samples were taken from three sampling positions in each toilet, with increasing distance from the fresh material. The concentration of Salmonella spp., Enterococcus spp., thermotolarent coliforms and coliphages were analysed and plotted against a number of variables. The variables found to have the greatest impact was the pH (for Enterococcus spp. and thermotolarent coliforms (TTC)) and time since last maintenance (coliphages). The pH was found to correlate with the material maturity. The current practise of maintenance can cause recontamination of the stabilised material and increase the risk of regrowth of pathogenic microorganisms. A modification in the maintenance procedure, in which a fourth maturation point is introduced, would eliminate this risk. UDVTs were found to be a good on-site sanitation option as the maintenance requirement is small and the system effectively reduced odour and concentration of pathogen and indicator organisms in human waste while keeping the accumulation of material down to a minimum. If the vermicompost is to be used for crops consumed raw, an additional sanitisation step is recommended. PMID:23932466

  19. Role of vermicompost chemical composition, microbial functional diversity, and fungal community structure in their microbial respiratory response to three pesticides.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Insam, Heribert; Romero, Esperanza; Goberna, Marta

    2011-10-01

    The relationships between vermicompost chemical features, enzyme activities, community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs), fungal community structures, and its microbial respiratory response to pesticides were investigated. Fungal community structure of vermicomposts produced from damaged tomato fruits (DT), winery wastes (WW), olive-mill waste and biosolids (OB), and cattle manure (CM) were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rDNA. MicroResp™ was used for assessing vermicompost CLPPs and testing the microbial response to metalaxyl, imidacloprid, and diuron. Vermicompost enzyme activities and CLPPs indicated that WW, OB, and DT had higher microbial functional diversity than CM. The microbiota of the former tolerated all three pesticides whereas microbial respiration in CM was negatively affected by metalaxyl and imidacloprid. The response of vermicompost microbiota to the fungicide metalaxyl was correlated to its fungal community structure. The results suggest that vermicomposts with higher microbial functional diversity can be useful for the management of pesticide pollution in agriculture. PMID:21865033

  20. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition. PMID:26139410

  1. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of water extractable organic matter during vermicomposting of cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Qi, Wensheng; Lu, Yongsen

    2013-03-01

    This work illustrated the characteristics and transformation of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) during vermistabilization (Eisenia fetida) of cattle dung by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The independent experiment conducted in triplicate was sampled at the 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 60 and 90days. Results showed that the DOC kept steady around 2.7gkg(-1) after day 60 and the DOC/DON ratio decreased from 19.77 to 5.26 till the end of vermicomposting. On the other hand, vermicomposting decreased the aliphatic, proteinaceous, carbohydrates components and increased the aromaticity and oxygen-containing functional groups in the WEOM. Moreover, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) results indicated that protein-like groups were degraded and fulvic and humic acid-like compounds were evolved during the vermicomposting process. In all, this study suggested the suitability of WEOM for monitoring the organics transformation and assessing the maturity in the vermicomposting. PMID:23416619

  2. Dynamics of microbial communities related to biochemical parameters during vermicomposting and maturation of agroindustrial lignocellulose wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    Scarce information is available on the changes in abundance of microbial taxa during vermicomposting. Quantitative PCR and DGGE analysis were used to monitor variations in the microbial structure, relative abundance of four bacterial classes and fungi over the vermicomposting and maturation period of wet olive cake (O) and vine shoots (W). Multivariate correlation analysis between microbial structure and abundance, earthworm biomass and enzyme activities revealed similar and divergent interactions in both processes. Although Eisenia fetida development was different, significant correlations were found with ?-glucosidase activity and with bacterial and fungal structure. In the vermicomposting period of O and W, a decline was found in bacteria (94% and 77%), fungi (93% and 94%), and Gammaproteobacteria (56% and 71%) but an increase in Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria (62-79%). Alphaproteobacteria increased only in O (26%). Despite the different initial lignocellulose wastes, the mature vermicomposts were similar in microbial and biochemical properties. PMID:23948272

  3. Vermicomposting of industrially produced woodchips and sewage sludge utilizing Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Maboeta, M S; van Rensburg, L

    2003-10-01

    Adult Eisenia fetida were used to vermicompost woodchips (WC) and sewage sludge (SS) that are produced as waste product by platinum mines. The aims of the study were to examine the growth and reproductive success of the worms over 84 days to determine long-term feasibility of large-scale implementation and monitor the bioconcentration of heavy metals and the effects of microorganisms inoculation to quantify possible environmental implications. Results revealed that there were no effects on growth (P>0.05), reproductive success decreased (P<0.05), and aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) were bioconcentrated (P<0.05) in the treatment groups without an inoculate. Earthworms in the treatment group with the microorganism inoculate manifested no effects on growth or reproductive success and did not accumulate Al, Cu, and Ni. It is concluded that the only economically feasible way to bioconvert WC and SS to a potential ameliorant of platinum mine tailings would be with the addition of a microorganism inoculate. PMID:12927558

  4. Impact of imidacloprid residues on the development of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of greenhouse plant waste.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2011-09-15

    Pesticide application in agriculture causes residues in post-harvest plant waste at different concentrations. Knowledge concerning how pesticide concentrations in such waste affect earthworms is essential for recycling greenhouse plant debris through vermicomposting. Here, we have evaluated the effects of imidacloprid (IMD) residues on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) during the vermicomposting of plant waste from greenhouse crops in Spain. Before, the effect of different IMD concentrations on earthworms was tested using cattle manure as an optimum waste for worm development. The results after using cattle manure indicate that IMD dose ? 5 mg kg(-1) hinders worm growth and even causes death, whereas IMD dose ? 2 mg IMD kg(-1) allows worm growth similar to control but impedes reproduction. The results from the vermicomposting of plant waste reveal that IMD inhibits adequate worm growth and increases mortality. Although 89% worms became sexually mature in substrate containing 2 mg IMD kg(-1), they did not produce cocoons. IMD also affected microorganisms harboured in the substrates for vermicomposting, as indicated by the reduction in their dehydrogenase activity. This enzyme activity was restored after vermicomposting. This study provides a sound basis for the vermicomposting of pesticide-contaminated plant waste. PMID:21775059

  5. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bachman, G R; Metzger, J D

    2008-05-01

    Vermicompost has been promoted as a viable alternative container media component for the horticulture industry. The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of vermicompost at different points in the production cycle of tomato, marigold, pepper, and cornflower. The incorporation of vermicompost of pig manure origin into germination media up to 20% v/v enhanced shoot and root weight, leaf area, and shoot:root ratios of both tomato and French marigold seedlings; however amendment with vermicompost had little influence on pepper and cornflower seedling growth. Moreover there was no effect on the germination of seed of any species. When seedlings of tomato, French marigold, and cornflower were transplanted into 6-cell packs there was greater plant growth in media amended with vermicompost compared to the control media, and the greatest growth when vermicompost was amended into both the germination and transplant media. This effect was increased when seedlings in the transplant media were irrigated with water containing fertilizer. PMID:17689243

  6. Towards understanding the stabilization process in vermicomposting using PARAFAC analysis of fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian; Xiang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was employed to trace the behavior of water extractable organic matter and assess the stabilization process during vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cattle dung. Experiments using different mixing ratios of sewage sludge and cattle dung were conducted using Eisenia fetida. The results showed that vermicomposting reduced the DOC, DOC/DON ratio and ammonia, while increased the nitrate content. A three-component model containing two humic-like materials (components 1 and 2) and a protein-like material (component 3) was successfully developed using PARAFAC analysis. Moreover, the initial waste composition had a significant effect on the distribution of each component and the addition of cattle dung improved the stability of sewage sludge in vermicomposting. The PARAFAC results also indicated that protein-like materials were degraded and humic acid-like compounds were evolved during vermicomposting. Pearson correlation analysis showed that components 2 and 3 are more suitable to assess vermicompost maturity than component 1. In all, EEM-PARAFAC can be used to track organic transformation and assess biological stability during the vermicomposting process. PMID:25068534

  7. Reduction of bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during vermicomposting of water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2013-12-01

    Vermicomposting of water hyacinth is a good alternative for the treatment of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and subsequentially, beneficial for agriculture purposes. The bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) were evaluated during vermicomposting of E. crassipes employing Eisenia fetida earthworm. Five different proportions (trials 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of cattle manure, water hyacinth, and sawdust were prepared for the vermicomposting process. Results show that very poor biomass growth of earthworms was observed in the highest proportion of water hyacinth (trial 1). The water soluble, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable, and leachable heavy metals concentration (percentage of total heavy metals) were reduced significantly in all trials except trial 1. The total concentration of some metals was low but its water soluble and DTPA extractable fractions were similar or more than other metals which were present in higher concentration. This study revealed that the toxicity of metals depends on bioavailable fraction rather than total metal concentration. Bioavailable fraction of metals may be toxic for plants and soil microorganisms. The vermicomposting of water hyacinth by E. fetida was very effective for reduction of bioavailability and leachability of selected heavy metals. Leachability test confirmed that prepared vermicompost is not hazardous for soil, plants, and human health. The feasibility of earthworms to mitigate the metal toxicity and to enhance the nutrient profile in water hyacinth vermicompost might be useful in sustainable land renovation practices at low-input basis. PMID:23757026

  8. Changes in microbial dynamics during vermicomposting of fresh and composted sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Pérez-Díaz, Domingo; Mato, Salustiano

    2016-02-01

    Municipal sewage sludge is a waste with high organic load generated in large quantities that can be treated by biodegradation techniques to reduce its risk to the environment. This research studies vermicomposting and vermicomposting after composting of sewage sludge with the earthworm specie Eisenia andrei. In order to determine the effect that earthworms cause on the microbial dynamics depending on the treatment, the structure and activity of the microbial community was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis and enzyme activities, during 112days of vermicomposting of fresh and composted sewage sludge, with and without earthworms. The presence of earthworms significantly reduced microbial biomass and all microbial groups (Gram+ bacteria, Gram- bacteria and fungi), as well as cellulase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Combined composting-vermicomposting treatment showed a lesser development of earthworms, higher bacterial and fungal biomass than vermicomposting treatment and greater differences, compared with the control without earthworms, in cellulase, β-glucosidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. Both treatments were suitable for the stabilization of municipal sewage sludge and the combined composting-vermicomposting treatment can be a viable process for maturation of fresh compost. PMID:26489796

  9. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. PMID:25728090

  10. Recycling of lime sludge emanating from tannery industry through vermicomposting using Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Subash, Anitha; Gomathi, M; Kanagavalli, M; Sindhiya, D

    2012-07-01

    The research was focused on the control of pollution, which is caused due to tannery waste disposal, through the process of vermicomposting. Earthworms have increasingly been used for waste management. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to recycle the lime sludge emanating from a selected tannery industry through vermicomposting. Tannery solid waste was allowed to compost for 60 days, and then the composts were harvested and analyzed for selected physio-chemical and biochemical parameters. A flowering plant namely Tagets erecta Linn was grown in soil mixed with the vermicomposts obtained, and was studied for its growth attributes and compared with the control plant growth on soil alone. The attributes studied were biometric parameters, like root length, shoot length, plant height, plant weight, number of leaves, flowers and buds. The alkaline nature of the lime sludge was reduced to neutral range on vermicomposting. The electrical conductivity of the lime sludge was also reduced on vermicomposting which might be due to the transformation of complex organic compounds into simpler forms. The biochemical parameters, such as nitrogen and carbon were also reduced on vermicomposting. PMID:24749206

  11. Feasibility of utilization of horse dung spiked filter cake in vermicomposters using exotic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Pritam; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2008-05-01

    This contribution reports the potential of vermicomposting technology in the management of horse dung (HD) spiked sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida under laboratory conditions. A total of six vermicomposters filled with different ratios of HD and SMFC were maintained for this study. The growth and fecundity of E. foetida was monitored for 12 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 90% HD+10% SMFC feed mixture containing vermicomposter. Earthworms' biomass gain and reproduction was favorably up to 50% HD+50% SMFC feed composition. Maximum cocoons were also recorded in 90% HD+10% SMFC feed mixtures, however increasing proportions of SMFC in different vermicomposters affected the growth and fecundity of worms. A significant decrease in C:N ratio and increase in total kjeldahl nitrogen, total available phosphorus and calcium contents was recorded. The heavy metals content was higher in the vermicompost obtained in all the reactors than initial feed substrates. Based on investigations it is concluded that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of filter cake if it is mixed in 1:1 ratio with horse dung. PMID:17574845

  12. Impact of Parthenium weeds on earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Rajendran, Venckatesh

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Parthenium-mediated compost on Eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. Nine different concentrations of Parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. The earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. The antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the biochemical and oxidative stresses due to the toxin from Parthenium weeds. The earthworms' growth, biomass gain, cocoon production and antioxidant enzymes were in a low level in a high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results clearly indicated that appropriate mixing of P. hysterophorus quantity is an essential factor for the survival of earthworms without causing any harm. PMID:24938809

  13. Vermicomposting of milk processing industry sludge spiked with plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Singh, Sushma

    2012-07-01

    This work illustrates the vermistabilization of wastewater sludge from a milk processing industry (MPIS) unit spiked with cow dung (CD), sugarcane trash (ST) and wheat straw (WS) employing earthworms Eisenia fetida. A total of nine experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P and exchangeable K. The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+ST (30%) and MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+WS (30%) had better waste mineralization rate among waste mixtures studied. The earthworm showed better biomass and cocoon numbers in all vermibeds during vermicomposting operation. Results, thus suggest the suitability of E. fetida for conversion of noxious industrial waste into value-added product for land restoration programme. PMID:22609678

  14. Heavy metal behavior and dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterization of vermicomposted pig manure amended with rice straw.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiqin; Yao, Wu; Zhang, Zhi; Wu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    Vermicomposting is an eco-friendly method for disposing of livestock and poultry manure. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) can serve as a carrier that enhances the migration and transformation of heavy metals. Here, pig manure amended with rice straw was vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida. The DOM content, molecular weight distribution, and spectroscopic properties of the amended pig manure were measured before and after vermicomposting. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the earthworms increased from 8.24 and 17.63 to 40.75 and 362.78 mg/kg separately after vermicomposting, and the earthworms also increased the heavy metal availability in the vermicompost. Relative to the DOM properties of conventional compost, the DOM molecular weight decreased and varied widely following vermicomposting, and the C/N ratio of the DOM in the vermicompost treatments decreased from 10.37 to 8.60. The Fourier transform far-infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectra of the DOM indicated that the amounts of oxygen-containing structures increased while the ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid decreased following vermicomposting. Accordingly, the earthworms augmented the heavy metal mitigation risk in the pig manure. This augment potentially resulted from the decreased humic acid-to-fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratio from DOM structural changes. PMID:24958537

  15. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: Reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung.

  16. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung. PMID:23998948

  17. Towards understanding the effects of additives on the vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Lv, Baoyi; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    This work evaluated the effects of additives on the chemical properties of the final products (vermicompost) from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and the adaptable characteristics of Eisenia fetida during the process. An experimental design with different ratios of sewage sludge and the additives (cattle dung or pig manure) was conducted. The results showed that the vermicomposting reduced total organic carbon and the quotient of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N ratio) of the initial mixtures and enhanced the stability and agronomical value of the final products. Notably, principal component analysis indicated that the additives had significant effects on the characteristics of the vermicomposts. Moreover, the vermibeds containing cattle dung displayed a better earthworm growth and reproduction than those with pig manure. Additionally, redundancy analysis demonstrated that electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N ratio played crucial roles on earthworm growth and reproduction. In all, the additives with high C/N ratio, pH buffering capacity, and low EC are recommended to be used for vermicomposting of sewage sludge. PMID:25328094

  18. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a vineyard soil amended with grape marc vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Vineyard soils in many areas suffer from low organic matter contents, which can be the cause of negative effects such as increasing the risk of erosion, so the use of organic amendments must be considered a good agricultural practice. Even more, if grape marc is recycled as a soil amendment in the vineyards, benefits from a good waste management strategy are also obtained. In the present study, a grape marc from the wine region of Valdeorras (north-west Spain) was used for the production of vermicompost, and this added to a vineyard soil of the same area in a laboratory study. Mixtures of soil and grape marc vermicompost (2 and 4%, dry weight) were incubated for ten weeks at 25°C and the mineralization of C and N studied. The respiration data were fitted to a first-order kinetic model. The rates of grape marc vermicompost which should be added to the vineyard soil in order to maintain the initial levels of organic matter were estimated from the laboratory data, and found to be 1.7?t?ha(-1)?year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if the present mean temperature is considered) and 2.1?t?ha(-1)?year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if a 2°C increment in temperature is considered), amounts which could be obtained recycling the grape marc produced in the exploitation. PMID:20837558

  19. Insight into the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Lv, Baoyi; Zhang, Jie; Xing, Meiyan

    2014-02-01

    This work illustrated the effects of earthworm in vermicomposting (Eisenia fetida) by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods. A field experiment with sludge as the only feed was subjected to vermicomposting and the control (without worms) for three weeks. Compared to the control, vermicomposting resulted in lower pH and water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) along with higher electrical conductivity (EC). Moreover, vermicomposting caused nearly two times higher content of water-extractable nitrate (WEN-NO3(-)) than the control. Furthermore, fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) revealed that vermicomposting promoted the hydrolysis/transformation of macromolecular organic matters and accelerated the degradation of polysaccharide-like and protein-like materials. Fluorescence spectroscopy also reflected vermicomposting led to higher humification degree than the control. In all, this study supplies a new view to assess the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by evaluating the water extracts. PMID:24384315

  20. Impact of fly ash and phosphatic rock on metal stabilization and bioavailability during sewage sludge vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longmian; Zhang, Yimin; Lian, Jianjun; Chao, Jianying; Gao, Yuexiang; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Leiyan

    2013-05-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) was mixed with different proportions of fly ash (FA) and phosphoric rock (PR), as passivators, and earthworms, Eisenia fetida, were introduced to allow vermicomposting. The earthworm growth rates, reproduction rates, and metal (except Zn and Cd) concentrations were significantly higher in the vermireactors containing FA and PR than in the treatments without passivators. The total organic carbon (TOC) and total metal concentrations in the mixtures decreased, and the mixtures were brought to approximately pH 7 during vermicomposting. There were significant differences in the decreases in the metal bioavailability factors (BFs) between the passivator and control treatments, and adding 20% FA (for Cu and Zn) or 20% PR (for Pb, Cd, and As) to the vermicompost were the most effective treatments for mitigating metal toxicity. The BF appeared to be dependent on TOC in the all treatments, but was not closely dependent on pH in the different vermibeds. PMID:23567692

  1. Changes of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium content during storage of vermicomposts prepared from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Powell, Michael; Bhattacharyya, P; Banik, P

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the optimum storage time for vermicompost without significant loss of nutrients; nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K). Cattle manure, paddy straw, municipal solid wastes, and fly ash were used for vermicompost preparations. The dynamics of N, P, and K in the vermicomposts were studied during 180 days of incubation at 28-32 °C. In general, N concentration increased in the first 90-105 days of incubation and then gradually decreased until the 180th day while P and K concentrations steadily decreased over the length of the study, with the rate of loss leveling off after 150 days. The rate of nutrient loss was directly related to the initial level, decreasing the fastest for the nutrients with the highest initial concentrations. Optimum storage times were substrate and N dependent. PMID:25208521

  2. Vermicomposting of mixed solid textile mill sludge and cow dung with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Priya; Garg, V K

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida of solid textile mill sludge mixed with cow dung in different ratios in a 90 days composting experiment. Vermicomposting resulted in significant reduction in C:N ratio and increase in TKN. Total K and Ca were lower in the final cast than the initial feed mixture. Microbial activity measured as dehydrogenase activity increased up to 75 days and decreased on further incubation. Total P was higher in the final product than the initial feed mixture. Total heavy metal contents were lower in the final product than initial feed mixture. Solid textile mill sludge can be potentially useful as raw substrate in vermicomposting if mixed with up to 30% cow dung (on dry weight basis). The growth and cocoon production of the worm species in different feed mixtures were also investigated. PMID:14575954

  3. Changes of bacterial and fungal community compositions during vermicomposting of vegetable wastes by Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Chen, Xuemin; Fu, Xiaoyong

    2013-12-01

    Changes of bacterial and fungal community during vermicomposting of vegetable wastes by hatchling, juvenile and adult Eisenia foetida were investigated through analysis of the extracted bacterial 16S rDNA and fungal 18S rDNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing. After 60days of composting, significantly lower values of microbial activity and bacterial and fungal densities were revealed in the products of composting with earthworms than in the control (without earthworms). PCR-DGGE images showed vermicomposting significantly enhanced the diversities of bacterial and fungal communities. However, for their structures, sequencing results revealed that, compared to the control where the bacterial Firmicutes were predominant, in the composts with earthworms, the bacterial Bacteroidetes and Actinomycetes, and the fungal Sordariomycetes were found dominant. In addition, some beneficial species of bacteria and fungi against pathogens were also isolated from the vermicomposting products. PMID:24177156

  4. Molecular characteristics of humic acids isolated from vermicomposts and their relationship to bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Balmori, Dariellys; Spaccini, Riccardo; Aguiar, Natália Oliveira; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Olivares, Fábio Lopes; Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto

    2014-11-26

    Vermitechnology is an effective composting method, which transforms biomass into nutrient-rich organic fertilizer. Mature vermicompost is a renewable organic product containing humic substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical characteristics and the bioactivity of humic acids isolated from different vermicomposts produced with either cattle manure, sugar cane bagasse, sunflower cake from seed oil extraction, or filter cake from a sugar cane factory. More than 200 different molecules were found, and it was possible to identify chemical markers on humic acids according to the nature of the organic source. The large hydrophobic character of humic extracts and the preservation of altered lignin derivatives confer to humic acids the ability to induce lateral root emergence in maize seedlings. Humic acid-like substances extracted from plant biomass residues represent an additional valuable product of vermicomposting that can be used as a plant growth promoter. PMID:25379603

  5. Vermicomposting in the management of pig-waste in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, S H; Griffiths, D A

    1991-11-01

    The treatment and disposal of pig-waste in Hong Kong has received much attention in recent years but, following any of the presently used treatment processes, solids remain to be further stabilized. Vermicomposting is a waste stabilization technique which converts waste into potentially recyclable materials such as worm protein and worm casts. The earthworm, Pheretima asiatica, can stabilize most of the solids arising from the treatment of pig-waste, including raw pig manure, suggesting that vermicomposting has a high potential as a unit process in the management of pig-waste in Hong Kong. PMID:24425272

  6. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  7. Vermicomposting eliminates the toxicity of Lantana (Lantana camara) and turns it into a plant friendly organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Hussain, N; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2015-11-15

    In evidently the first study of its kind, vermicompost derived solely from a weed known to possess plant and animal toxicity was used to assess its impact on the germination and early growth of several plant species. No pre-composting or supplementation of animal manure was done to generate the vermicompost in order to ensure that the impact is clearly attributable to the weed. Whereas the weed used in this study, Lantana (Lantana camara), is known to possess strong negative allelopathy, besides plant/animal toxicity in other forms, its vermicompost was seen to be a good organic fertilizer as it increased germination success and encouraged growth of all the three botanical species explored by the authors - green gram (Vigna radiata), ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In terms of several physical, chemical and biochemical attributes that were studied, the vermicompost appeared plant-friendly, giving best results in general when employed at concentrations of 1.5% in soil (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed that the phenols and the sesquiterpene lactones that are responsible for the allelopathic impact of Lantana were largely destroyed in the course of vermicomposting. There is also an indication that lignin content of Lantana was reduced during its vermicomposting. The findings open up the possibility that the billions of tons of phytomass that is generated annually by Lantana and other invasives can be gainfully utilized in generating organic fertilizer via vermicomposting. PMID:26073377

  8. An overview of the environmental applicability of vermicompost: from wastewater treatment to the development of sensitive analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Neta, Lourdes Cardoso de Souza; Fontes, Maurício Paulo Ferreira; Souza, Adriana Nascimento; Matos, Thaionara Carvalho; Sachdev, Raquel de Lima; dos Santos, Arnaud Victor; da Guarda Souza, Marluce Oliveira; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Paulo, Gabriela Marinho Maciel; Ribeiro, Joselito Nardy; Ribeiro, Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy

    2014-01-01

    The use of vermicompost (humified material) for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i) easy acquisition, (ii) low costs, (iii) structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv) the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps) are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent. PMID:24578668

  9. An Overview of the Environmental Applicability of Vermicompost: From Wastewater Treatment to the Development of Sensitive Analytical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Cardoso de Souza Neta, Lourdes; Fontes, Maurício Paulo Ferreira; Souza, Adriana Nascimento; Carvalho Matos, Thaionara; de Lima Sachdev, Raquel; dos Santos, Arnaud Victor; Oliveira da Guarda Souza, Marluce; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Marinho Maciel Paulo, Gabriela; Ribeiro, Joselito Nardy; Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    The use of vermicompost (humified material) for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i) easy acquisition, (ii) low costs, (iii) structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv) the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps) are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent. PMID:24578668

  10. Study on shrimp waste water and vermicompost as a nutrient source for bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquaculture industry generates significant nutrient-rich wastewater that is released into streams and rivers causing environmental concern. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effect of waste shrimp water (SW), vermicompost (VC), at rates of 10%, 20%, 40%, and ...

  11. Composting of a crop residue through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anshu; Sharma, Satyawati

    2002-11-01

    Preliminary studies were conducted on wheat straw to test the technical viability of an integrated system of composting, with bioinoculants and subsequent vermicomposting, to overcome the problem of lignocellulosic waste degradation, especially during the winter season. Wheat straw was pre-decomposed for 40 days by inoculating it with Pleurotus sajor-caju, Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger and Azotobacter chroococcum in different combinations. This was followed by vermicomposting for 30 days. Chemical analysis of the samples showed a significant decrease in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents during pre-decomposition and vermicomposting. The N, P, K content increased significantly during pre-decomposition with bioinoculants. The best quality compost, based on chemical analysis, was prepared where the substrate was treated with all the four bioinoculants together followed by vermicomposting. Results indicated that the combination of both the systems reduced the overall time required for composting and accelerated the composting of ligno-cellulosic waste during the winter season besides producing a nutrient-enriched compost product. PMID:12227532

  12. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-05-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs. PMID:26828795

  13. Combination of anaerobic effluent and lignocellulosic bacterial consortium to reduce vermicomposting time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of solid bio-fertilizers is an alternative to avoid chemical degradation of soil. Anaerobic biodigestor effluents/digestates have been used effectively as fertilizers. However, they may have several risk factors such as the presence of pathogens and heavy metals. Vermicomposting could he...

  14. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management. PMID:25625035

  15. Municipal solid waste management through vermicomposting employing exotic species of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, R D; Datar, M T; Babookani, M Rabiei

    2011-01-01

    Majority of municipal (urban) solid waste (MSW) is disposed of in landfills (anaerobic composting). However, this disposal system is reported to produce hazardous environmental impacts and new policies are initiated to protect the environment from such impacts by discouraging the practice of disposal of solid waste in landfills. Eco-friendly disposal alternatives to landfills need to be explored. One of the technological options for treatment and disposal of organic solid wastes is vermicomposting. Commercial vermicomposting is reported to be practicable for treatment and disposal of many organic solids and byproducts in agricultural production and processing industries. However, this alternative has not been tried for MSW on large scale. This paper highlights the application of vermicomposting for treatment of organic solid waste, generated at urban residential area at Pune [organic component of this urban solid waste (MSW)]. Vermicomposting was tried on this segregated solid waste using exotic species of earthworm--Eudrilus eugeniae--commonly called 'African Night Crawler'. Bench scale reactor studies were carried out on organic solid waste under controlled optimum environmental conditions (moisture content: 48-52 percent, pH: 7.0-7.2, temperature: ambient), with variable vermi-loading [40-80 g of worms/kg of urban solid waste (MSW)]. Characteristics of solid waste were monitored through conventional parameters and additional environmental parameters like BOD5 and COD. The results of investigative studies are encouraging and indicate that organic solid waste can be treated in a reasonable period of 32-34 days through vermicomposting with around 60 percent reduction in the volume. PMID:22324158

  16. Housefly Larva Vermicomposting Efficiently Attenuates Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swine Manure, with Concomitant Bacterial Population Changes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Gilbert, Jack A; Li, Haibo; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Meng; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Qiansheng; Yuan, Junxiang; Zhang, Zhijian

    2015-11-01

    Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9 ARGs and the composition and structure of the bacterial communities in manure samples across 6 days of full-scale manure vermicomposting. On day 6, the abundances of genes encoding tetracycline resistance [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)] were reduced (P < 0.05), while those of genes encoding sulfonamide resistance (sul1 and sul2) were increased (P < 0.05) when normalized to 16S rRNA. The abundances of tetracycline resistance genes were correlated (P < 0.05) with the changing concentrations of tetracyclines in the manure. The overall diversity and richness of the bacteria significantly decreased during vermicomposting, accompanied by a 100 times increase in the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae spp. Variations in the abundances of ARGs were correlated with the changing microbial community structure and the relative abundances of the family Ruminococcaceae, class Bacilli, or phylum Proteobacteria. Vermicomposting, as a waste management practice, can reduce the overall abundance of ARGs. More research is warranted to assess the use of this waste management practice as a measure to attenuate the dissemination of antimicrobial residues and ARGs from livestock production before vermicompost can be safely used as biofertilizer in agroecosystems. PMID:26296728

  17. Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting-vermicomposting of sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2012-05-01

    Transformation and availability of nutrients and some heavy metals were assessed during the integrated composting-vermicomposting of both primary sewage sludge (PSS) and waste activated sewage sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as indigenous bulking material and employing Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Vermicomposting resulted in significant increase in total N (TN) (PSS: 41.7-64.6%, F=11.6, P<0.05; WAS: 36.4-58.6%, F=6.4, P<0.05), water soluble N (WSN) (PSS: 37.1-50.5%, F=30.1, P<0.05; WAS: 40.1-53.0%, F=27.6, P<0.05), total P (TP) (PSS: 39.9-69.8%, F=27.1, P<0.05; WAS: 32.2-56.6%, F=21.4, P<0.05) and water soluble P (WSP) (PSS: 25.2-34.3%, F=163.9, P<0.05; WAS: 24.1-34.2%, F=144.3, P<0.05) as compared to the initial compost material depending on different experimental conditions. The study demonstrated that the vermicomposting significantly improved the availability of nutrients in sewage sludges. In addition, vermicomposting considerably reduced the availability of heavy metals except Fe and Mn, presumably by forming organic-bound complexes in spite of several fold increase in their total content. The environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity), in general, showed significant effect on the transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals. There was no effect of earthworm density on the transformation and availability of heavy metals and nutrients except N and P, possibly due to prior exposure during acclimation period in sewage sludge. PMID:22277776

  18. Vermicomposting of sugar industry waste (press mud) mixed with cow dung employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, P; Kaushik, C P; Garg, V K

    2010-01-01

    In India, millions of tons of press mud (PM) are generated by sugar mills every year. This paper reports the potential of vermitechnology to convert sugar industry waste PM mixed with cow dung (CD) into vermicompost, employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. A total of six different reactors were established having different ratios of PM and CD including one control (CD only). The growth and fecundity of E. fetida was monitored for 13 weeks. Maximum growth was recorded in 100% CD, but earthworms grew and reproduced favourably up to 1:1 PM and CD feed composition. However, greater percentages of PM in different reactors significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Vermicomposting resulted in a decrease in carbon concentration and an increase in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium concentrations of the vermicompost. Investigations indicated that vermicomposting could be an alternative technology for the management of PM into useful fertilizing material, if mixed at maximum 50% with CD. PMID:19748951

  19. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J.; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • A set of techniques was used to characterize humic acids content of vermicomposts. • The properties of the humic acids produced from different waste mixtures were similar. • This set of techniques allowed distinguishing the humic acids of each vermicomposts. • Increasing humic acid contents in initial mixtures would produce richer vermicomposts. - Abstract: A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV–visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs.

  20. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis). PMID:20922463

  1. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

    2012-02-29

    The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10(3) and 10(6) Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost. PMID:22230755

  2. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial community differences in composting and vermicomposting on the stabilization of mixed sewage sludge and cattle dung.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Liangbo

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the microbial community structures and compositions in composting and vermicomposting processes. We applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria obtained from bio-stabilization of sewage sludge and cattle dung. Results demonstrated that vermicomposting process presented higher operational taxonomic units and bacterial diversity than the composting. Analysis using weighted UniFrac indicated that composting exhibited higher effects on shaping microbial community structure than the vermicomposting. The succession of dominant bacteria was also detected during composting. Firmicutes was the dominant bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting and shifted to Actinomycetes in the maturing stage. By contrast, Proteobacteria accounted for the highest proportions in the whole process of the vermicomposting. Furthermore, vermicomposting contained more uncultured and unidentified bacteria at the taxonomy level of genus than the composting. In summary, the bacterial community during composting significantly differed from that during vermicomposting. These two techniques played different roles in changing the diversity and composition of microbial communities. PMID:26318447

  3. Application of a set of complementary techniques to understand how varying the proportion of two wastes affects humic acids produced by vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Plante, Alain; Plaza, César; Fernández, José M

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how varying the proportion of different organic wastes affects humic acid (HA) formation during vermicomposting would be useful in producing vermicomposts enriched in HAs. With the aim of improving the knowledge about this issue, a variety of analytical techniques [UV-visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared, fluorescence spectra, solid-state cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and thermal analysis] was used in the present study to characterize HAs isolated from two mixtures at two different ratios (2:1 and 1:1) of tomato-plant debris (TD) and paper-mill sludge (PS) before and after vermicomposting. The results suggest that vermicomposting increased the HA content in the TD/PS 2:1 and 1:1 mixtures (15.9% and 16.2%, respectively), but the vermicompost produced from the mixture with a higher amount of TD had a greater proportion (24%) of HAs. Both vermicomposting processes caused equal modifications in the humic precursors contained in the different mixtures of TD and PS, and consequently, the HAs in the vermicomposts produced from different waste mixtures exhibited analogous characteristics. Only the set of analytical techniques used in this research was able to detect differences between the HAs isolated from each type of vermicompost. In conclusion, varying the proportion of different wastes may have a stronger influence on the amount of HAs in vermicomposts than on the properties of HAs. PMID:25318702

  4. Changes in chemical and microbiological properties of rabbit manure in a continuous-feeding vermicomposting system.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the potential of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to process large amounts of waste was evaluated through continuous feeding reactors in which new layers of rabbit manure were added sequentially to form an age gradient inside the reactors. An optimal moisture level, ranging from 66% to 76%, was maintained throughout the process using an automatic watering system. The pH was close to 8.3, but decreased to 7.6 after 200 d of vermicomposting. No changes in electrical conductivity through the profile of layers were detected. Based on comparisons of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and microbial activity measurements (basal respiration), a decrease in the levels of bacteria and fungi in layers corresponding to vermicomposting times of more than 200 d occurred. This points to a higher degree of stabilisation in the final product, which is of utmost importance for its safe use as an organic amendment. PMID:23196253

  5. Direct, rapid and sustainable vermicomposting of the leaf litter of neem (Azadirachta indica).

    PubMed

    Nayeem-Shah, M; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed concept of high rate vermicomposting was successfully used to enable direct vermicomoposting of neem leaves-without any pre-composting or cow dung supplementation as previously reported processes had necessitated. All the three epigeic species of earthworms that were explored, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, provided efficient vermicast production with no mortality, persistent gain in body mass and good fecundity over the 16 months long period of reactor operation. In this period, all reactors were pulse-fed at the solid retention time of 20 days and were operated in the pseudo discretized continuous operation protocol developed earlier by the authors. With this, it was possible to almost completely dampen the influence of natural biodegradation of the feed or grazing by the earthworm born in the vermireactors. The findings, thus, conclusively prove that, all-through, the brisk vermicomposting was caused almost entirely by the action of the 'parent' earthworms on fresh feed. PMID:25344437

  6. Composting versus vermicomposting: a comparative study of organic matter evolution through straight and combined processes.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; Mendoza-Hernández, Daicy; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Belda, Rosa M

    2012-08-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of an organic waste (tomato crop waste) throughout composting (COM), vermicomposting (VER) and the combination of both processes (C+V) were assessed at five selected stages. COM consisted of a combination of the static Rutgers system with forced aeration and pile turning. For VER Eisenia worms were fed with the raw material. For C+V pre-composted material was added to the worms. Particle size decreased during COM, yet it increased during VER and C+V due to the amalgamation of small particles. pH was alkaline throughout the processes. Heavy irrigation during vermicomposting resulted in greater decrease of EC and greater leaching of organic matter, total nitrogen and most macronutrients in VER and C+V than in COM. Final materials were not phytotoxic but compost could have salinity related problems. Thus, COM, VER and C+V produced treated organic material, which could be suitable for horticultural purposes. PMID:22705537

  7. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer. PMID:24835490

  8. Sustainable reuse of rice residues as feedstocks in vermicomposting for organic fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Shak, Katrina Pui Yee; Wu, Ta Yeong; Lim, Su Lin; Lee, Chieh Ai

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, rice (Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima) cultivation has increased in many rice-growing countries due to the increasing export demand and population growth and led to a copious amount of rice residues, consisting mainly of rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH), being generated during and after harvesting. In this study, Eudrilus eugeniae was used to decompose rice residues alone and rice residues amended with cow dung (CD) for bio-transformation of wastes into organic fertilizer. Generally, the final vermicomposts showed increases in macronutrients, namely, calcium (11.4-34.2%), magnesium (1.3-40.8%), phosphorus (1.2-57.3%), and potassium (1.1-345.6%) and a decrease in C/N ratio (26.8-80.0%) as well as increases in heavy metal content for iron (17-108%), copper (14-120%), and manganese (6-60%) after 60 days of vermicomposting. RS as a feedstock was observed to support healthier growth and reproduction of earthworms as compared to RH, with maximum adult worm biomass of 0.66 g/worm (RS) at 60 days, 31 cocoons (1RS:2CD), and 23 hatchlings (1RS:1CD). Vermicomposting of RS yielded better results than RH among all of the treatments investigated. RS that was mixed with two parts of CD (1RS:2CD) showed the best combination of nutrient results as well as the growth of E. eugeniae. In conclusion, vermicomposting could be used as a green technology to bio-convert rice residues into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers if the residues are mixed with CD in the appropriate ratio. PMID:23900949

  9. Enhancement of wood waste decomposition by microbial inoculation prior to vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Shweta

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of microbial pre-decomposition of timber wastes to quality production of vermicompost with higher agronomic value, timber wastes were inoculated with different combinations of the fungi Phanerochete chrysosporium, Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger and the bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum (MTCC 3853) and Bacillus cereus (MTCC 4079) and incubated at 28-30 °C in a mechanical composter. The inoculation enhanced the degradation of timber wastes, increased total nitrogen and improved the quality and enhanced production of vermicompost generated with the native earthworm Drawida willsi Michelsen. Total nitrogen increased from 0.16% to 1.52% and total organic carbon (TOC) decreased from 42% to 13%. Out of 10 microbial combinations tested for pre-decomposition, the combination of P. chrysosporium+T. reesei was found best in terms of ligno-cellulosic decomposition, and P. chrysosporium+A. niger+B. cereus with respect of cast output. The study shows that microbial pre-decomposition of timber wastes to produce quality vermicompost is a feasible technology. PMID:21036037

  10. Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Shanmugaprakash, M; Aravind, J; Namasivayam, S Karthick Raja

    2012-01-01

    Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH (11.4-14.8%), organic carbon (4.2-30.5%) and an increase in total nitrogen (6-29%), AP (5-29%), exchangeable potash (6-21%) and turnover rate (52-66%). Maximum mortality (18.10%) of worms was recorded in T5 treatment. A high manurial value and a matured product was achieved in T3 treatment. The data reveal that pressmud mixed with spent wash can be decomposed through vermicomposting and can help to enhance the quality of vermicompost. PMID:22720423

  11. Vermicomposting grape marc yields high quality organic biofertiliser and bioactive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Jorge; Martínez-Cordeiro, Hugo; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Grape is the largest fruit crop in the world, and most (80%) of the harvested fruit is used to make wine. The main by-product of the wine industry is called grape marc, which consists of the stalks, skin, pulp and seeds that remain after pressing the grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grape marc could be processed by vermicomposting on an industrial scale to yield both a high-quality organic, polyphenol-free fertiliser and grape seeds (as a source of bioactive polyphenols). Vermicomposting reduced the biomass of grape marc substantially (by 58%), mainly as a result of the loss of volatile solids. After 2 weeks, the process yielded a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active and stabilised peat-like material that was easily separated from the seeds by sieving. Although the polyphenol content of the seeds was considerably reduced, this disadvantage was outweighed by the ease of separation of the seeds. Separation of the seeds also eliminated the polyphenol-associated phytotoxicity from the vermicompost. The seeds still contained useful amounts of polyphenols, which could be directly extracted for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The procedure described is effective, simple and economical, and could easily be scaled up for industrial application. PMID:25349068

  12. Multidisciplinary assessment of pesticide mitigation in soil amended with vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Beguet, Jérèmie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    Soil organic amendment affects biotic and abiotic processes that control the fate of pesticides, but the treatment history of the soil is also relevant. These processes were assessed in a multidisciplinary study with the aim of optimizing pesticide mitigation in soils. Soil microcosms pre-treated (E2) or not with diuron (E1) were amended with either winery (W) or olive waste (O) vermicomposts. Herbicide dissipation followed a double first-order model in E1 microcosms, but a single first-order model in E2. Also, diuron persistence was longer in E1 than in E2 (E1-DT50>200 day(-1), E2-DT50<16 day(-1)). The genetic structure of the bacterial community was modified by both diuron exposure and amendment. O-vermicompost increased enzymatic activities in both experiments, but diuron-degrading genetic potential (puhB) was quantified only in E2 microcosms in accordance with reduced diuron persistence. Therefore, O-vermicompost addition favoured the proliferation of diuron degraders, increasing the soil diuron-depuration capability. PMID:26590874

  13. Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Wang, Hang; Zhu, Jun; Suneethi, Sundar; Zheng, JianGuo

    2012-08-01

    Improper handling of animal manure generated from concentrated swine operations greatly deteriorates water ecosystems. In this study, a full-scale vermireactor using housefly larvae (Musca domestica) was designed to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of swine manure reduction, and to explore the associated biochemical-biological mechanisms. The one-week larvae vermireactor resulted in a total weight reduction rate of 106±17 kg/(m(3) d) and moisture reduction of 80.2%. Microbial activities in manure decreased by 45% after vermicomposting, while the activities of cellulose, proteases, and phosphatases in the vermicompost were significantly 69 times, 48%, and 82% lower than those in raw manure, respectively. The vermicompost was exclusively dominated by Entomoplasma somnilux, Proteobacterium, and Clostridiaceae bacterium where the microbial diversity was decreased from 2.57 in raw manure to 1.77. Correlation coefficients statistic showed that organic C might be a key indicator of the biochemical features and microbial functions of the larvae vermireactor. PMID:22728759

  14. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    PubMed

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-P?re, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts. PMID:23504062

  15. Continuous-feeding vermicomposting as a recycling management method to revalue tomato-fruit wastes from greenhouse crops.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Insam, Heribert; Romero, Esperanza; Goberna, Marta

    2010-12-01

    Huge quantities of discarded fruits generated from greenhouse crops represent a worldwide environmental problem. The aim of this work was to assess the efficiency of vermicomposting as a recycling management option for biotransforming tomato-fruit wastes from greenhouses into an organic nutrient-rich product available for agricultural purposes. A pilot vermireactor was constructed. It was provided with a manure layer, where an initial population of Eisenia fetida was introduced and fed continuously at a high organic loading rate (13.6 kg TOC m(-3)wk(-1)) for 150 days. Vermicompost chemical and enzymatic parameters as well as the bacterial and fungal community structure were determined for 210 days (vermicomposting plus a maturation period). Earthworm biomass increased after 90 days, and then declined due to increasing pH, electrical conductivity and ammonium concentration. The temporal patterns of dehydrogenase, ?-glucosidase, protease and urease were related to earthworm growth and the stabilization of organic matter. Bacterial DGGE profiles differed between the period of degradation of labile substrates and the maturation step. Fungal communities at the stage of maximum earthworm biomass differed most, suggesting a gut passage effect. The end product was chemically stable and enriched in nutrients, demonstrating that tomato-fruit wastes can be successfully vermicomposted into a valuable soil amendment. We suggest continuous-feeding vermicomposting as an environmentally sound management option for greenhouse wastes. PMID:20675115

  16. Prospects of using Metarhizium anisopliae to check the breeding of insect pest, Oryctes rhinoceros L. in coconut leaf vermicomposting sites.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Murali; Gupta, Alka; Thomas, George V

    2006-10-01

    During vermicomposting of coconut leaves by the earthworm Eudrilus sp., Oryctes rhinoceros L. (rhinoceros beetle), an insect pest of palms, was found to breed in the decomposing organic material. Metarhizium anisopliae var. major was tried as a biocontrol agent for management of this pest. The effect of pathogen at spore loads of 10(3), 10(4) and 10(5) per 10 g of substrate was tested in laboratory on Eudrilus sp. kept with O. rhinoceros grubs and on Eudrilus sp. alone for the pathogenic capability of the fungus on the pest and its possible toxicity towards the vermin. The efficacy of the entomopathogen was also tested in the field in vermicomposting tanks. In laboratory bioassay, 100% mycosis of O. rhinoceros grubs could be obtained while the entomopathogen had no toxic effect on the earthworms. There was a positive change in the number and weight of the earthworms on treatment with M. anisopliae. In the field, application of M. anisopliae reduced O. rhinoceros grubs in the vermicomposting tanks upto an extent of 72%. In conclusion, M. anisopliae could effectively control O. rhinoceros in vermicomposting sites and was non-hazardous to the vermicomposting process as well as the Eudrilus sp. PMID:16230009

  17. Vermicomposting potentiality of Perionyx excavatus for recycling of waste biomass of Java citronella--an aromatic oil yielding plant.

    PubMed

    Deka, H; Deka, S; Baruah, C K; Das, J; Hoque, S; Sarma, H; Sarma, N S

    2011-12-01

    Laboratory investigation on vermicomposting efficacy of Perionyx excavatus for recycling of distillation waste biomass of java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) was carried out in two seasonal trials i.e. summer and winter periods. The experiment was conducted in earthen pots using a mixture of citronella waste material and cowdung in the proportion of 5:1. A control treatment without earthworms was setup for comparison of the results. The vermicompost had shown 5.8 folds reduction in C/N ratio and 5.6 folds enhancement in ash content. The nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in the vermicompost had increase in the range of 1.2 - 4.1 fold than the initial level. The FT-IR spectra of the vermicompost confirmed increase in nitrogen rich compounds and decrease in aliphatic/aromatic compounds as compared to the initial level of the biowaste materials. The vermicomposting process is influenced by seasonal variation and summer was more productive than winter. PMID:22014704

  18. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  19. Effect of Vermicompost Alone and Its Combination with Recommended Dose of Fertilizers on Available Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium in Rice Field.

    PubMed

    Shwetha, S; Narayana, J

    2014-01-01

    Rice variety KMP101 was treated with both organic and inorganic manure. The field and experimental studies were conducted, before applying organic and inorganic manures.The values obtained for available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were 360 kg/ha, 12 kg/ha and 166 kg/ha respectively. After treatment and harvest there was a gradual increase in available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ranging between 335-415, 14 -23 and 173- 235 kg/ha respectively among the treatments. Applying 15 t of vermicompost /ha and 10 t of vermicompost /ha and recommended dose of fertilizer showed a greater availability of nitrogen and phosphorus. It is revealed that after addition of organics into the soil year-wise, the soil became more stable. Also, the biological activity increased in the soil and was influenced to maintain the available nitrogen in the soil. Therefore, it is evident that vermicompost significantly increases the availability of available nutrients. PMID:26445754

  20. Biological and chemical reactivity and phosphorus forms of buffalo manure compost, vermicompost and their mixture with biochar.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Phuong-Thi; Rumpel, Cornelia; Ngo, Quoc-Anh; Alexis, Marie; Velásquez Vargas, Gabriela; Mora Gil, Maria de la Luz; Dang, Dinh-Kim; Jouquet, Pascal

    2013-11-01

    This study characterized the carbon and phosphorus composition of buffalo manure, its compost and vermicompost and investigated if presence of bamboo biochar has an effect on their chemical and biological reactivity. The four substrates were characterized for chemical and biochemical composition and P forms. The biological stability of the four substrates and their mixtures were determined during an incubation experiment. Their chemical reactivity was analyzed after acid dichromate oxidation. Biological reactivity of these substrates was related to their soluble organic matter content, which decreased in the order buffalo manure>compost>vermicompost. Phosphorus was labile in all organic substrates and composting transformed organic P into plant available P. The presence of biochar led to a protection of organic matter against chemical oxidation and changed their susceptibility to biological degradation, suggesting that biochar could increase the carbon sequestration potential of compost, vermicompost and manure, when applied in mixture. PMID:24071441

  1. Cadmium accumulation retard activity of functional components of photo assimilation and growth of rice cultivars amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake mediated alterations in functional components of photo assimilation during conversion of cow dung and poultry cast to vermicompost were studied in two Indian rice cultivars; MO 16 and MTU 7029. It was found that higher amount of Cd accumulate in plants grown in soil amended with vermicompost which in turn damaged functional components in photo assimilation. Enhancement of root growth was recognized as reason for Cd accumulation. Metabolic alterations noticed among plants were not taken place during application of raw materials used for vermicomposting such as cow dung and poultry cast amendment. Rice varieties accumulated Cd differentially where MTU 7029 accumulated more Cd compare to MO 16. It was also noticed that existence of negative correlation between zinc status of the plant and Cd accumulation. PMID:23819289

  2. Chemolytic and solid-state spectroscopic evaluation of organic matter transformation during vermicomposting of sugar industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Biswarup; Chandra, T S

    2007-05-01

    The molecular structure of humic acid (HA) extracted was investigated by FT-IR and (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy during the vermicomposting of sugar industry wastes, viz. pressmud, trash and bagasse for 60days. A rapid decrease in C/N and lignocellulosic (lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose) content was observed in vermicompost during early phase of the process. The FT-IR and (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectra of HA indicated a high rate of change in structure with increase in the alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio during the process. Aromatic structures and carboxyl groups showed an initial increase but decreased after approximately 40days indicating extensive mineralization during final stages of vermicomposting. PMID:17157000

  3. Impact of compost, vermicompost and biochar on soil fertility, maize yield and soil erosion in Northern Vietnam: a three year mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Doan, Thuy Thu; Henry-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Rumpel, Cornelia; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Jouquet, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Compost, vermicompost and biochar amendments are thought to improve soil quality and plant yield. However, little is known about their long-term impact on crop yield and the environment in tropical agro-ecosystems. In this study we investigated the effect of organic amendments (buffalo manure, compost and vermicompost) and biochar (applied alone or with vermicompost) on plant yield, soil fertility, soil erosion and water dynamics in a degraded Acrisol in Vietnam. Maize growth and yield, as well as weed growth, were examined for three years in terrestrial mesocosms under natural rainfall. Maize yield and growth showed high inter-annual variability depending on the organic amendment. Vermicompost improved maize growth and yield but its effect was rather small and was only significant when water availability was limited (year 2). This suggests that vermicompost could be a promising substrate for improving the resistance of agrosystems to water stress. When the vermicompost-biochar mixture was applied, further growth and yield improvements were recorded in some cases. When applied alone, biochar had a positive influence on maize yield and growth, thus confirming its interest for improving long-term soil productivity. All organic amendments reduced water runoff, soil detachment and NH₄(+) and NO₃(-) transfer to water. These effects were more significant with vermicompost than with buffalo manure and compost, highlighting that the beneficial influence of vermicompost is not limited to its influence on plant yield. In addition, this study showed for the first time that the combination of vermicompost and biochar may not only improve plant productivity but also reduce the negative impact of agriculture on water quality. PMID:25659313

  4. Cloning and functional characterization of endo-?-1,4-glucanase gene from metagenomic library of vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Haji; Azam, Syed Sikander; Telke, Amar; Kim, Seon Won; Chung, Young Ryun

    2013-06-01

    In the vermicomposting of paper mill sludge, the activity of earthworms is very dependent on dietetic polysaccharides including cellulose as energy sources. Most of these polymers are degraded by the host microbiota and considered potentially important source for cellulolytic enzymes. In the present study, a metagenomic library was constructed from vermicompost (VC) prepared with paper mill sludge and dairy sludge (fresh sludge, FS) and functionally screened for cellulolytic activities. Eighteen cellulase expressing clones were isolated from about 89,000 fosmid clones libraries. A short fragment library was constructed from the most active positive clone (cMGL504) and one open reading frame (ORF) of 1,092 bp encoding an endo-?-1,4-glucanase was indentified which showed 88% similarity with Cellvibrio mixtus cellulase A gene. The endo-?-1,4-glucanase cmgl504 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant cmgl504 cellulase displayed activities at a broad range of temperature (25-55°C) and pH (5.5-8.5). The enzyme degraded carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with 15.4 U, while having low activity against avicel. No detectable activity was found for xylan and laminarin. The enzyme activity was stimulated by potassium chloride. The deduced protein and three-dimensional structure of metagenome-derived cellulase cmgl504 possessed all features, including general architecture, signature motifs, and N-terminal signal peptide, followed by the catalytic domain of cellulase belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5). The cellulases cloned in this work may play important roles in the degradation of celluloses in vermicomposting process and could be exploited for industrial application in future. PMID:23812813

  5. Composting and vermicomposting experiences in the treatment and bioconversion of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luís Manuel; Gómez-Sobrino, Ernesto; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; del Carmen Ramos-Sánchez, María

    2008-04-01

    This work illustrates the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting in degrading fuel-in-water emulsions from oil spills (chapapote), and the isolation of potentially useful microorganisms for its biodegradation. Firstly, an alternative to the biodegradation of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill (still present in some chapapote rafts in the Cantabrian coast) by means of the application of composting techniques to a microbial partnership acclimated to fuel-oil is offered. Our aim is that, after a relatively short period of time, the microorganisms can obtain its source of carbon and energy from asphaltens. The addition of metabolic co-substrates, like cow bed and potato peelings, allows the fragmentation of complex compounds into smaller structures, susceptible to further degradation. Afterwards, a maturation of the compost by means of a treatment with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) is necessary. Thus, through the vermicomposting it will be possible to obtain a valued product, useful in the processes of ground amendment, with little presence of asphaltens and occluded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, rich in humus, and with an important bacterial flora of Bacillus genera, so that it can be typical of co-activators and accelerating products in composting processes. Along with this article, we show some parameters that control the evolution of the compost products (evolved gases, acidity, temperature and humidity); the chemical and microbiological analytical results; and the germination assays of vermicomposting. Results reveal that by using microorganisms living in either earthworm intestines (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) or vermiculture substrates (Scedosporium apiospermium), it is possible to degrade and to eliminate the polycyclic asphaltens into CO(2) and H(2)O, helped by evaporation, dissolution and/or photo-oxidation processes. The obtained end product has contents of interesting vegetal nutrients and, mainly, it displays very high germination indices. PMID:17512195

  6. Management of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Najar, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Khan, Anisa B

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, potential of Eisenia fetida to recycle the different types of fresh water weeds (macrophytes) used as substrate in different reactors (Azolla pinnata reactor, Trapa natans reactor, Ceratophyllum demersum reactor, free-floating macrophytes mixture reactor, and submerged macrophytes mixture reactor) during 2 months experiment is investigated. E. fetida showed significant variation in number and weight among the reactors and during the different fortnights (P <0.05) with maximum in A. pinnata reactor (number 343.3?±?10.23 %; weight 98.62?±?4.23 % ) and minimum in submerged macrophytes mixture reactor (number 105?±?5.77 %; weight 41.07?±?3.97 % ). ANOVA showed significant variation in cocoon production (F4?=?15.67, P <0.05) and mean body weight (F4?=?13.49, P <0.05) among different reactors whereas growth rate (F3?=?23.62, P <0.05) and relative growth rate (F3?=?4.91, P <0.05) exhibited significant variation during different fortnights. Reactors showed significant variation (P <0.05) in pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Organic carbon (OC), Organic nitrogen (ON), and C/N ratio during different fortnights with increase in pH, EC, N, and K whereas decrease in OC and C/N ratio. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped five substrates (weeds) into three clusters-poor vermicompost substrates, moderate vermicompost substrate, and excellent vermicompost substrate. Two principal components (PCs) have been identified by factor analysis with a cumulative variance of 90.43 %. PC1 accounts for 47.17 % of the total variance represents "reproduction factor" and PC2 explaining 43.26 % variance representing "growth factor." Thus, the nature of macrophyte affects the growth and reproduction pattern of E. fetida among the different reactors, further the addition of A. pinnata in other macrophytes reactors can improve their recycling by E. fetida. PMID:23589265

  7. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijian; Shen, Jianguo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, Longhua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, Hongyi; Zheng, Changfeng; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m-2, respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting.

  8. Attenuation of veterinary antibiotics in full-scale vermicomposting of swine manure via the housefly larvae (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Shen, JianGuo; Wang, Hang; Liu, Meng; Wu, LongHua; Ping, Fan; He, Qiang; Li, HongYi; Zheng, ChangFeng; Xu, XinHua

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from concentrated swine farms is widely considered to be a source of environmental pollution, and the introduction of veterinary antibiotics in animal manure to ecosystems is rapidly becoming a major public health concern. A housefly larvae (Musca domestica) vermireactor has been increasingly adopted for swine manure value-added bioconversion and pollution control, but few studies have investigated its efficiency on antibiotic attenuation during manure vermicomposting. In this study we explored the capacity and related attenuation mechanisms of antibiotic degradation and its linkage with waste reduction by field sampling during a typical cycle (6 days) of full-scale larvae manure vermicomposting. Nine antibiotics were dramatically removed during the 6-day vermicomposting process, including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones. Of these, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greater reduction rate of 23.8 and 32.9 mg m(-2), respectively. Environmental temperature, pH, and total phosphorus were negatively linked to the level of residual antibiotics, while organic matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, microbial respiration intensity, and moisture exhibited a positive effect. Pyrosequencing data revealed that the dominant phyla related to Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria accelerated manure biodegradation likely through enzyme catalytic reactions, which may enhance antibiotic attenuation during vermicomposting. PMID:25354896

  9. Vermicomposting of paper mill solid waste using epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Ponmani, S; Udayasoorian, C; Jayabalakrishnan, R M; Kumar, K Vinoth

    2014-07-01

    A 90 day study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic earthworm species (Eudrilus eugeniae) for decomposition of different types of organic substrates (mixed liquor suspended solids, cow dung and leaf litter) into valuable vermicompost. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and leaf litter (LL) were mixed with cow dung (CD) in eight different ratios with three replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH, organic carbon, C:N ratio and an increase in total nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. Overall, earthworms could maximize decomposition and mineralization efficiency in bedding with lower proportions of MLSS. Maximum value for earth worm zoo mass and higher concentration of nutrient content was observed in CD + MLSS + LL in 1:1:2 ratios. Earthworm mortality tended to increase with increasing proportion of MLSS and maximum mortality in E. eugeniae was recorded for MLSS treatment alone. Results indicate that vermicomposting might be useful for managing the energy and nutrient of MLSS on a low-input basis. Products of this process can be used for sustainable land restoration practices. PMID:25004743

  10. Potential of filter-vermicomposter for household wastewater pre-treatment and sludge sanitisation on site.

    PubMed

    Gajurel, D; Deegener, S; Shalabi, M; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    Septic tank systems have been widely used to separate and digest solid matter in the household wastewater for a long time. However, they contaminate groundwater with pathogens and nutrients and deprive agriculture of valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. Compared with septic tank systems the filter-composter (Rottebehaelter), which usually consists of an underground monolithic concrete tank having two filter beds at its bottom or two filter bags that are hung side by side and used alternately at intervals of 6-12 months, is an efficient component for solid-liquid separation, pre-treatment and collection/storage of solid matter in household wastewater. The solids are retained and decompose in the filter bags or on the filter bed while the liquid filters through. However, because of the high moisture content of the retained solids decomposition is slow. Therefore, secondary treatment of the retained solids is required for sanitisation. The breakthrough was the combination of vermicomposting with the filter-composter system. Relatively dry and stable retained materials were obtained in the filter bags in about 3 months only. No secondary treatment is required as the human excreta will be converted to vermicastings, which are hygienically safe and can be reused as soil conditioner. Therefore, further development of the filter-composter with vermicomposting is worthwhile, especially the aspects of sanitisation of the faecal matter and its reuse as a soil conditioner. PMID:17506421

  11. Enhancing nutrient recovery and compost maturity of coconut husk by vermicomposting technology.

    PubMed

    Swarnam, T P; Velmurugan, A; Pandey, Sanjay Kumar; Dam Roy, S

    2016-05-01

    Vermicompost was prepared by five different treatments from relatively resistant coconut husk mixed with either pig slurry or poultry manure. The recovery of vermicompost varied from 35% to 43% and it resulted in significant increase in pH, microbial biomass carbon, macro and micro nutrients concentration. Among the treatments highest relative N (1.6) and K (1.3) recovery were observed for 20% feedstock substitution by pig slurry while poultry manure substitution recorded highest P recovery (2.4). Compost maturity parameters significantly differed and well correlated. The characteristics of different treatments established the maturity indices as C/N 15-20; Cw<1.8; Cw/Norg<0.55; Lignin<10-12; CHA/CFA>1.5 and HI>15.0. The manurial value of the coconut husk compost was improved by feedstock substitution with pig slurry (80:20). The results revealed the technical feasibility of converting coconut husk into valuable compost by feedstock substitution with pig slurry. PMID:26871957

  12. Pesticide effects on microbial population and soil enzyme activities during vermicomposting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Kalam, A; Tah, J; Mukherjee, A K

    2004-04-01

    The effects of different pesticides (propiconazole, profenofos, pretilachlor) on vermicomposting were evaluated for the adverse effects on soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, phosphatase, urease) and total microbial counts (TMC). There were remarkable increase in enzyme activities and TMC in presence of earthworm compared to control (earthworm absent). In comparison to control, the activities of phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease in presence of vermicompost increased upto 30, 128 and 31.3% respectively; whereas increase of TMC was 71.9%. But, in presence of each of the pesticide, said activities decreased. Maximum inhibition of soil phosphatase activity (46.6%) was observed in presence of propiconazole (100 mg kg(-1)) after 120 days. Profenofos affected the soil dehydrogenase activity in the tune of 47% at 1000 mg kg(-1) concentration after 80 days and thereafter, the extent of toxicity decreased little. Soil urease activity was affected markedly in presence of profenofos and was 62% at 1000 mg kg(-1) level after 80 days. TMC also declined in presence of profenofos and pretilachlor. Increase in TMC was about 71.9% compared to control and the inhibition was more or less 60% when profenofos (1000 mg kg(-1)) was present even after 120 days of treatment. PMID:15529880

  13. The influence of earthworms on nutrient dynamics during the process of vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Jorge; Gómez-Brandón, María

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the potential of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to modify chemical and microbiological properties, with a special focus on the nutrient content of fresh organic matter, was evaluated during 16 weeks of vermicomposting of cattle manure and sewage sludge. Samples were periodically collected in order to determine the changes in inorganic nitrogen (N), in total microbial biomass and activity, as well as in the total and available content of macro- and micronutrients. An optimal moisture level, ranging from 75% to 88%, was maintained throughout the process. The content of organic matter decreased over time, but no changes were found in this parameter as a result of earthworm activity. The carbon/N ratio rapidly decreased, but only in the manure, reflecting rapid decomposition and mineralisation of the organic matter by the earthworms. An increase in N mineralisation was also attributable to the presence of earthworms, although in the manure this effect was hardly detectable before the eighth week of vermicomposting. Earthworm activity also enhanced the total content of potassium, calcium and iron together with an increase in the availability of phosphorus and zinc. We did not detect a significant earthworm effect on microbial respiration, but their activity increased greatly microbial biomass nitrogen in sewage sludge. PMID:23831778

  14. Bacterial community composition and chitinase gene diversity of vermicompost with antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Kim, Seon Won; Lee, Seon-Woo; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial communities and chitinase gene diversity of vermicompost (VC) were investigated to clarify the influence of earthworms on the inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi in VC. The spore germination of Fusarium moniliforme was reduced in VC aqueous extracts prepared from paper sludge and dairy sludge (fresh sludge, FS). The bacterial communities were examined by culture-dependent and -independent analyses. Unique clones selected from 16S rRNA libraries of FS and VC on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fell into the major lineages of the domain bacteria Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Among culture isolates, Actinobacteria dominated in VC, while almost equal numbers of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were present in FS. Analysis of chitinolytic isolates and chitinase gene diversity revealed that chitinolytic bacterial communities were enriched in VC. Populations of bacteria that inhibited plant fungal pathogens were higher in VC than in FS and particularly chitinolytic isolates were most active against the target fungi. PMID:19423335

  15. [Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization. PMID:23914515

  16. [Comparative studies on vermicomposting of sewage sludge with two epigeic earthworms].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-min; Huang, Kui; Fu, Xiao-yong; Ni, Shao-ren

    2010-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted two epigeic species earthworms (Bimastus parvus and Eisenia foetida) for the evaluation of their efficacy in vermicomposting of sewage sludge. The various changes studied during pot experiments were the physiochemical properties of the sewage sludge, sludge reduction and earthworm biomass. Vermicomposting resulted that both epigeic species earthworms showed same capability among sewage sludge mineralization and decomposition rate and reduction. By the end of experiment, the pH value declined to 6.27 with B. parvus and 7.07 with E. foetida, but both epigeic species earthworms showed same mineralization and decomposition rate. B. parvus produced 31.96%, 5.76% and 17.91% increases in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium as well as 44.14% and 30.69% decreases in C/N and C/P ratios as compared to initial after 30 days of inoculation. In contrast, E. foetida produced 35.48% and 11.58% increases in nitrogen and potassium as well as 10.12%, 46.73% and 20.50% decreases in phosphorus, C/N and C/P ratios as compared to initial after 30 days of earthworm activity. At the same time, both epigeic species earthworms resulted in significant reduction in heavy metal content. The reduction in heavy metal content for B. parvus and E. foetida was found in the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr and Cu > Zn > Ph > Cr. At the end of experiment, the weight and cocoons of B. parvus and E. foetida showed significant increase, which the growth rate and the reproductive rate were 76%-86% and 156%-131% respectively. PMID:20623864

  17. Effects of earthworms on physicochemical properties and microbial profiles during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Fu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xuemin

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of earthworms on physicochemical and microbial properties during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) by contrasting two decomposing systems of FVW with and without earthworms for 5weeks. Compared to control treatment (without earthworms), vermicomposting treatment resulted in a rapid decrease of electrical conductivity and losses of total carbon and nitrogen from the 2nd week. Quantitative PCR displayed that earthworms markedly enhanced bacterial and fungal densities, showing the higher values than control, during the whole decomposition process. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing analysis revealed that earthworms pronouncedly modified bacterial and fungal community structures, through broadening the community diversities of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Ascomycotina. These results suggest that the presence of earthworms promoted the activity and population of bacteria and fungi, and modified their communities, thus altering the decomposition pathway of fresh FVW. PMID:25118152

  18. Comparative assessment of heavy metals content during the composting and vermicomposting of Municipal Solid Waste employing Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2015-05-01

    This study was undertaken to have comparative assessment of heavy metals content during composting and vermicomposting processing of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Six scenarios were set up in which three experiments were for composting (controls) denoted as S1 for food waste, S2 for paper waste and S3 for yard waste and the corresponding replicates for vermicomposting processes were S4, S5 and S6. Vermicomposting caused significant reduction in Cd (43.3-73.5%), Cr (11.3-52.8%), Cu (18.9-62.5%), Co (21.4-47.6%), Zn (34.6%) and Ni (19.9-49.6%) compared to composting which showed a progressive increase. Addition of worms did not show any effect on Fe and Mn, most probably from the genesis of organic-bound complexes. The efficacy of utilizing Eudrilus eugeniae was indicated by the high values of bioconcentration factors (BCFs) which were in the order of Cd>Ni>Cu>Co>Cr>Zn and the increase amount of these metals in the earthworms' tissue after the vermicomposting processes. Different values of BCFs were obtained for different heavy metals and this accounted that earthworms exert different metabolic mechanisms. Regression analysis of the reduction percentages (R) in relation to BCF showed that RCdtot.S6, RCrtot.S5 and RCutot.S6 were significantly correlated with BCFCd.S6, BCFCr.S5 and BCFCu.S6 respectively. Thus, in comparison to simple composting processes, data analysis suggested the feasibility of inoculating E. eugeniae to MSW in order to mitigate the content of toxic heavy metals. PMID:25708402

  19. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months. PMID:26508073

  20. Winery vermicomposts to control the leaching of diuron, imidacloprid and their metabolites: role of dissolved organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bayo, Jesús D; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic amendment addition is an effective practice in Mediterranean areas due to its associated high agricultural benefits and its potential to reduce the pesticide impact on water resources. However, their metabolites have received scarce attention, even when they may pose more risk than their parent compounds. Two winery vermicomposts obtained from spent grape marc (V1) and the mixture vine shoot-biosolid vinasses (V2) have been investigated as low cost organic amendments to minimize the leaching of diuron, imidacloprid and their metabolites in columns packed with a sandy loam (S1) and a silty-clay loam soil (S2) under steady state flow conditions. In the unamended soil columns, leached amounts of diuron were 75% and 53% in S1 and S2, respectively. Its metabolites (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylurea, DPMU; and 3,4-dichlorophenylurea, DPU) percolated less than 35% of the total applied amount. The amount of the metabolite 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) was 2% and 30% for S1 and S2, respectively. Leaching of imidacloprid was 79% and 96% for S1 and S2, respectively, while its metabolite 6-chloronicotinic acid (CNA) was entirely leached. In the vermicompost-amended columns, the leaching of diuron was reduced 2 to 3-fold. DPMU and DPU were also significantly reduced (more than 6-fold). DCA did not appear in any of the leachates of the amended soil columns. Imidacloprid leaching was reduced 1 to 2-folds in the amended columns. The amendments did not affect the transport of CNA. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the vermicomposts did not enhance pesticide transport throughout the soil in any case. This qualitative study presents these vermicomposts as an effective potential low-cost tool in reducing pesticide and metabolite leaching. The next step would be to test them under more realistic conditions. PMID:25602152

  1. Stabilisation of sewage sludge and vinasse bio-wastes by vermicomposting with rabbit manure using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Molina, María José; Soriano, María Desamparados; Ingelmo, Florencio; Llinares, Josep

    2013-06-01

    Changes in the chemical characteristics and biological parameters of Eisenia fetida were assessed by VER using (CO+VE) rabbit manure (Vo) spiked with sewage sludge (SS) or vinasse (V). Seven mixtures were used: Vo, control; Vo+SS at 10%, 30%, and 50% (SS1, SS2, and SS3); Vo+V at 10%, 30%, and 50% (V1, V2, and V3). SS vermicomposts had higher humus, nutrient and total metal contents, but less soluble salts (EC) than V vermicomposts. The number and weight of worms were higher in Vo, followed by SS, at decreasing doses. V3 showed the smallest number and size. The EC of the initial mixtures explained reduced weight, whereas EC and avP2O5 accounted for lower numbers. Vermicomposting is an efficient biowaste recycling technology, but the total amount and composition of soluble salts in food influence the quality of end products and are of primary importance for biological parameters of worms. PMID:23584410

  2. Vermicomposting of herbal pharmaceutical industry waste: earthworm growth, plant-available nutrient and microbial quality of end materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepika; Suthar, Surindra

    2012-05-01

    Efforts were made to decompose herbal pharmaceutical industrial waste (HPIW) spiked with cow dung (CD) using Eisenia fetida. A total of five vermibeds: T(1) - HPIW (0%+CD 100%, control), T(2) - HPIW (25%), T(3) - HPIW (50%), T(4) - HPIW (75%) and T(5) - HPIW (100%) were used for vermicomposting. The changes in biology and chemistry of vermibeds were measured after ten days interval. E. fetida showed high growth and cocoon production rate in all vermibeds. The vermicomposted material contained great population of fungi 6.0-40.6 (CFU × 10(5)g(-1)), bacteria 220-1276.0 (CFU × 10(8)g(-1)) and actinomycetes 410.0-2962.0 (CFU × 10(5)g(-1)) than initial material. Vermicomposted material was rich in plant-available forms of nutrients (N-NO(3)(-),PO(4)(3-),available K and SO(4)(-2)). Results suggested that noxious industrial waste can be converted into valuable product for sustainable soil fertility programme. PMID:22440575

  3. [Vermicomposting of different organic materials and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of their dissolved organic matter].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Man-qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-xin; Huang, Zhong-yang; Chang, Yi-jun; Jiao, Jia-guo

    2015-10-01

    In this experiment, different proportions of the cattle manure, tea-leaf, herb and mushroom residues, were used as food for earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to study the growth of the earth-worm. Then the characteristics and transformation of nutrient content and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence (3DEEM) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during vermistabilization were investigated by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The result showed that the mixture of different ratios of cattle manure with herb residue, and cattle manure with tea-leaf were conducive to the growth of earthworm, while the materials compounded with mushroom residue inhibited the growth of earthworm. With the increasing time of verimcomposting, the pH in vermicompost tended to be circumneutral and weakly acidic, and there were increases in electrical conductivity, and the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus, while the total potassium and available potassium increased first and then decreased, and the organic matter content decreased. 3DEEM and fluorescence regional integration results indicated that, the fluorescence of protein-like fluorescence peaks declined significantly, while the intensity of humic-like fluorescence peak increased significantly in DOM. Vermicomposting process might change the compositions of DOM with elevated concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid in the organics. In all, this study suggested the suitability of 3DEEM for monitoring the organics transformation and assessing the maturity in the vermicomposting. PMID:26995929

  4. Short-term effect of vermicompost application on biological properties of an alkaline soil with high lime content from Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, ?-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. ?-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. PMID:25254238

  5. Short-Term Effect of Vermicompost Application on Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. PMID:25254238

  6. Effect of vermicomposting on calcium, sulphur and some heavy metal content of different biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculation.

    PubMed

    Das, Debabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Ghosh, B C; Banik, Pabitra

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the changes in total calcium and sulphur and some heavy metal (Zn, Cu, and Pb) concentration of different organic wastes affected by liming and microorganism inoculation. Vermicomposting was an effective technology for disposal of organic substrates like municipal solid wastes (MSW), possessing comparatively higher concentration of heavy metals. The addition of lime in initial organic substrates significantly (P ? 0.05) increased total calcium and total sulphur content of vermicomposts. Inoculation of microorganisms significantly (P ? 0.05) reduced the heavy metal content of final products as compared to control. Fungal strains were comparatively more effective in detoxification of heavy metals than B. polymyxa. PMID:22375592

  7. Phosphate solubilizing ability of Emericella nidulans strain V1 isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Satya Sunder; Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Duary, Raj Kumar; Goswami, Linee; Mandal, Narayan C

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus is one of the key factors that regulate soil fertility. Its deficiencies in soil are largely replenished by chemical fertilizers. The present study was aimed to isolate efficient phosphate solubilizing fungal strains from Eisenia fetida vermicompost. Out of total 30 fungal strains the most efficient phosphate solubilizing one was Emericella (Aspergillus) nidulans V1 (MTCC 11044), identified by custom sequencing of beta-tubulin gene and BLAST analysis. This strain solubilized 13 to 36% phosphate from four different rock phosphates. After three days of incubation of isolated culture with black Mussorie phosphate rock, the highest percentage of phosphate solubilization was 35.5 +/- 1.01 with a pH drop of 4.2 +/- 0.09. Kinetics of solubilization and acid production showed a linear relationship until day five of incubation. Interestingly, from zero to tenth day of incubation, solubility of soil phosphate increased gradually from 4.31 +/- 1.57 to 13.65 +/- 1.82 (mg kg(-1)) recording a maximum of 21.23 +/- 0.54 on day 45 in respect of the V1 isolate. Further, enhanced phosphorus uptake by Phaseolus plants with significant pod yield due to soil inoculation of Emericella nidulans V1 (MTCC 11044), demonstrated its prospect as an effective biofertilizer for plant growth. PMID:24266109

  8. Effects of digestate on soil chemical and microbiological properties: A comparative study with compost and vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Juárez, Marina Fernández-Delgado; Zangerle, Matthias; Insam, Heribert

    2016-01-25

    Anaerobic digestion has become increasingly popular as an alternative for recycling wastes from different origins. Consequently, biogas residues, most of them with unknown chemical and biological composition, accrue in large quantities and their application into soil has become a widespread agricultural practise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of digestate application on the chemical and microbiological properties of an arable soil in comparison with untreated manure, compost and vermicompost. Once in the soil matrix either the addition of compost or digestate led to an increased nitrification rate, relative to unamended and manure-treated soil, after 15 and 60 days of incubation. Faecal coliform and E. coli colony forming units (CFUs) were not detected in any of the amended soils after 60 days. The highest number of Clostridium perfringens CFUs was recorded in manure-amended soil at the beginning of the experiment and after 15 days; whilst after 60 days the lowest CFU number was registered in digestate-treated soil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns also showed that besides the treatment the date of sampling could have contributed to modifications in the soil ammonia-oxidising bacteria community, thereby indicating that the soil itself may influence the community diversity more strongly than the treatments. PMID:26476314

  9. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K; Abhilash, P C; Singh, Harikesh B

    2013-05-01

    Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC-water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC-soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC. PMID:23481343

  10. Vermicompost humic acids modulate the accumulation and metabolism of ROS in rice plants.

    PubMed

    García, Andrés Calderín; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; de Souza, Luiz Gilberto Ambrósio; Tavares, Orlando Carlos Huertas; Zonta, Everaldo; Gomes, Ernane Tarcisio Martins; García-Mina, José Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    2016-03-15

    This work aims to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, gene expression, anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and derived effects on membrane lipid peroxidation and certain stress markers (proline and malondialdehyde-MDA) in the roots of unstressed and PEG-stressed rice plants associated with vermicompost humic acid (VCHA) application. The results show that the application of VCHA to the roots of unstressed rice plants caused a slight but significant increase in root ROS accumulation and the gene expression and activity of the major anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase). This action did not have negative effects on root development, and an increase in both root growth and root proliferation occurred. However, the root proline and MDA concentrations and the root permeability results indicate the development of a type of mild stress associated with VCHA application. When VCHA was applied to PEG-stressed plants, a clear alleviation of the inhibition in root development linked to PEG-mediated osmotic stress was observed. This was associated with a reduction in root ROS production and anti-oxidant enzymatic activity caused by osmotic stress. This alleviation of stress caused by VCHA was also reflected as a reduction in the PEG-mediated concentration of MDA in the root as well as root permeability. In summary, the beneficial action of VCHA on the root development of unstressed or PEG-stressed rice plants clearly involves the modulation of ROS accumulation in roots. PMID:26851887

  11. Heavy metal and nutrient changes during vermicomposting animal manure spiked with mushroom residues.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiuchao; Liu, Manqiang; Wu, Di; Qi, Lin; Ye, Chenglong; Jiao, Jiaguo; Hu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale trial of four months was conducted to investigate the responses of heavy metal and nutrient to composting animal manure spiked with mushroom residues with and without earthworms. Results showed that earthworm activities accelerated organic matter mineralization (e.g. reduction in C/N ratio, increase in total concentrations of N, P, K) and humification (e.g. increase in humic acid concentration, humification ratio and humification index). Despite composting increased total heavy metal (i.e. As, Pb, Cu, Zn) concentrations irrespective of earthworm, the availability of heavy metals extracted by DTPA significantly (P<0.05) decreased particularly in treatments with earthworms introduced. The shift from available to unavailable fractions of heavy metals was either due to earthworm bioaccumulation, as indicated by total heavy metal concentrations being higher in earthworm tissues, or due to the formation of stable metal-humus complexes as indicated by the promotion of humification. Our results suggest that vermicomposting process could magnify the nutrient quality but relieve the heavy metals risk of agricultural organic wastes. PMID:25128918

  12. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Harikesh B.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  13. CH4 and N2O from mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting systems following in-vessel pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Hobson, A M; Frederickson, J; Dise, N B

    2005-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are included in the six greenhouse gases listed in the Kyoto protocol that require emission reduction. To meet reduced emission targets, governments need to first quantify their contribution to global warming. Composting has been identified as an important source of CH4 and N2O. With increasing divergence of biodegradable waste from landfill into the composting sector, it is important to quantify emissions of CH4 and N2O from all forms of composting and from all stages. This study focuses on the final phase of a two stage composting process and compares the generation and emission of CH4 and N2O associated with two differing composting methods: mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting. The first stage was in-vessel pre-treatment. Source-segregated household waste was first pre-composted for seven days using an in-vessel system. The second stage of composting involved forming half of the pre-composted material into a windrow and applying half to vermicomposting beds. The duration of this stage was 85 days and CH4 and N2O emissions were monitored throughout for both systems. Waste samples were regularly subjected to respirometry analysis and both processes were found to be equally effective at stabilising the organic matter content. The mechanically turned windrow system was characterised by emissions of CH4 and to a much lesser extent N2O. However, the vermicomposting system emitted significant fluxes of N2O and only trace amounts of CH4. In-vessel pre-treatment removed considerable amounts of available C and N prior to the second stage of composting. This had the effect of reducing emissions of CH4 and N2O from the second stage compared to emissions from fresh waste found in other studies. The characteristics of each of the two composting processes are discussed in detail. Very different mechanisms for emission of CH4 and N2O are proposed for each system. For the windrow system, development of anaerobic zones were thought to be responsible for CH4 release. High N2O emission rates from vermicomposting were ascribed to strongly nitrifying conditions in the processing beds combined with the presence of de-nitrifying bacteria within the worm gut. PMID:15869976

  14. Vermicomposting of toxic weed--Lantana camara biomass: chemical and microbial properties changes and assessment of toxicity of end product using seed bioassay.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Sharma, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    This work illustrates the results of vermicomposting trials of noxious weed - Lantana camara (LL) leaf litter spiked with cow dung (CD) in different ratios (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) using Eisenia fetida. A total of five treatments were established and changes in chemical and microbial properties of vermibeds have been observed for 60 days. In all treatments, a decrease in pH (19.5-30.7%), total organic carbon (TOC) (12-23%) and C:N ratio (25-35%), but increase in ash content (16-40%), total N(N(tot)) (11-32%), available phosphorous (P(avail)) (445-629%), exchangeable potassium (K(exch)) (63-156%) exchangeable calcium (Ca(exch)) (67-94%),and N-NO3(-) (164-499%) was recorded. Vermibeds with 40-60% LL (T2 and T3) showed better mineralization rate. The number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes showed 0.33-1.67-fold, 0.72-2.33-fold and 2.03-2.99-fold increase, respectively after vermicomposting process. The germination index (GI) was between 47% and 83% in all vermicomposts as indicated by seed bioassay test. Results thus suggested that Lantana may be a potential source for vermicompost production for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23796668

  15. Evaluation of vermicompost as bioadsorbent substrate of Pb, Ni, V and Cr for waste waters remediation using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdaneta, Cynthia; Parra, Lué-Merú Marcó; Matute, Saida; Garaboto, Mayantino Angel; Barros, Hayden; Vázquez, Cristina

    2008-12-01

    The use of vermicompost as adsorbent substrate for removing Pb, Ni, V and Cr from waste waters is proposed. In this work, after a preliminary physical and chemical characterization of the vermicompost, the optimal parameters for the heavy metal adsorption were obtained. A synthetic multielemental solution of Pb, Cr and Ni and a solution of NH 4VO 3 for vanadium were evaluated. The optimized parameters were pH, vermicompost mass to volume ratio, agitation time and particle size of the adsorbent. A batch system was employed for the assays. The elements were determined in the supernatant solution after filtration of the substrate. An optimal pH of 4.5 was found for ion removal. The agitation time slightly influences the adsorption of Pb and Cr, but it has a high influence on the Ni and V adsorption. The highest adsorption and removal of the metals was observed for a vermicompost mass of 2 g per 500 mL using a particle size between 75 to 841 µm for Pb, Cr and Ni, and 841 till 1192 µm for V. The mean removal percentage for each element is around 95% for Pb. Ni and Cr in the multielemental synthetic sample, demonstrating a high removal capacity of the substrate. For V it was found a removal efficiency of 50%.

  16. Functional Response of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Effects of Vermicompost and Host Plant Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Mottaghinia, L; Hassanpour, M; Razmjou, J; Hosseini, M; Chamani, E

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between natural enemies and herbivores may be affected by application of fertilizers and different cultivars. We investigated the functional response of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae to the nymphs of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on two commonly grown cucumber cultivars in Iran (Khasib and Karim) treated with different vermicompost/soil ratios (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70%). Based on logistic regression analysis, A. aphidimyza revealed a type II functional response to the aphid in all treatments. Attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza larvae on different vermicompost/soil ratios ranged from 0.076 to 0.140 h(-1) and 0.969 to 1.164 h on Khasib and from 0.092 to 0.123 h(-1) and 0.905 to 1.229 h on Karim, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the density of the melon aphid on both cultivars amended with vermicompost/soil ratios resulted in increased prey consumption by the predator. Density of trichomes increased when plants received higher concentrations of vermicompost. So, trichomes may be responsible for different attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza on both cultivars. PMID:26563403

  17. Chemical composition and bioactivity properties of size-fractions separated from a vermicompost humic acid.

    PubMed

    Canellas, Luciano P; Piccolo, Alessandro; Dobbss, Leonardo B; Spaccini, Riccardo; Olivares, Fábio L; Zandonadi, Daniel B; Façanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-01-01

    Preparative high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was applied to humic acids (HA) extracted from vermicompost in order to separate humic matter of different molecular dimension and evaluate the relationship between chemical properties of size-fractions (SF) and their effects on plant root growth. Molecular dimensions of components in humic SF was further achieved by diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR) based on diffusion coefficients (D), while carbon distribution was evaluated by solid state (CP/MAS) (13)C NMR. Seedlings of maize and Arabidopsis were treated with different concentrations of SF to evaluate root growth. Six different SF were obtained and their carbohydrate-like content and alkyl chain length decreased with decreasing molecular size. Progressive reduction of aromatic carbon was also observed with decreasing molecular size of separated fractions. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra showed that SF were composed of complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic and carbohydrates constituents that could be separated on the basis of their diffusion. All SF promoted root growth in Arabidopsis and maize seedlings but the effects differed according to molecular size and plant species. In Arabidopsis seedlings, the bulk HA and its SF revealed a classical large auxin-like exogenous response, i.e.: shortened the principal root axis and induced lateral roots, while the effects in maize corresponded to low auxin-like levels, as suggested by enhanced principal axis length and induction of lateral roots. The reduction of humic heterogeneity obtained in HPSEC separated size-fractions suggested that their physiological influence on root growth and architecture was less an effect of their size than their content of specific bioactive molecules. However, these molecules may be dynamically released from humic superstructures and exert their bioactivity when weaker is the humic conformational stability as that obtained in the separated size-fractions. PMID:19910019

  18. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 {+-} 13.87 mL/g TS{sub added} was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 {+-} 11.01 mL/g TS{sub added} and methane yield of 259.35 {+-} 13.85 mL/g TS{sub added} were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  19. Organic amendment based on vermicompost and compost: differences on soil properties and maize yield.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; Benítez, Concepción

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the effect of two vermicomposts [animal (VCD) and vegetal origin (VGF)] and a cotton gin compost (C) at rates of 1780 and 3560?kg fresh organic matter?ha(-1) for 3 years on an Typic Xerofluvent located near Seville (Spain) on soil biological properties, nutrition (leaf N, P and K concentration, pigments and soluble carbohydrate concentrations) and yield parameters of maize (Zea mays cv. Tundra) crop. All organic waste materials had a positive effect on the soil biological properties, plant nutrition and crop yield parameters, although at the end of the experimental period and at the high organic matter rate, the soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase, urease, ?-glucosidase, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities increased more significantly in the VCD-amended soils (86.4, 85.8, 94.5, 99.3, 70.1 and 63.8%, respectively) respect to the control soil, followed by VGF-amended soils (84.8, 80.6, 92.7, 99.1, 68.3 and 61.6%, respectively) and CC-amended soils (80.5, 75.9, 89.7, 99, 65.7 and 59.9%, respectively). Leaf N, P and K contents and pigments and soluble carbohydrate contents were highest in VCD-amended soils, followed by VGF and CC treatments. Compared with the control soil, the application of VCD in soils at high doses increased the crop yield parameters, followed by VGF and CC treatments. This may have been due to a greater labile fraction of organic matter in the VCD than the VGF and CC, respectively. PMID:20921058

  20. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-22

    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status. PMID:24372356

  1. Vermicomposting of Tea Factory Coal Ash: metal accumulation and metallothionein response in Eisenia fetida (Savigny) and Lampito mauritii (Kinberg).

    PubMed

    Goswami, L; Sarkar, S; Mukherjee, S; Das, S; Barman, S; Raul, P; Bhattacharyya, P; Mandal, N C; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, S S

    2014-08-01

    Earthworms can accumulate heavy metals in their intestines to a great extent. Impact of feed materials and duration of metal exposure on natural activity of earthworms are rather unclear; this investigation therefore addresses the impact of metal rich Tea Factory Coal Ash (TFCA) on reproduction, composting and metal accumulation ability of Eisenia fetida and Lampito mauritii. Earthworm count and cocoon production increased significantly during vermicomposting. pH of the vermicomposted mixtures shifted toward neutrality, total organic C decreased substantially and total N enhanced significantly compared to composting. High heavy metal (Mn, Zn, Cu, As) accumulation was recorded in the intestine of both the earthworm species. Moreover, gradual increase in the metal-inducible metallothionein concentration indicated the causal mechanism of metal accumulation in these species. TFCA+cow dung (CD) (1:1) were most favorable feed mixture for E. fetida and TFCA+CD (1:2) were good for L. mauritii in regard to metal accumulation and compost quality. PMID:24907568

  2. Bioremediation of distillery sludge into soil-enriching material through vermicomposting with the help of Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaswinder; Kaur, Arvinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was bioremediation of distillery sludge into a soil-enriching material. It was mixed with a complementary waste, cattle dung, and subjected to vermicomposting with (V) and without (T, control) Eisenia fetida in the ratio of 0:100 % (V1, T1), 10:90 (V2, T2), 25:75 (V3, T3), 50:50 (V4, T4), 75:25 (V5, T5) and 100:0 % (V6, T6), respectively. Survival rate, growth rate, onset of maturity, cocoon production and population build-up increased with increasing ratio of cattle dung. Maximum mortality of earthworm was observed in V6 mixture. On the basis of response surface design, the concentration of sludge giving highest number of worms, cocoons and hatchlings came out to be 21.11, 24.51 and 17.19 %, respectively. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium and pH increased during vermicomposting but decreased in the products without earthworm and there was increase in the contents of transition metals in the products of both the techniques. However, organic carbon, electrical conductivity and potassium showed an opposite trend. PMID:25113550

  3. Biodegradation of 3,4 dichloroaniline by fungal isolated from the preconditioning phase of winery wastes subjected to vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2014-02-28

    A hazardous contaminant, 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) is widespread in the environment due to its extensive use in the manufacture of chemicals and its application in different sectors. The ability of fungi grow on in winery wastes in the preconditioning period of vermicomposting to degrade DCA was investigated. Three filamentous fungi (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated and one identified as Aspergillus niger and two as Fusarium sp. strains. The culture media with the fungus alone or in consortium (Fmix) with DCA as the nitrogen source were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The fastest degradation rate was measured in Fmix with a DT50 of 0.85day(-1). Fusarium sp. and A. niger differed in the metabolism of DCA. Five metabolites were identified as a result of oxidation, co-denitrification, N-acetylation, and polymerization reactions. The major metabolites were 3,4-dichloroacetanilide and dichloroquinolines. The azo-metabolites tetrachloroazobenzene and tetracloroazoxybenzene and 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene were found in minor amounts but appeared to be the most persistent in the Fusarium cultures (half-lives ranging from 8.3 to 30.9 days). This study highlights the metabolic potential of microorganisms in the preconditioning period of the vermicomposting process and its possible application for in situ bioremediation strategies. PMID:24440653

  4. The effects of composting approaches on the emissions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds: A comparison between vermicomposting and general aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S S; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ullah, Md Ahsan; Goswami, L; Sahariah, B; Bhattacharyya, P; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Emission patterns of 13 VOCs were investigated in three types of vermicomposting systems (Eisenia fetida, Metaphire posthuma, and Lampito mauritii) in reference to a traditional aerobic composting system by feeding the systems with mixtures of three materials (coal ash (CA), municipal solid waste (MSW), and cow dung (CD)). On an average, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs (benzene, toluene, xylenes, and styrene) were two to three times higher than all other groups (aldehyde, ketones, esters, and alcohols) from all three types of feeding mixtures. However, the emission rates of aromatic VOCs were generally reduced over time in both aerobic composting and vermicomposting systems. Such reduction in the emission rates was most prominent from Eisenia-treated CD + MSW (1:1), Lampito-treated CD + CA (1:1), and Metaphire-treated CD. The results clearly indicated that the increase in humified organic C fractions (humic acid and fulvic acid) and the microbial biomass present during the biocomposting processes greatly reduced the emissions of VOCs. Hence, the study recommends that vermicomposting of coal ash and municipal solid waste in combination with cow dung in 1:1 ratio is an environmentally gainful proposition. PMID:26589098

  5. Tracking the composition and transformation of humic and fulvic acids during vermicomposting of sewage sludge by elemental analysis and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Sewage sludge (T1) and the mixture of sewage sludge and cattle dung (T2) were vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida, respectively. The transformation of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) extracted from these two treatments were evaluated by a series of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Results indicated that the vermicomposting decreased pH, TOC, and C/N ratio, and increased EC, total extractable C, and HA contents. The FA content in treatment T1 was increased significantly, and only slight increasing was observed in treatment T2. Moreover, vermicomposting decreased H content, C/N ratio, proteinaceous and carbohydrates components, and increased the N content, C/H ratio, aromatic compounds and polycondensation structures in HA and FA. In addition, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence regional integration indicated that protein-like groups were degraded and HA compounds were formed. Furthermore, the addition of cattle dung enhanced the humification process and improved the HA quality in spite of no significant effect on the FA. PMID:25736580

  6. Hacer frente - La adaptación al cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información para ayudarle a usted y a su familia a enfrentar los desafíos que representa el cáncer en su vida. Incluye temas sobre cómo hablar con sus médicos, sugerencias para hablar con sus hijos, cambios en su familia e información sobre grupos de apoy

  7. Vermicomposting of the leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis): possible roles of reactor geometry, polyphenols, and lignin.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, P Sankar; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2009-03-01

    Vermicomposting of the pre-composted leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis) was studied in reactors of identical volume but with surface area: height ratios varying from 4 to 250. In separate sets of experiments with these reactors, epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and anecic earthworm species Lampito mauritii were employed at densities of 75 and 150 adult animals per litre of reactor volume. The results reveal that greater the surface area: volume ratio of the reactor, higher is the vermicast output in terms of vermicast output per animal; the more densely populated reactors were comparatively under-productive. Even as the vermicast production remained consistently high in all the reactors, there was significant earthworm mortality throughout the course of the experiments and the worms who survived, steadily lost weight with time. A detailed investigation of the possible causes revealed that, whereas the C:N ratio of acacia compost was comparable with that of other substrates; the polyphenols and lignin content were much higher. Studies by other authors on leaf litter consumption by earthworms in natural or man-made forests have indicated that leaf litter rich in polyphenols and lignin are not preferred by most species of earthworm. This may perhaps be the reason for the high rate of mortality and weight loss in earthworms forced to feed upon acacia in the experiments conducted by the authors. PMID:19026533

  8. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU?×?10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU?×?10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 ?g TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 ?g NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system. PMID:25982984

  9. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting systems following in-vessel pre-treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, A.M. . E-mail: a.m.hobson@open.ac.uk; Frederickson, J.; Dise, N.B.

    2005-07-01

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are included in the six greenhouse gases listed in the Kyoto protocol that require emission reduction. To meet reduced emission targets, governments need to first quantify their contribution to global warming. Composting has been identified as an important source of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. With increasing divergence of biodegradable waste from landfill into the composting sector, it is important to quantify emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from all forms of composting and from all stages. This study focuses on the final phase of a two stage composting process and compares the generation and emission of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with two differing composting methods: mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting. The first stage was in-vessel pre-treatment. Source-segregated household waste was first pre-composted for seven days using an in-vessel system. The second stage of composting involved forming half of the pre-composted material into a windrow and applying half to vermicomposting beds. The duration of this stage was 85 days and CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions were monitored throughout for both systems. Waste samples were regularly subjected to respirometry analysis and both processes were found to be equally effective at stabilising the organic matter content. The mechanically turned windrow system was characterised by emissions of CH{sub 4} and to a much lesser extent N{sub 2}O. However, the vermicomposting system emitted significant fluxes of N{sub 2}O and only trace amounts of CH{sub 4}. In-vessel pre-treatment removed considerable amounts of available C and N prior to the second stage of composting. This had the effect of reducing emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from the second stage compared to emissions from fresh waste found in other studies. The characteristics of each of the two composting processes are discussed in detail. Very different mechanisms for emission of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are proposed for each system. For the windrow system, development of anaerobic zones were thought to be responsible for CH{sub 4} release. High N{sub 2}O emission rates from vermicomposting were ascribed to strongly nitrifying conditions in the processing beds combined with the presence of de-nitrifying bacteria within the worm gut.

  10. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-20

    Six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced siderophores; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; CAI-13, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-85 and CAI-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in CAI-85 and CAI-93. PMID:24113511

  11. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ChallengeALS About This Site Site Map Link Policy Privacy Policy Pay tribute to those fighting ALS with a ... the National Office . Site Map | Press Room | FAQ | Privacy Policy | Link Policy | RSS | Contact Us The ALS Association - ...

  12. ALS - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  13. Vermicomposting toilets, an alternative to latrine style microbial composting toilets, prove far superior in mass reduction, pathogen destruction, compost quality, and operational cost.

    PubMed

    Hill, Geoffrey B; Baldwin, Susan A

    2012-10-01

    Composting toilets aim to recycle excrement into safe, stable humus. Preceding this, low costs, low risks, and mass reduction should be ensured. Source separating vermicomposting toilets (SSVCs) outperformed mixed latrine microbial composting toilets (MLMCs) in all categories. MLMCs: incurred ten times greater operational costs; created 10x more operator exposure; employed no proven pathogen reduction mechanism since solid end-products averaged 71,000±230,000CFU/g (fecal-origin) Escherichia coli and 24±5% total solids, consistently failed NSF/ANSI Standard 41; failed to reduce volatile solids compared to raw fecal matter; increased total contaminated dry mass by 274%, and produced alkaline end-product (8.0±0.7) high in toxic free ammonia (Solvita® 2.6±1.5). SSVCs have low maintenance costs and risks; adequate worm density for pathogen destruction (0.03±0.04g-worm/g-material); reduced E. coli 200±244CFU/g in neutral (7.4±0.3), stable (60±10% volatile solids), and mature (4±0 Solvita® NH(3)) end-product. PMID:22658870

  14. Al Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 ?m were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

  15. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  16. Hacer frente - La vida día a día

    Cancer.gov

    Información que trata sobre la vida diaria durante el tratamiento del cáncer. Incluye aspectos como mantener la rutina diaria, regresar al trabajo, la fe y la espiritualidad y los retos económicos.

  17. /Cu-Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  18. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... world without ALS Start an Event Combine your passion and commitment to finding a cure for ALS while achieving ... 1275 K Street NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted ...

  19. Who Gets ALS?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... world without ALS Start an Event Combine your passion and commitment to finding a cure for ALS while achieving ... 1275 K Street NW - Suite 250 - Washington, DC 20005 All content and works posted on this website are owned and copyrighted ...

  20. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MDA Partners in Progress Search form Search MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide March 2013 Download a printable PDF ... probably because someone you care about deeply has ALS. This guide will help you to help your ...

  1. Analysis of phytohormones in vermicompost using a novel combinative sample preparation strategy of ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tan, Swee Ngin; Teo, Chee How; Yew, Yan Ru; Ge, Liya; Chen, Xin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2015-07-01

    Vermicompost (VC), a widely used premium organic fertilizer, is the by-product of symbiotic interactions between earthworms and microorganisms living within them. It has been postulated that phytohormones are plausible "magic compounds" in VC that are responsible for making them such good fertilizers. Thus, a novel approach involving ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed as a fast and efficient sample preparation method to screen for different classes of phytohormones in VC by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Nine phytohormones from three different classes, including trans-zeatin (tZ), kinetin (K), N(6)-[2-isopentyl]adenine (iP), N(6)-benzyladenine (BA), N(6)-isopentenyladenosine (iPR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 4-[3-indolyl]butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and (+)-abscisic acid (ABA), were simultaneously screened. The extraction parameters influencing UAE efficiency were optimized to provide comparable recovery to the conventional mix-stirring (MSt) method. The optimized UAE method was subsequently applied on the analysis of phytohormones in VC, i.e. phytohormone extract was further pre-concentrated and purified using C18 and MCX SPE cartridges prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The following phytohormones, namely iP, iPR and IAA, were detected and quantified to be 0.49, 0.53, 79.78ngg(-1), respectively; tZ was found to be below the limit of quantitation. Recoveries of 10.2%, 9.1%, 18.9% and 0.3% for tZ, iP, iPR and IAA were obtained. This is one of the few reported works for the successful detection and quantitation of cytokinins and auxins in VC, that provided the key empirical evidence to explain the growth efficacy of applying VC in promoting plant growth. Additionally, this pioneering work could potentially be applicable for the analysis of other types of organic fertilizers such as composts and activated composted materials awaiting phytohormone analyzes for quality assessment and control. PMID:25882426

  2. Ventilatory Control in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Van Dyke, J.; Nashold, L.; Satriotomo, I.; Suzuki, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease. ALS selectively causes degeneration in upper and lower (spinal) motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. Although ventilatory failure is generally the cause of death in ALS, little is known concerning the impact of this disorder on respiratory motor neurons, the consequences of respiratory motor neuron cell death, or the ability of the respiratory control system to “fight back” via mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. Here we review known effects of ALS on breathing, including possible effects on rhythm generation, respiratory motor neurons, and their target organs: the respiratory muscles. We consider evidence for spontaneous compensatory plasticity, preserving breathing well into disease progression despite dramatic loss of spinal respiratory motor neurons. Finally, we review current and potential therapeutic approaches directed toward preserving the capacity to breathe in ALS patients. PMID:23692930

  3. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    PubMed

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  4. Hacer frente - Supervivencia

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre la vida después del tratamiento, cómo planear los cuidados de seguimiento y cómo controlar los aspectos físicos, emocionales y familiares que usted puede enfrentar después del tratamiento.

  5. ALS2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  6. Genetic Testing for ALS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic ... guarantee a person will develop symptoms of ALS. Genetic Counseling If there is more than one person ...

  7. All About ALS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder In the ... a coffee pot, or button a shirt. Eventually, all muscles under voluntary control are affected, and people ...

  8. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for an official diagnosis of FTD. Most people’s perceptions of “dementia” include the dramatic memory loss, confusion ... for those with ALS. The seat’s width and depth adjustments are indexed and clearly marked for a ...

  9. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scarring or hardening ("sclerosis") in the region. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord ... the body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their demise. When ...

  10. About ALS: FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hall of Fame basketball player George Yardley , pro football player Glenn Montgomery , golfer Jeff Julian , golf caddie ... in physical therapy, speech, occupational therapy, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition and other fields, the ALS neurologist ...

  11. Leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/YSZ/Al devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Tsung-Her; Lin, Ruei-De; Cherng, Bo-Ruei; Cherng, Jyh-Shiarn

    2015-01-01

    The leakage current behaviors of Al/ZrO2/Al and Al/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Al devices are investigated for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. A silicon oxide layer (450 nm) is first formed on a Si wafer by thermal oxidation. Onto it an Al bottom electrode (270 nm), a ZrO2 or YSZ nano-film (75 nm), and an Al top electrode (270 nm) are sequentially deposited by sputtering. These RRAM devices exhibit ohmic behaviors in the low-field region, while Schottky and Poole-Frenkel emissions take over in the high-field regions. Both the Schottky and trap barrier levels are decreased when monoclinic ZrO2 is replaced by cubic YSZ in the metal/oxide/metal structure. This is attributed not only to the higher symmetry crystal structure and lower binding energy of YSZ, but also to the formation of more oxygen vacancies and their re-distribution associated with yttria doping.

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... long do people with familial ALS live? Do clusters of ALS possibly exist? (I have been told ... related?) What are the problems with studying possible clusters of ALS? What are motor neuron (nerve cell) ...

  13. ALS superbend magnet performance

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Steve; Zbasnik, John; Byrne, Warren; Calais, Dennis; Chin, Michael; DeMarco, Richard; Fahmie, Michael; Geyer, Alan; Krupnick, Jim; Ottens, Fred; Paterson, James A.; Pipersky, Paul; Robin, David S.; Schlueter, RossD.; Steier, Christoph; Wandesforde, Alan

    2001-12-10

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been engaged in the design, construction and testing of four superconducting dipoles (Superbends) that are installed in three arcs of the Advanced Light Source (ALS), with the fourth magnet as a spare. This represents a major upgrade to the ALS providing an enhanced flux and brightness at photon energies above 10 keV. In preparation for installation, an extensive set of tests and measurements have been conducted to characterize the magnetic and cryogenic performance of the Superbends and to fiducialize them for accurate placement in the ALS storage ring. The magnets are currently installed, and the storage ring is undergoing final commissioning. This paper will present the results of magnetic and cryogenic testing.

  14. Fosetyl-al

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fosetyl - al ; CASRN 39148 - 24 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Al Shanker Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  16. Al Shanker Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  17. /Al-Si Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Jian; Hu, Yongle; Cong, Li; Sun, YouPing; Yang, JiMing

    2014-08-01

    The cyclic fatigue characteristics of spray-deposited SiCp/Al-Si composite were investigated in comparison with the unreinforced Al-Si alloy. The as-extruded specimens were cyclically deformed with fully reversed loading under a range of total strain amplitudes. The results show that the cyclic response characteristics for the reinforced and unreinforced materials are similar to each other. Both the composite and matrix alloys display cyclic hardening under total strain amplitude of 0.35-0.5%. Otherwise, the composite exhibits higher degree of strain hardening than that of the matrix alloy. Dislocation substructure developed during cyclic deformation was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. The discrepancy between dislocation substructures obtained from processing compared to its development during cyclic strain loading is thought to give rise to the observed cyclic stress response behavior. Fractographic analysis shows that particle/matrix debonding and particle cracking are the main mechanisms of failure in the SiC particle-reinforced composite.

  18. ALS Project Management Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Krupnick, Jim; Harkins, Joe

    2000-05-01

    This manual has been prepared to help establish a consistent baseline of management practices across all ALS projects. It describes the initial process of planning a project, with a specific focus on the production of a formal project plan. We feel that the primary weakness in ALS project management efforts to date stems from a failure to appreciate the importance of ''up-front'' project planning. In this document, we present a guide (with examples) to preparing the documents necessary to properly plan, monitor, and control a project's activities. While following the manual will certainly not guarantee good project management, failure to address the issues we raise will dramatically reduce the chance of success. Here we define success as meeting the technical goals on schedule and within the prescribed budget.

  19. ALS insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Jasechko et al. reply.

    PubMed

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2014-02-13

    replying to A. M. J. Coenders-Gerrits et al. 506, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12925 (2014)In their Comment, Coenders-Gerrits et al. suggest that our conclusion that transpiration dominates the terrestrial water cycle is biased by unrepresentative input data and optimistic uncertainty ranges related to runoff, interception and the isotopic compositions of transpired and evaporated moisture. We clearly presented the uncertainties applied in our Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis, we reported percentile ranges of results rather than standard deviations to best communicate the nonlinear nature of the isotopic evaporation model, and we highlighted that the uncertainty in our calculation remains large, particularly in humid catchments (for example, figure 2 in our paper). PMID:24522604

  1. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Al(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodupe, M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structure and determine the binding energies of Al(+) to a series of ligands. For Al(+)-CN, the bonding was found to have a large covalent component. For the remaining ligands, the bonding is shown to be electrostatic in origin. The results obtained for Al(+) are compared with those previously reported for Mg(+).

  3. Studies of 27Al NMR in EuAl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niki, H.; Nakamura, S.; Higa, N.; Kuroshima, H.; Toji, T.; Yogi, M.; Nakamura, A.; Hedo, M.; Nakama, T.; ?nuki, Y.; Harima, H.

    2015-03-01

    EuAl4 orders antiferromagnetically at TN ? 16 K with an effective magnetic moment of 8.02 ?B. In the paramagnetic phase, the magnetic susceptibility of EuAl4 follows the Curie-Weiss law with a positive Curie-Weiss temperature ?P = +14 K. The antiferromagnetic state is changed into the field induced ferromagnetic state at a critical field Hc of approximately 2 T. In order to microscopically investigate the magnetic and electronic properties in EuAl4, the NMR measurements of EuAl4 have been carried out at temperatures between 2 and 300 K, applying an external magnetic field of approximately 6.5 T. The 27Al NMR spectra corresponding to Al(I) and Al(II) sites are obtained. From the 27Al NMR spectra, the isotropic part Kiso and anisotropic part Kaniso of Knight shift, and nuclear quadrupole frequncy ?Q are obtained. The Kiso and Kaniso shift to negative side with decreasing temperature due to the RKKY interaction. These temperature dependences follow the Curie-Weiss law with ?P = +14 K, which is consistent with that of the magnetic susceptibility. From the K - ? plot, the values of the hyperfine fields Hhf_iso and Hhf_aniso are -3.231 and -0.162 kOe/?B for Al(I) site, and -1.823 and -0.264 kOe/?B for Al(II) site, respectively. The values of ?Q of 27Al nucleus for Al(I) and Al(II) sites are approximately 0.865 and 0.409 MHz, respectively. The nuclear relaxation time T1 of 27Al NMR for both sites is almost constant in the paramagnetic phase, while the value of 1/T1 is abruptly decreased in the ordered ferromagnetic state.

  4. Growth and Optical Properties of Al rich AlN/AlGaN Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahtamouni, T. M. Al; Nepal, N.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2006-03-01

    Al rich AlGaN alloys are promising materials for the applications in the optoelectronic devices such as deep ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors in the spectral range down to 200 nm. AlGaN based UV emitters (?<340nm) has applications in bio-chemical agent detection and medical research/ health care. To realize deep UV emission (?< 280 nm) Al rich AlGaN based quantum wells (QWs) are required. We report here the growth of AlN/AlxGa1-xNQWs (x>0.65) on AlN/sapphire templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Deep UV photoluminescence (PL) was employed to study the optical properties of the QWs. Well width (Al composition) dependence was studied by varying the QW thickness (Al composition) with fixed x ˜ 0.65 (well width at 3 nm). Optical properties of these QWs such as the effects of alloy fluctuation, temperature, strain and piezoelectric field, carrier and exciton localizations on the quantum efficiency have been studied. Carrier and exciton dynamics were probed. Implications of our findings on the applications of Al rich AlN/AlGaN QWs for UV emitters and detectors will also be discussed.

  5. Theoretical studies of AlF, AlCl, and AlBr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    Spectroscopic constants have been obtained for the lowest six singlet and lowest five triplet states of AlF and AlCl. The results suggest that the correct ordering of the triplet manifold in these molecules is: a 3Pi, b 3Sigma(+), c 3Sigma(+), d 3Pi, and e 3Delta. Radiative lifetimes have been determined for the excited states, and the A 1Pi to X 1Sigma(+) transition in AlF, AlCl, and AlBr has been examined in detail. A-X transition moment functions, Einstein coefficients, and A 1Pi vibrational lifetimes have been obtained for AlF and AlCl.

  6. Rub' al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth.

    The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Interfacial reactions and oxidation behavior of Al 2O 3 and Al 2O 3/Al coatings on an orthorhombic Ti 2AlNb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Q.; Wang, Q. M.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2011-02-01

    The uniform and dense Al2O3 and Al2O3/Al coatings were deposited on an orthorhombic Ti2AlNb alloy by filtered arc ion plating. The interfacial reactions of the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb and Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens after vacuum annealing at 750 °C were studied. In the Al2O3/Ti2AlNb specimens, the Al2O3 coating decomposed significantly due to reaction between the Al2O3 coating and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. In the Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens, a ?-TiAl layer and an Nb-rich zone came into being by interdiffusion between the Al layer and the O-Ti2AlNb substrate. The ?-TiAl layer is chemically compatible with Al2O3, with no decomposition of Al2O3 being detected. No internal oxidation or oxygen and nitrogen dissolution zone was observed in the O-Ti2AlNb alloy. The Al2O3/Al/Ti2AlNb specimens exhibited excellent oxidation resistance at 750 °C.

  8. Characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, C.; Nevirkovets, I.P.; Chernyashevskyy, O.; Hu, R.; Ketterson, J.B.; Sarma, B.K.

    2009-03-03

    We report characteristics of CeCoIn{sub 5}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Nb and CeCoIn{sub 5}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al tunnel junctions fabricated on the (0 0 1) surface of CeCoIn{sub 5} crystal platelets. The main result of this work is the observation of a low Josephson current (as compared with that expected from the Ambegaokar-Baratoff formula), which is consistent with idea that the order parameter in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn{sub 5} has unconventional pairing symmetry.

  9. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  10. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  11. Medical application of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  12. Understanding ALS: new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Musarò, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with motor neuron degeneration, muscle atrophy and paralysis. Although numerous pathological mechanisms have been elucidated, ALS remains an invariably fatal disease in the absence of any effective therapy. The heterogeneity of the disease and the failure to develop satisfactory therapeutic protocols reinforce the view that ALS is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Thus, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and study of the potential pathological relationship between the various cellular processes is required to ensure efficacious therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms associated with ALS are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations of some new therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:23217177

  13. Reply to Fischer et al.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-11-01

    We welcome the correspondence from Fischer and colleagues regarding our recent paper on vocal learning in chimpanzee food grunts [1]. Fischer et al. make two challenges to our paper's conclusions, which we address here. PMID:26528741

  14. Reply to Gopalswamy et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Gopalswamy et al. (thereafter GMY) relates to a letter discussing coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary ejecta and geomagnetic storms. GMY contend that Cane et al. incorrectly identified ejecta (interplanetary CMEs) and hypothesize that this is because Cane et al. fail to understand how to separate ejecta from "shock sheaths" when interpreting solar wind and energetic particle data sets. They (GMY) are wrong be cause the relevant section of the paper was concerned with the propagation time to 1 AU of any potentially geoeffective structures caused by CMEs, i.e. upstream compression regions with or without shocks, or ejecta. In other words, the travel times used by Cane et al. were purposefully and deliberately distinct from ejecta travel times (except for those slow ejecta, approx. 30% of their events, which generated no upstream features), and no error in identification was involved. The confusion of GMY stems from the description did not characterize the observations sufficiently clearly.

  15. In memory of Al Cameron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, John; Truran, James W.

    Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning ele- ment formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, A G.; Yu, Q P.; Piboolnurak, P; Tang, M X.; Fang, Y; Smith, W A.; Yim, J; Rowland, L P.; Mitsumoto, H; Pullman, S L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures as clinical correlates and longitudinal markers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: We prospectively studied 60 patients with ALS subtypes (sporadic ALS, familial ALS, progressive muscular atrophy, and primary lateral sclerosis) using single pulse TMS, recording from abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. We evaluated three measures: 1) TMS motor response threshold to the ADM, 2) central motor conduction time (CMCT), and 3) motor evoked potential amplitude (correcting for peripheral changes). Patients were evaluated at baseline, compared with controls, and followed every 3 months for up to six visits. Changes were analyzed using generalized estimation equations to test linear trends with time. Results: TMS threshold, CMCT, and TMS amplitude correlated (p < 0.05) with clinical upper motor neuron (UMN) signs at baseline and were different (p < 0.05) from normal controls in at least one response. Seventy-eight percent of patients with UMN (41/52) and 50% (4/8) of patients without clinical UMN signs had prolonged CMCT. All three measures revealed significant deterioration over time: TMS amplitude showed the greatest change, decreasing 8% per month; threshold increased 1.8% per month; and CMCT increased by 0.9% per month. Conclusions: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) findings, particularly TMS amplitude, can objectively discriminate corticospinal tract involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from controls and assess the progression of ALS. While central motor conduction time and response threshold worsen by less than 2% per month, TMS amplitude decrease averages 8% per month, and may be a useful objective marker of disease progression. GLOSSARY ADM = abductor digiti minimi; ALS = amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ANOVA = analysis of variance; CI = confidence interval; CMAP = compound motor action potential; CMCT = central motor conduction time; DTR = deep tendon stretch reflex; fALS = familial ALS; GEE = generalized estimation equations; LMN = lower motor neuron; MEP = motor evoked potential; PLS = primary lateral sclerosis; PMA = progressive muscular atrophy; sALS = sporadic ALS; TA = tibialis anterior; TMS = transcranial magnetic stimulation; UMN = upper motor neuron. PMID:19204259

  17. ALS: focus on purinergic signalling.

    PubMed

    Volonté, Cinzia; Apolloni, Savina; Carrì, Maria Teresa; D'Ambrosi, Nadia

    2011-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most common neuromuscular diseases. It is devastating and fatal, causing progressive paralysis of all voluntary muscles and eventually death, while sparing cognitive functions. A pathological hallmark of ALS is neuroinflammation mediated by non-neuronal cells in the nervous system, such as microglia and astrocytes that accelerate the disease progression. Scientists have neither found a unique key mechanism, nor an effective treatment against ALS, supposedly because it is a multi-factorial and multi-systemic disease. Extracellular purines and pyrimidines are widespread and powerful physiopathological molecules, signalling to most cell types and directing cell-to-cell communication networks. They are instrumental for instance for neurotransmission, muscle contraction and immune surveillance. Recent work has reported the crucial involvement of purinergic pathways in many neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, comprising ALS. Especially P2 receptors for ATP, P1 receptors for adenosine, and nucleotide transporters were found to be modulated in ALS cells and tissues, playing a potential role in the disease. Given the composite cellular cross-talk occurring during ALS and the established action of extracellular purines/pyrimidines as neuron-to-glia alarm signal in the nervous system, a mutual query in these two fields should now be whether, how and when purinergic would meet ALS. In this review, we will highlight the early cellular and molecular purinergic cross-talk that participates to ALS etiopathology, with the conviction that better understanding of purinergic dynamics might provide original research perspectives, stimulate alternative disease modelling, and the design and testing of more powerful targeted therapeutics against this relentlessly progressive disorder. PMID:21704075

  18. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated by a Centrifugal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Kazuhiko; Miyahara, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    2008-02-01

    Intermetallic compounds, such as Al3Ni and Al2Cu, are effective for enhancing the mechanical properties of an alloy. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu functionally graded materials (FGMs) might be attractive materials for advanced materials. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs were fabricated by a centrifugal method; the centrifugal method is an extremely effective method for fabricating FGMs. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs that had a graded distribution of intermetallic compounds could be produced by this in-situ centrifugal method. Particle size, particle shape and the distribution of intermetallic compounds were controlled by varying the content of the alloy element (Ni, Cu) in the master alloy, the cooling rate in casting and the gravity number. The casting mechanism is explained in terms of the microstructures of the Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs fabricated by this method. The corrosion behavior of the FGMs was investigated by electrochemical analysis. Polarization curves of the FGMs in a borate solution were measured by a potentiodynamic method. The presence of Al2Cu exerted a larger effect on the corrosion behavior of the FGMs than Al3Ni. Analysis of the polarization curve parameters was effective for evaluating the corrosion resistance of the FGMs.

  20. High Density Sliding at Ta/Al and Al/Al Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, J. E.; Germann, T. C.; Ravelo, R.

    2006-07-28

    We present 3D-nonequilibrium molecular dynamics results for the velocity dependence of the frictional force at smooth sliding interfaces for Ta and Al single crystals. For Ta/Al we consider Al(100)/Ta(100) and Al(111)/Ta(110) interfaces sliding along [001] and [11(bar sign)0]fcc /[001]bcc respectively. These are compared with Al(111)/Al(100) interfaces at the same loads, corresponding to a pressure of 15 GPa. Both interfacial pairs show similar behavior in the velocity dependence of the frictional force: a low velocity regime with an increasing frictional force followed by a strain induced transformation regime at velocities above approximately 1/10 the transverse sound speed, followed by a fluidized interface at high velocities. For both interfacial pairs, the high velocity dependence of the frictional force exhibits power law behavior, Ft {proportional_to} v-{beta} with {beta}=3/4. We discuss the structural changes that influence dissipation in each of these regimes.

  1. Everyday Life with ALS: A Practical Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... likely be affected by ALS. An astonish- ing array of assistive technology is now available to help ... neuromuscular diseases. MDA’s ALS Division provides a vast array of services to people with ALS, one of ...

  2. Modeling of the ALS linac

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.

    1996-08-01

    The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible.

  3. AlN/Fe/AlN nanostructures for magnetooptic magnetometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lišková-Jakubisová, E. Viš?ovský, Š.; Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J.

    2014-05-07

    AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu nanostructures with ultrathin Fe grown by sputtering on Si substrates are evaluated as probes for magnetooptical (MO) mapping of weak currents. They are considered for a laser wavelength of ??=?410?nm (3.02?eV) and operate at oblique light incidence angles, ?{sup (0)}, to enable detection of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization. Their performance is evaluated in terms of MO reflected wave electric field amplitudes. The maximal MO amplitudes in AlN/Fe/AlN/Cu are achieved by a proper choice of layer thicknesses. The nanostructures were characterized by MO polar Kerr effect at ?{sup (0)}???5° and longitudinal Kerr effect spectra (?{sup (0)}?=?45°) at photon energies between 1 and 5?eV. The nominal profiles were refined using a model-based analysis of the spectra. Closed form analytical expressions are provided, which are useful in the search for maximal MO amplitudes.

  4. 27Al NMR study in ZrNiAl.

    PubMed

    Nowak, B; Hayashi, S

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the microscopic properties of the hexagonal ZrNiAl, a model compound for a wide family of intermetallic compounds crystallizing in this type of structure, by using 27Al NMR spectroscopy. We have investigated the lineshape of static and MAS NMR spectra as a function of magnetic field strength (4.7-9.4 T) and temperature (5-300 K). Our data indicate that the 27Al NMR spectra result from a combined effect of quadrupole and anisotropic shift interactions. The 27Al nuclei are in an environment characterized by the quadrupole coupling constant e2qQ/h of 3.3 MHz, asymmetry parameter etaQ of 0.42, isotropic shift delta(iso) of 393 ppm, shift anisotropy delta(anis) = delta(zz) - (delta(xx) + delta(yy))/2 of 150 ppm, and asymmetry factor etaS of 0.5. They are found to be temperature independent. The spin-lattice relaxation rate measured at 7.05 T is proportional to the temperature with T1T = 135 s K. The mechanisms responsible for observed values of delta(iso), delta(anis), T1T, and the enhanced Korringa constant are discussed. PMID:11270742

  5. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al/Al-Mg/Al composite sheet metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jaehyung; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Lim, Cha-Yong; Kim, Eun-Young; Choi, Shi-Hoon

    2011-08-01

    Two different types of aluminum alloys of AA1050 and AA5182 were used to manufacture Al/Al-Mg/Al composite sheet metals by roll bonding technology at room temperature. The composite sheet metals were annealed at 400 °C and carried out uniaxial tension tests to investigate mechanical properties. Macroscopic mechanical properties are strongly dependent on the volume (or thickness) fraction of two component layers. Microstructure and texture evolution were also investigated during roll bonding process. The AA1050 sheets located in the outer layer mainly consist of shear texture components and the AA5182 sheet located in the center layer consists of plane strain texture components. With differential speeds of the top and bottom rolls, roll bonding was also carried out. Elongation along the RD and TD was improved at a speed difference of approximately 10%-20%.

  6. Cdk5 sinks into ALS.

    PubMed

    Patzke, Holger; Tsai, Li Huei

    2002-01-01

    Recent research points to an involvement of deregulated cdk5 activity in the pathogenesis of mutant SOD1-mediated disease. In addition, inhibition of this activity might promote motor neuron survival. These observations have opened the door to further research into the role of cdk5 in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:11801324

  7. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  8. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinlong; Mao, Shoudong; Sun, Kefei; Li, Xiaomin; Song, Zhenlun

    2009-11-01

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  9. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices. PMID:26387967

  10. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-tao; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Lin, Zhao-jun; Kang, Shi-shou; Chen, Yan-xue; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, Liang-mo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices. PMID:26387967

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of Pt-Al and Pd-Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Derek

    2011-03-01

    Pure platinum and pure palladium are too soft for typical jewelry applications. Adding small amounts of other metals can significantly increase their performance. However, international hallmarking standards require the alloys to be 95% pure by weight. How does one achieve significant improvements in performance adding only small amounts (5 wt-%) of other metals? Significant improvements are possible even with small additions if precipitate hardening can be induced. Using a combination of first-principles, cluster expansion, and Monte Carlo modeling, we have identified new Pt-rich/Pd-rich phases in Pt-Al and Pd-Al that should be useful in precipitate hardening. Thermodynamical modeling indicates that the phases are experimentally feasible (not kinetically inhibited).

  12. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  13. CO oxidation mechanism on AlAun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ling; An, Xiaoyu; Li, Shuying; Li, Aixia

    2015-04-01

    CO oxidation via LH mechanism on AlAun (n = 1-12) have been studied by density functional theory calculations with the aim to shed light on reaction mechanism and catalytic activity of AlAu alloy. The AlAun molecular structures and adsorption energies of a single CO or O2 molecule as well as coadsorption energies of CO + O2, CO2 + O, and CO + O on various distinctive sites of each AlAun are predicted. The calculated results show that the overall LH, AlAun + O2(gas) + CO(gas) ?A lAun-O2(ads) + CO(ads) ? AlAun-OOCO(ads) ? AlAun-O(ads) + CO2(gas) ? AlAun-O(ads) + CO(ads) ? AlAun-OCO(ads) ? AlAun + CO2(gas) is calculated to by exothermic by -144.8 kcal/mol. It suggests that the CO oxidation catalyzed by the AlAu6 and AlAu12 is likely to occur at or even below room temperature. AlAu6 and AlAu12 exhibit a larger catalytic activity for CO oxidation by O2 molecule.

  14. Synthesis of AlN/Al Polycrystals along with Al Nanoparticles Using Thermal Plasma Route

    SciTech Connect

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, A. B.; Kulkarni, N. V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper for the first time reports the (200) oriented growth of hexagonal Aluminum nitride crystals during synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles in dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by gas phase condensation in nitrogen plasma. The structural and morphological study of as synthesized AlN crystal and aluminium nanoparticles was done by using the x-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Synthesis of AlN/Al Polycrystals along with Al Nanoparticles Using Thermal Plasma Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, A. B.; Kulkarni, N. V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2011-07-01

    This paper for the first time reports the (200) oriented growth of hexagonal Aluminum nitride crystals during synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles in dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by gas phase condensation in nitrogen plasma. The structural and morphological study of as synthesized AlN crystal and aluminium nanoparticles was done by using the x-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  16. NiAl-base composite containing high volume fraction of AlN for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan (Inventor); Whittenbeger, John D. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy has a NiAl matrix and greater than about 13 volume percent fine particles of AlN within the matrix. The particles preferably have a diameter from about 15 nanometers to about 50 nanometers. The particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy may be prepared by cryomilling prealloyed NiAl in liquid nitrogen using grinding media having a diameter of from about 2 to 6 mm at an impeller speed of from about 450 RPM to about 800 RPM. The cryomilling may be done for a duration of from about 4 hours to about 20 hours to obtain a cryomilled powder. The cryomilled powder may be consolidated to form the particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy. The particulate reinforced alloy can further include a toughening alloy. The toughening alloy may include NiCrAlY, FeCrAlY, and FeAl.

  17. Everyday Life with ALS: A Practical Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Progress Search form Search Everyday Life with ALS: A Practical Guide March 2010 Download a printable ... in this one. Back to top Resources MDA ALS Division The Muscular Dystrophy Association, one of the ...

  18. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Involved Donate Military Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to ... not served. This site is designed specifically for veterans with ALS, their families and survivors. Here you will learn what benefits ...

  19. New synthetic route to Al4O4C reinforced Al-Al2O3 composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Sun, Jialin; Xue, Wendong; Chen, Junhong; Vasant Kumar, R.; Li, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Carbon free Al-Al2O3 composite sliding gate materials were successfully prepared by adding excess amount of Al powders through carbon burial sintering at 1450 °C for 6 h. Physical properties including apparent porosity, bulk density, ambient temperature crushing strength and hot rupture modulus were characterized for all the samples and addition of 9 at% aluminum powder was proved to exhibit optimal properties. The XRD and SEM results reveal that Al4O4C and AlN phases shown in the product samples are serving as reinforcement phase, contributing to better physical performances.

  20. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2(Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Baibiao; Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2 (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO6-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.

  1. Al-Co-Fe (Aluminium - Cobalt - Iron)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materials Science International Team MSIT®

    This document is part of Subvolume A1 'Light Metal Systems. Part 1: Selected Systems from Ag-Al-Cu to Al-Cu-Er' of Volume 11 'Ternary Alloy Systems - Phase Diagrams, Crystallographic and Thermodynamic Data critically evaluated by MSIT®' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV Physical Chemistry. It provides the data for the ternary system Al-Co-Fe (Aluminium - Cobalt - Iron).

  2. Framework Al zoning in zeolite ECR-1.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jiho; Ahn, Nak Ho; Cho, Sung June; Ren, Limin; Xiao, Feng-Shou; Hong, Suk Bong

    2014-02-25

    Rietveld analyses of the synchrotron X-ray diffraction data for various cation forms of zeolite ECR-1 have demonstrated framework Al zoning, which parallels the alternation of Al-rich maz and Al-poor mor layers. This can be further supported by notable differences in the average bond valence of its 10 crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites. PMID:24409461

  3. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  4. Aluminium distribution in ZSM-5 revisited: The role of Al-Al interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Salvador, A. Rabdel; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Gray, Aileen E.; Lewis, Dewi W.

    2013-02-15

    We present a theoretical study of the distribution of Al atoms in zeolite ZSM-5 with Si/Al=47, where we focus on the role of Al-Al interactions rather than on the energetics of Al/Si substitutions at individual sites. Using interatomic potential methods, we evaluate the energies of the full set of symmetrically independent configurations of Al siting in a Si{sub 94}Al{sub 2}O{sub 192} cell. The equilibrium Al distribution is determined by the interplay of two factors: the energetics of the Al/Si substitution at an individual site, which tends to populate particular T sites (e.g., the T14 site), and the Al-Al interaction, which at this Si/Al maximises Al-Al distances in general agreement with Dempsey's rule. However, it is found that the interaction energy changes approximately as the inverse of the square of the distance between the two Al atoms, rather than the inverse of the distance expected if this were merely charge repulsion. Moreover, we find that the anisotropic nature of the framework density plays an important role in determining the magnitude of the interactions, which are not simply dependent on Al-Al distances. - Graphical abstract: Role of Al-Al interactions in high silica ZSM-5 is shown to be anisotropic in nature and not dependent solely on Coulombic interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si-Al distribution in ZSM-5 is revisited, stressing the role of the Al-Al interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coulomb interactions are not the key factors controlling the Al siting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisotropy of the framework is identified as a source of departure from Dempsey's rule.

  5. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR)

    This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.'

    The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth.

    The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers.

    Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars.

    Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can be seen in this color image to be dustier than the undisturbed or 'normal' plains soils in Meridiani. Since the time these ruts were made, some of the dust there has been blown away by the wind, reaffirming the dynamic nature of the martian environment, even in this barren, ocean-like desert of sand.

  6. Cyclic oxidation resistance of a reaction milled NiAl-AlN composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon recent mechanical property tests a NiAl-AlN composite produced by cryomilling has very attractive high temperature strength. This paper focuses on the oxidation resistance of the NiAl-AlN composite at 1473 and 1573 K as compared to that of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr, one of the most oxidation resistant intermetallics. The results of cyclic oxidation tests show that the NiAl-AlN composite has excellent properties although not quite as good as those of Ni-47Al-0.15Zr. The onset of failure of the NiAl-AlN was unique in that it was not accompanied by a change in scale composition from alumina to less protective oxides. Failure in the composite appears to be related to the entrapment of AlN particles within the alumina scale.

  7. Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

    Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

  8. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  9. Wear behavior of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite manufactured by a centrifugal method

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Yamanaka, Noboru; Fukui, Yasuyoshi

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a wear-resistant, light Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite material. An Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite specimen was machined from a thick-walled tube of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti functionally graded material (FGM) manufactured by the centrifugal method from a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was heated to a temperature where solid Al{sub 3}Ti particles resided in a liquid Al matrix, and then the centrifugal method was carried out. Al{sub 3}Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot exist as platelets, and this shape was maintained through the casting. Three kinds of wear specimens were prepared, taking into account the morphology of the Al{sub 3}Ti particles in the thick-walled FGM tube; the Al{sub 3}Ti particles were arranged with their platelet planes nearly normal to the radial direction as a result of the applied centrifugal force. The wear resistance of the Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite was significantly higher than that of pure Al. Wear-resistance anisotropy and dissolution of the Al{sub 3}Ti into the Al matrix at the near-surface region, around 100 {micro}m in depth, were also observed. The mechanism of the supersaturated-layer formation and the origin of the anisotropic wear resistance are discussed.

  10. Oxidation induced softening in Al nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Fatih G.; Qi, Yue; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Alpas, Ahmet T.

    2013-02-01

    The mechanical properties of metallic nanowires depend dramatically on the atmospheric conditions. Molecular-dynamics simulations with ReaxFF were conducted to study tensile elastic deformation of oxidized Al nanowires. The thin amorphous oxide shell formed around Al nanowires had a very low Young's modulus of 26 GPa, due to its low density and low Al-O coordination. Consequently, for diameters less than 100 nm, the composite Young's modulus of oxide-covered Al nanowires showed a size dependence implying that in this case "smaller is softer." The model developed also explained the discrepancies in the reported modulus values of nanometer-scale Al thin films.

  11. Nucleation and Precipitation Strengthening in Dilute Al-Ti and Al-Zr Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipling, Keith E.; Dunand, David C.; Seidman, David N.

    2007-10-01

    Two conventionally solidified Al-0.2Ti alloys (with 0.18 and 0.22 at. pct Ti) exhibit no hardening after aging up to 3200 hours at 375 °C or 425 °C. This is due to the absence of Al3Ti precipitation, as confirmed by electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. By contrast, an Al-0.2Zr alloy (with 0.19 at. pct Zr) displays strong age hardening at both temperatures due to precipitation of Al3Zr (L12) within Zr-enriched dendritic regions. This discrepancy between the two alloys is explained within the context of the equilibrium phase diagrams: (1) the disparity in solid and liquid solubilities of Ti in ?-Al is much greater than that of Zr in ?-Al; and (2) the relatively small liquid solubility of Ti in ?-Al limits the amount of solute retained in solid solution during solidification, while the comparatively high solid solubility reduces the supersaturation effecting precipitation during post-solidification aging. The lattice parameter mismatch of Al3Ti (L12) with ?-Al is also larger than that of Al3Zr (L12), further hindering nucleation of Al3Ti. Classical nucleation theory indicates that the minimum solute supersaturation required to overcome the elastic strain energy of Al3Ti nuclei cannot be obtained during conventional solidification of Al-Ti alloys (unlike for Al-Zr alloys), thus explaining the absence of Al3Ti precipitation and the presence of Al3Zr precipitation.

  12. Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine Al2O3/AlN Feedstock Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, AlN-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (Al2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine Al2O3/AlN mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick AlN/Al2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-AlN, c-AlN, Al5O6N, γ-Al2O3, and a small amount of α-Al2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the AlN additive improved the AlN content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-AlN phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the Al2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.

  13. Mg isotopic heterogeneity, Al-Mg isochrons, and canonical 26Al/27Al in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Wimpenny, Josh; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-There is variability in the Mg isotopic composition that is a reflection of the widespread heterogeneity in the isotopic composition of the elements in the solar system at approximately 100 ppm. Measurements on a single calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) gave a good correlation of 26Mg/24Mg with 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>/24Mg, yielding an isochron corresponding to an initial (26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>)o = (5.27 ± 0.18) × 10-5 and an initial (26Mg/24Mg)o = -0.127 ± 0.032‰ relative to the standard. This isochron is parallel to that obtained by <link href="#b41 #b42">Jacobsen et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2008), but is distinctively offset. This demonstrates that there are different initial Mg isotopic compositions in different samples with the same 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>. No inference about uniformity/heterogeneity of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> on a macro scale can be based on the initial (26Mg/24Mg)o values. Different values of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> for samples representing the same point in time would prove heterogeneity of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The important issue is whether the bulk solar inventory of 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> was approximately 5 × 10-5 at some point in the early solar system. We discuss ultra refractory phases of solar type oxygen isotope composition with 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>/27<span class="hlt">Al</span> from approximately 5 × 10-5 to below 0.2 × 10-5. We argue that the real issues are: intrinsic heterogeneity in the parent cloud; mechanism and timing for the later production of 16O-poor material; and the relationship to earlier formed 16O-rich material in the disk. 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>-free refractories can be produced at a later time by late infall, if there is an adequate heat source, or from original heterogeneities in the placental molecular cloud from which the solar system formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102k1603M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102k1603M"><span id="translatedtitle">Atom probe analysis of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayers in <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N/GaN heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazumder, Baishakhi; Kaun, Stephen W.; Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Speck, James S.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Atom probe tomography was used to characterize <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayers in <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The group-III site concentrations of <span class="hlt">Al</span> for interlayers grown by NH3-MBE and MOCVD were ˜85% and ˜47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were ˜25%-45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22162790','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22162790"><span id="translatedtitle">Atom probe analysis of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayers in <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N/GaN heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mazumder, Baishakhi; Kaun, Stephen W.; Speck, James S.; Lu, Jing; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.</p> <p>2013-03-18</p> <p>Atom probe tomography was used to characterize <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayers in <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), NH{sub 3}-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The PAMBE-grown <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer had the highest purity, with nearly 100% of group-III sites occupied by <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The group-III site concentrations of <span class="hlt">Al</span> for interlayers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE and MOCVD were {approx}85% and {approx}47%, respectively. Hall measurements were performed to determine the two-dimensional electron gas mobility and sheet concentration. Sheet concentrations were {approx}25%-45% higher with molecular beam epitaxy than with MOCVD, and these results matched well with atom probe data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/443755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/443755"><span id="translatedtitle">Reply to Vance et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Woon-Chee Yee; Elliott, J.L; Kwon, J.M.; Goodfellow, P.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>In our report of a family with a motor and sensory polyneuropathy that was linked to chromosome 3q, we classified this neuropathy as a form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy II (HMSN II, also known as {open_quotes}CMT2{close_quotes}). Doubts have been raised by Vance et <span class="hlt">al</span>. as to whether this neuropathy should be classified as hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy I (HSAN I) instead of HMSN II. While it is reasonable to raise such doubts, we believe that the neuropathy is best designated as HMSN II for the reasons described below. The group of disorders described as HSAN are characterized by primary or predominant involvement of sensory and autonomic neurons that fail to develop or that undergo atrophy and degeneration. These disorders were extensively reviewed by Dyck and Ohta, who initially described them as the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN). It was Dyck who subsequently suggested that these disorders be designated HSAN rather than HSN, because of the presence of autonomic involvement. 8 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15510857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15510857"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 fiber-reinforced <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-based ceramics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Nemoto, Kimiya</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to use a tape casting technique to develop an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 fiber-reinforced <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-based ceramic material (<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-fiber/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite) into a new type of dental ceramic. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-based ceramic used a matrix consisting of 60 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 powder and 40 wt% SiO2-B2O3 powder. The prepreg sheets of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-fiber/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite (in which uniaxially aligned <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 fibers were infiltrated with the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-based matrix) were fabricated continuously using tape casting technique with a doctor blade system. Multilayer preforms of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-fiber/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite sheets were then sintered at a maximum temperature of 1000 degrees C under an atmospheric pressure in a furnace. The results showed that the shrinkage and bending properties of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-fiber/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite exceeded those of unreinforced <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3--hence demonstrating the positive effects of fiber reinforcement. In conclusion, the tape casting technique has been utilized to successfully develop a new type of dental ceramic material. PMID:15510857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8817656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8817656"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure and regulation of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> gene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ooi, G T; Cohen, F J; Hsieh, S; Seto, D; Rechler, M M; Boisclair, Y R</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The mouse <span class="hlt">ALS</span> gene spans at least 6 kb. It contains 2 exons which encode a protein highly homologous to human and rat <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. It was localized to mouse chromosome 17 by flourescent in situ hybridization. The 5' flanking region lacks a TATA box but contains GC boxes that may be recognised by transcription factors such as Spl. Hepatic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> mRNA is decreased in rats following hypophysectomy, and restored by stimulated <span class="hlt">ALS</span> promoter activity in a rat hepatoma cell line, but not in 3T3-F442A mouse preadipocyte fibroblasts, suggesting that utilisation of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> promoter is cell-type specific. The rat hepatoma system is a promising system to study the regulation of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> gene expression, and the signalling pathways of CH regulation. PMID:8817656</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4683522','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4683522"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Layers in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N-TiN Multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N to wurzite <span class="hlt">Al</span>N phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N. PMID:26681109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...518554L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...518554L"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Layers in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N-TiN Multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N to wurzite <span class="hlt">Al</span>N phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681109"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Layers in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N-TiN Multilayers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N to wurzite <span class="hlt">Al</span>N phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N. PMID:26681109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.4083L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.4083L"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Al</span> Contents on Carburization Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liao, Cui Jiao; He, Yue Hui; Ming, Xing Zu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with <span class="hlt">Al</span> contents of 30.7, 37, 46.5, and 54.2 at.% were carburized. Corrosion resistance of the untreated and the carburized Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys was comparatively analyzed. The phase and microstructure of the carburized Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys were studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the untreated and the carburized Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental results indicate that different <span class="hlt">Al</span> contents bring about distinct microstructure of the carburized layers. The lower <span class="hlt">Al</span> content leads to the formation of the thicker binary carbides and the thinner Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>C phase. Additionally, the lower <span class="hlt">Al</span> content leads to higher corrosion resistance in the untreated and the carburized states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970023021','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970023021"><span id="translatedtitle">Tensile Behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2o3/feal + B and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2o3/fecraly Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Draper, S. L.; Eldridge, J. I.; Aiken, B. J. M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> + B and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y composites for high-temperature applications was assessed. The major emphasis was on tensile behavior of both the monolithics and composites from 298 to 1100 K. However, the study also included determining the chemical compatibility of the composites, measuring the interfacial shear strengths, and investigating the effect of processing on the strength of the single-crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 fibers. The interfacial shear strengths were low for <span class="hlt">Al</span>203/Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> + B and moderate to high for <span class="hlt">Al</span>203/FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y. The difference in interfacial bond strengths between the two systems affected the tensile behavior of the composites. The strength of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>203 fiber was significantly degraded after composite processing for both composite systems and resulted in poor composite tensile properties. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values of the composites could generally be predicted with either rule of mixtures (ROM) calculations or existing models when using the strength of the etched-out fiber. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> + B composite system was determined to be unfeasible due to poor interfacial shear strengths and a large mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Development of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y system would require an effective diffusion barrier to minimize the fiber strength degradation during processing and elevated temperature service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00821132','CLINICALTRIALS'); return false;" href="https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00821132"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetics of Familial and Sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/screen/SimpleSearch">ClinicalTrials.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-03-21</p> <p>Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20425287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20425287"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychiatric aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norris, Lorenzo; Que, Guinevere; Bayat, Elham</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a progressive disorder characterized by degeneration of motor neurons. Given the severe nature of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, many believed that patients would suffer from a high level of depression and a low quality of life. However, research into the psychological health of patients with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> has shown that this is not the case. This article reviews the state of current knowledge as it pertains to the psychological health of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients in four broad areas: quality of life, personality characteristics, emotional reactions, and end-of-life choices. PMID:20425287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhyB..193...25W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhyB..193...25W"><span id="translatedtitle">Antiferromagnetic properties of Eu<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wada, H.; Shiga, M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The magnetization, specific heat, thermal expansion and electrical resistivity have been measured for Eu<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2. Anomalies associated with the antiferromagnetic transition were observed in their temperature dependence at or below 30 K. The thermal and transport properties were analyzed by the effective Debye temperature model, in which the temperature dependence of ? D is taken into account. It is shown that the s-f exchange interaction of Eu<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2 is considerably smaller than in Gd<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2. The anomalous magnetization process of Eu<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2 is also presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053104"><span id="translatedtitle">Hepatocyte growth factor measurement in <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abraham, Julie; Desport, Estelle; Rigaud, Charlotte; Marin, Benoit; Bender, Sébastien; Lacombe, Corinne; Moreau, Stéphane; Yagoubi, Fatima; Bordessoule, Dominique; Lavergne, David; Bridoux, Frank; Jaccard, Arnaud</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pro-angiogenic cytokine activated by tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) that might play a role in the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Preliminary studies indicated that serum HGF levels were higher in patients with <span class="hlt">AL</span> amyloidosis (<span class="hlt">AL</span>) compared to those with MM. The aim of the present study was to determine whether HGF is a relevant marker of diagnosis and prognosis in <span class="hlt">AL</span>. HGF serum levels were measured at diagnosis in patients with monoclonal gammopathy (MG) without <span class="hlt">AL</span> (76 controls), or with biopsy-proven systemic <span class="hlt">AL</span> (69 patients). HGF serum levels were significantly higher in patients with <span class="hlt">AL</span> compared to controls, respectively, 11.2?ng/mL [min: 0.95-max: 200.4] versus 1.4?ng/mL [min: 0.82-max: 6.2] (p?<?0.0001). The threshold value of 2.2?ng/mL conferred optimal sensitivity (88%) and specificity (95%) to differentiate <span class="hlt">AL</span> and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients. Serum HGF concentrations were correlated positively with the severity of cardiac involvement and the serum level of monoclonal light chains. These data suggest that HGF measurement could be used in patients with MG to detect <span class="hlt">AL</span> or to reinforce a clinical suspicion of <span class="hlt">AL</span> and to guide indications for diagnostic tissue biopsies. PMID:26053104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JaJAP..49a0201S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JaJAP..49a0201S"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolution Behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Formation Process of Zn<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 Phases in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-Doped ZnO Sintered Bodies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirouzu, Keita; Kawamoto, Tohru; Enomoto, Naoya; Hojo, Junichi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-doped ZnO sintered bodies, which were doped with 0-2 mol % <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, were prepared from a powder mixture. <span class="hlt">Al</span> could dissolve in ZnO grains uniformly and a fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> tended to segregate along ZnO grain boundaries when the <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentration was low. The decrease in the [c/a] lattice ratio suggested that the solubility of <span class="hlt">Al</span> in ZnO increased with increasing concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. The solubility of <span class="hlt">Al</span> reached the limit when <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 was doped at more than 1 mol %. Zn<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 particles appeared before the solubility of <span class="hlt">Al</span> reached the limit, indicating that the dissolution of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and the formation of Zn<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 phases occurred simultaneously in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-ZnO sintering process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970022133','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970022133"><span id="translatedtitle">Processing and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al/NiAl</span>Ta Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al-NiAl</span>Ta alloy when compared to other Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Ta. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMBM...24...18F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMBM...24...18F"><span id="translatedtitle">Strengthening of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg alloy wires by melt inoculation with <span class="hlt">Al</span>/MgB2 nanocomposite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Florián-Algarín, David; Marrero, Raúl; Padilla, Alexandra; Suárez, Oscar Marcelo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study hinges on the feasibility of strengthening <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg wires by adding <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanocomposite pellets containing MgB2 nanoparticles into the melt upon fabrication. These MgB2 nanoparticles were obtained by fragmentation using a high-energy ball mill, and were, afterward, mechanically alloyed with pure aluminum. The resulting MgB2/<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanocomposite pellets were sintered at 260°C to be subsequently added into molten aluminum and an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg alloy melt. Cold rolling intercalated with stepwise annealing allowed the fabrication of 1 mm diameter wires with a final area reduction of 96%. Mechanical and physical properties of the treated wire specimens were compared to those of similarly processed pure aluminum wire. The ultimate tensile strength of the treated wires increased approximately double fold with respect to untreated wires at the expense of some loss in electrical conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24..426N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24..426N"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Methods of Soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC Particle Composite <span class="hlt">Al</span> Foams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nowacki, Jerzy; Moraniec, Kacper</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The cellular structure and unique properties of aluminum foams are the reason of their numerous applications and interests in respect of their joining. The paper includes the characterization of the essence of properties and application of aluminum and aluminum composite foams, the limitations, and possibilities of their soldering. The aim of the research is the consideration of methods of soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si foams and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC composite foams, and the joint structure. EDS and XRD investigations of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si-SiC composite foams' joints were done. The possibility of soldering <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si9 foams and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Si9-SiC composite foams using S-Bond 220 solder was confirmed, and higher tensile strength of the joint than the parent material was also ascertained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000MMTA...31.2369X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000MMTA...31.2369X"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and fabrication of W-Mo-Ti-Ti<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> system functionally graded material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Huaping; Zhang, Lianmeng; Chen, Lidong; Hirai, Toshio; Yuan, Runzhang</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>To obtain a kind of functionally graded material (FGM) with a density gradient, the W-Mo-Ti-Ti<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> system graded material was designed, and the powder metallurgy method was chosen for its fabrication. The sintering of W, W-Mo, and Mo-Ti alloys at low temperature was studied, and then the approximately wholly dense W-Mo-Ti-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> system FGM was achieved by one-step sintering at 1473 K for 1 hour under a pressure of 30 MPa. It was found that through sintering at 1473 K, mainly the mechanical mixtures of W and Mo were formed in W-Mo alloys. In Mo-Ti alloys, the newly designed Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> sintering aids not only have an important effect on the densification of the alloys, but also contribute to the formation of the (Mo, Ti) solid solution. However, the solid-solution reaction that occurred in Mo-Ti alloys was still insufficient. During the sintering of Ti + Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>, the chemical reaction of Ti + Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> ? <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ti2 was induced within the sintered body. The W-Mo-Ti-Ti<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> system FGM was finally fabricated by joining of the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> side of the sintered W-Mo-Ti-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> system FGM to metal <span class="hlt">Al</span> with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based brazing filler metal, and its density changed quasi-continuously within the large range from 17.15 to 2.70 g/cm3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149231"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitatively Probing the <span class="hlt">Al</span> Distribution in Zeolites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Huthwelker, Thomas; Pin, Sonia; Mei, Donghai; Schenter, Gregory K.; Govind, Niranjan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Hu, Jian Z.; Lercher, Johannes A.</p> <p>2014-06-11</p> <p>The degree of substitution of Si4+ by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ in the oxygen-terminated tetrahedra (<span class="hlt">Al</span> T-sites) of zeolites determines the concentration of ion-exchange and Brønsted acid sites. As the location of the tetrahedra and the associated subtle variations in bond angles influence the acid strength, quantitative information about <span class="hlt">Al</span> T-sites in the framework is critical to rationalize catalytic properties and to design new catalysts. A quantitative analysis is reported that uses a combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> MAS NMR spectroscopy supported by DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. To discriminate individual <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms, sets of ab initio EXAFS spectra for various T-sites are generated from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations allowing quantitative treatment of the EXAFS single- and multiple-photoelectron scattering processes out to 3-4 atom shells surrounding the <span class="hlt">Al</span> absorption center. It is observed that identical zeolite types show dramatically different <span class="hlt">Al</span>-distributions. A preference of <span class="hlt">Al</span> for T-sites that are part of one or more 4-member rings in the framework over those T-sites that are part of only 5- and 6-member rings in the HBEA150 sample has been determined from a combination of these methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22youth+population+growth%22+OR+%22u.s.+national+security%22+OR+%22potential+impacts%22+OR+%22presidential+administration%22+OR+%22middle+east%22&pg=6&id=EJ997797','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22youth+population+growth%22+OR+%22u.s.+national+security%22+OR+%22potential+impacts%22+OR+%22presidential+administration%22+OR+%22middle+east%22&pg=6&id=EJ997797"><span id="translatedtitle">Diana <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid: Identity and Heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Diana <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25193032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25193032"><span id="translatedtitle">Sporadic and hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Siddique, Teepu</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Genetic discoveries in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> have a significant impact on deciphering molecular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration. The identification of SOD1 as the first genetic cause of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> led to the engineering of the SOD1 mouse, the backbone of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> research, and set the stage for future genetic breakthroughs. In addition, careful analysis of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> pathology added valuable pieces to the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> puzzle. From this joint effort, major pathogenic pathways emerged. Whereas the study of TDP43, FUS and C9ORF72 pointed to the possible involvement of RNA biology in motor neuron survival, recent work on P62 and UBQLN2 refocused research on protein degradation pathways. Despite all these efforts, the etiology of most cases of sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> remains elusive. Newly acquired genomic tools now allow the identification of genetic and epigenetic factors that can either increase <span class="hlt">ALS</span> risk or modulate disease phenotype. These developments will certainly allow for better disease modeling to identify novel therapeutic targets for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. PMID:25193032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047349','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047349"><span id="translatedtitle">Durability Assessment of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The durability of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> is a prime concern for the implementation of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy (Ti-45<span class="hlt">Al</span>-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48<span class="hlt">Al</span>-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47<span class="hlt">Al</span>-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45<span class="hlt">Al</span>-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=+%22youth+population+growth%22+OR+%22u.s.+national+security%22++OR+%22potential+impacts%22++OR+%22presidential+administration%22++OR+%22middle+east%22+&pg=6&id=EJ997797','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=+%22youth+population+growth%22+OR+%22u.s.+national+security%22++OR+%22potential+impacts%22++OR+%22presidential+administration%22++OR+%22middle+east%22+&pg=6&id=EJ997797"><span id="translatedtitle">Diana <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid: Identity and Heritage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Diana <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..116a2012G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..116a2012G"><span id="translatedtitle">Contact hardening of <span class="hlt">Al</span> interlayer in laminated Mg/<span class="hlt">Al</span> composites during compressive and tensile loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gurevich, L.; Pronichev, D.; Trunov, M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The study presents result of the FEM simulation of Mg alloy/<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti alloy composite under tensile and compression loads. The simulation revealed the strength of <span class="hlt">Al</span> interlayer at its various thickness values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007975','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007975"><span id="translatedtitle">Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys for structural uses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koss, D. A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Alloys based on the intermetallic compound Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the conventional sense requires ductile powder particles which, through a cold welding and fracture process, can be dispersion strengthened by submicron-sized oxide particles. Using both the Ni-35<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe alloys to contain approx. 1 v/o Y2O3. Preliminary results indicate that mechanically alloyed and extruded Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe + Y2O3 alloys when heat treated to a grain-coarsened condition, exhibit improved creep resistance at 1000 C when compared to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>; oxidation resistance comparable to Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>; and fracture toughness values a factor of three better than Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. As a result of the research initiated on this NASA program, a subsequent project with support from Inco Alloys International is underway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24472060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24472060"><span id="translatedtitle">Opportunities for improving therapy development in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bruijn, Lucie; Cudkowicz, Merit</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In May 2013, The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Association and The Northeast <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Consortium (NEALS) convened a meeting of stakeholders for a round-table discussion of ways to improve therapy development in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. The following overview summarizes issues raised and potential new directions discussed at the meeting. We recommend that future phase II clinical trials in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> proceed when the proposed treatment is directed at targets that are likely to be involved in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> pathogenesis in a defined subgroup of patients, and be accompanied by one or more biomarkers to track both clinical progression and pharmacodynamic engagement of the target. Innovations in trial structure and design, and greater involvement of patient advocates, may also improve trials. PMID:24472060</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ApPhL..44..310C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ApPhL..44..310C"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction in Cu/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Pt/Cu/<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin films: Competing oxygen effects and preferential reaction between Pt and Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chin-An</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>The effects of oxygen on the interactions of the Cu-<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin-film system are studied using both Cu/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Pt/Cu/<span class="hlt">Al</span> structures. For the Cu/<span class="hlt">Al</span> structure, oxygen-enhanced outdiffusion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and accumulation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the Cu surface are observed. Using the Pt/Cu/<span class="hlt">Al</span> structure, however, no surface accumulation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> on Pt is observed; instead, the observed interdiffusion and alloy formation between Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span> are both suppressed by oxygen. At increasing temperatures, <span class="hlt">Al</span> preferentially outdiffuses from the Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy to form a Pt <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy with the top Pt layer. This last process is also suppressed by oxygen, similar to the binary Pt/<span class="hlt">Al</span> system reported previously. The mechanisms for the competing interactions and ambient effects observed are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980019510','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980019510"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion Studies of 2195 <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li Alloy and 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Corrosion studies of 2195 <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li and 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of <span class="hlt">Al</span>203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 <span class="hlt">Al</span> were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107y3502P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107y3502P"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental determination of tunneling characteristics and dwell times from temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patiño, Edgar J.; Kelkar, N. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Measurements of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a high quality <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3/<span class="hlt">Al</span> junction at temperatures ranging from 3.5 K to 300 K have been used to extract the barrier properties. Fitting results using Simmons's model led to a constant value of barrier width s ˜ 20.8 Å and a continuous increase in the barrier height with decreasing temperature. The latter is used to determine the energy band gap temperature dependence and average phonon frequency ? = 2.05 × 1013 s-1 in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, which adds confidence to the precision of our measurements. The barrier parameters are used to extract the temperature dependent dwell times in tunneling (?D = 3.6 × 10-16 s at mid-barrier energies) and locate resonances above the barrier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/296638"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of hydrogen absorption in TbNi<span class="hlt">Al</span> and UNi<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bordallo, H.N.; Nakotte, H.; Schultz, A.; Kolomiets, A.V.; Havela, L.; Andreev, A.V.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Although hydrides of intermetallic compounds are used extensively as hydrogen-storage media, little is known about the exact nature of metal-hydrogen interactions. However, this knowledge is of essential importance for the understanding of thermodynamics and other properties. Hydrides (deuterides) of TbNi<span class="hlt">Al</span> and UNi<span class="hlt">Al</span> have been widely studied because of drastic increase of magnetic ordering temperature under hydrogenation. Here the authors report neutron-diffraction results of the three deuterides, TbNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>D{sub 1.28}, TbNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>D{sub 0.8}a nd UNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>D{sub 2.23}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020071128','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020071128"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomistic Modeling of Ru<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (RuNi) <span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Atomistic modeling of Ru<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ru<span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni alloys, using the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is performed. The lattice parameter and energy of formation of B2 Ru<span class="hlt">Al</span> as a function of stoichiometry and the lattice parameter of (Ru(sub 50-x)Ni(sub x)<span class="hlt">Al</span>(sub 50)) alloys as a function of Ni concentration are computed. BFS based Monte Carlo simulations indicate that compositions close to Ru25Ni25<span class="hlt">Al</span>50 are single phase with no obvious evidence of a miscibility gap and separation of the individual B2 phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5857468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5857468"><span id="translatedtitle">Extended <span class="hlt">Al</span>(Mn) solution in a rapidly solidified <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li-Mn-Zr alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ruhr, M.; Baram, J.C. ); Lavernia, E.J. )</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>This paper reports the effect of coolingrate on the extension of Mn solid solubility in <span class="hlt">Al</span> and on the relative amount of Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span> (Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 6} and Mn<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 4}) secondary phases during gas atomization and spray deposition critically examined. An alloy of composition <span class="hlt">Al</span>-6.5Mn-2.3Li-0.65Zr (wt pct) currently being investigated for applications requiring high strength and low density at high temperatures was selected for this study. The material was exposed to various solidification histories by altering gas pressure and powder size during solidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/756425','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/756425"><span id="translatedtitle">A new discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMC: <span class="hlt">Al+Al</span>B{sub 2} flakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>HALL,AARON C.; ECONOMY,J.</p> <p>2000-06-08</p> <p>Development of a novel metal matrix composite based on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloy system has been undertaken. Preparation of this discontinuously reinforced material is based on the precipitation of high aspect ratio <span class="hlt">Al</span>B{sub 2} from an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloy. This paper describes a number of efforts forced on preparing high volume fractions (> 30 v%) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>B{sub 2} in aluminum. New insights into the behavior of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-B alloys system allowed this effort to be successful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910043314&hterms=1573&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231573','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910043314&hterms=1573&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231573"><span id="translatedtitle">Reaction of Ti and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with alumina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Misra, Ajay K.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The reaction of single-crystal <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 with pure Ti and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with different <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations was examined in the temperature range of 1173 to 1573 K. Significant reaction occurred between <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentrations lower than that corresponding to the gamma-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase. The reaction mechanism was determined to be simultaneous diffusion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and atomic oxygen from <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 into Ti and the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394628','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6394628"><span id="translatedtitle">Transition element modifications of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gayle, F.W.; Levoy, N.F.; Vandersande, J.B.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>The development of aluminum-lithium metallurgy has led to alloys with unsurpassed combinations of density, specific strength, and specific modulus. This paper describes recent advances in the modification of aluminum-lithium binary alloys through additions of the Group IV-A transition metals (titanium, zirconium, and hafnium). These elements lead to a duplex precipitation hardening behavior through the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Li and <span class="hlt">Al</span>3(TM,Li) (TM = transition element) which act as strengthening precipitates. The influence of the duplex structure on deformation mechanisms and the improvement of mechanical properties in these systems is illustrated by using results for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li-Zr system. 12 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191071"><span id="translatedtitle">Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> aluminide alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, C.T.</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26613179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26613179"><span id="translatedtitle">Arsenate uptake by <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters and other <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based sorbents during water treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mertens, Jasmin; Rose, Jérôme; Wehrli, Bernhard; Furrer, Gerhard</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In many parts of the world, arsenic from geogenic and anthropogenic sources deteriorates the quality of drinking water resources. Effective methods of arsenic removal include adsorption and coagulation with iron- and aluminum-based materials, of which polyaluminum chloride is widely employed as coagulant in water treatment due to its low cost and high efficiency. We compared the arsenic uptake capacity and the arsenic bonding sites of different <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based sorbents, including <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum granulate, and gibbsite. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that As(V) forms bidentate-binuclear complexes in interaction with all <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based removal agents. The octahedral configuration of nanoclusters and the distribution of sorption sites remain the same in all types of removal agents consisting of nano-scale <span class="hlt">Al</span> oxyhydroxide particles. The obtained distances for As(V)-O and As(V)-<span class="hlt">Al</span> agreed with previously published data and were found to be 1.69 ± 0.02 Å and 3.17-3.21 Å, respectively. Our study suggests that As(V) binds to <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters as strongly as to <span class="hlt">Al</span> oxide surfaces. The As sorption capacity of <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters was found to be very similar to that of <span class="hlt">Al</span> clusters in a polyaluminum chloride. The most efficient <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based sorbents for arsenic removal were <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanoclusters, followed by polyaluminum granulate. PMID:26613179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SCPMA..53...49D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SCPMA..53...49D"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of different-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-content <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Guojian; Guo, Liwei; Xing, Zhigang; Chen, Yao; Xu, Peiqiang; Jia, Haiqiang; Zhou, Junming; Chen, Hong</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span> x Ga1- x N/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition ranging from x = 0.13 to 0.36 are grown on sapphire substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The effects of <span class="hlt">Al</span> content on crystal quality, surface morphology, optical and electrical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructures have been analyzed. Although high <span class="hlt">Al</span>-content (36%) heterostructure exhibits a distinguished photoluminescence peak related to recombination between the two-dimensional electron gas and photoexcited holes (2DEG-h), its crystal quality and rough surface morphology are poor. 2DEG mobility increases with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> content up to 26% and then it apparently decreases for high <span class="hlt">Al</span>-content (36%) <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructure. The increase of sheet carrier density with the increase of <span class="hlt">Al</span> content has been observed. A high mobility at room temperature of 2105 cm2/V s with a sheet carrier density of n s = 1.10 × 1013 cm-2, for a 26% <span class="hlt">Al</span>-content <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructure has been obtained, which is approaching state-of-the-art for HEMT grown on SiC. Sheet resistance as low as 274 ?/? has also been achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanot..24I5203X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Nanot..24I5203X"><span id="translatedtitle">High-performance nonvolatile <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>Ox/CdTe:Sb nanowire memory device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Chao; Nie, Biao; Zhu, Long; Zeng, Long-Hui; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Xian-He; Fang, Qun-Ling; Luo, Lin-Bao; Wu, Yu-Cheng</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Here we demonstrate a room temperature processed nonvolatile memory device based on an <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>Ox/CdTe:Sb nanowire (NW) heterojunction. Electrical analysis shows an echelon hysteresis composed of a high-resistance state (HRS) and a low-resistance state (LRS), which can allow it to write and erase data from the device. The conductance ratio is as high as 106, with a retention time of 3 × 104 s. Moreover, the SET voltages ranged from +6 to +8 V, whilst the RESET voltage ?0 V. In addition, flexible memory nano-devices on PET substrate with comparable switching performance at bending condition were fabricated. XPS analysis of the <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>Ox/CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction after controlled Ar+ bombardment reveals that this memory behavior is associated with the presence of ultra-thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ox film. This <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>Ox/CdTe:Sb NW heterojunction will open up opportunities for new memory devices with different configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HTMP...31....3B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HTMP...31....3B"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution to Kinetics of Superplastic Deformation of Dispersion Strengthened <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>4C3 System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Besterci, Michal; Varchola, Marián; Ková?, Ladislav; Velgosová, Oksana</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The influence of temperature at constant strain rate has been evaluated with respect to superplastic behavior of dispersion strengthened <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>4C3 composite with 4 vol.% of <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 phase. The dispersion strengthened <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>4C3 was prepared by powder metallurgy. Material can be characterized by grain size around 1 ?m and dispersed particle <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 size around 50 nm. This material showed superplastic behavior for strain rate 10-3 s-1 by test temperature 573 K. The mechanism of superplastic deformation was also investigated. For the presented material with low content of disperse particle slip on grain boundaries is typical. The final fracture is transcrystalline with dimples with their mean size 1.25 ?m. The dimples are initialized by <span class="hlt">Al</span>4C3 particles in size from 40 to 50 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971365','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/971365"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. D. Keiser, Jr.; E. Perez; B. Yao; Y. H. Sohn</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-<span class="hlt">Al</span> system was examined using solid-tosolid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure <span class="hlt">Al</span>, annealed at 600°C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure <span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-2wt.%Si, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-5wt.%Si annealed at 550°C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-<span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion couples annealed at 600°C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43, and UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of “local thermodynamic equilibrium,” and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43, UAl4 and UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. <span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion couples annealed at 550°C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in <span class="hlt">Al</span> significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4<span class="hlt">Al</span>43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-<span class="hlt">Al</span>, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...111f3708H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAP...111f3708H"><span id="translatedtitle">Electroforming and Ohmic contacts in <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickmott, T. W.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown process that changes the diode from its initial high resistance state (HRS) to a low resistance state (LRS). After electroforming, resistance switching memories (RSMs) use voltages to switch from HRS to LRS and back. Many MIM combinations are proposed for use in RSMs. In many cases conduction in the LRS is nearly temperature independent at low temperatures; an Ohmic contact with a barrier to electron injection of ˜0 eV results from electroforming. Electroforming of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes with amorphous anodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thicknesses between 12 and 41 nm has been studied. Two anodizing electrolytes have been used; 0.1 M ammonium pentaborate (bor-H2O) and a solution of 0.1 M of ammonium pentaborate per liter of ethylene glycol (bor-gly). Polarization of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and negative charge in <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 are much larger when <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 is formed in bor-H2O solution than when <span class="hlt">Al</span> is anodized in bor-gly solution. Electroforming of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes results in an Ohmic contact at the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 interface, voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM) from filamentary conducting channels. Two distinct modes of electroforming occur for <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes. α-forming occurs for 2.5 V ≲ VS ≲ 5 V, where VS is the applied voltage. It is characterized by an abrupt current jump with the simultaneous appearance of EL and EM. β-forming occurs for VS ≳ 7 V. I-V curves, EL, and EM develop gradually and are smaller than for α-forming. Electroforming occurs more readily for diodes with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 formed in bor-H2O that have greater defect densities. Fully developed I-V curves have similar VCNR, EL, and EM after α-forming or β-forming. A model is proposed in which excited states of F-centers, oxygen vacancies in amorphous anodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, form defect conduction bands. Electroforming that results in an Ohmic contact requires injection of positive charge at the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 interface. α-forming is the result of ionization of F-center recombination centers with energies that are close to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> Fermi level. Hole injection by high-field ionization of valence band states of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 causes β-forming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792926"><span id="translatedtitle">12th Annual <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Users' Association Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, Arthur L.</p> <p>1999-12-17</p> <p>Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an <span class="hlt">ALS</span> highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> into the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18625409"><span id="translatedtitle">Glial cells in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: the missing link?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raibon, Elsa; Todd, Lisa Marie; Möller, Thomas</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) was initially known as Charcot's sclerosis, named after the French neurobiologist and physician Jean-Martin Charcot who first described this type of muscular atrophy in the early nineteenth century. In the United States, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> became widely known as Lou Gehrig's disease after the famous baseball player who succumbed to the disease in the late 1930s. Currently, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is the most common motor neuron disease, with a worldwide incidence of 8 cases per 100,000 population per year. Familial forms constitute approximately 5% to 10% of all cases. Onset increases with age, with a peak in the seventh decade and a slight preponderance (relative risk, 1.3-1.5) among men compared with women. Rapid progression of motor neuron loss leads to death an average of 3 to 5 years after symptom onset. The cause of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> remains unknown and there is still no curative therapy. PMID:18625409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23186722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23186722"><span id="translatedtitle">Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mazzini, Letizia; Vercelli, Alessandro; Ferrero, Ivana; Boido, Marina; Cantello, Roberto; Fagioli, Franca</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a devastating incurable, neurodegenerative disease that targets motor neurons (MNs) in the primary motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord, leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death due to respiratory failure within 2-5 years. Currently, there is no cure for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. The development of a therapy that can support or restore MN function and attenuate toxicity in the spinal cord provides the most comprehensive approach for treating <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Mesenchymal stem cells might be suitable for cell therapy in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> because of their immunomodulatory and protective properties. In this review, the authors discuss the major challenges to the translation of in vitro and animal studies of MSCs therapy in the clinical setting. PMID:23186722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866720','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866720"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thakur, Keshav; Gupta, Pawan Kumar</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human <span class="hlt">ALS</span> in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:24367722</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439492','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439492"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">AL</span> Amyloidosis Complicated by Persistent Oral Bleeding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marconcini, Luiz Antonio Liarte; Stewart, Forrest Marc; Sonntag, Lisa; Stevens, Emily; Burwick, Nicholas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A case of amyloid light chain (<span class="hlt">AL</span>) amyloidosis is presented here with uncontrolled bleeding after a nonsurgical dental procedure, most likely multifactorial in nature, and consequently treated with a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26064714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Anthropology+AND+epistemology&pg=5&id=EJ310992','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Anthropology+AND+epistemology&pg=5&id=EJ310992"><span id="translatedtitle">On Dobbert et <span class="hlt">al</span>, 'Cultural Transmission...'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gearing, Frederick</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Criticizes Dobbert et <span class="hlt">al</span>'s model of cultural transmission (presented in earlier article) as being a species of social physics. Suggests improvements to the model, notably that observation and analysis at the emic level be taken into account. (RDN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.3037L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.3037L"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Conductivity of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Salt Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-<span class="hlt">Al</span> was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic <span class="hlt">Al</span> content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic <span class="hlt">Al</span> particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped <span class="hlt">Al</span> in the salt cake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650295','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650295"><span id="translatedtitle">Substitutional alloy of Ce and <span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zeng, Qiao-Shi; Ding, Yang; Mao, Wendy L.; Luo, Wei; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev; Yang, Wenge; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas V.; Meng, Yue; Brewe, Dale L.; Jiang, Jian-Zhong; Mao, Ho-kwang</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The formation of substitutional alloys has been restricted to elements with similar atomic radii and electronegativity. Using high-pressure at 298 K, we synthesized a face-centered cubic disordered alloy of highly dissimilar elements (large Ce and small <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms) by compressing the Ce3<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compound >15 GPa or the Ce3<span class="hlt">Al</span> metallic glass >25 GPa. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Ce L3-edge absorption spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations revealed that the pressure-induced Kondo volume collapse and 4f electron delocalization of Ce reduced the differences between Ce and <span class="hlt">Al</span> and brought them within the Hume-Rothery (HR) limit for substitutional alloying. The alloy remained after complete release of pressure, which was also accompanied by the transformation of Ce back to its ambient 4f electron localized state and reversal of the Kondo volume collapse, resulting in a non-HR alloy at ambient conditions. PMID:19188608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25802988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25802988"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous germanene layer on <span class="hlt">Al</span>(111).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Derivaz, Mickael; Dentel, Didier; Stephan, Régis; Hanf, Marie-Christine; Mehdaoui, Ahmed; Sonnet, Philippe; Pirri, Carmelo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Germanene, a 2D honeycomb structure similar to silicene, has been fabricated on <span class="hlt">Al</span>(111). The 2D germanene layer covers uniformly the substrate with a large coherence over the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(111) surface atomic plane. It is characterized by a (3 × 3) superstructure with respect to the substrate lattice, shown by low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunnelling microscopy. First-principles calculations indicate that the Ge atoms accommodate in a very regular atomic configuration with a buckled conformation. PMID:25802988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3139582','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3139582"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">al</span>-2 Mutations in Neurospora</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; Estrada, Alejandro F.; Trautmann, Danika; Limón, M. Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim; Avalos, Javier</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The orange pigmentation of the fungus Neurospora crassa is due to the accumulation of the xanthophyll neurosporaxanthin and precursor carotenoids. Two key reactions in the synthesis of these pigments, the formation of phytoene from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and the introduction of ? cycles in desaturated carotenoid products, are catalyzed by two domains of a bifunctional protein, encoded by the gene <span class="hlt">al</span>-2. We have determined the sequence of nine <span class="hlt">al</span>-2 mutant alleles and analyzed the carotenoid content in the corresponding strains. One of the mutants is reddish and it is mutated in the cyclase domain of the protein, and the remaining eight mutants are albino and harbor different mutations on the phytoene synthase (PS) domain. Some of the mutations are expected to produce truncated polypeptides. A strain lacking most of the PS domain contained trace amounts of a carotenoid-like pigment, tentatively identified as the squalene desaturation product diapolycopene. In support, trace amounts of this compound were also found in a knock-out mutant for gene <span class="hlt">al</span>-2, but not in that for gene <span class="hlt">al</span>-1, coding for the carotene desaturase. The cyclase activity of the <span class="hlt">AL</span>-2 enzyme from two albino mutants was investigated by heterologous expression in an appropriately engineered E. coli strain. One of the <span class="hlt">AL</span>-2 enzymes, predictably with only 20% of the PS domain, showed full cyclase activity, suggesting functional independence of both domains. However, the second mutant showed no cyclase activity, indicating that some alterations in the phytoene synthase segment affect the cyclase domain. Expression experiments showed a diminished photoinduction of <span class="hlt">al</span>-2 transcripts in the <span class="hlt">al</span>-2 mutants compared to the wild type strain, suggesting a synergic effect between reduced expression and impaired enzymatic activities in the generation of their albino phenotypes. PMID:21818281</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10175632"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> injection system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, C.H.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> injection system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123918"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic architecture of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> in Sardinia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borghero, Giuseppe; Pugliatti, Maura; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Murru, Maria Rita; Floris, Gianluca; Cannas, Antonino; Parish, Leslie D; Occhineri, Patrizia; Cau, Tea B; Loi, Daniela; Ticca, Anna; Traccis, Sebastiano; Manera, Umberto; Canosa, Antonio; Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Barberis, Marco; Brunetti, Maura; Pliner, Hannah A; Renton, Alan E; Nalls, Mike A; Traynor, Bryan J; Restagno, Gabriella; Chiò, Adriano</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Conserved populations, such as Sardinians, displaying elevated rates of familial or sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) provide unique information on the genetics of the disease. Our aim was to describe the genetic profile of a consecutive series of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients of Sardinian ancestry. All <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients of Sardinian ancestry, identified between 2008 and 2013 through the Italian <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Genetic Consortium, were eligible to be included in the study. Patients and controls underwent the analysis of TARDBP, C9ORF72, SOD1, and FUS genes. Genetic mutations were identified in 155 out of 375 Sardinian <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cases (41.3%), more commonly the p.A382T and p.G295S mutations of TARDBP and the GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion of C9ORF72. One patient had both p.G295S and p.A382T mutations of TARDBP and 8 carried both the heterozygous p.A382T mutation of TARDBP and a repeat expansion of C9ORF72. Patients carrying the p.A382T and the p.G295S mutations of TARDBP and the C9ORF72 repeat expansion shared distinct haplotypes across these loci. Patients with cooccurrence of C9ORF72 and TARDBP p.A382T missense mutation had a significantly lower age at onset and shorter survival. More than 40% of all cases on the island of Sardinia carry a mutation of an <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-related gene, representing the highest percentage of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cases genetically explained outside of Scandinavia. Clinical phenotypes associated with different genetic mutations show some distinctive characteristics, but the heterogeneity between and among families carrying the same mutations implies that <span class="hlt">ALS</span> manifestation is influenced by other genetic and nongenetic factors. PMID:25123918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862324"><span id="translatedtitle">17th Annual <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Users' Association Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori</p> <p>2004-11-29</p> <p>It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6395567','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6395567"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetism of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn quasicrystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, F.; Khanna, S.N.; Magaud, L.; Jena, P. ); de Coulon, V.; Reuse, F. ); Jaswal, S.S.; He, X. ); Cyrot-Lackman, F. )</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>The effect of symmetry and concentration of Mn on the magnetism of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn quasicrystals has been investigated through self-consistent density-functional calculations using molecular clusters and supercell band-structure schemes. A single Mn atom surrounded by 54 <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms in an icosahedral or a cuboctahedral structure is found to be nonmagnetic. However, as the Mn concentration is increased, moments develop on Mn sites whose magnitude and coupling depend on their location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20406180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20406180"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical trials for neuroprotection in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for <span class="hlt">ALS</span> based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and developing more effective therapies. PMID:20406180</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26584004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26584004"><span id="translatedtitle">Excitotoxicity in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: Overstimulation, or overreaction?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>King, Anna E; Woodhouse, Adele; Kirkcaldie, Matthew T K; Vickers, James C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease that results in motor dysfunction and death, generally from respiratory failure. 90% of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cases are sporadic with no known cause. Familial cases have been linked with mutations in several disparate classes of genes, including those involved in DNA/RNA metabolism, protein misfolding, oxidative stress and the cytoskeleton, leading to the proposition that <span class="hlt">ALS</span> could be a multi-factorial disease. However, alterations in excitability have been reported in all types of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cases, and may be a common disease mechanism predisposing neurons to degeneration. Excitotoxicity has long been suspected as a mediator in the disease process, and may arise from changes in synaptic inputs, or alterations in the excitability of the neurons being stimulated. Although the glutamatergic system is widely recognised as a therapeutic avenue with the potential to extend lifespan and delay disease onset, the causes of altered excitability in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> are currently unclear and warrant further investigation. This article reviews current evidence of alterations to excitatory and inhibitory signalling in the cortex and spinal cord, and in the intrinsic excitability of motor neurons, in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:26584004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/516447','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/516447"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of precipitation in <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ag, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in <span class="hlt">Al</span>. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1185327','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1185327"><span id="translatedtitle">Metastability in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and -<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. The solvus line between Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 has been dened at 79.6 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1500C, 83.0 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1600C, and 86.5 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at 1700C. A metastable region has been dened at temperatures up to 1700C which could have signicant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on nal chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an innite solid solution with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 at elevated temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975C and a chemistry of 96 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1426..275Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1426..275Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Air blast characteristics of laminated <span class="hlt">al</span> and NI-<span class="hlt">AL</span> casings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fan; Ripley, Robert; Wilson, William</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Air blast characteristics of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> laminated materials were experimentally investigated in a 23 m3 closed chamber. Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span> foils, 50 to 100 micrometers in thickness, were rolled and compacted to form a cylindrical casing with a density of 95% TMD through an explosive formation technique. Charges were prepared using 2 kg C4 explosive packed in the laminated casing to a metal-explosive mass ratio of 1.75. The blast pressure history measured on the chamber wall showed a double-shock front structure with a precursor shock followed by the primary blast. The front peak pressure for the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> cased charge reaches 1.5-2 times that of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> cased, consistent with the larger fireball recorded for the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> cased. The long time quasi-static explosion pressure (QSP) from the Ni- <span class="hlt">Al</span> cased charge is 0.8 of that of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> cased, due to half of <span class="hlt">Al</span> mass in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JNuM..141..401T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JNuM..141..401T"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of neutron-irradiation on Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span> 20 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tucker, D. S.; Zocco, T.; Kise, C. D.; Kennedy, J. C.</p> <p>1986-11-01</p> <p>Specimens of Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span> 20 3 were irradiated to a neutron fluence of approximately 2×10 26 n/m 2, E > 0.1 MeV at 660 K. Tensile strength was seen to decrease by 25.6% for <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 and to increase by 24.4% for Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4. Density measurements revealed that <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 swelled by 3.22% while Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 densified slightly (0.316%). Both exhibited mixed failure modes in both control and irradiated samples with a shift from intergranular to transgranular for Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 and vice-versa for <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 upon irradiation. The Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 damage microstructure consisted of interstitial dislocation loops and denuded grain boundaries. The microstructure of irradiated <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 revealed fine areas of damage assumed to be interstitial dislocation loops and voids. Strength and structural changes are correlated with the results and compared with previously obtained results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26742954"><span id="translatedtitle">Next-generation sequencing of 28 <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-related genes in a Japanese <span class="hlt">ALS</span> cohort.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Ryoichi; Sone, Jun; Atsuta, Naoki; Tohnai, Genki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Yokoi, Daichi; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Li, Yuanzhe; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Kano, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Abe, Koji; Aiba, Ikuko; Okamoto, Koichi; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Aoki, Masashi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakashima, Kenji; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We investigated the frequency and contribution of variants of the 28 known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>)-related genes in Japanese <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients. We designed a multiplex, polymerase chain reaction-based primer panel to amplify the coding regions of the 28 <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-related genes and sequenced DNA samples from 257 Japanese <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. We also performed exome sequencing and identified variants of the 28 genes in an additional 251 <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We identified the known <span class="hlt">ALS</span> pathogenic variants and predicted the functional properties of novel nonsynonymous variants in silico. These variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Known pathogenic variants were identified in 19 (48.7%) of the 39 familial <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients and 14 (3.0%) of the 469 sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients. Thirty-two sporadic ALS patients (6.8%) harbored 1 or 2 novel nonsynonymous variants of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-related genes that might be deleterious. This study reports the first extensive genetic screening of Japanese <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients. These findings are useful for developing genetic screening and counseling strategies for such patients. PMID:26742954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114w3702H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114w3702H"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickmott, T. W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes with anodic <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 30 nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0 eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0 eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, VLP, is ˜1.5 V. VLP is nearly independent of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thickness and of temperature and is 0.3-0.6 V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, VSP. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0 eV when the bias voltage, VS ? 7 V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing VS, for diodes with the smallest <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, LMX, at a voltage, VLMX, followed by a decrease to a plateau. LMX and EL intensity at 4.0 V in the plateau region depend exponentially on <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thickness. The ratio of LMX at 295 K for a diode with 12 nm of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 to LMX for a diode with 25 nm of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 is ˜140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ˜3 and ˜35; it depends on <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 thickness and VS. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and <span class="hlt">Al</span> films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interfaces. SPPs generate large electromagnetic fields in the filamentary region of the electroformed <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diode, which then acts as an optical microcavity. A model is proposed for electronic processes in electroformed <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3-Ag diodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093153','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1093153"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Properties in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilkerson, Dr. Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D; Hemrick, James Gordon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Compositional effects on the thermal diffusivity in the Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 system were studied. The lowest thermal diffusivity, 0.0258 +/-5% cm/s, was measured between 79.8 and 83.9 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 quenched from various temperatures between 1500 and 1700C. All of the chemistries in this range extend past the solvus, but still form a singe super-saturated spinel solid solution, regardless of quenching tempeature. A super-saturated metastable solid solution region was observed at 1500, 1600, and 1700C extending to 83.9, 85.2, and 87.1 wt% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, respectively. Beyond 83.9% <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 a significant increase in thermal diffusivity, 11.7%, was observed and its attributed to precipiation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 through spinodal decomposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JIEIC..94...93S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JIEIC..94...93S"><span id="translatedtitle">Process Capability Analysis of Vacuum Moulding for Development of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 MMC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study is to investigate process capability of vacuum moulding (VM) for development of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC). Starting from the identification of component, prototypes were prepared (with three different input parameters namely: vacuum pressure; component volume and sand grit size to give output in form of dimensional accuracy). Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 MMC prepared. Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). The results of study suggest that VM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (?) limit as regard to dimensional accuracy of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 MMC is concerned. This process ensures rapid production of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023556','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023556"><span id="translatedtitle">Tin/<span class="hlt">Al</span> sub 2 O sub 3 /Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>On composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Han, K.</p> <p>1990-04-02</p> <p>The present invention pertains to novel improved density ceramic composites of TiN/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>ON in which there is no spinel and no <span class="hlt">Al</span>N, but alpha-alumina, titanium nitride, and titanium aluminum oxynitride. In general, the improved density TiN/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>ON ceramic composites of the invention are prepared by: adding aluminum isobutoxide (<span class="hlt">Al</span>(O-iBu)3) to a refluxing mixture of deionized water and formic acid at elevated temperatures to obtain an aluminum sol; casting the slurry in molds; drying the cast material and calcining it at about 600 C; screening the calcined material to minus 200 mesh; pressing pellets at about 10 KPsi, isostatically pressing them at about 40 KPsi; and sintering the pellets below 1,700 C to obtain sintered bodies having densities greater than about 4.2 g/cc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107g2105L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107g2105L"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering induced by <span class="hlt">Al</span> segregation in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiwen; Ji, Dong; Lu, Yanwu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing <span class="hlt">Al</span> segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by <span class="hlt">Al</span> segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 103 cm2/Vs to 106 cm2/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterojunctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3231464','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3231464"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) and Nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules. PMID:22163924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MMTA...39.1610H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MMTA...39.1610H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Rich Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix: square Ti4<span class="hlt">Al</span>, fat rhombus Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and lean rhombus Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span> type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890057866&hterms=charles+taylor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcharles%2Btaylor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890057866&hterms=charles+taylor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcharles%2Btaylor"><span id="translatedtitle">Lowest ionization potentials of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states, X 2Sigma(+)g and A 2Pi(u), of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential, to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) X 2Sigma(+)g, of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 X 3 Pi(u) ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential, to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) A 2Pi(u), occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 ground electronic state assignment of 3Sigma(-)g, but the separation between the two lowest states of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3Pi(u).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001234','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001234"><span id="translatedtitle">The lowest ionization potentials of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to <span class="hlt">Al</span>2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CP....465....9S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CP....465....9S"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum chemical study of the reactions of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>O and <span class="hlt">Al</span>OH with H2O2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharipov, Alexander S.; Starik, Alexander M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Quantum chemical calculations with the use of hybrid density functional with perturbative second-order correlation and dispersion correction are carried out to study the reactions of <span class="hlt">Al</span>, <span class="hlt">Al</span>O and <span class="hlt">Al</span>OH with the H2O2 molecule. The values of energy barriers are estimated by means of extrapolation to the basis set limit. The energetically favorable reaction pathways have been revealed during the examination of the potential energy surfaces. Complex character of the processes under study has been established. It has been found that the initial stages of the considered processes are barrierless. Appropriate rate constants for principal channels of the reactions under study have been estimated by using capture model and canonical variational theory. The Arrhenius approximations for these channels have been proposed for the temperature range T = 300-4000 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/919660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/919660"><span id="translatedtitle">The Stability of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 11Sm3 (<span class="hlt">Al</span>4Sm) Phases in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sm Binary System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S.H.Zhou; R.E. Napolitano</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The relative stability of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 11}Sm{sub 3} (<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 4}Sm) intermetallic phases was experimentally investigated through a series of heat treatments followed by microstructural, microchemical, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The principal findings are that the high-temperature tetragonal phase is stable from 1655 to 1333 K and that the low-temperature orthorhombic phases, {alpha} and {gamma}, have no range of full stability but are metastable with respect to the crystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Sm reference states down to 0 K. Thermodynamic modeling is used to describe the relative energetics of stable and metastable phases along with the associated two-phase mixtures. Issues regarding transition energetics and kinetics are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008594','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008594"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-Phase (Ti<span class="hlt">Al+TiCrAl</span>) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> gamma + Ti3<span class="hlt">Al</span> (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)<span class="hlt">Al</span>(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RJPCA..88..729S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RJPCA..88..729S"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic properties of alloys of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shevchenko, M. A.; Berezutskii, V. V.; Ivanov, M. I.; Kudin, V. G.; Sudavtsova, V. S.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Enthalpies of mixing for melts of the binary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co system at 1870 K in the range 0 < x Co < 0.25, and at 1620 K, 0 < x Co < 0.12, are investigated by means of isoperibolic calorimetry. Enthalpies of mixing for melts of the ternary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc system are investigated at 1870 K for sections <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.75(1 - x)Co0.25(1 - x)Sc x , 0 < x < 0.024, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.88(1 - x)Co0.12(1 - x)Sc x , 0 < x < 0.044. Using the literature data on the enthalpies of mixing for liquid and solid alloys, the activities of melt components, and the phase diagram of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co system, the thermodynamic properties of liquid and solid alloys of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co system over a wide range of temperatures and compositions are calculated using a software package of our own design, based on the model of ideal associated solutions (IAS). The enthalpies of mixing and the liquidus surface of the phase diagram of the ternary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc system over the interval of concentrations are estimated by modeling with data on binary boundary subsystems. All of the components of both the binary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co and ternary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc systems tend to interact with one another quite strongly: ? H min(<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co) = -32.5 kJ/mol at x Co = 0.44; ? H min(<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Co-Sc) = -46 kJ/mol for <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.4Co0.3Sc0.3 (estimated).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435199','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435199"><span id="translatedtitle">Remarks on Peinado et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> Analysis of J3Gen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi; Melià-Seguí, Joan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Peinado et <span class="hlt">al</span>. analyzed the security of the J3Gen pseudorandom number generator proposed by Melià-Seguí et <span class="hlt">al</span>., and claimed weaknesses regarding its security properties. They also presented a deterministic attack based on the decimation of the J3Gen output sequences. We show that the assumptions made by Peinado et <span class="hlt">al</span>. are not correct and that the proposed deterministic attack against J3Gen does not hold in practice. PMID:25781510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25781510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25781510"><span id="translatedtitle">Remarks on Peinado et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> Analysis of J3Gen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi; Melià-Seguí, Joan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Peinado et <span class="hlt">al</span>. analyzed the security of the J3Gen pseudorandom number generator proposed by Melià-Seguí et <span class="hlt">al</span>., and claimed weaknesses regarding its security properties. They also presented a deterministic attack based on the decimation of the J3Gen output sequences. We show that the assumptions made by Peinado et <span class="hlt">al</span>. are not correct and that the proposed deterministic attack against J3Gen does not hold in practice. PMID:25781510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NIMPB.218..158C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NIMPB.218..158C"><span id="translatedtitle">Depolarization currents in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 and Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 oxides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carvalhaes, R. P. M.; Rocha, M. S.; de Souza, S. S.; Blak, A. R.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>In the present work, dipole defects in ?-irradiated and thermally treated samples of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 and Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 oxides are investigated, applying the thermally stimulated depolarisation currents technique (TSDC). The TSDC spectra of Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 doped with Fe 2+, Fe 3+, Co 2+, Cr 3+ and Mn 2+ show four bands at 130 K, 160 K, 250 K and 320 K, and the spectra of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 doped with Mg 2+, Cr 3+ and Fe 3+ show bands between 230 K and 260 K. It has been observed that the bands at 130 K, 160 K and 250 K in Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 spinel and that the 230 K and 240 K bands in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 are related to dipole defects. The other bands are possibly related to different types of charge storage mechanisms (space-charge and interfacial polarisation) or deal with distributions in activation energies and/or in relaxation times. A thermal decrease of the TSDC bands for heat treatments above 1000 K has been observed. In Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 spinel, the 250 K band could be recovered after ?-irradiation and the two dipole peaks in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 were partially recovered. Thermal treatments affect the dipole aggregation processes in both oxides. Optical absorption (AO) results indicate that the presence of bands of water molecules in the infrared region obstructs the appearance of the TSDC bands in both <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 and Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4. The 250 K peak in Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 4 was correlated to V-type centres and the 250 K peak in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2O 3 to a substitutional Mg 2+ ion near a trapped hole localised on an adjacent oxygen ion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241194"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>3AuIr: A New Compound in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Au-Ir System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kadok, Joris; de Weerd, Marie-Cécile; Boulet, Pascal; Gaudry, Émilie; Grin, Yuri; Fournée, Vincent; Ledieu, Julian</p> <p>2015-08-17</p> <p>A new ternary phase with a composition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3AuIr has been found in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich area of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Au-Ir system. Differential thermal analysis indicates a melting point of 990 °C, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that this ternary phase adopts a Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 structure type (space group P3̅m1) with a = 4.2584(5) Å and c = 5.1991(7) Å. This compound is isostructural to the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Cu1.5Co0.5 phase also found in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich part of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Co ternary diagram. Experimental evidence combined with ab initio calculations point toward an <span class="hlt">Al</span>3AuIr phase stabilized by a Hume-Rothery mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations indicate two-center and multicenter interactions in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3AuIr phase. Layered distribution of two-center interactions separated by regions with four- and five-center bonds suggests a preferential cleavage of the material at puckered planes perpendicular to the [001] direction. PMID:26241194</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001647"><span id="translatedtitle">Microsample testing of single crystalline Ti-52 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ti-55.5 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zupan, M.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Hemker, K.J.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Dislocation activity in two-phase commercial Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys occurs most readily in the {gamma}-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase, and measurements of the CRSS of single crystalline {gamma}-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> provides a solid foundation for understanding the mechanical performance of these alloys. Single crystals of {gamma}-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> with greater than 54.5 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> have been grown using the optical float zone crystal growing technique, but single crystals with lower <span class="hlt">Al</span> content, closer to that of commercial alloys, have not. In the present study, polycrystalline ingots of Ti-52 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> have been heat treated to form very large grains, and microsample tensile specimens, which have a nominal gage cross-section of 250{micro}m x 300{micro}m, a gage length of 250{micro}m and an overall length of 3 mm, have been machined from within single grains. Microsample high-temperature stress-strain curves for Ti-55.5 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> single crystals oriented along the [001] and [010] are presented. Tensile test results for Ti-52 at% <span class="hlt">Al</span> tested at 1,073K along the[{bar 2}37], [{bar 1}73] and [{bar 3}44] orientations will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830003032&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcoal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830003032&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcoal"><span id="translatedtitle">High temperature deformation of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nix, W. D.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The high temperature mechanical properties of the aluminides are reviewed with respect to their potential as high temperature structural materials. It is shown that Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> are substantially stronger than the pure metals Ni and Co at high temperatures and approach the strength of some superalloys, particularly when those superalloys are tested in "weak" directions. The factors that limit and control the high temperature strengths of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> are examined to provide a basis for the development of intermetallic alloys of this type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920053767&hterms=metal+heat+combustion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmetal%2Bheat%2Bcombustion','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920053767&hterms=metal+heat+combustion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmetal%2Bheat%2Bcombustion"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustion synthesis of TiB2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feng, H. J.; Moore, J. J.; Wirth, D. G.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The oxide-aluminum exothermic reduction reaction is presently used in the combustion-synthesis of ceramic/metal composites. An excess of <span class="hlt">Al</span> is used in the reacting materials, which rapidly generate enough heat to exceed <span class="hlt">Al</span>'s melting point. The molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> thus evolved is allowed to infiltrate the porous ceramic matrix as the exothermic reaction proceeds; this feature of the process turns the disadvantage of high porosity levels in combustion-synthesized materials into an advantage. Attention is given to the system obtained with 3TiO2 + 3B2O3 + (10-x)<span class="hlt">Al</span> starting materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100049"><span id="translatedtitle">Solid state reaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Zr in <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Zr multilayers: A calorimetry study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blobaum, K.J.; Weihs, T.P.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Wall, M.A.</p> <p>1995-04-14</p> <p>The exothermic, solid state reaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Zr has been studied in thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Zr multilayers using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The multilayer samples were magnetron sputter deposited into highly textured alternate layers of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Zr with nominal composition <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Zr. The samples used in this study were 47{mu}m thick with a 427{Angstrom} period. When samples were isochronally scanned from 25 to 725C, a large exotherm at {approximately}350C was followed by one or two smaller exotherms at {approximately}650C. The first exotherm is dominated by a diffusion based reaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Zr that produces two phases in isochronal scans: amorphous <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr and cubic <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Zr, and two additional phases in isothermal anneals: <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}Zr and tetragonal <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Zr. The exothermic heat from this multi-phase reaction is measured using isochronal scans and isothermal anneals, and the heat flow is analyzed using a 1-D diffusion based model. An average activation energy and a diffusion constant are determined. In the isothermal scans, the total exothermic heat increases linearly with {radical}time, and layer thicknesses vary linearly with heat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARD33006C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARD33006C"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoemission from <span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys during Tensile Deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen; Levine, Lyle; Dickinson, Thomas</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We report simultaneous measurements of strain and photoelectron emission intensity from high purity <span class="hlt">Al</span> (1350), <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg (5052), <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn (3003), <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu (2024) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg-Si (6061) alloys under uniaxial tension due to pulsed excimer laser radiation (248-nm). The photoemission signals are sensitive to deformation-induced changes in surface morphology, including the formation of slip lines and slip bands. In the early stages of deformation (strain Â¡Ü 0.03), the photoemission intensity increases gradually in a nonlinear fashion. Depending on sample composition and heat treatment, the photoemission intensity subsequently grows linearly until the accumulated strain reaches about 0.20. Finally, the photoemission intensity increases parabolically until failure. The onset of strain localization corresponds to the transition from linear to parabolic growth. A constitutional model incorporating microstructure evolution and work-hardening during tensile deformation is proposed to qualitatively interpret the growth of the photoemission signals as a function of strain. The photoemission signals from the tested alloys are interpreted in terms of the effect of surface treatment, work function, microstructure, and composition on the development of dislocation structures during deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616445','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616445"><span id="translatedtitle">Long range order and vacancy properties in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span>(Cr) alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, S.M.; Morris, D.G.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>Neutron powder diffraction measurements have been carried out in situ from room temperature to about 100 C in Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span> (28 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>), Fe32.5<span class="hlt">Al</span> (32.5 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>) and Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span>15Cr (28 at.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>, 5 at.% Cr) alloys. X-ray diffraction and TEM studies provided supporting information. The data were analyzed to obtain information about the temperature dependence of the DO{sub 3} and B2 long range order parameters, the location of the Cr atoms and their effect on the ordering energies, and on the vacancy formation and migration properties in Fe28<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe32.5<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The location of the ternary alloying addition in DO{sub 3} and B2 ordered <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich Fe{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> is shown to be consistent with considerations of interatomic bond energies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SurSc.624....1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SurSc.624....1L"><span id="translatedtitle">First-principle study of adhesion, wetting and bonding on <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>3V(001) interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jian; Qi, Yuning; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Yong; Li, Xiao</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The adhesion, wetting, and bonding on fcc-<span class="hlt">Al</span>(001)/D022-<span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) interface were investigated using density functional calculations. Considering different terminations of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) (<span class="hlt">Al</span>- and <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated) and stacking sites (center-, hollow- and top-sites), six <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>3V(001) models were calculated. For the models with same stacking site, <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated model has larger work of adhesion (Wad) than the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-terminated one. For the models with same termination, the work of adhesion decreases, and the interface energy (γint) increases as the order of top-, bridge- and center-sites. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-terminated-center-sited and <span class="hlt">Al</span> + V-terminated-center-sited models are more stable among six models. After complete structure relaxation, both models have the same epitaxial stacking style. Therefore, the both models can be regarded as of the same and most stable one (noted as CSI model), but separating along <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>+V inter-planes. Based on the perfect wetting and strong adhesion in CSI model, the heterogeneous nucleation of α-<span class="hlt">Al</span> on <span class="hlt">Al</span>3V(001) was interpreted in terms of crystallography and thermodynamics. The interfacial bonding was discussed with analysis of valence electron density distribution and partial density of states (PDOS). The bonding is mainly contributed from <span class="hlt">Al</span>V covalent bonds and <span class="hlt">AlAl</span> metallic interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524174"><span id="translatedtitle">The new structure type Gd3Ni7<span class="hlt">Al</span>14.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pukas, Svitlana; Gladyshevskii, Roman</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The crystal structure of Gd3Ni7<span class="hlt">Al</span>14 (trigadolinium heptanickel tetradecaaluminide) belongs to a family of two-layer structures and can be described as an assembly of interpenetrating centred straight prisms. For the Ni atoms, trigonal prisms (<span class="hlt">Al</span>4Gd2 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>6) are observed, the <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms are inside tetragonal (Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>2Gd4, Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>4Gd2, <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Gd4, Ni4<span class="hlt">Al</span>4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>8) and pentagonal (Ni4<span class="hlt">Al</span>6 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>10) prisms, while the Gd atoms are at the centres of pentagonal (Ni4<span class="hlt">Al</span>6) and hexagonal (Ni4<span class="hlt">Al</span>8) prisms. In each case, the true coordination polyhedron is a capped prism, also including atoms from the same layer. The structural features of Gd3Ni7<span class="hlt">Al</span>14 are similar to those of the intermetallides PrNi2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 and ZrNi<span class="hlt">Al</span>. In all these structures, Ni-centred trigonal prisms form infinite columns via common triangular faces. The columns share prism edges and form a three-dimensional framework with six-membered rings in the (001) plane in the case of the PrNi2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 and ZrNi<span class="hlt">Al</span> types. In the case of Gd3Ni7<span class="hlt">Al</span>14, six-membered rings are also observed, but only two-thirds of the rings are interconnected via prism edges. PMID:26524174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6542417','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6542417"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustion synthesis of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>-matrix composites in the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-BN system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mabuchi, H.; Tsuda, H.; Nakayama, Y. . Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science)</p> <p>1995-01-15</p> <p>The intermetallic compound Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> has attracted much attention for its potential use as a structural high-temperature material. However, its use has been limited because of its negligible low-temperature ductility and fracture toughness and low high-temperature strength and creep. To improve these properties, recently this compound has been made as a composite material containing a secondary phase such as boride, carbide, nitride, or oxide. Recently, combustion synthesis or self-propagating, high-temperature synthesis (SHS) using powder compacts has been developed to produce intermetallics or ceramics. It is also possible to form intermetallic-intermetallic, intermetallic-ceramic, or ceramic-ceramic composites from combustion reactions between corresponding elemental constituents. It has the advantage of an in-situ forming technique compared with conventional artificial composite production approaches. In the previous studies using elemental powders, combustion reaction was carried out to form intermetallic-ceramic composites in the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-C, or Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-N system. The compacts of Ti and <span class="hlt">Al</span> powders with carbon powder or in gaseous nitrogen reacted exothermically, and formed a mixture product which had a fine distribution of the Ti[sub 2]<span class="hlt">Al</span>C or Ti[sub 2]<span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles in the matrix Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> with a small amount of Ti[sub 3]<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The processing technique, therefore, is of interest as a combustion reaction synthesis to make in-situ intermetallic-based composite materials. In the present work, to investigate the effect of BN addition on the reaction of Ti And <span class="hlt">Al</span> powder mixtures, combustion synthesis of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>-matrix composites has been performed for the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-BN system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19089902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19089902"><span id="translatedtitle">Aquaporin-4 overexpression in rat <span class="hlt">ALS</span> model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicaise, Charles; Soyfoo, Muhammad Shahnawaz; Authelet, Michèle; De Decker, Robert; Bataveljic, Danijela; Delporte, Christine; Pochet, Roland</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Onset of motoneuron death characterizing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is closely linked to modified astrocytic and glial environments. Here, we show that in the spinal cord from transgenic rat overexpressing mutated human SOD1, aquaporin-4 mRNA and protein are specifically overexpressed in the gray matter at end stage of disease. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence allowed to detect, in the spinal cord gray matter of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> rat, increased aquaporin-4 surrounding both vessel and motoneuron perikarya. The use of pre-embedding immunohistochemistry at electron microscopic level confirmed such localization associated with swollen astrocytic processes surrounding the vessels. The AQP4 immunohistochemical labeling surrounding several motoneuron perikarya was only seen in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> rats. Identification of this AQP4-positive cellular type remains unclear. PMID:19089902</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/676870"><span id="translatedtitle">Boron strengthening in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C.; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % <span class="hlt">Al</span>), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/434994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/434994"><span id="translatedtitle">The mechanical properties of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, I.; George, E.P.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11465925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11465925"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium: the Darth Vader of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Appel, S H; Beers, D; Siklos, L; Engelhardt, J I; Mosier, D R</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>Motor neuron dysfunction and loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) have been attributed to several different mechanisms, including increased intracellular calcium, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and free radical damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurofilament aggregation and dysfunction of transport mechanisms. These alterations are not mutually exclusive, and increased calcium could be a common denominator. Furthermore, the selective vulnerability of spinal motor neurons and the relative sparing of eye motor neurons represent striking features of both sporadic and familial <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Here we review the evidence that calcium homeostasis is altered in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, and that low levels of the calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin-D28K contribute to selective vulnerability by decreasing the ability of motor neurons to handle an increased calcium load, with cell injury and death as the consequence. PMID:11465925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20406177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20406177"><span id="translatedtitle">Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dileone, M; Profice, P; Pilato, F; Ranieri, F; Capone, F; Musumeci, G; Florio, L; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons characterized by progressive weakness, respiratory failure and death within 3-5 years. It has been proposed that glutamate-related excitotoxicity may promote motor neuron death in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Glutamatergic circuits of the human motor cortex can be activated noninvasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the brain, and repetitive TMS (rTMS) can produce changes in neurotransmission that outlast the period of stimulation. In recent years a remarkable number of papers about the potential effects of rTMS in several neurological disorders including <span class="hlt">ALS</span> has been published. Preliminary studies have shown that rTMS of the motor cortex, at frequencies that decrease cortical excitability, causes a slight slowing in the progression rate of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>, suggesting that these effects might be related to a diminution of glutamate-driven excitotoxicity. RTMS could also interfere with motor neuron death through different mechanisms: rTMS could modulate the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a potent survival factor for neurons, that in turn might represent a promoter of motor neuron sparing in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. Despite some promising preliminary data, recent studies have demonstrated a lack of significant long-term beneficial effects of rTMS on neurological deterioration in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate the potential efficacy of different protocols of motor cortex stimulation (in terms of technique, duration and frequency of stimulation), particularly during the early stages of the disease when the progression rate is more pronounced. PMID:20406177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10386051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10386051"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni--a universal scientist].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kujundzić, E; Masić, I</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab <span class="hlt">al</span>-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others. PMID:10386051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011mave.book..105G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011mave.book..105G"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematik <span class="hlt">als</span> Geisteswissenschaft Der Mathematikschädigung dialogisch vorbeugen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gallin, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>Ursprünglich wollte ich Architekt werden getreu den Vorbildern von Vater und Großvater. Darum zeichnete ich bereits <span class="hlt">als</span> neunjähriges Kind Pläne von Häusern in der Art, wie ich sie oft zu sehen bekam. Ein ausgemustertes Holzdreieck mit einem rechten und zwei halben rechten Winkeln war das einzige Konstruktionswerkzeug, das ich damals besaß und mit dem ich mich ans Werk machte. Zuerst einmal war da natürlich ein Rechteck <span class="hlt">als</span> Grundriss des Hauses zu zeichnen: Eine Seite, ein rechter Winkel, die zweite Seite, wieder ein rechterWinkel, die dritte Seite in gleicher Länge wie die erste und dann der dritte rechte Winkel, dessen letzter Schenkel die vierte Seite gab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850044007&hterms=ductility&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dductility','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850044007&hterms=ductility&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dductility"><span id="translatedtitle">Ductility in rapidly solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaydosh, D. J.; Jech, R. W.; Titran, R. H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An attempt is made to refine the grain structure of equiatomic Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> by means of rapid solidification processing, and to examine the effect of small grain size on room temperature ductility. Free melt spinning was used to produce the rapidly solidified material. Room temperature bend testing of both as-spun and heat-treated Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> ribbon was conducted by free bending the ribbon around a mandrel of successively smaller diameter until failure occurred. Room-temperature plastic deformation was exhibited both before and after a 1-h heat treatment at 1000 C. Heat treatment increased the observed ductility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4712627','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4712627"><span id="translatedtitle">Complementary and Alternative Therapies in <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:26515629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980028484','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980028484"><span id="translatedtitle">Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of Ni<span class="hlt">Al-NiAl</span>Ta Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified Ni<span class="hlt">Al-NiAl</span>Ta alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>Ta.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Replication&pg=4&id=EJ821622','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Replication&pg=4&id=EJ821622"><span id="translatedtitle">Replication and Extension of Little et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> (2003) Forms and Functions of Aggression Measure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fite, Paula J.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The goal of the current study was to replicate the confirmatory factor analysis of Little et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> (2003) aggression measure in an American sample of 69 children (mean age = 12.93 years; SD = 1.27). Although an exact replication of the original model could not be estimated given the small sample, a modified model representing a conceptual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOM....66i1785S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOM....66i1785S"><span id="translatedtitle">Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-C Based Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% <span class="hlt">Al</span> are potential lightweight steels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872577','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872577"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic circuits having Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni.sub.3 <span class="hlt">Al</span> substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and/or Ni.sub.3 <span class="hlt">Al</span>, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MMTA...40.1541Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MMTA...40.1541Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustion Synthesis Reactions in Cold-Rolled Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ti/<span class="hlt">Al</span> Multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiu, Xiaotun; Liu, Ranran; Guo, Shengmin; Graeter, Jesse Harris; Kecskes, Laszlo; Wang, Jiaping</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>In this article, a cold rolling method was developed to fabricate Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ti/<span class="hlt">Al</span> multilayer foils, and the combustion synthesis reactions in the cold-rolled foils were investigated. Combustion synthesis reactions were initiated by heating one end of the cold-rolled foil in a flame for several seconds. The Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> foils went through three reaction stages. The first reaction stage was a displacement of reaction zone with <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni as the reaction product. During the second stage, the part of the foil in the flame underwent thermal explosion. In the last stage, the heat released by thermal explosion triggered a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction across the foil that resulted in the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni. In contrast, the Ti/<span class="hlt">Al</span> foils experienced only two reaction stages. First, a displacement of the reaction zone propagated across the foil with formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ti at the Ti/<span class="hlt">Al</span> interface. Then a thermal explosion reaction occurred in the part of foil that was heated in the flame, resulting in many different phases in the reacted foil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7518E..13M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7518E..13M"><span id="translatedtitle">The evaluation and measurement of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN epitaxial layer with high <span class="hlt">Al</span> mole fraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meng, Zhao; Yu, Libo; Li, Xiao; Liu, Qibin; Duan, Huiqiang; Yu, Chenhui; Chen, Changqing</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The epitaxial layer quality of AlxGa1-xN (x>0.6) on sapphire substrate grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) needs to be further improved. In this paper, we evaluated the properties of defects, lattice mismatch between epitaxial layer and substrate, crystal quality and conductivity for these high <span class="hlt">Al</span> mole fraction materials from the viewpoint of fabricating high performance solar blind detectors by comprehensive utilizing various undamaged measurements. The measurement of transmission spectrum was used to evaluate the absorption edge, band gap, mole fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> content, hetero-epitaxial interface, and transmissivity in the ultraviolet spectral range. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to measure the component of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN material, uniformity of the material and crystal quality. The conductivity of the surface layer of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN film material was obtained by using high precision current-voltage curve measurement. In short, the material quality, optical and electrical properties, and uniformity for high <span class="hlt">Al</span> mole fraction <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN epitaxial layers were qualitatively or quantitatively measured and analyzed. These works lay the foundation for manufacturing high performance solar blind ultraviolet detectors based on high <span class="hlt">Al</span> mole fraction <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN epitaxial materials on sapphire substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22150063','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22150063"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of nanostructured <span class="hlt">Al</span>N by solid state reaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and diaminomaleonitrile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rounaghi, S.A.; Eshghi, H.; Kiani Rashid, A.R.; Vahdati Khaki, J.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scudino, S.; Eckert, J.; TU Dresden, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Dresden D-01062 </p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>The solid state reaction of diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) with aluminum via both mechanochemical and thermal treatment routes was studied by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the milling process, the reaction starts with the deammoniation of the DAMN molecules, followed by the formation of nanostructured <span class="hlt">Al</span>N powder as the main solid product after milling for 7 h. The reactivity of the mixed powder was also investigated during the conventional thermal treatment process using differential scanning calorimetry, derivative thermogravimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The results reveal that DAMN starts to polymerize at 192 Degree-Sign C by the elimination of the amine groups. Furthermore, increasing the annealing temperature leads to the formation of a nitrogen-containing carbonaceous material with the structure similar to non-crystalline carbon. However, no evidence for the formation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N was observed in the annealed samples even at temperatures as high as the <span class="hlt">Al</span> melting point. - Graphical abstract: <span class="hlt">Al</span>N nanoparticles obtained after milling of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) for 12 h. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid state reaction of diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) with <span class="hlt">Al</span> was studied via mechanochemical and thermal treatment routs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span>N was successfully synthesized by the mechanochemical process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C/N material was formed by polymerization of DAMN during the thermal treatment process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No reaction between DAMN and <span class="hlt">Al</span> was detected during the thermal treatment method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6137079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6137079"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress-strain behavior of fine-grained <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>[sub 3]Ti alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, S.H.; Kao, P.W.; Chang, C.P. )</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>It has been recognized that dispersion strengthening with hard, stable, high melting point phases offers an effective technique for improving the stiffness of aluminum alloys over a wider temperature range compared to precipitation strengthening. Recent research indicates that mechanically alloyed (MA) <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti alloys have good ambient and elevated temperature properties. The MA <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti alloys are characterized by the presence of large volume fractions of submicron sized <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 3]Ti dispersoids within a fine grain aluminum matrix. In addition, such alloys contain a significant amount of ultrafine <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 4]C[sub 3] and <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 2]O[sub 3] dispersoids incorporated during the MA process. The carbide and oxide dispersoids reside mainly along grain boundaries and can stabilize a fine-grain structure even after long term exposure at elevated temperature. The high temperature strength of these MA aluminum alloys is strongly controlled by carbide and oxide dispersoids. The Young's modulus of <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 3]Ti phase was determined to be about 220 GPa. Hence, the presence of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 3]Ti phase is very effective in increasing the stiffness of the MA aluminum alloys is strongly controlled by carbide and oxide dispersoids. The Young's modulus of <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 3]Ti phase was determined to be about 220 GPa. Hence, the presence of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 3]Ti phase is very effective in increasing the stiffness of the MA aluminum alloys. The strength of such alloys increases with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 3]Ti content; however, the strengthening effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 3]Ti dispersoids diminishes at temperatures above about 400C. On the other hand, such dispersoids also appear responsible for improving the high temperature ductility of the MA <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ti alloys. A better understanding of the strengthening mechanisms is desirable. This paper presents the room temperature stress-strain behavior of two <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>[sub 3]Ti alloys made by mechanical alloying and hot-pressing.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980210984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980210984"><span id="translatedtitle">CVD Fiber Coatings for <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boss, Daniel E.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This process was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97m3104S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97m3104S"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/WO3 thermites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sullivan, Kyle T.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard; Zachariah, Michael R.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span> and nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span> thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span> was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910034051&hterms=stuttgart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dstuttgart','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910034051&hterms=stuttgart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dstuttgart"><span id="translatedtitle">1300 K compressive properties of a reaction milled Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Arzt, Eduard; Luton, Michael J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>When B2 crystal-structure nickel aluminide is subjected to high-intensity mechanical ball milling in a liquid nitrogen bath, or 'cryomilling', an Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> composite is obtained which contains about 10 vol pct <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles. This composition arises from the incorporation of N during cryomilling; during subsequent thermomechanical processing, the N reacts with <span class="hlt">Al</span>. While compressive testing of extruded or isostatically pressed specimens at 1300 K indicated that strength at relatively fast strain rates is slightly dependent on consolidation method, slower strain rates indicate no clear dependency on densification technique: four different consolidation methods were found to yield similar creep strengths. The creep properties of Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N are similar to those of the single-crystal Ni-base superalloy NASAIR 100.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5188197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5188197"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kingsley, L.M.</p> <p>1980-04-01</p> <p>Adherence of protective oxides on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> and CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6118818','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6118818"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of the optical spectra of. beta. prime -Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, K.J.; Harmon, B.N.; Lynch, D.W. )</p> <p>1991-01-15</p> <p>Band structures of {beta}{prime}-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> have been calculated to interpret the experimental optical spectra. The optical transitions of both compounds are calculated as direct interband transitions including electric-dipole matrix elements between the eigenstates of the ground state of the system. All of the structures found in the optical spectra of both compounds involve states with some Ni or Co {ital d} character in both the initial and the final states. The overall agreement is good between the calculated spectrum and the optical data for {beta}{prime}-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. For {beta}{prime}-Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> there is qualitative agreement but some discrepancy for the energy positions and the intensities of the structures. A self-energy correction for the excitation spectrum has been used for {beta}{prime}-Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> to improve the agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MS%26E...23a2040D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MS%26E...23a2040D"><span id="translatedtitle">An impedance study of complex <span class="hlt">Al/Cu-Al</span>2O3 electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Denisova, J.; Katkevics, J.; Erts, D.; Viksna, A.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on <span class="hlt">Al</span> surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. <span class="hlt">Al/Cu-Al</span>2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on <span class="hlt">Al</span> surfaces by internal electrolysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...75a2034P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MS%26E...75a2034P"><span id="translatedtitle">Wear characteristics of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites produced in-situ by nitrogenation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pradhan, S.; Jena, S. K.; Patnaik, S. C.; Swain, P. K.; Majhi, J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In the present scenario most of the parts used in automobile and aerospace industries are made of composites. Aluminium metal has a very high strength to weight ratio. <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N metal matrix composites have excellent mechanical properties like good wear resistance, high hardness and high strength to weight ratio which are obtained from low density of aluminium and high hardness and wear resistance of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. Therefore, use of <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N MMC leads to advantages in automobile industries as it reduces fuel consumption and gives better structural strength. The composites can be produced ex-situ by introducing <span class="hlt">Al</span>N as reinforcement into the metal matrix and in- situ by nitrogenation process. In the present process <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites were fabricated by treating molten aluminium with a mixture of CaO and NH4Cl and held at temperature range at 750-930°C and then cast into a metal mould. Addition of CaO to NH4Cl is found to have a more pronounced effect as a nitrogenation agent in comparison with NH4Cl in the molten aluminium in the temperature range of 700- 1000°C. Castings of aluminium and <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites were prepared by mixing different ratios of aluminium and NH4Cl, at different casting temperatures and holding time. Wear resistance and hardness of the samples were determined, and microstructure studies were carried out. The composite formed using higher amount of NH4Cl had higher hardness and wear resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JaJAP..49c5701H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JaJAP..49c5701H"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Interlayer on the Distribution and Mobility of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N/GaN Heterojunctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Weiguo; Ma, Bei; Li, Dabing; Miyagawa, Reina; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>0.25Ga0.75N/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN heterojunctions with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayers of various thicknesses were grown on c-plane sapphire by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). We have revealed that the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer hardly affects morphologies and crystal qualities; however, it prominently enhances the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility. The optimum thickness of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer is 1 nm, and the corresponding room temperature Hall mobility and the sheet carrier density are 1700 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.27 ×1013 cm-2, respectively. Self-consistent calculation results indicates that with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span>N thickness, i) the conduction-band discontinuity between <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN and GaN linearly increases; ii) the percentage of the total carriers in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layer exponentially decreases, and content in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer exponentially increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JaJAP..49c5701W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JaJAP..49c5701W"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N Interlayer on the Distribution and Mobility of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N/GaN Heterojunctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiguo Hu,; Bei Ma,; Dabing Li,; Reina Miyagawa,; Hideto Miyake,; Kazumasa Hiramatsu,</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>0.25Ga0.75N/<span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN heterojunctions with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayers of various thicknesses were grown on c-plane sapphire by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). We have revealed that the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer hardly affects morphologies and crystal qualities; however, it prominently enhances the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility. The optimum thickness of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer is 1 nm, and the corresponding room temperature Hall mobility and the sheet carrier density are 1700 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.27 × 1013 cm-2, respectively. Self-consistent calculation results indicates that with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span>N thickness, i) the conduction-band discontinuity between <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN and GaN linearly increases; ii) the percentage of the total carriers in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layer exponentially decreases, and content in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer exponentially increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047352','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047352"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Copeland, Evan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The activities of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%<span class="hlt">al</span> (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042390','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042390"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) equals gamma'(+<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Copland, Evan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The activities of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) = gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) = gamma'(+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/87741','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/87741"><span id="translatedtitle">Ternary Dy-Er-<span class="hlt">Al</span> magnetic refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki</p> <p>1995-07-25</p> <p>A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/869994','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/869994"><span id="translatedtitle">Ternary Dy-Er-<span class="hlt">Al</span> magnetic refrigerants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)</p> <p>1995-07-25</p> <p>A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/791807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/791807"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint SSRTNet/<span class="hlt">ALS</span>-MES Workshop report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shuh, David; Van Hove, Michel</p> <p>2001-11-30</p> <p>This joint workshop brought together experimentalists and theorists interested in synchrotron radiation and highlighted subjects relevant to molecular environmental science (MES). The strong mutual interest between the participants resulted in joint sessions on the first day, followed by more specialized parallel sessions on the second day. Held in conjunction with the Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) Users' Association Annual Meeting at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the Synchrotron Radiation Research Theory Network (SRRTNet) workshop was co-organized by Michel Van Hove (Berkeley Lab and University of California, Davis) and Andrew Canning (Berkeley Lab), while David Shuh (Berkeley Lab) organized the <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-MES workshop. SRRTNet is a global network that promotes the interaction of theory and experiment (http://www.cse.clrc.ac.uk/Activity/SRRTnet). The <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-MES project is constructing Beamline 11.0.2.1-2, a new soft x-ray beamline for MES investigations at photon energies from 75 eV to 2 keV, to provide photons for wet spectroscopy end stations and an upgraded scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). The <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-MES beamline and end stations will be available for users in the late fall of 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856645"><span id="translatedtitle">Sirtuins as therapeutic targets of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Bilski, Amanda E; Zhao, Wei</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Sirtuins have received a lot of attention in biological functions associated with metabolism, survival development, and most recently, neurodegeneration. The versatile role of sirtuins can be readily redirected for drug discovery studies for novel treatment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>), as presented in this highlight, by sirtuin-mediated ketogenic responses influencing mitochondrial function. PMID:23856645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-25/pdf/2010-1338.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-01-25/pdf/2010-1338.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 3895 - Yale University, et <span class="hlt">al</span>.;</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-25</p> <p>... notice at 74 FR 67851, December 21, 2009. Docket Number: 09-065. Applicant: U.S. Department of Homeland..., Quanta 200 FEG. Manufacturer: FEI Company, Czech Republic. Intended Use: See notice at 74 FR 67851... International Trade Administration Yale University, et <span class="hlt">al</span>.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-23/pdf/2013-01210.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-23/pdf/2013-01210.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #<span class="hlt">AL</span>-00046</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-23</p> <p>... ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster <span class="hlt">AL</span>-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated 01/10... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychoactive+AND+drugs&pg=4&id=EJ492979','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychoactive+AND+drugs&pg=4&id=EJ492979"><span id="translatedtitle">Synopsis of "Reply to Levitas et <span class="hlt">al</span>."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Brien, John</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This synopsis of a reply by Wolf Wolfensberger to a critique by Levitas et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (EC 609 743) notes extensive documentation supporting Wolfensberger's assertion that prescription psychoactive drugs are health destroying and life destroying. Issues of truth and of epistemology are identified as they apply to the treatment of these socially devalued…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720000526','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720000526"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>/Cl2 molten salt battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Giner, J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lips&pg=2&id=EJ869605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lips&pg=2&id=EJ869605"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pattern+AND+recognition+AND+letters+AND+pattern+AND+recognition+AND+letters&pg=5&id=EJ734728','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pattern+AND+recognition+AND+letters+AND+pattern+AND+recognition+AND+letters&pg=5&id=EJ734728"><span id="translatedtitle">Correction to Rothermund et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk; De Houwer, Jan</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This article reports an error in the article "Retrieval of Incidental Stimulus-Response Associations as a Source of Negative Priming" by Rothermund et <span class="hlt">al</span>. ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," Vol 31(3) May 2005, 482-495). Table 1 (p. 484) was incorrectly typeset. The correct layout is provided. (The following…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-07/pdf/2011-25927.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-07/pdf/2011-25927.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et <span class="hlt">al</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-07</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Incapital LLC, et <span class="hlt">al</span>.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Green+AND+movement&pg=5&id=EJ869605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Green+AND+movement&pg=5&id=EJ869605"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED542783.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED542783.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">U-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-<span class="hlt">ALS</span>" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5649223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5649223"><span id="translatedtitle">Low cost, reliable <span class="hlt">ALS</span> turbopump concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Csomor, A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An empirical perspective is presented on the cost structure of past and current turbomachinery for liquid rocket engine turbopumps. The issues which must be addressed in the development of turbopumps for the Advanced Launch System (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) at an order of magnitude lower recurring cost than for present hardware are discussed. An approach proposed to attain reliability and cost objectives is outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503734','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503734"><span id="translatedtitle">Bierman {ital et <span class="hlt">al</span>.}Reply:</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>reply to the Comment by C.H.Dasso et <span class="hlt">al</span>., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,XXX(1997). A Reply to the Comment by C.H. Dasso and J. Fern{acute a}ndez-Niello. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4293318','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4293318"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> onset is influenced by the burden of rare variants in known <span class="hlt">ALS</span> genes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cady, Janet; Allred, Peggy; Bali, Taha; Pestronk, Alan; Goate, Alison; Miller, Timothy M.; Mitra, Rob; Ravits, John; Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective To define the genetic landscape of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) and assess the contribution of possible oligogenic inheritance, we aimed to comprehensively sequence 17 known <span class="hlt">ALS</span> genes in 391 <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients from the United States. Methods Targeted pooled-sample sequencing was used to identify variants in 17 <span class="hlt">ALS</span> genes. Fragment size analysis was used to define ATXN2 and C9ORF72 expansion sizes. Genotype-phenotype correlations were made with individual variants and total burden of variants. Rare variant associations for risk of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> were investigated at both the single variant and gene level. Results 64.3% of familial and 27.8% of sporadic subjects carried potentially pathogenic novel or rare coding variants identified by sequencing or an expanded repeat in C9ORF72 or ATXN2. 3.8% of subjects had variants in more than one <span class="hlt">ALS</span> gene, and these individuals had disease onset ten years earlier (p=0.0046) than subjects with variants in a single gene. The number of potentially pathogenic coding variants did not influence disease duration or site of onset. Interpretation Rare and potentially pathogenic variants in known <span class="hlt">ALS</span> genes are present in over 25% of apparently sporadic and 64% of familial patients, significantly higher than previous reports using less comprehensive sequencing approaches. A significant number of subjects carried variants in more than one gene, which influenced the age of symptom onset and supports oligogenic inheritance as relevant to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25382069</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SuMi...49..654H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SuMi...49..654H"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanocrystalline Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallics obtained in mechanically alloyed Fe 50<span class="hlt">Al</span> 40Ni 10 powder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hadef, F.; Otmani, A.; Djekoun, A.; Grenèche, J. M.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>B2-Fe 47<span class="hlt">Al</span> 53 intermetallics has been produced by mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill, using elemental Fe, <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni powder mixture. The microstructural and magnetic properties of the mechanically alloyed Fe 50<span class="hlt">Al</span> 40Ni 10 powdered samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry at 300 and 77 K. As resulted from the X-ray diffraction studies, the ordered B2 structure was formed in the Fe 50<span class="hlt">Al</span> 40Ni 10 powder, together with the bcc ? i-Fe(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ni) ( i = 1, 2) solid solutions. Further milling led to a partial disordering of B2-Fe 47<span class="hlt">Al</span> 53; it has undergone an order-disorder transition which is characterized by an expansion of the volume ? a0 (lattice disorder) and a magnetic transition from the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic state which is characterized by strong ferromagnetic interactions in the alloy. The nanocrystalline bcc ? i-Fe(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ni) solid solution was ferromagnetic with a mean crystallite size of 6 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025135','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025135"><span id="translatedtitle">Some TEM observations of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales formed on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The microstructural development of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> was also examined. Oriented alpha-(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Cr)2O3 and Ni(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800028901&hterms=corundum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcorundum','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800028901&hterms=corundum&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcorundum"><span id="translatedtitle">Some TEM observations of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales formed on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The microstructural development of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scales on NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> was also examined. Oriented alpha-(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Cr)2O3 and Ni(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21175660','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21175660"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron irradiation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN heterojunctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Markov, A. V.; Pearton, S. J.; Dabiran, A. M.; Wowchak, A. M.; Cui, B.; Osinsky, A. V.; Chow, P. P.; Kolin, N. G.; Boiko, V. M.; Merkurisov, D. I.</p> <p>2008-10-13</p> <p>The effects of 10 MeV electron irradiation on <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN heterojunctions grown by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. The irradiation increases the resistivity of the GaN buffer due to compensation by radiation defects with levels near E{sub c}-1 eV and decreases the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) near the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN (or <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN) interface. The bulk carrier removal rate in the GaN buffer is the same for both types of structures and similar to carrier removal rates for undoped n-GaN films. In structures with a density of residual donors of {approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, irradiation with electron doses of {approx}5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} renders the buffer semi-insulating. The 50% degradation of the 2DEG conductivity happens at several times higher doses (close to 3x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} versus 6.5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}) for <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN than for <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN structures, most likely because of the lower thickness of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N barrier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JNET...26..125F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JNET...26..125F"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoelectric Powers of Cells With NaF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flem, Belinda E.; Xu, Qian; Kjelstrup, Signe; Sterten, Åsmund</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>A thermodynamic description of the Peltier heat at the aluminum and the oxygen electrode in the system NaF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 is given. The thermoelectric power in melts with molar ratios <italic>n</italic> NaF/<italic>n</italic> <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 from 3.0 to 1.0, saturated with alumina are measured. Seebeck coefficients for molten fluoride electrolytes saturated with alumina, electrolytes that are relevant for aluminum electrowinning electrolysis cells, are reported. The results allow determinations of Peltier heats of aluminum, oxygen and carbon electrodes in NaF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 electrolytes saturated with alumina. For molar ratios of <italic>n</italic> NaF/<italic>n</italic> <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 between 2.6 and 1.2, there is a Peltier heating of the aluminum cathode. This heating is in the same order of magnitude as the electrolyte Joule heat, when the current density is 0.7 A cm-2. For molar ratio <italic>n</italic> NaF/<italic>n</italic> <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 equal to 1.0 the Peltier effect at the aluminum electrode approaches zero. From theoretical considerations we expect a drop also for molar ratio 3.0. For the anode we report a Peltier cooling that is larger than the heat produced by the anodic overvoltage, in melts with NaF/<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 molar ratio between 2.6 and 1.2 saturated with alumina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JaJAP..55aAG03W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JaJAP..55aAG03W"><span id="translatedtitle">Aluminum matrix texture in <span class="hlt">Al–Al</span>3Ti functionally graded materials analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sequeira, Paulo D.; Sato, Hisashi; Inamura, Tomonari; Hosoda, Hideki</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix functionally graded materials (FGMs) with oriented <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ti platelets were fabricated by a centrifugal solid-particle method. The applied centrifugal forces were 30, 60, and 120G (units of gravity). The orientation and volume fraction gradients of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ti platelets within the samples were measured. Since a good lattice correspondence was reported for the close-packed directions and the close-packed planes between <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ti, the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix in the <span class="hlt">Al–Al</span>3Ti FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal solid-particle method should have some texture. <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix texture was, therefore, analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). Analysis of the resulting pole figures indicates a preferred orientation along the (200) plane for the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix crystals. Furthermore, increasing the applied centrifugal force enhances the orientation effect. A correlation appears to exist between platelet orientation and the preferred texture of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcSpA..97..885M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcSpA..97..885M"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation and comparison of bovine hemoglobin binding to <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III): Evidences from spectroscopic studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Fei; Sun, Chong; Zhou, Wenshu; Xu, Chongzheng; Zhou, Jiahong; Wang, Guoxiang; Yang, Xiaodi</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The UV-vis, steady state/time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy are employed to investigate the interaction mechanisms of <span class="hlt">Al</span>13-Hb and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III)-Hb, respectively. The UV-vis studies represent that <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) could directly disturb the structure of Hb and induce the heme group exposed to the aqueous medium. Steady state/time resolved and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy reveal that <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) can change the polarity around the fluorophore molecule of Hb. <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 makes the protein unfolding and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) induces the protein buried inside the structure. The interaction processes are static quenching mechanisms and the main forces are electrostatic interactions. Moreover, circular dichroism spectra display <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 makes greater effect than <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III), which is reflected on the degrees of ?-helix of Hb. The comparison results suggest that <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 displays stronger toxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587753','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3587753"><span id="translatedtitle">An Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Gharbi, Libya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; El-Mabrouk, Khamis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its <span class="hlt">Al</span>-jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at <span class="hlt">Al</span>-jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at <span class="hlt">Al</span>-jabal <span class="hlt">Al</span>-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed. PMID:23467624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/605671','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/605671"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth temperature measurements and solidification microstructure selection of primary <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Ni and eutectic in the {alpha}<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>{sub 3}Ni system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Juarez-Hernandez, A.; Jones, H.</p> <p>1998-02-03</p> <p>Competition between growth of contending primary phases and their eutectics is a key consideration in determining the solidification microstructure of a material that results from particular conditions. Application of the principle that solidification is led by the constituent which grows at the highest temperature under the prevailing conditions gives predictions that are in good accord with experimental fact. The necessary growth temperatures and their dependence on materials composition and solidification conditions have been measured, however, for rather few constituents in relatively few systems as yet. The present purpose is to extend to primary <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Ni and the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>{sub 3}Ni eutectic in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni system the measurements made earlier during Bridgman growth, for primary <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 3}Fe(<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 13}Fe{sub 4}) and for the <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>{sub 3}Fe and <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>{sub 6}Fe eutectics in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe system. These measurements will be compared with predictions of dendrite and eutectic growth theory and related to the relevant boundary of the reported <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>{sub 3}Ni solidification microstructure selection diagram. Some preliminary results together with other findings were reported earlier in a cited reference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1000697"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of vapor-phase deposited <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge thin films and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge intermediate layer bonding of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based microchannel structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mei, F. H.; Meng, W. J.; Hiller, J.; Miller, D. J.; Materials Science Division; Louisana State Univ.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-based high-aspect-ratio microscale structures (HARMS) are basic building blocks for all-<span class="hlt">Al</span> microdevices. Bonding of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based HARMS is essential for device assembly. In this paper, bonding of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based HARMS to flat <span class="hlt">Al</span> plates using <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge thin film intermediate layers is investigated. The structure of sputter codeposited <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge thin films was studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as a function of the average film composition. The structure of the interface region between <span class="hlt">Al</span>-based HARMS bonded to flat <span class="hlt">Al</span> plates is studied by combining focused ion beam sectioning and scanning electron microscopy. An extended bonding interface region, {approx}100 {micro}m in width, is observed and suggested to result from liquidus/solidus reactions as well as diffusion of Ge in solid <span class="hlt">Al</span> at the bonding temperature of 500 C. The extended interface region is suggested to be beneficial to <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span> bonding via <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ge intermediate layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JaJAP..45.3176N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JaJAP..45.3176N"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-volatile <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Memory using Nanoscale <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Thin Film as a Charge Storage Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakata, Shunji; Saito, Kunio; Shimada, Masaru</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>This article describes the fabrication process and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a new non-volatile <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 memory with nanoscale thin film deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 shows characteristics somewhere between <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 in the refractive index and wet etching rate. C-V characteristics of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 memory show a large hysteresis window due to the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich structure, while there is no hysteresis window in the case of stoichiometric <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. This memory is expected to stay non-volatile for several years or more because the capacitance value after writing and erasing operation remained almost unchanged after 4 h at T=85 °C. Also, another new memory structure comprising SiO2/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 structure is proposed, which features increased mobility due to the reduction of electron scattering at the Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMMM..387...72M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMMM..387...72M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ferromagnetic ordering in Np<span class="hlt">Al</span>2: Magnetic susceptibility and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclear magnetic resonance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martel, L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Selfslag, C.; Colineau, E.; Caciuffo, R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We report on the magnetic properties of the neptunium based ferromagnetic compound Np<span class="hlt">Al</span>2. We used magnetization measurements and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> NMR spectroscopy to access magnetic features related to the paramagnetic and ordered states (TC=56 K). While very precise DC SQUID magnetization measurements confirm ferromagnetic ordering, they show a relatively small hysteresis loop at 5 K reduced with a coercive field HCo~3000 Oe. The variable offset cumulative spectra (VOCS) acquired in the paramagnetic state show a high sensitivity of the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> nuclei spectral parameters (Knight shifts and line broadening) to the ferromagnetic ordering, even at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJTP...50.2790H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJTP...50.2790H"><span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting Deng et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chun-Wei; Li, Chuan-Ming</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol [Deng et <span class="hlt">al</span>. in Chin. Phys. Lett. 23: 1084-1087, 2006] is revisited in this study. It is found that the performance of Deng et <span class="hlt">al.'s</span> protocol can be much improved by using the techniques of block-transmission and decoy single photons. As a result, the qubit efficiency is improved 2.4 times and only one classical communication, a public discussion, and two quantum communications between each agent and the secret holder are needed rather than n classical communications, n public discussions, and 3n/2 quantum communications required in the original scheme.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.653a2039S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.653a2039S"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconductivity of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 interface formed under shock-wave conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shakhray, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A mixture of powdered <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ? 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ? 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic <span class="hlt">Al</span> and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GeCoA..56.3831F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992GeCoA..56.3831F"><span id="translatedtitle">The formation of polynuclear <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 under simulated natural conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furrer, Gerhard; Trusch, Bernhard; Müller, Christian</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Polynuclear aluminum species can be formed in nature by the dissolution of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing minerals, as a consequence of soil and surface water acidification, followed by neutralization processes. Under simulated natural conditions in the laboratory, i.e., by allowing acidic <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) solutions to flow over granulated marble at flow velocities of 3-4 mm/min, large fractions of monomeric <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) were transformed to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13O 4(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ polymer (thereafter referred to as <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 or <span class="hlt">Al</span> 137+), which was measured by 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>-NMR spectroscopy. Over two-thirds of the monomeric <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) was converted to polynuclear <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 even when gibbsite particles were mixed with the marble granules. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 polymer was also formed in stirred batch experiments containing marble granules and dissolved phthalate or salicylate. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13formation is easily possible in nature if the total <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) concentration is high enough. In these experiments, <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13 was detected when the total dissolved <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) was 1.9 × 10 -4 mol/L. The minimum total <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III) concentration required to produce <span class="hlt">Al</span> 13, which can be predicted from available thermodynamic data, is on the order of 10 -5mol/L.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.2921..131Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.2921..131Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural evolution of Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> via mechanical alloying</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, F.; Lu, Li; Lai, Man O.; Wong, H. Y.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic compound with composition of Ti-58at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> was synthesized from elemental Ti and <span class="hlt">Al</span> powder mixture. X-ray measurement showed the presence of both face-centered- tetragonal Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase and face-centered-cubic TiN phase. The formation of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> can be divided into three stages: (1) solid solution, (2) partial amorphization, and (3) formation of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase. The process of formation of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase via mechanical alloying took about 40 to approximately 50 hours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB...46..485V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB...46..485V"><span id="translatedtitle">Density of Low-Temperature KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 Aluminum Baths with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4 Additives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasková, Zuzana; Kontrík, Martin; Mlynáriková, Jarmila; Boča, Miroslav</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The density of the KF-<span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 melts of various KF and <span class="hlt">Al</span>F3 ratio with <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4 addition has been measured using the Archimedean method. On the basis of the obtained density data the molar volumes of the melts were calculated. These molar volumes decrease with concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 or <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4. In the system containing <span class="hlt">Al</span>PO4, the relation between cryolite ratios (CRs) vs slopes of molar volume trend lines was identified with excellent correlation factor of R 2 = 0.9844, while in the system containing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 a discontinuity at CR = 2.5 can be observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178202"><span id="translatedtitle">On the crack growth resistance and strength of the B2 iron aluminides Fe-40<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Fe-45<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Fe-10Ni-40<span class="hlt">Al</span> (at. %)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schneibel, J.H.; Maziasz, P.J.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The crack growth resistance and yield strength of the B2 iron aluminides Fe-40<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Fe-45<span class="hlt">Al</span>, are Fe-10Ni-40<span class="hlt">Al</span> (at. %) have been investigated at room temperature laboratory air. After fast cooling from 1273 K, Fe-45<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe-10Ni-40<span class="hlt">Al</span> are much stronger than Fe-40<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and exhibit considerably lower crack growth resistance. The crack growth resistance decreases with decreasing crack propagation velocity. Low crack propagation velocities favor intergranular fracture, whereas high velocities can lead to significant contributions from transgranular fracture. Boron additions to Fe-40<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Fe-10Ni-40<span class="hlt">Al</span> improve the crack growth resistance, reduce its dependence on the crack propagation velocity, and cause the path to be predominantly transgranular. In a plot of fracture toughness versus yield strength, the properties of the iron aluminides are similar to those of typical aluminum alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhRvB..32.5525K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhRvB..32.5525K"><span id="translatedtitle">Core-excitonic lines at the <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2p surface optical-absorption threshold of <span class="hlt">Al</span>As and <span class="hlt">Al</span>P</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kelly, M. K.; Niles, D. W.; Perfetti, P.; Colavita, E.; Savoia, A.; Margaritondo, G.; Henzler, M.</p> <p>1985-10-01</p> <p>The optical-absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">Al</span>As and <span class="hlt">Al</span>P exhibit unusual features-strong <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2p core-excitonic lines. The data were obtained with synchrotron-radiation photoemission in the partial-yield mode. The analysis was based on the approach proposed by Johnson, Fock, Ley, and Cardona for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb and on Onodera and Toyozawa's exciton theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16523990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16523990"><span id="translatedtitle">[Symptomatic management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Czaplinski, A; Schweikert, K; Strobel, W; Steck, A J; Weber, M</p> <p>2006-02-22</p> <p>Although disease-specific treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is still unsatisfactory, a number of advances have been made in the symptomatic therapy of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients within the last decade. Current data suggest that active and aggressive multidisciplinary management of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients improve their quality of life and prolong their survival. Patient and caregiver communications and decisions are increasingly recognized to be a relevant part of this management. A wide range of supportive and palliative measures, in particular the widely use of symptomatic drugs for pseudobulbar affect, sialorrhea, and sleep disorders is available to relieve patients symptomatology. In addition, patients quality of life has been profoundly improved by the introduction of enteral nutrition and non-invasive ventilation. PMID:16523990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292005"><span id="translatedtitle">[Communication with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients: neurosurgical approach].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Sawada, Jin-Ichi; Hazama, Takanori; Mochizuki, Hideki; Hirata, Masayuki</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>By progression of the disease, motor neurons degenerate in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) eventually lose nearly all voluntary muscles in the body. They are awake and aware but cannot move or communicate (locked-in state). Since the function of the brain is preserved, one possible measure to support their communication is to interpret their motor intention by decoding (deciphering) brain signals and present it with external devices. This technology called "brain-machine interface (BMI)" is now close to clinical use in Japan and USA.In our system, we record electrocorticogram (ECoG) obtained with subudural electrodes during their motor imagery, decode it and determine the movement they intended. So far, one patient of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> with severe paralysis, implanted with this electrodes, successfully operated the PC communication tool only by thinking. PMID:24292005</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001590','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001590"><span id="translatedtitle">The mechanical properties of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baker, I.; George, E.P.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for binary Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large equilibrium vacancy concentrations that exist in Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> at high temperature are easily retained during cooling, and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that room-temperature ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. The purpose of this paper is to highlight their understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed from the discovery of the above two effects. 94 refs., 8 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790025087"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Si<span class="hlt">Al</span>ON materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Layden, G. K.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic test specimens in which the major phase was either Si3N4 or a solid solution having the beta Si3N4 structure. Additional components were incorporated to promote liquid phase sintering. Glass and/or crystalline phase were consequently retained in boundaries between Si3N4 grains which largely determined the physical properties of the bodies. Systems investigated most extensively included R-Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-N (R = rare earth element) Zr-Si-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-N, Y-Si-Be-O-N, and R1-R2-Si-O-N. Room temperature and 1370 C modulus of ruptured, 1370 C creep, and oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of phase relationships in a parent quinery, and relavent oxide systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7375"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of superbends at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nishimura, H.; Robin, D.</p> <p>1999-03-19</p> <p>To satisfy a demand for high energy, high brightness x-ray sources at the Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>), a plan is in place to replace three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (superbends) in the year 2001. In this paper they discuss the impact of the superbends on the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> beam parameters and particle dynamics. In particular they show the effect on the emittance, energy spread, and lifetime. They find that by adjusting the dispersion to be positive in the straight section they are able to largely restore the horizontal emittance. The vertical emittance can be adjusted independently to control the lifetime. The particle dynamics are investigated through particle tracking with a frequency analysis postprocessor. They find that by placing the three superbends symmetrically around the ring there is ample dynamic aperture for injection and lifetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792924"><span id="translatedtitle">Berkeley Lab's <span class="hlt">ALS</span> generates Femtosecond Synchrotron Radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, Arthur L.</p> <p>2000-05-23</p> <p>A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) team drawing its members from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, and the Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) has succeeded in generating 300-femtosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation at the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> synchrotron radiation machine. Though this ''proof-of-principle'' experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser ''time-slicing'' technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend-magnet beamline designed explicitly for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AdSpR..15R.123D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AdSpR..15R.123D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 imaging details from COMPTEL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diehl, R.; Knodlseder, J.; Bennett, K.; Bloemen, H.; Dupraz, C.; Hermsen, W.; Lichti, G. G.; Morris, D.; Oberlack, U.; Ryan, J.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>The Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) map of 1.809 MeV emission from Galactic <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 is now based on 2 1/2 years of data. Different imaging analysis approaches are discussed: Likelihood maps from point source scans are utilized for searches of emission regions; astrophysical source models are fitted to the measurement with the maximum likelihood method; deconvolved images are produced with the maximum entropy algorithm. Simulations and statistical analysis with the bootstrap method demonstrate that the intensity irregularity and asymmetry along the Galactic plane is significant, although weaker individual features are insignificant by themselves. The comparison of classical <span class="hlt">Al</span>-26 source tracer distributions shows that none of these models represents the COMPTEL data well. The measured 1.809 MeV feature from the Vela region, positionally consistent with the Vela supernova remnant, shows an indication for extended emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960677','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960677"><span id="translatedtitle">Observable Proxies For 26 <span class="hlt">Al</span> Enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fryer, Christopher L; Young, Patrick A; Ellinger, Carola I; Arnett, William D</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}<span class="hlt">Al</span> in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx} 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...61a2005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...61a2005A"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress evolution during ultrasonic <span class="hlt">Al</span> ribbon bonding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ando, Masaya; Takashima, Kazumasa; Maeda, Masakatsu; Takahashi, Yasuo</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The present study reveals the stress distribution in the substrate during ultrasonic bonding. The deformations of the Si substrate, <span class="hlt">Al</span> ribbon, and <span class="hlt">Al</span> pad were numerically analyzed using a finite element method. Experimental observation of the interface using a highspeed video camera was also conducted to determine the actual interfacial slip amplitude. This amplitude becomes smaller than that of tool-tip with bonding time. It was suggested from the numerical simulations that frictional adhesion enhanced the friction force, resulting in an increase in the equivalent stress in the ribbon and pad. As a result, very large stresses occur in the substrate during ultrasonic bonding. These stresses evolve with the progress of ultrasonic bonding, i.e., frictional adhesion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JAP....54.3172R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JAP....54.3172R"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in ? phase Cu-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romig, A. D., Jr.</p> <p>1983-06-01</p> <p>The diffusion behavior of ? phase Cu-<span class="hlt">Al</span> has been studied at 800, 850, and 950 °C using the experimental approach and analysis scheme of Kirkendall and Darken. Diffusion couples were made using the window frame technique and concentration profiles were determined by electron probe microanalysis. The chemical diffusion coefficient, D˜ was found to be D˜=0.65 exp(-42200/RT) cm2/s. The diffusivity was observed to be independent of composition over the range 11-13 wt. % <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The self-diffusion coefficients DCu and DAl were determined to be DAl =0.13 exp(-38900/RT) cm2/s and DCu =2.2 exp(-43400/RT) cm2/s. All activation energies are in calories/mole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930070119&hterms=fgm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfgm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930070119&hterms=fgm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dfgm"><span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication and properties of functionally graded Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, D. P.; Lannutti, J. J.; Noebe, R. D.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A modified sedimentation process was used in the production of a functionally gradient material (FGM), Ni<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3. A simple finite element model was used to guide our design and fabrication efforts by estimating residual stress states as a function of composite structure. This approach could lead to tailored designs that enhance or avoid specific residual stress states. Thermal cycling tests were factored into the model to predict time dependent or steady-state internal temperature and stress profiles. Four-point bend tests were conducted to establish the mechanical load-displacement behavior of a single interlayer FGM at room temperature, 800 and 1000 K. Room temperature bend strength of the FGM was 3-4 times that of the base Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. At elevated temperatures, composite fracture occurred in a gradual, noncatastrophic mode involving Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> retardation of a succession of cracks originating in the alumina face.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1007835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1007835"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion in the Mg-<span class="hlt">Al</span> system and Intrinsic Diffusion in (<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Mg2) Phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Sohn, Yong Ho</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Increasing use and development of lightweight Mg-alloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As a strengthening component, <span class="hlt">Al</span> is one of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple techniques were employed to examine the interdiffusion between pure Mg and <span class="hlt">Al</span>. Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to observe the formation of the intermetallics -<span class="hlt">Al</span>12Mg17 and -<span class="hlt">Al</span>3Mg2, but not -phase. Concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The growth constants and activation energies were determined for each intermetallic phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863724','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20863724"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonstatistical fluctuations for deep inelastic processes in {sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span>+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berceanu, I.; Duma, M.; Moisa, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pop, A.; Simion, V.; Zoppo, A. Del; D'Erasmo, G.; Imme, G.; Lanzano, G.; Pagano, A.; Pantaleo, A.; Raciti, G.</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>The excitation functions (EFs) for different fragments produced in the {sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span>+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> dissipative collisions have been measured in steps of 250 keV in the incident energy range 122-132 MeV. Deep inelastic processes have been selected by integrating events on a total kinetic energy loss window of 12 MeV between 20 and 32 MeV. Large fluctuations are observed in all the studied EFs. Large-channel cross-correlation coefficients confirm the nonstatistical origin of these fluctuations. The energy autocorrelation function (EAF) shows damped oscillation structure as expected when a dinuclear system with a lifetime [{tau}=(5.1{+-}2.1){center_dot}10{sup -21}s], similar with its revolution period (T=4.9{center_dot}10{sup -21}sec), is formed. From the periodicity of the EAF oscillations, information on the deformation of the {sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span>+{sup 27}<span class="hlt">Al</span> dinucleus is inferred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720050230&hterms=flow+battery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dflow%2Bbattery','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720050230&hterms=flow+battery&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dflow%2Bbattery"><span id="translatedtitle">Rechargeable <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Cl2 battery with molten <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl4/-/ electrolyte.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A molten salt system based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the <span class="hlt">Al</span> anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21054813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21054813"><span id="translatedtitle">Fusion cross sections for the 6,7Li+27<span class="hlt">Al</span>, 9Be+27<span class="hlt">Al</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barbara, E. de; Marti, G. V.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Figueira, J. M.; Pacheco, A. J.; Ramirez, M.; Rodriguez, M. D.; Testoni, J. E.; Verruno, M.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P. R. S.</p> <p>2007-02-12</p> <p>We present the results of total fusion cross sections measurements for the 6,7Li + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>, 9Be + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>, systems at energies above and below the Coulomb barrier (0.8Vb {<=} E {<=} 2.0Vb). The experimental evidence at the measured energy regime show that the total fusion cross sections of 6Li and 9Be with a light mass target are not affected by the break-up process. The elastic break up cross sections for the 6Li + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> system were also measured and the results are being presented in this issue. The data for the 7Li + 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> system are still being analyzed and therefore these results should be considered preliminary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=193650','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=193650"><span id="translatedtitle">TRANSCRIPTIONAL ANALYSIS BETWEEN TWO WHEAT NEAR-ISOGENIC LINES CONTRASTING IN ALUMINUM (<span class="hlt">AL</span>) TOLERANCE UNDER <span class="hlt">AL</span> STRESS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To understand the mechanisms of aluminum (<span class="hlt">Al</span>) tolerance and identify genes responsible for <span class="hlt">Al</span> tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from <span class="hlt">Al</span>-stressed roots for two wheat near- isogenic lines (NILs), Chisholm-T (<span class="hlt">Al</span>-tolerant) a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..197B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..197B"><span id="translatedtitle">Tumor-Wachstumsmodellierung <span class="hlt">als</span> parametrisches Bildregistrierproblem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker, Stefan; Jungmann, Jan Ole; Mang, Andreas; Buzug, Thorsten M.</p> <p></p> <p>In der vorliegenden Arbeit stellen wir ein neues Modell zur Kopplung des Tumormasseeffektes an die, der Wachstumsmodellierung unterliegende, anisotrope Reaktionsdiffusionsgleichung vor. Die Gleichung wird auf einem hochaufgelösten Voxelgitter diskretisiert. Eine Modellierung der Anisotropie des Diffusionsprozesses ermöglicht die Integration von Diffusions-Tensor-Bildgebungsdaten. Die raumfordernde Wirkung des Tumors wird <span class="hlt">als</span> parametrisches Bildregistrierproblem aufgefasst. Hierbei wird die resultierende Verteilung der Tumorzellkonzentration in die zu optimierende Zielfunktion integriert. Erste qualitative Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine Minimierung der aufgestellten Zielfunktion zu einer plausiblen Modellierung des Masseeffektes führt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=23345638&dopt=AbstractPlus','TOXNETTOXLINE'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=23345638&dopt=AbstractPlus"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> dysphagia pathophysiology: differential botulinum toxin response.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?TOXLINE">TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information</a></p> <p>Restivo DA; Casabona A; Nicotra A; Zappia M; Elia M; Romano MC; Alfonsi E; Marchese-Ragona R</p> <p>2013-02-12</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: This study looked at the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoTox-A) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) with dysphagia due to isolated upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement or combined UMN/lower motor neuron (LMN) impairment associated with oral phase or oropharyngeal muscles involvement. Establishing whether different pathophysiologic mechanisms underlie different responses to BoTox-A treatment may have important implications for patient management.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We screened 35 patients with sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> with dysphagia and included in the study 20 out of 35 with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) hyperactivity. We divided these 20 patients into 2 groups, based on the presence or absence of LMN impairment. Irrespective of the groups, we treated all 20 patients with BoTox-A injected into the UES. The study outcome was dysphagia severity scored using the Penetration/Aspiration Scale (PAS), measured before and 2, 4, and 20 weeks after injection.RESULTS: Significant mean PAS reduction was noted at weeks 2 and 4. The botulinum-dependent PAS reduction was entirely associated with the variability shown by the group of patients with no sign of LMN impairment (group 2) and was not observed in group 1.CONCLUSIONS: The significant improvement observed in patients with isolated UES dysfunction suggests that a different pathophysiology of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> dysphagia predisposes patients to a different response to treatment with BoTox-A. This treatment may represent an alternative treatment to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or prolong PEG-free time.CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that botulinum is more effective at 2 and 4 weeks in improving dysphagia in patients with <span class="hlt">ALS</span> with UES hyperactivity without LMN involvement (vs those with LMN involvement).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568392','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568392"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychosocial adjustment to <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: a longitudinal study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. PMID:26441696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5197016','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5197016"><span id="translatedtitle">Commissioning experiences of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> booster synchrotron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, C.</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Installation of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> booster synchrotron proper was completed on April 30, 1991, and commissioning has just begun. Circulating beam around the booster was observed on the first day of operation, May 3, 1991. The beam was visible for about 400 turns. In this paper we describe the status and commissioning experience of the 1.5-GeV electron synchrotron accelerator. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11207932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11207932"><span id="translatedtitle">Transmission electron microscopy studies of squeeze cast <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N composites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chédru, M.; Vicens, J.; Chermant, J. L.; Mordike, B. L.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>Aluminium-matrix composites containing approximately 45 vol.% <span class="hlt">Al</span>N particles were fabricated by melt infiltration of aluminium into an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N preform under a pressure up to 130 MPa. Three types of aluminium alloy (2024, 6060 and 5754) were used. The as-prepared composites were studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result of the melt infiltration process, the composites are very dense and the microstructure shows a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement. The interfaces are clean with very little porosity. Composites with 2024 and 6060 matrices were carefully studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) after heat treatments. Dislocation density in the matrix of the reinforced material increases due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of aluminium alloys and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. This can induce an accelerated ageing response of the coherent and semicoherent precipitations of age-hardened matrices. This behaviour has been studied in the 2024 and 6060 composites by using microhardness measurements and TEM. Reactions between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N reinforcement and aluminium matrices (6060 and 5754) were observed and analysed by TEM. Matrices containing some of magnesium display a Mg<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O4 spinel formation at the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N/matrix interface. The spinel formation is probably due to the reaction between magnesium of the matrix and the thin <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 layer on the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N surfaces. This reaction can affect the mechanical behaviour of the composite infiltrated with the 5754 matrix. This has been confirmed by overageing some samples at high temperatures (300 degrees C and 550 degrees C) for 10 days in order to emphasize the interfacial reactions. PMID:11207932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RuMet2013..633L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RuMet2013..633L"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of aluminothermic smelting of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr-Mo-Sn alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larionov, A. V.; Chumarev, V. M.; Udoeva, L. Yu.; Mansurova, A. N.; Rylov, A. N.; Raikov, A. Yu.; Aleshin, A. P.; Trubachev, M. V.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Aluminothermic smelting of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Zr-Mo-Sn alloys has been simulated in terms of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties of molybdenum and zirconium intermetallic compounds are calculated. It is demonstrated that, with consideration for their formation, the calculated compositions of aluminothermic blends and the forecasted extraction of target metals into an alloy are in good agreement with the data obtained during pilot tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11732280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11732280"><span id="translatedtitle">[Symptomatic treatment and palliative care of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwieci?ski, H</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) is a neurodegenerative disease, affecting upper and lower motor neurons, which eventually progresses to respiratory deterioration and death in most of the patients. Only one drug, riluzole, has been approved for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ALS</span>. The drug has a benefit, prolonging life by 3-6 months, but the disease progresses inexorably, with no better quality of life. The fundamental role of medicine is sometimes to cure, but always to bring comfort. In current situation, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients need adequate palliative care more than anything else. Prognosis and treatment options should be discussed with the patient and the relatives, but full information about the prognosis may deprive the patient of hope. However, disclosure of the prognosis is necessary to obtain informed consent for management decisions such as tracheostomy and artificial ventilation. Nasal positive-pressure ventilation (BiPAP) is an alternative to tracheostomy, at least for some patients without advanced bulbar impairment. Nutritional status in patients who cannot swallow can be efficiently improved by a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. (PEG). PMID:11732280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014726','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15014726"><span id="translatedtitle">KCAT, Xradia, <span class="hlt">ALS</span> and APS Performance Summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waters, A; Martz, H; Brown, W</p> <p>2004-09-30</p> <p>At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of components, subassemblies and assemblies of millimeter-size extent with micrometer-size features (mesoscale). These mesoscale objects include materials that vary widely in composition, density, geometry and embedded features. Characterizing these mesoscale objects is critical for corroborating the physics codes that underlie LLNL's Stockpile Stewardship mission. In this report we present results from our efforts to quantitatively characterize the performance of several x-ray systems in an effort to benchmark existing systems and to determine which systems may have the best potential for our mesoscale imaging needs. Several different x-ray digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT) systems exist that may be applicable to our mesoscale object characterization requirements, including microfocus and synchrotron systems. The systems we have benchmarked include KCAT (LLNL developed) and Xradia {mu}XCT (Xradia, Inc., Concord, CA), both microfocus systems, and Beamline 1-ID at the Advance Photon Source (APS) and the Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>), both synchrotron based systems. The <span class="hlt">ALS</span> Tomography Beamline is a new installation, and the data presented and analyzed here is some of the first to be acquired at the facility. It is important to note that the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> system had not yet been optimized at the time we acquired data. Results for each of these systems has been independently documented elsewhere. In this report we summarize and compare the characterization results for these systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7278143','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7278143"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation hardening in ternary alloys of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc-Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc-Si systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kharakterova, M.L.; Eskin, D.G.; Toropova, L.S. . A.A. Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy)</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The processes of precipitation hardening in cast ternary alloys of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc-Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc-Si systems were studied in the temperature range of aging from 100 to 450 C and at exposures to 200 h. It was shown that the Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 2] and Sc<span class="hlt">Al</span>[sub 3] phases were involved in the process of aging in ternary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc-Cu alloys, and the Si and V (<span class="hlt">Al</span>SiSc) phases, in ternary <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Sc-Si alloys with excess silicon in a supersaturated solid solution. The V phase was for the first time revealed as the hardening phase in aluminum alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/364119','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/364119"><span id="translatedtitle">The rates of water exchange in <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III)-salicylate and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III)-sulfosalicylate complexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, D.J.; Nordin, J.P.; Phillips, B.L.; Casey, W.H.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>Rate parameters are reported for exchange of hydration waters from the inner coordination sphere of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III)-sulfosalicylate [<span class="hlt">Al</span>(sSal){sup +}] and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(III)-salicylate [<span class="hlt">Al</span>(Sal){sup +}] complexes to bulk solution as determined with {sup 17}O-NMR. The rate parameters for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(sSal){sup +} complex are: K{sub ex}{sup 298} = (3.0 {+-} 0.2){center_dot}10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}, {Delta}H{sup {double_dagger}} = 37({+-}3)kJ/mol, {Delta}S{sup {double_dagger}} = {minus}54({+-}9) J/mol K; and for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(Sal){sup +} complex are: k{sub ex}{sup 298} = 4.9({+-}0.3){center_dot}10{sup 3} s{sup {minus}1}, {Delta}H{sup {double_dagger}} = 35({+-}3) kJ/mol, {Delta}S{sup {double_dagger}} = {minus}57({+-}11) J/mol K. These results, along with previous work, suggest that the lability of water molecules in bidentate carboxylate-phenolic complexes scales with the electron-donating properties of the ligand oxygens. Replacement of a coordinated carboxyl with a phenolic group in the ligand increases both the Lewis basicity and the value of k{sub ex}{sup 298}. A correlation between these parameters is proposed that can be used to predict rate coefficients for other bidentate aluminum complexes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhD...40.4653N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhD...40.4653N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span> composition dependent structural and electrical properties of In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagarajan, S.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Choi, Y. J.; Chung, S. J.; Hong, C.-H.; Suh, E.-K.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN heterostructures with various <span class="hlt">Al</span> compositions have been grown on sapphire substrate using the metal organic chemical vapour deposition technique. The solid-to-gas phase ratio indicates a high <span class="hlt">Al</span> incorporation efficiency. Atomic force microscopy reveals a smooth surface with the formation of hexagonal pits. The size and the density of the hexagonal pits increase with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> mole fraction. The Hall effect and the capacitance-voltage (C-V) studies show the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN/GaN interface. A relatively higher Hall sheet carrier density compared with the 2DEG density estimated from the C-V profile indicates parallel conduction via the underlying GaN layer. It is observed that the 2DEG density decreases as a function of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition and these results are discussed based on the increasing depth of the hexagonal pit and the background donor density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790056074&hterms=kdp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dkdp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790056074&hterms=kdp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dkdp"><span id="translatedtitle">Internal photoemission in Ag-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-<span class="hlt">Al</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guedes, J. M. P.; Slayman, C. W.; Gustafson, T. K.; Jain, R. K.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The magnitude of the photon-induced current in Ag-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3-<span class="hlt">Al</span> metal-oxide-metal junctions has been studied as a function of photon energy and angle of incident radiation. Photocurrents were theoretically analyzed on the basis of a modified vacuum photoemission model (Jain, 1975; Slayman et <span class="hlt">al</span>., to be published). Optical constants previously reported in the literature (Irani et <span class="hlt">al</span>., 1971; Ehnrereich et <span class="hlt">al</span>., 1963) were used to calculate the true spatial generation rate in Ag and <span class="hlt">Al</span> as a function of the angle, polarization of incident radiation, and film thickness. Results were found to be in very good agreement with experimentally determined values for a tunable dye laser with a KDP doubling crystal pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a LiIO3 doubling crystal. The system provided risetimes of 50 ns or less and peak powers of 10 W. Under short circuit conditions, the photoresponse to incident power was linear up to available power densities of 10 kW/sq cm. Quantum efficiencies of about 0.1% at zero-bias, near 3.8 eV under P polarization, were typically observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvB..54.8501K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PhRvB..54.8501K"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic structure of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni3 alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovács, Zs.; Kövér, L.; Weightman, P.; Varga, D.; Sanjinés, R.; Pálinkás, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Adachi, H.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>Experimental <span class="hlt">Al</span> KL23V and Ni LMM Auger and high-resolution valence band XPS spectra of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni and <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ni3 alloys are presented and compared to the corresponding spectra of pure metals. The spectra are interpreted in terms of the results of the discrete-variational (DV)-X? cluster MO model using atomic Auger transition probabilities. Good agreement has been obtained between the theory and experiment concerning the energy widths of the spectra. For <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Ni the total number of electrons at the Fermi level obtained from the calculations agrees better with the experimental value than those from previous calculations. In the case of the alloys, the calculated charge transfer is small (<0.4 electrons), playing only a minor role in the filling of the Ni d band. The hybridization between the Ni d and <span class="hlt">Al</span> s and p bands can be deduced from the reduction of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> s and p DOS at the Ni d resonance energy. Our results suggest that for these alloys the corresponding Auger matrix elements do not depend on the Auger transition energy. The Ni LMM spectra of the alloys demonstrate the localization of the Ni d band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvB..5815078G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvB..5815078G"><span id="translatedtitle">Strong coupling effects in (Nb-<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>Ox)2-Nb stacked Josephson junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldobin, E.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Nevirkovets, I. P.; Ustinov, A. V.; Blamire, M. G.; Evetts, J. E.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>Stacked (Nb-<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>Ox)2-Nb long Josephson junctions with very thin intermediate Nb-<span class="hlt">Al</span> superconducting layer are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Stable coherent in-phase zero-field steps (ZFS's) are observed; both the critical current and the maximum ZFS current dependence on magnetic field are measured to prove the in-phase nature of this mode. The dependences are in good agreement with the inductive coupling model. The Swihart velocities for in-phase (c¯+) and antiphase (c¯-) modes are measured for different lengths of the stacks. In order to make a proper interpretation of the experimental results, an extension of the existing model is developed, taking into account the fact that the middle electrode consists of two different superconductors (Nb and proximized <span class="hlt">Al</span>). A comparison of a new model with the conventional model and experimental data is made. The extended model gives the c¯+/c¯- ratio as 30% different from what the conventional model predicts. For thin Nb and <span class="hlt">Al</span> layers the correction factor depends only on the ratio of the magnetic field penetration depths in Nb and proximized <span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25170561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25170561"><span id="translatedtitle">TEM and HRTEM characterization of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion bonds using Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanolayers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simões, Sónia; Viana, Filomena; Ramos, Ana S; Vieira, Maria T; Vieira, Manuel F</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Diffusion bonding of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys can be enhanced by the use of reactive nanolayer thin films as interlayers. Using these interlayers, it is possible to reduce the conventional bonding conditions (temperature, time, and pressure) and obtain sound and reliable joints. The microstructural characterization of the diffusion bond interfaces is a fundamental step toward understanding and identifying the bonding mechanisms and relating them to the strength of the joints. The interface of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> samples joined using Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> nanolayers was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural characterization of the bond revealed that the interfaces consist of several thin layers of different composition and grain size (nanometric and micrometric). The bonding temperature (800, 900, or 1,000°C) determines the grain size and thickness of the layers present at the interface. Phase identification by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy combined with fast Fourier transform and electron energy-loss spectroscopy analyses reveals the presence of several intermetallic compounds: <span class="hlt">Al</span>TiNi, Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2TiNi. For bonds produced at 800 and 900°C, nanometric grains of Ti were detected at the center of the interface. PMID:25170561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JTST...18..536G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JTST...18..536G"><span id="translatedtitle">Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 Intermetallic-HVOF Coatings: Structure and Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guilemany, J. M.; Cinca, N.; Dosta, S.; Cano, I. G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Transition metal aluminides in their coating form are currently being explored in terms of resistance to oxidation and mechanical behavior. This interest in transition metal aluminides is mainly due to the fact that their high <span class="hlt">Al</span> content makes them attractive for high-temperature applications. This is also a reason to study their resistance to wear; they may be suitable for use in applications that produce a lot of wear in aggressive environments, thus replacing established coating materials. In this study, the microstructure, microhardness, and wear and oxidation performance of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 coatings produced by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying are evaluated with two main aims: (i) to compare these two coating systems—a commonly studied aluminide (Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>) and, Nb<span class="hlt">Al</span>3, an aluminide whose deposition by thermal spraying has not been attempted to date—and (ii) to analyze the relationship between their microstructure, composition and properties, and so clarify their wear and oxidation mechanisms. In the present study, the higher hardness of niobium aluminide coatings did not correlate with a higher wear resistance and, finally, although pesting phenomena (disintegration in oxidizing environments) were already known of in bulk niobium aluminides, here their behavior in the coating form is examined. It was shown that such accelerated oxidation was inevitable with respect to the better resistance of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>, but further improvements are foreseen by addition of alloying elements in that alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.Q2004Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..SHK.Q2004Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Air Blast Characteristics for Laminate <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fan</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Air blast characteristics of laminate <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni composites were investigated in a 23 m3 closed chamber. 50 to 100 ?m thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni or <span class="hlt">Al</span> foils were rolled to form a cylindrical shell, which was then compacted to a density larger than 99% TMD through an explosive formation technique. Charges were prepared using 2 kg C4 explosive packed in the laminate metal shell to a metal-explosive mass ratio of 1.75. Pressure and temperature were measured through transducers on the chamber wall and pyrometry sensors facing the charge center. The pressure history showed a double-shock front structure with an accelerating precursor shock of high amplitude followed by the primary blast, suggesting considerable early-time reaction of small laminate fragments. Significant enhanced explosion pressure (QSP) was observed as compared with baseline charges in solid shell. Recovered residue showed fragments in flakes with a considerable fraction in the molten. The pressure and temperature results are further analyzed to distinguish the reaction properties between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ni (gasless reaction for them alone) and <span class="hlt">Al</span> laminates as well as their effect on air blast. The results are also compared with previous investigations using various shell materials and compositing techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/280018','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/280018"><span id="translatedtitle">The protective coatings of NdFeB magnets by <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(Fe)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qin, C.; Li, A.S.; Ng, D.H.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>NdFeB permanent magnets are coated by two different methods, dip coating and evaporation coating, with <span class="hlt">Al</span>. It is found that an intermetallic reaction has occurred and formed a dominant phase of Fe<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2.5}B{sub {ital x}} at the interface between the <span class="hlt">Al</span> coating and the magnet material. Such reaction enhances strong bonding between the coating and the magnet. When <span class="hlt">Al</span>(Fe) is used for the coating, no detectable intermetallic phase is observed, and therefore the amount of magnet material is conserved. We have studied the effect of the intermetallic phase on corrosion protection of the magnet. It is found that this phase is less resistive towards HNO{sub 3} solution than pure <span class="hlt">Al</span>; but it is more resistive towards NaOH and NaCl. The investigation of the changes of microstructures of the coatings under different tempering conditions have also been carried out. The results show that the heat treatment at 500{degree}C for 10 min for a {approximately} 2 {mu}m thick <span class="hlt">Al</span> coating by evaporation can produce an optimal layer of intermetallics. If the temperature is too low, the coating will not adhere to the magnet or if too high, it will fully react with the magnet and produce a rough coating surface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261715','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261715"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative wear study on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Li/SiC composite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Okumus, S. Cem Karslioglu, Ramazan Akbulut, Hatem</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (<span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090) alloy and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms{sup ?1} and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.1279P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMEP...24.1279P"><span id="translatedtitle">Softening Kinetics in High <span class="hlt">Al</span> and High <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb-Microalloyed Steels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereda, B.; Aretxabaleta, Z.; López, B.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Double-hit torsion tests were performed in order to study the effect of high <span class="hlt">Al</span> levels (up to 2 wt.%) and Nb microalloying (up to 0.07 wt.%) on the static softening kinetics of 0.2%C-2%Mn steels. The addition of 1%<span class="hlt">Al</span> leads to a delay in the softening kinetics due to solute-drag effect, equivalent to that exerted by 0.027%Nb. For the 2%<span class="hlt">Al</span> steels, at temperatures below 1000 °C, ? ? ? phase transformation occurs after deformation, resulting in a larger retardation of the softening kinetics. At temperatures higher than 1000 °C, Nb in solid solution also contributes to the retardation of the static softening kinetics, and at lower temperatures NbC strain-induced precipitation leads to incomplete softening for the 1%<span class="hlt">Al</span> steel, and to a complex interaction between softening, phase transformation, and NbC strain-induced precipitation for the 2%<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb steels. The effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the static softening kinetics was quantified and introduced in a model developed in previous works for the prediction of the austenite microstructural evolution. In order to validate the results of the model, multipass torsion tests were carried out at conditions representative of hot strip and plate rolling mills. Model predictions show reasonable agreement with the results obtained at different deformation conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3472785','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3472785"><span id="translatedtitle">Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Colloidal Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@Cu<span class="hlt">Al</span>O2-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..NWS.B2009N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..NWS.B2009N"><span id="translatedtitle">Jump frequencies of tracer atoms on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-sites in <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Ba phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Newhouse, Randal; Collins, Gary S.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Ba structure has two inequivalent <span class="hlt">Al</span> sites with collinear electric field gradients (EFGs) of unequal magnitude. Nuclear quadrupole interactions (NQIs) were measured at ^111In/Cd probe atoms in <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Ba, In4Ba and <span class="hlt">Al</span>4Eu phases using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC). The probes were found to occupy both <span class="hlt">Al</span>-type sites. At low temperature, two NQI frequencies were detected that, with increasing temperature, approached each other and merged at ˜400 C, above which only a single NQI was observed. This is attributed to rapid jumping of probe atoms between the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-sites, leading to motional averaging of the EFGs. Merging occurs at the temperature for which the jump frequency equals the difference between static NQI frequencies. Since differences in static frequencies were all about 20 Mrad/s, we conclude that the jump frequencies equaled about 3 MHz at ˜400 C in each phase. This type of motional averaging differs from motional averaging through reorientation of EFGs observed in previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225901 (2004)]. This work was supported in part by the NSF under grant DMR 05-04843 (Metals Program).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MS%26E...39a2010T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MS%26E...39a2010T"><span id="translatedtitle">Reactive HIPIMS with auxiliary <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrode for ZnO:<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin film deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiron, Vasile; Costin, Claudiu; Sirghi, Lucel; Popa, Gheorghe</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>In this paper a new technique is proposed for precise doping control of ZnO:<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin films deposited in reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS). An auxiliary aluminum electrode was added to a reactive Ar/O2 pulsed magnetron with planar Zn target in order to obtain a controlled doping of ZnO films. <span class="hlt">Al</span> neutral density in gas phase has been controlled by the discharge current and the biasing voltage on the auxiliary electrode (which influence the ion bombardment of the electrode) and measured by laser resonant absorption spectroscopy. The fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> dopant in the deposited films was estimated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The goal of this work was to correlate <span class="hlt">Al</span> density measured in the gas phase with <span class="hlt">Al</span> concentration in the deposited films. It was also investigated the effect of the aluminum concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO:<span class="hlt">Al</span> thin films deposited by HIPIMS. The internal microstructure and chemical composition of the deposited films was examined by X-ray difractometry (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of the deposited films were studied by UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19409689"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on the hydrolysis/precipitation behavior of Keggin <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>30 polymers in polyaluminum solutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Zhaoyang; Luan, Zhaokun; Jia, Zhiping; Li, Xiaosen</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The hydrolysis/precipitation behaviors of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+), <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(30) under conditions typical for flocculation in water treatment were investigated by studying the particulates' size development, charge characteristics, chemical species and speciation transformation of coagulant hydrolysis precipitates. The optimal pH conditions for hydrolysis precipitates formation for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3), PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) and PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) were 6.5-7.5, 8.5-9.5, and 7.5-9.5, respectively. The precipitates' formation rate increased with the increase in dosage, and the relative rates were <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3)>PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30)>PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13). The precipitates' size increased when the dosage increased from 50 microM to 200 microM, but it decreased when the dosage increased to 800 microM. The Zeta potential of coagulant hydrolysis precipitates decreased with the increase in pH for the three coagulants. The iso-electric points of the freshly formed precipitates for <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3), PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) and PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) were 7.3, 9.6 and 9.2, respectively. The Zeta potentials of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) hydrolysis precipitates were lower than those of PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) and PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) when pH>5.0. The Zeta potential of PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) hydrolysis precipitates was higher than that of PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) at the acidic side, but lower at the alkaline side. The dosage had no obvious effect on the Zeta potential of hydrolysis precipitates under fixed pH conditions. The increase in Zeta potential with the increase in dosage under uncontrolled pH conditions was due to the pH depression caused by coagulant addition. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ferron research indicated that the hydrolysis precipitates of <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) were composed of amorphous <span class="hlt">Al</span>(OH)(3) precipitates, but those of PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>13) and PAC(<span class="hlt">Al</span>30) were composed of aggregates of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(30), respectively. <span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+) was the most un-stable species in coagulants, and its hydrolysis was remarkably influenced by solution pH. <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(30) species were very stable, and solution pH and aging had little effect on the chemical species of their hydrolysis products. The research method involving coagulant hydrolysis precipitates based on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ferron reaction kinetics was studied in detail. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> species classification based on complex reaction kinetic of hydrolysis precipitates and Ferron reagent was different from that measured in a conventional coagulant assay using the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ferron method. The chemical composition of <span class="hlt">Al</span>(a), <span class="hlt">Al</span>(b) and <span class="hlt">Al</span>(c) depended on coagulant and solution pH. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>(b) measured in the current case was different from Keggin <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13), and the high <span class="hlt">Al</span>(b) content in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) hydrolysis precipitates could not used as testimony that most of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>(3+) was converted to highly charged <span class="hlt">Al</span>(13) species during <span class="hlt">Al</span>Cl(3) coagulation. PMID:19409689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyS...85e5601B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyS...85e5601B"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase transformation in rapidly solidified <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 alloys by high-frequency melting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bourbia, A.; Boulkhessaim, S.; Bedboudi, H.; Draissia, M.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The microstructure properties of rapidly solidified <span class="hlt">Al</span>-0-40 wt% (?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) alloys by high-frequency (HF) melting were investigated by means of x-ray diffraction measurements, optical observations and combined scanning electronic microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analyses. Phase transformation was correlated by heat treatment with pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> and solid ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 alumina spectra. It was found that the microstructure is a solid solution of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> phase with a notable solubility of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 in the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix for lower contents. For 4wt.% of alumina compositions and above, it was a mixture of phases, <span class="hlt">Al</span> solid solution and ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, with a tendency to reach the ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 alumina morphology. Other forms of alumina phases are observed in the heat-treated (HF) alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717713"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ Absorption and Assimilation by Four Ectomycorrhizal Fungi].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ming-xia; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-guo; Zhou, Zhi-feng</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The present experiment was carried out in order to know the resistance mechanism of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi under <span class="hlt">Al</span> stress, to establish the theoretical foundation to alleviate the <span class="hlt">Al</span> toxicity of trees, to guide the selection of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-resisted ECM fungi and preserve forest health. The absorption and assimilation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ by four ECM fungi [Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt 715), Suillus luteus (Sl 08 and Sl 14), Gyroporus cyanescens (Gc 99)], which were isolated from different forest soils, were investigated in pure culture in liquid media. The growths of Pt 715 and Sl 08 were less affected by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+, but growths of S114 and Gc 99 were obviously inhibited by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+. With the increasing of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ concentration in culture, the absorption and assimilation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ by four ECM fungi increased. It indicated that the concentration of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ in environments might be the primary factor determining the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ content in the cell of each tested fungi. Amounts of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ absorbed (in total or calculated in unit hyphae) by the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ tolerant strains (Pt 715 and Sl 08) were significantly lower than those by the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ sensitive strains (S1 14 and Gc 99), which illustrated that reducing the absorption of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ under <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ stress environment might be an effective approach to alleviate the <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ poison for these <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ tolerant strains. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ stress could stimulate the ECM fungi to assimilate more N, P, and K, which might indicate that increasing requirement of the nutrients also could be helpful for ECM fungi to fight against the harmful effects caused by <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ stress. PMID:26717713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/39889','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/39889"><span id="translatedtitle">Elevated temperature wear of <span class="hlt">Al</span>6061 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>6061-20%<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Singh, J.; Alpas, A.T.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>Both current and potential applications of particulate reinforced aluminum alloys involve components which are required to operate under sliding contact conditions at elevated temperatures. Examples include brake rotors, piston and cylinder liners in automotive engines where operating temperatures can reach 0.5--0.8 of the melting temperature of the matrix alloy. For this reason, study of the high temperature wear resistance of aluminum alloys reinforced by <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiC particles is important. These studies are also of interest for the problem of die wear during hot extrusion of aluminum matrix composites and to rationalize the process of frictional welding involved in joining of the composites. Although the room temperature tribological and mechanical behaviors of aluminum matrix composites have received considerable attention, their high temperature properties have only recently started being considered. It has been shown that <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si-Mg (A356) alloys with or without SiC particles show a transition from mild to severe wear when a critical temperature (at about 0.4 T{sub m}, where T{sub m} is the melting temperature of aluminum) is reached as a result of frictional heating under dry sliding conditions. In this work, high temperature wear of A16061 and A16061-20%<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied at temperatures between 25--500 C. The microstructural changes that occurred during wear have been delineated in order to understand the wear mechanisms that operate at high temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694214"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic properties of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe-Cu melts and their relations to liquid and quasicrystal structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaitsev, A I; Zaitseva, N E; Shimko, R Yu; Arutyunyan, N A; Dunaev, S F; Kraposhin, V S; Lam, Ha Thanh</p> <p>2008-03-19</p> <p>Thermodynamic properties of molten <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe-Cu alloys in a wide temperature range of 1123-1878 K and the whole range of concentrations have been studied using the integral effusion method and Knudsen mass spectrometry. Thermodynamic functions of melts were described by the associated solution model. The possibility of icosahedral quasicrystal (i-QC) precipitation from liquid <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mn and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Fe alloys was found to be a consequence of the existence in liquid associates (clusters). A geometric model is suggested for the structure of associates in liquid. PMID:21694214</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7216E..21H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7216E..21H"><span id="translatedtitle">222-282 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN and In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality <span class="hlt">Al</span>N template</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirayama, Hideki; Noguchi, Norimichi; Fujikawa, Sachie; Norimatsu, Jun; Kamata, Norihiko; Takano, Takayoshi; Tsubaki, Kenji</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>We demonstrate 222-282 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN and In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on low threading dislocation density (TDD) <span class="hlt">Al</span>N template. Low TDD <span class="hlt">Al</span>N templates were realized by using ammonia (NH3) pulse-flow multilayer (ML) growth technique. The edge- and screw-type dislocation densities of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer were reduced to 7.5×108 and 3.8×107, respectively. We obtained significant increase of an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN quantum well (QW) emission (by more than 50 times) by fabricating them on a low TDD ML-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N template. We fabricated <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN multi (M)QW DUV-LEDs with emission range of 222-273 nm on ML-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N templates. Single-peaked electroluminescence (EL) was obtained for <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN DUV-LEDs. We obtained the maximum output power of 1.1, 2.4 and 3.3 mW for the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN LEDs with wavelengths of 241, 253 and 273 nm, respectively, under RT CW operation. The maximum output power of 227 and 222 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN-QW were 0.15mW and 0.014mW, respectively, under RT pulsed operation. The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the 227 and 250 nm <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN LEDs were 0.2% and 0.43 %, respectively. We also fabricated 280 nm-band quaternary In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN-MQW DUV-LEDs with p-type In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layers on low TDD ML-<span class="hlt">Al</span>N templates. We obtained significant increase of photoluminescence (PL) intensity by introducing Si-doped In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN buffer and barrier layers and undoped In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN interlayer. We then demonstrated high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 284 nm In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN-QW emission, which was confirmed by the fact that the ratio of the integrated intensity of the RT-PL against the 77K-PL was 86%. The maximum output power and EQE of the 282 nm In<span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN LED were 10.6 mW and 1.2%, respectively, under RT CW operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021778','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021778"><span id="translatedtitle">Solidification Behavior of gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> Containing Alloys in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Copland, Evan</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The chemical activities of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ni in gamma(prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing systems were measured using the multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry technique (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K. From these measurements a better understanding of the equilibrium solidification behaviour of gamma(prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-containing alloys in the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O system was established. Specifically, these measurements revealed that (1) gamma(prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> forms via the peritectiod reaction, gamma + Beta (+ A12O3) = gamma (prime) (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K, (2) the {gamma + Beta + <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 through 1640 K, and (3) equilibrium solidification occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3) = gamma + Beta (+ <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%<span class="hlt">Al</span> (at an unknown oxygen content). When projected onto the Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> binary, this behaviour is inconsistent with the current Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(prime)-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.665a2018B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.665a2018B"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>(n,p)26Mg and 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>(n,α)23Na reactions using the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(p,p')27<span class="hlt">Al</span> inelastic scattering reaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benamara, S.; de Séréville, N.; Adsley, P.; Laird, A. M.; Hammache, F.; Stefan, I.; Roussel, P.; Ancelin, S.; Assié, M.; Barton, C.; Coc, A.; Diget, C.; Deloncle, I.; Fox, S.; Guillot, J.; Hamadache, C.; Kiener, J.; Le Crom, B.; Lefebvre, L.; Lefebfre-Schuhl, A.; Marquinez Duran, G.; Mavilla, G.; Morfouace, P.; Mutschler, A.; Nsangu, C. T.; Perrot, L.; Oulebsir, N.; Sánchez-Benítez, Á.-M.; Suzuki, D.; Tatischeff, V.; Vandebrouck, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>26<span class="hlt">Al</span> was the first cosmic radioactivity ever detected in the galaxy as well as one of the first extinct radioactivity observed in refractory phases of meteorites. Its nucleosynthesis in massive stars is still uncertain mainly due to the lack of nuclear information concerning the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>(n,p)26Mg and 26 <span class="hlt">Al</span>(n,α)23Na reactions. We report on a single and coincidence measurement of the 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(p,p')27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(p)26Mg and 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(p,p')27<span class="hlt">Al</span>(α)23Na reactions performed at the Orsay TANDEM facility aiming at the spectroscopy study of 27<span class="hlt">Al</span> above the neutron threshold. Fourteen states are observed for the first time within 350 keV above the 26<span class="hlt">Al</span>+n threshold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010060374','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010060374"><span id="translatedtitle">Creep and Toughness of Cryomilled Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> Containing Cr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Aikin, Beverly; Salem, Jon</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N + Cr composites were produced by blending cryomilled Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> powder with approx. 10 vol % Cr flakes. In comparison to the as-consolidated matrices, hot isostatically pressed Cr-modified materials did not demonstrate any significant improvement in toughness. Hot extruded Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N+10.5Cr, however, possessed a toughness twice that determine for the base Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N alloy. Measurement of the 1200 to 1400 K plastic flow properties revealed that the strength of the composites was completely controlled by the properties of the Ni<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>N matrices. This behavior could be successfully modeled by the Rule-of-Mixtures, where load is shed from the weak Cr to the strong matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005862','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005862"><span id="translatedtitle">The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The oxidation of Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> intermetallic alloys in the beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field and in the two phase beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>/gamma'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy <span class="hlt">Al</span> content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> phase field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22.2098S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMEP...22.2098S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Nature of Interfaces in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/Mg-AZ31 Couples Joined by Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, A.; Aizenshtein, M.; Moshe, G.; Cohen, S. R.; Frage, N.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The microstructure and the phase composition of the interfaces of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/Mg-AZ31 magnetic pulse welding (MPW) joints were characterized by SEM and TEM analyses. The mechanical properties were tested by nanoindentation. Properties of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050 interface joint were established. The interface is almost free from <span class="hlt">Al</span>3Fe precipitates, which are present in the base metal. The hardness value is higher than that of the base metal; however, values of the Young's modulus of the interface and base metal are similar. It was suggested that the interface evolution in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050 system includes local melting and rapid solidification of the base materials. A wavy shaped heterogeneous interface was detected in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1050/Mg-AZ31 joints. Some areas are free from visible intermetallic phases (IMPs), while others contain pockets of relatively coarse intermetallic precipitates. The presence of a relatively large fraction of globular porosity at the interface indicates that local melting takes place in the course of MPW. TEM characterization of regions free of IMPs at the interface reveals regions consisting of fcc supersaturated <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg solid solution, apparently formed as a result of local mechanical alloying during MPW. In other regions, the composition and structure correspond to the Mg17<span class="hlt">Al</span>12 phase, which was probably formed by local melting and rapid solidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChPhL..27c7102D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChPhL..27c7102D"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN Interlayer on Properties of In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN Heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Xun; Li, Zhong-Hui; Li, Zhe-Yang; Zhou, Jian-Jun; Li, Liang; Li, Yun; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Xuan; Han, Chun-Lin</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N/GaN heterojunction structures are grown on two-inch c-face(0001) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN interlayers are intentionally inserted into the structure to improve the electrical properties. The lowest sheet resistance of 359?/sq and the highest room-temperature two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility of 1051 cm2 V-1s-1 is obtained in the structure with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N thickness of 1.3 nm. The structure with <span class="hlt">Al</span>N thickness of 2 nm exhibits the highest 2DEG concentration of 1.84 × 1013 cm-2. The sample with an <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN interlayer gives a smoother surface morphology compared to the one using an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N interlayer, indicating potential applications of this technique in device fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvA..64e3202Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvA..64e3202Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Conformers of <span class="hlt">Al</span>13, <span class="hlt">Al</span>12M, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>13M (M=Cu, Ag, and Au) clusters and their energetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zope, Rajendra R.; Baruah, Tunna</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>The candidate structures for the ground-state geometry of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>13, <span class="hlt">Al</span>12M, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>13M (M=Cu, Ag, and Au) clusters are obtained within the spin-polarized density-functional theory with a three-parameter hybrid functional to describe the exchange-correlation effects. Binding energy, vertical ionization potential, vertical electron affinity, and the energy gap between the highest-occupied molecular-orbital level and the lowest-unoccupied molecular-orbital level have been calculated to investigate the stability of these clusters. These results are compared with those of the alkali doped <span class="hlt">Al</span>12 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 clusters. The adatom energies (defined as the energy gained upon adding the atom to the host <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 clusters) are found to be substantially larger for the coinage metal atom than those for alkali and <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms. The natural population analysis was carried out to get a qualitative picture of the bonding in these clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..361...90W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApSS..361...90W"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite coating on γ-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy and evaluating the oxidation performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jiqiang; Kong, Lingyan; Li, Tiefan; Xiong, Tianying</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A novel Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite coating was prepared on γ-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy. The process included two steps: (1) Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3/<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 composite powders were prepared by high energy ball milling of pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> and nano-TiO2 powders, followed by a heat-treatment; (2) the as-prepared composite powders were deposited on γ-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> substrate by cold spray. The cyclic oxidation was conducted at 900 °C to test the performance of the composite coating. The results showed that the composite coating had good crack resistance and effectively decreased the oxidation rate of the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20634400','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20634400"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-period superlattices of <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N grown on <span class="hlt">Al</span>N substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nikishin, S.A.; Borisov, B.A.; Chandolu, A.; Kuryatkov, V.V.; Temkin, H.; Holtz, M.; Mokhov, E.N.; Makarov, Yu.; Helava, H.</p> <p>2004-11-08</p> <p>High-quality short-period superlattices of <span class="hlt">AlN/Al</span>{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N have been grown by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy with ammonia on <span class="hlt">Al</span> face of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N (0001) substrates. A significant reduction was achieved in the dislocation density, down to 3x10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}. Complete removal of residual <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface oxide is needed in order to obtain low dislocation density in homoepitaxy on <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. We show that the presence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} islands with the surface coverage as low as 0.2% results in increased dislocation density.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048512"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ca and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyong June</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. <span class="hlt">Al</span>-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> + Ca microstructures to <span class="hlt">Al</span> + various <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910059170&hterms=Groh&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGroh','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910059170&hterms=Groh&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGroh"><span id="translatedtitle">Intermediate temperature thermomechanical processing of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2090 for superplasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hales, S. J.; Mcnelley, T. R.; Groh, G. E.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Cu-Li phase diagram indicates that during thermomechanical processing of <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2090 at 300 C both T(1) and T(2) phases will precipitate. Following work on <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg-X alloys, it is possible that TMP at such temperatures might promote intragranular formation of these phases and promote microstructural refinement during recrystallization. Microstructural analyses reveal that the T(2) phase in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2090 may play a similar role to the beta-phase in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mg-X alloys during microstructural evolution. Mechanical property data indicate that <span class="hlt">Al</span> 2090 can be moderately (215-245 percent) superplastic at 370 C following processing at 300 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RMxAC..44Q.167S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RMxAC..44Q.167S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> 2883: Analysis of spectroscopic features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, A. R.; Levenhagen, R. S.; Künzel, R.; Leister, N. V.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">ALS</span> 2883 (RA 13^{h} 02^{m} 47^{s}, DEC -63^{o} 50' 08'', M_{v} 10.1) is the first known radio pulsar with an emission B-type companion system, discovered in 1992. The Be companion of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> 2883 has all line profiles in the visible range in emission. This emission is a common hallmark among many Be stars, and this effect is thought to be due to the presence of a circumstellar environment. Also, the star is orbiting a X-ray source as has been detected by the XMM-Newton Science Operation Center. In this study, we present the observations of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> 2883 made at the OPD/LNA 1.60 m telescope with the Coudé spectrograph in the range 4000 to 5000 Å and S/N simeq 200, performed in April 2011. First-order estimations of T_{eff} and log g parameters have been performed through Johnson's UBV and JHK photometric calibrations. Projected rotation velocity V sin i has been estimated through the mean of the first zeroes of the Fourier transforms of neutral helium rotation profiles adopting linear, quadratic and square-root limb-darkening laws. The physical conditions of the circumstellar envelope were estimated through the solution of the radiative transport equation assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium within a disk-shaped circumstellar environment with a Keplerian velocity field. The radiative transport equation is solved assuming the Roche model as a boundary condition in the circumstellar environment. Iterating the computations with a downhill-simplex algorithm, this analysis leads to a best solution for an envelope with T simeq 9500 K, gas density ? simeq 2 × 10^{-15} g.cm^{-3}, internal radius r_{i} simeq 8 R_{odot} and external radius r_e simeq 30 R_{odot}, rotating with V_{rot} simeq 140 km.s^{-1} and expanding with V_{exp} simeq 90 km.s^{-1}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972820"><span id="translatedtitle">Delayed diagnosis in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: the problem continues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nzwalo, Hipolito; de Abreu, Daisy; Swash, Michael; Pinto, Susana; de Carvalho, Mamede</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>We studied the limitations to early diagnosis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). The diagnostic process was assessed in 120 consecutive patients, including onset, interval to diagnosis, investigations, specialist assessment and pre-diagnostic management. Times from onset to first consultation (T1), second consultation (T2) and diagnosis (TD) were considered. Predictors of diagnostic delay were determined by multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for gender, age, clinical manifestations, and specialism of the first and second consultants. There were 101 consecutive <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients with complete datasets (69% men; median age at diagnosis 61.5 years). The mean TD and median TD were respectively 10.1 and 9.5 months. In 55%, the first consultant was a general practitioner (GP), in 16% a neurologist and in 14% an orthopedist. The diagnosis of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> was made by non-neurologists in 9 patients. The odds of delayed diagnosis (≥ 12 months) were higher (1.56; 0.19-12.56) in younger patients (≤ 45 years) (p<0.05). Female gender (0.56; 0.29-1.70) and bulbar-onset (0.56; 0.29-1.70) were independently associated with earlier diagnosis (p<0.05). Assessment by a neurologist at the first (0.32; 0.19-2.46) or second consultation (0.87; 0.21-1.21) was associated with a shorter diagnosis time (< 12 months) (p<0.05). We conclude that diagnostic delay mainly resulted from delayed referral from non-neurologist physicians to a neurologist. Moreover, incomplete neurophysiological investigation had a relevant impact. PMID:24972820</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114f3712I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114f3712I"><span id="translatedtitle">Hf dopants in ?'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanovski, V. N.; Ceki?, B.; Umi?evi?, A.; Beloševi?-?avor, J.; Schumacher, G.; Koteski, V.; Barudzija, T.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The Time Differential Perturbed Angular (TDPAC) measurements of nuclear quadrupole interactions (NQIs) at 181Ta ion probe in the polycrystalline intermetallic alloy ?'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> doped with 0.2 at. % Hf were performed in the temperature range 78-1230 K, in order to determine the lattice location of Hf atoms in the ordered ?'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span> structure. The two NQIs obtained are discussed within the present L12 cubic structure and a tetragonal distortion of L12 to another two DO22 and L60 type structures. The first low frequency NQI at the site of the 181Ta ion-probe after substitution of aluminum for hafnium in DO22 at ambient temperature, is vQ1(300 K) = 39(1) MHz with ?1 = 0. The corresponding high frequency value on the second crystallographic site in L60, is vQ2(300 K) = 204(14) MHz with ?2 = 0.47(11). These two NQI's have different temperature behavior. The presence of both DO22 and L60 tetragonal distortions of the parent cubic L12 lattice, detected after adding 0.2 at. % Hf, are with modulations to the lattice constant (a) with a ratio (c/a), 2.04 and 0.87, respectively. Ab initio calculations of electronic and structural properties and hyperfine parameters at the 181Ta ion probe of the ?'-Ni3<span class="hlt">Al</span>-0.2 at. % Hf alloy were performed using the full potential augmented plane wave plus local-orbital (APW+lo) method as implemented in the WIEN2k code. The accuracy of the calculations and comparison with the experimental results enabled us to identify the observed hyperfine interactions and to infer the EFG sign that cannot be measured in conventional TDPAC measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/953776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/953776"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Reaction with XeF2 on Surface Adhesion of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Tianfu; Park, Jeong Y.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.</p> <p>2008-07-28</p> <p>The change of surface adhesion after fluorination of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces using XeF{sub 2} was investigated with atomic force microscopy. The chemical interaction between XeF{sub 2} and <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces was studied by in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Fresh <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces were obtained by etching top silicon layers of Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} with XeF{sub 2}. The surface adhesion and chemical composition were measured as a function of time after the exposure to air or annealing (at 200 C under vauum). The correlation between the adhesion force increase and presence of <span class="hlt">Al</span>F{sub 3} on the surface was revealed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPSJ...81b3703O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPSJ...81b3703O"><span id="translatedtitle">Superconductivity in the Einstein Solid AxV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 (A= <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ga)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onosaka, Atsushi; Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Hiroi, Zenji</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>A cage compound of the form AxV2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 (<span class="hlt">Al</span>10V), which was called an Einstein solid by Caplin and coworkers 40 years ago, is revisited to investigate the low-energy, local vibrations of the A atoms and their effects on the electronic and superconducting properties of the compound. Polycrystalline samples with A= <span class="hlt">Al</span>, Ga, Y, and La are studied through resistivity and heat capacity measurements. Weak-coupling BCS superconductivity is observed below Tc = 1.49, 1.66, and 0.69 K for Ax= <span class="hlt">Al</span>0.3, Ga0.2, and Y, respectively, but not above 0.4 K for Ax= La. Low-energy modes are detected only for A= <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Ga, which are approximately described by the Einstein model with Einstein temperatures of 24 and 8 K, respectively. A weak but significant coupling between the low-energy modes, which are almost identical to those called rattling in a recent study, and conduction electrons manifests itself as anomalous enhancement in resistivity at low temperatures approximately corresponding to the Einstein temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967201','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967201"><span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting the <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; Lazi?, Ivan; Valone, Steven M.; Liu, Xiang-Yang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We study the coherent and semi-coherent <span class="hlt">Al/?-Al</span>2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both <span class="hlt">Al</span>-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface. Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. Our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of <span class="hlt">Al/?-Al</span>2O3 composite heterostructures. PMID:24670940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMiMi..25h7002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMiMi..25h7002B"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep SiO2 etching with <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N masks for MEMS devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bliznetsov, Vladimir; Mao Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yue Jia; Johnson, David</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Silicon oxide-based materials such as quartz and silica are widely used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). One way to enhance the capability of their deep plasma etching is to increase selectivity by the use of hard masks. Although this approach was studied previously, information on the use of hard masks for the etching of silicon-oxide based materials on 200?mm substrates is scarce. We present the results of etching process development for amorphous silicon oxide using <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N masks with a view of the application of the results for the etching of silica and quartz. Three gas chemistries (C4F8/O2, CF4 and SF6) and their mixtures were compared in an industrial reactive ion etch (RIE) chamber with two plasma sources. It was established that pure SF6 is the best etchant and <span class="hlt">Al</span>N is a better mask than <span class="hlt">Al</span> for providing higher selectivity and a sidewall angle close to vertical. A range of etching parameters for micromasking-free etching was established and etched structures of up to a 4?:?1 aspect ratio were created in 21??m-thick oxide using the process with an etch rate of 0.32-0.36??m?min-1 and a selectivity to <span class="hlt">Al</span>N mask of (38-49) : 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117u4904G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117u4904G"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of nanoscale Ni/<span class="hlt">Al</span> multilayer foils with intermediate Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunduz, I. E.; Onel, S.; Doumanidis, C. C.; Rebholz, C.; Son, S. F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Nanoscale multilayers of binary metallic systems, such as nickel/aluminum, exhibit self-propagating exothermic reactions due to the high formation enthalpy of the intermetallic compounds. Most of the previous modeling approaches on the reactions of this system rely on the use of mass diffusion with a phenomenological derived diffusion coefficient representing single-phase (Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>) growth, coupled with heat transport. We show that the reaction kinetics, temperatures, and thermal front width can be reproduced more satisfactorily with the sequential growth of Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 followed by Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, utilizing independently obtained interdiffusivities. The computational domain was meshed with a dynamically generated bi-modal grid consisting of fine and coarse zones corresponding to rapid and slower reacting regions to improve computational efficiency. The PDEPE function in MATLAB was used as a basis for an alternating direction scheme. A modified parabolic growth law was employed to model intermetallic growth in the thickness direction. A multiphase enthalpy function was formulated to solve for temperatures after discrete phase growth and transformations at each time step. The results show that the Ni2<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 formation yields a preheating zone to facilitate the slower growth of Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. At bilayer thicknesses lower than 12 nm, the intermixing layer induces oscillating thermal fronts, sharply reducing the average velocities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JKPS...65.1101Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JKPS...65.1101Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Properties of an <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N distributed-Bragg-reflector structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Li-Li; Liu, Zhan-Hui; Huang, Xiao-Gu; Li, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Rong; Xie, Zi-Li; Xiu, Xiang-Qian</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) structure with a high <span class="hlt">Al</span> content was grown by using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The properties of the sample were characterized by using the transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and reflectivity spectrum measurements. The reciprocal space mapping analysis indicated that the strain in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaN layers was partially relaxed. The morphology of the DBR exhibited a surface covered by grains (average size of about 130 nm), and the surface roughness was about 2 nm. The spectral measurements showed that the DBR structure presented a peak reflectivity of 68.8% at the center wavelength of 247 nm, which indicated that this DBR structure could work in the deep solar-blind UV region with acceptable reflectivity. However, the optical properties of the DBR structure were deteriorated by the fluctuation of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> composition, non-uniformity of the layer thickness, the blurry, rough interface in the DBR structure, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5740247','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5740247"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ALS</span> insertion device block measurement and inspection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>The performance specifications for <span class="hlt">ALS</span> insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/495821','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/495821"><span id="translatedtitle">Orbit stability of the <span class="hlt">ALS</span> storage ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keller, R.; Nishimura, H.; Biocca, A.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>The Advanced Light Source (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>) storage ring, a synchrotron light source of the third generation, is specified to maintain its electron orbit stable within one tenth of the rms beam size. In the absence of a dedicated orbit feed-back system, several orbit-distorting effects were investigated, aided by a new interactive simulation tool, the code TRACY V. The effort has led to a better understanding of the behavior of a variety of accelerator subsystems and in consequence produced a substantial improvement in day-to-day orbit stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780013346','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780013346"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Si<span class="hlt">Al</span>ON materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Layden, G. K.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic bodies in which the major phase was beta prime Si3-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-O-N4 solid solution. A variety of foreign oxides were used to promote liquid phase sintering, and this resulted in the incorporation of additional solid phases in the ceramic bodies which controlled elevated temperature properties. None of the bodies studied to date exhibited both adequate high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Criteria are suggested to guide the formulation of bodies with improved high temperature properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JNuM..395..162K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JNuM..395..162K"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdiffusion between U(Mo,Pt) or U(Mo,Zr) and <span class="hlt">Al</span> or <span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Komar Varela, C.; Mirandou, M.; Aricó, S.; Balart, S.; Gribaudo, L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Solid state reactions in chemical diffusion couples U-7 wt.%Mo-0.9 wt.%Pt/<span class="hlt">Al</span> at 580 °C and U-7 wt.%Mo-0.9 wt.%Pt/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 alloy, U-7 wt.%Mo-1 wt.%Zr/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and U-7 wt.%Mo-1 wt.%Zr/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 alloy at 550 °C were characterized. Results were obtained from optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. The UAl 3, UAl 4 and <span class="hlt">Al</span> 20Mo 2U phases were identified in the interaction layers of γU(Mo,Pt)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> and γU(Mo,Zr)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> diffusion couples. <span class="hlt">Al</span> 43Mo 4U 6 ternary compound was also identified in γU(Mo,Zr)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> due to the decomposition of γU(Mo,Zr) phase. The U(<span class="hlt">Al</span>,Si) 3 and U 3Si 5 phases were identified in the interaction layers of γU(Mo,Pt)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 and γU(Mo,Zr)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356 diffusion couples. These phases are formed due to the migration of Si to the interaction layer. In the diffusion couple U(Mo,Zr)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> A356, Zr 5<span class="hlt">Al</span> 3 phase was also identified in the interaction layer. The use of synchrotron radiation at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS, CNPq, Campinas, Brazil) was necessary to achieve a complete crystallographic characterization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/29452','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/29452"><span id="translatedtitle">TEM characterization of <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite fabricated by reactive metal infiltration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gao, Y.; Jia, J.; Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The microstructure of <span class="hlt">Al/{alpha}-Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} composites made by infiltrating <span class="hlt">Al</span> into dense mullite preforms has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Observations revealed that the formation of the <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} composites involves three stages. Initially, <span class="hlt">Al</span> infiltrates into a dense mullite preform through grain boundary diffusion, and reacts with mullite at grain boundaries to form a partial reaction zone. Then, a complete reaction takes place in the reaction region between the partial reaction zone and the full reaction zone to convert the dense mullite preform to a composite of {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} (matrix) and an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si phase (thin channels). Finally, the reduced Si from the reaction diffuses out of the <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} composite through the metal channels, whereas <span class="hlt">Al</span> from the molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> pool is continuously drawn to the reaction region until the mullite preform is consumed or the sample is removed from the molten <span class="hlt">Al</span> pool. Based on the observed microstructure, infiltration mechanisms have been discussed, and a growth model of the composites is proposed in which the process involves repeated nucleation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}0{sub 3} grains and grain growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSMME...4..167N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSMME...4..167N"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 and L12 Coatings on Ti-45<span class="hlt">Al</span>-5Nb Alloy at 1173K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nishimoto, Takumi; Kitajima, Yuri; Hayashi, Shigenari; Narita, Toshio</p> <p></p> <p>Oxidation behavior of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 and L12 coated Ti-45at%<span class="hlt">Al</span>-5at%Nb alloys at 1173K in air was investigated using mass gain measurement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, glow discharge optical electron spectroscopy, and glancing angle X-ray diffraction analysis. The Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 formed meta-stable alumina ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, while the oxide scale on the L12 consisted of a duplex structure with an outer rutile TiO2 and an inner ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. During the very initial stages of oxidation both Ti and <span class="hlt">Al</span> in the L12 coating could be oxidized, and then the faster diffusing Ti goes out to form an outer, continuous Ti-rich oxide which covers the slow growing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3. In case of the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 an outer, continuous TiO2 layer was not observed because of the smaller amount of Ti in the Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3. It could be concluded that the outer, Ti-rich oxide enhanced a phase transformation of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 from ? to ?. To elucidate the Ti effect, Ti-vapor treated Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 and Ni-50at%<span class="hlt">Al</span> were oxidized at 1173K in air, and showed formation of an ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3, in contrast to ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 on their bare alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCS...89...84L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCS...89...84L"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical and experimental investigation on structural and electronic properties of <span class="hlt">Al/O/Al</span>, O-doped WS2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Ning; Su, Jie; Xu, Zhuo; Li, Da-Peng; Liu, Zheng-Tang</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Effects of the doping atom (O, <span class="hlt">Al</span>, and (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O)) on structural and electronic properties of the monolayer WS2 have been studied by using first-principles calculations. Results show that the covalent character of W-S bonding has been enhanced after doping. Meanwhile, W-O, <span class="hlt">Al-S</span> and W-S bonds of (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 monolayer have higher covalent character compared with O-doped and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-doped WS2 monolayer of this work. After doping with <span class="hlt">Al</span> (or <span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) atoms, Fermi level moves close to the valence band and the dopant atoms produce the defect energy levels, indicating that <span class="hlt">Al</span> doped and (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 monolayer both have p-type conductivity. O-doped and (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 ultrathin films was prepared on Si substrates. Results of Raman spectra show the formation of the O-doped and (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 films. Moreover, compared with the pure WS2, the approximate reduction of 0.43 eV and 0.46 eV for W 4f and S 2p in binding energy after (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped shows that p-type doping of (<span class="hlt">Al</span>, O) co-doped WS2 has been verified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApSS..283...87W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApSS..283...87W"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 coatings oxidized from <span class="hlt">Al</span> with different proportion of seed crystals at a lower temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chen; Lin, Yuebin; He, Fei; Luo, Xinyi; Tao, Jie</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span> layer with ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 seed crystals was prepared on the surface of 316L stainless steel (SS) by a double cathodes discharge technique, in which the mixed targets of pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> doped with different proportions of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 were used. Then, <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 coatings were obtained after plasma oxidization at 580 °C. The phase composition, microstructure and morphology of the coatings were studied respectively by means of glancing-angle (1°) X-ray diffractometry (GAXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the bonding force and corrosion resistance of the coatings were measured. The results indicated that ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 nucleated and grew surrounding the seed crystals as the Volmer-Weber Mode. The <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 coating was compact, performing a good corrosion resistance and metallurgical bonding. The inducing effects of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 with different fractions were discussed. ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 (5.5 wt.%) was distributed in the <span class="hlt">Al</span> layer when the target possessing 10% ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 was used. After plasma oxidation, 65.54 wt.% ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 was obtained which was 10.34% more than that obtained by the oxidation of pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> at the same condition. However, the inducing effects became weak with the further increment of content of ?-<span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 seed crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258886"><span id="translatedtitle">Theory and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Aluminum Coordination Complexes – <span class="hlt">Al</span> K-Edge Studies of Charge and Bonding in (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>, (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>R2, and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2 Complexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altman, Alison B; Pemmaraju, C D; Camp, Clément; Arnold, John; Minasian, Stefan G; Prendergast, David; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek</p> <p>2015-08-19</p> <p>Polarized aluminum K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and first-principles calculations were used to probe electronic structure in a series of (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>, (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2, and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>R2 coordination compounds (X = F, Cl, I; R = H, Me; BDI = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl-?-diketiminate). Spectral interpretations were guided by examination of the calculated transition energies and polarization-dependent oscillator strengths, which agreed well with the XANES spectroscopy measurements. Pre-edge features were assigned to transitions associated with the <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3p orbitals involved in metal-ligand bonding. Qualitative trends in <span class="hlt">Al</span> 1s core energy and valence orbital occupation were established through a systematic comparison of excited states derived from <span class="hlt">Al</span> 3p orbitals with similar symmetries in a molecular orbital framework. These trends suggested that the higher transition energies observed for (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2 systems with more electronegative X(1-) ligands could be ascribed to a decrease in electron density around the aluminum atom, which causes an increase in the attractive potential of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> nucleus and concomitant increase in the binding energy of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> 1s core orbitals. For (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>H2 the experimental <span class="hlt">Al</span> K-edge XANES spectra and spectra calculated using the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach had nearly identical energies for transitions to final state orbitals of similar composition and symmetry. These results implied that the charge distributions about the aluminum atoms in (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>H2 are similar relative to the (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2 and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>Me2 compounds, despite having different formal oxidation states of +1 and +3, respectively. However, (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> was unique in that it exhibited a low-energy feature that was attributed to transitions into a low-lying p-orbital of b1 symmetry that is localized on <span class="hlt">Al</span> and orthogonal to the (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> plane. The presence of this low-energy unoccupied molecular orbital on electron-rich (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span> distinguishes its valence electronic structure from that of the formally trivalent compounds (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>X2 and (BDI)<span class="hlt">Al</span>R2. The work shows that <span class="hlt">Al</span> K-edge XANES spectroscopy can be used to provide valuable insight into electronic structure and reactivity relationships for main-group coordination compounds. PMID:26258886</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060673&hterms=1051&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231051','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060673&hterms=1051&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231051"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of etching techniques for superconductive Nb/<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3/Nb fabrication processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lichtenberger, A. W.; Lea, D. M.; Lloyd, F. L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Wet etching, CF4 and SF6 reactive ion etching (RIE), RIE/wet hybrid etching, Cl-based RIE, ion milling, and liftoff techniques have been investigated for use in superconductive Nb/<span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3/Nb fabrication processes. High-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions have been fabricated using a variety of these etching methods; however, each technique offers distinct tradeoffs for a given process an wafer design. In particular, it was shown that SF6 provides an excellent RIE chemistry for low-voltage anisotropic etching of Nb with high selectivity to <span class="hlt">Al</span>. The SF6 tool has greatly improved the trilevel resist junction insulation process. Excellent repeatability, selectivity with respect to quartz, and submicron resolution make Cl2 + BCl3 + CHCl3 RIE a very attractive process for trilayer patterning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1110976','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1110976"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy localization on the <span class="hlt">Al</span> sublattice of Pt3<span class="hlt">Al</span> with L12 order</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Medvedev, Nikolay N; Starostenkov, Mikhail D; Manley, Michael E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional molecular-dynamics model of with order was developed and found to support the excitation of discrete breathers (DBs) and energy localization on the <span class="hlt">Al</span> sublattice. For an initial lattice temperature of 0 K, large-amplitude DBs polarized along [100] are found to be very weakly damped, retaining most of their initial energy for more than 2000 cycles, while DBs polarized along [111] damped out over ~30 cycles. Because the DBs and their dissipation channels are confined to the <span class="hlt">Al</span> sublattice, long-lived nonequilibrium states with large energy differences between the <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Pt sublattices occur. Since collisions during irradiation more efficiently generate lattice vibrations in light atoms than heavy atoms, such nonequilibrium states may occur and alter the relaxation processes occurring during radiation damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001568','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001568"><span id="translatedtitle">High-temperature deformation of uniaxially aligned lamellar Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heinrich, H.; Abaecherli, V.; Wilkins, D.J.; Kostorz, G.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Uniaxially aligned polysynthetically twinned two-phase Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> material is produced by induction zone melting and deformed in uniaxial compression. Above 1,000 K the strain rate sensitivity is independent of the lamellar orientation and increases strongly with increasing deformation temperature. Results for the strain rate sensitivity parameters are somewhat lower than those obtained for {gamma}-Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> single- and polycrystals. If the lamellae are oriented parallel or perpendicular to the deformation axis, the flow stress decreases with increasing strain. After plastic deformation the dislocation density in the lamellae is remarkably low indicating recovery processes. At the lamellar interfaces misfit dislocations and periodic arrangements of dislocations with Burgers vectors inclined to the lamellar boundaries are found. In contrast to deformation at lower temperatures, deformation twinning is rare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.105d1909C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApPhL.105d1909C"><span id="translatedtitle">Local stress-induced effects on <span class="hlt">AlGaAs/Al</span>Ox oxidation front shape</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chouchane, F.; Almuneau, G.; Cherkashin, N.; Arnoult, A.; Lacoste, G.; Fontaine, C.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The lateral oxidation of thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs layers (>500 nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the <span class="hlt">Al</span>GaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick <span class="hlt">Al</span>Ox confinement layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069154&hterms=HR+diagrams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528HR%2Bdiagrams%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780069154&hterms=HR+diagrams&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528HR%2Bdiagrams%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Reaction diffusion in the NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> and CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, S. R.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The paper assesses the effect of overlay coating and substrate composition on the kinetics of coating depletion by interdiffusion. This is accomplished by examining the constitution, kinetics and activation energies for a series of diffusion couples primarily of the NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ni-10Cr or CoCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ni-10Cr type annealed at temperatures in the range 1000-1205 C for times up to 500 hr. A general procedure is developed for analyzing diffusion in multicomponent multiphase systems. It is shown that by introducing the concept of beta-source strength, which can be determined from appropriate phase diagrams, the Wagner solution for consumption of a second phase in a semiinfinite couple is successfully applied to the analysis of MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> couples. Thus, correlation of beta-recession rate constants with couple composition, total and diffusional activation energies, and interdiffusion coefficients are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/958938','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/958938"><span id="translatedtitle">FORMING <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 NANOCOMPOSITE SURFACES USING FRICTION STIR PROCESSING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qu, Jun; Xu, Hanbing; Feng, Zhili; An, Ke; Battiste, Rick; An, Linan; Heinrich, Helge</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study presents a solid state surface engineering process to form a nanocomposite layer on aluminum surface. Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to stir and mix nano-sized <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 particles into a commercially pure aluminum surface to form an <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>2O3 nanocomposite layer of up to several millimeters thick. Compared with a non-processed aluminum surface, a nanocomposite surface with 15 vol% nano-particles has demonstrated increased hardness (by 3X) and yield strength (by 10X), and reduced friction coefficient (by 55%) and wear rate (by 100X). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has revealed high matrix dislocation density in the nanocomposite surface that is believed to be largely responsible to such significant property improvements. Neutron diffraction measurements suggested tensile residual stress in the aluminum matrix. The stress was mainly induced by thermal-expansion-mismatch between aluminum and alumina.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21194991','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21194991"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and characterization of Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N superlattices prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barshilia, Harish C.; Deepthi, B.; Rajam, K. S.; Bhatti, Kanwal Preet; Chaudhary, Sujeet</p> <p>2009-01-15</p> <p>Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N coatings were prepared using a reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system from Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span> targets. Structural characterization of the coatings using x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the B1 NaCl structure of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N coatings with a prominent reflection along the (111) plane. The XPS data confirmed the bonding structures of Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N single layer coatings. Subsequently, nanolayered multilayer coatings of Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N were deposited on silicon and mild steel (MS) substrates at different modulation wavelengths ({lambda}) with a total thickness of approximately 1.0 {mu}m. The modulation wavelengths were calculated from the x-ray reflectivity data using modified Bragg's law. Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings were textured along (111) for {lambda}<200 A and the XRD patterns showed the formation of superlattice structure for coatings deposited at {lambda}=102 A. The x-ray reflectivity data showed reflections of fifth and seventh orders for multilayer coatings deposited at {lambda}=102 and 138 A, respectively, indicating the formation of sharp interfaces between Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N layers. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy image of Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings indicated a noncolumnar and dense microstructure. A maximum hardness of 39 GPa was observed for Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings deposited at {lambda}=93 A, which was higher than the rule-of-mixture value (30 GPa) for Ti<span class="hlt">Al</span>N and Cr<span class="hlt">Al</span>N. Study of thermal stability of the coatings in air using micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings were stable up to 900 deg. C in air. Ti<span class="hlt">AlN/CrAl</span>N multilayer coatings also exhibited improved corrosion resistance when compared to the MS substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930041111&hterms=therms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtherms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930041111&hterms=therms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtherms"><span id="translatedtitle">Transformation to Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 in a 63.0 at. pct Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khadkikar, P. S.; Locci, I. E.; Vedula, K.; Michal, G. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Microstructures of 63 at. pct P/M Ni-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with a composition close to the stoichiometry of the Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 phase were investigated using homogenized and quenched specimens aged at low temperatures for various times. Results of analyses of XRD data and electron microscopy observations were used for quantitative phase analysis, performed to calculate the (Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> + Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3)/Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 phase boundary locations. The measured lattice parameters of Ni5<span class="hlt">Al</span>3 phase formed at 823, 873, and 923 K indicated an increase in tetragonality of the phase with increasing nickel content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865693','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865693"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic resonator with <span class="hlt">Al</span> electrodes on an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer and using a GaAs substrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kline, Gerald R.; Lakin, Kenneth M.</p> <p>1985-12-03</p> <p>A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered <span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>N structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an <span class="hlt">Al</span>N layer between two <span class="hlt">Al</span> layers and another layer of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N on an exterior of one of said <span class="hlt">Al</span> layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ric..rept.....C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ric..rept.....C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ga<span class="hlt">Al</span>As Sb APD optimization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chin, R.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>It has been demonstrated that avalanche gain can be obtained in Ga<span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb avalanche photodiodes which exhibit ionization coefficient enhancement. These devices exhibit gain at relatively high impurity background density of 8-9 x 10 to the 15th power/cu cm. This indicates that a tunneling process which occurs in these devices is associated with a deep level rather than a band-to-band process. Surface leakage current, which dominates the total dark current of these avalanche photodiodes at room temperature, can be reduced with the use of special structures. However, as shown in this work through both modeling and experiment, defect assisted tunneling may be a fundamental limitation to obtaining high sensitivity devices. Finally, a serious problem from the manufacturing standpoint is the necessity to compensate the native defect that results in a high concentration of intrinsic p-type acceptor levels. Precise control of dopant incorporation is required to reproducibly obtain the required net impurity levels. This is an extremely difficult process with the available LPE Ga<span class="hlt">Al</span>Sb materials technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4498448','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4498448"><span id="translatedtitle">Abrupt Schottky Junctions in <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ge Nanowire Heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this Letter we report on the exploration of axial metal/semiconductor (<span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ge) nanowire heterostructures with abrupt interfaces. The formation process is enabled by a thermal induced exchange reaction between the vapor–liquid–solid grown Ge nanowire and <span class="hlt">Al</span> contact pads due to the substantially different diffusion behavior of Ge in <span class="hlt">Al</span> and vice versa. Temperature-dependent I–V measurements revealed the metallic properties of the crystalline <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanowire segments with a maximum current carrying capacity of about 0.8 MA/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization has confirmed both the composition and crystalline nature of the pure <span class="hlt">Al</span> nanowire segments. A very sharp interface between the ?111? oriented Ge nanowire and the reacted <span class="hlt">Al</span> part was observed with a Schottky barrier height of 361 meV. To demonstrate the potential of this approach, a monolithic <span class="hlt">Al/Ge/Al</span> heterostructure was used to fabricate a novel impact ionization device. PMID:26052733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/428172','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/428172"><span id="translatedtitle">Wet chemical etching of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N in KOH solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vartuli, C.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Lee, J.W.; Abernathy, C.R.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.; Ren, F.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Wet chemical etching of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N and In{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 1{minus}x}N was investigated in KOH-based solutions as a function of etch temperature and material quality. The etch rates for both materials increased with increasing etch temperatures, which was varied from 20 to 80 C. The crystal quality of <span class="hlt">Al</span>N prepared by reactive sputtering was improved by rapid thermal annealing at temperatures to 1,100 C, with a decreased wet etch rate of the material measured with increasing anneal temperature. The etch rate decreased approximately an order of magnitude at 80 C etch temperature after an 1,100 C anneal. The etch rate for In{sub 0.19}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 0.81}N grown by metallorganic molecular beam epitaxy was approximately three times higher for material on Si than on GaAs. This corresponds to the superior crystalline quality of the material grown on GaAs. Etching of In{sub x}<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 1{minus}x}N was also examined as a function of In composition. The etch rate initially increased as the In composition changed from 0 to 36%, and then decreased to 0 {angstrom}min for InN. The authors also compared the effect of doping concentration on etch rate. Two In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N samples of similar crystal quality were also etched; one was fully depleted with n < 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} (2.6% In) and the other n {approximately} 5 {times} 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3} (3.1% In). At low etch temperature, the rates were similar, but above 60 C the n-type sample etched faster, approximately three times faster at 80 C. The activation energy for these etches is very low, 2.0 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol for the sputtered <span class="hlt">Al</span>N. The activation energies for In<span class="hlt">Al</span>N were dependent on In composition and were in the range 2 to 6 kcal/mol. GaN and InN layers did not show any etching in KOH at temperatures up to 80 C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67h1881Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOM....67h1881Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Molar Volume Modeling of Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo Ternary Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Chuan; Cao, Weisheng; Chen, Shuanglin; Zhang, Fan; Park, Joon Sik; Yi, Seonghoon</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Molar volume modeling was performed for both Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Nb and Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Mo ternary systems based on the thermodynamic modeling of these two systems. Comparison between the calculated phase equilibria and the experimental data proved the accuracy of thermodynamic modeling. With the calculated density contour curves superimposed on the equilibrium phase diagram, it provides a map for alloy developers to identify the promising alloy compositions that satisfy both the phase stability and density requirements and rule out those that fail to meet the requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA...46.4772N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA...46.4772N"><span id="translatedtitle">Through Thickness Microstructural and Texture Inhomogeneity Within <span class="hlt">Al</span> Layers in ARB-Produced <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>(Sc) Layered Composite Sheets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Najafzadeh, Niloofar; Quadir, M. Z.; Munroe, Paul</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Alternatively layered composite sheets of commercially pure (99.8 pct purity) aluminum and an <span class="hlt">Al</span>-0.3wtpctSc alloy (either in the supersaturated solid solution or age-hardened conditions) were generated through accumulative roll bonding for up to 5 cycles. The transverse sections of the sheets were examined to investigate the microstructure and texture inhomogeneities developed during the rolling process. Electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy was used for this investigation. It was found that an inhomogeneous microstructure and texture was developed through the aluminum layers of the sheet thickness. The nature of inhomogeneities changes as the ARB bonding progresses to higher cycles. Microstructural inhomogeneities remain prominent in the first ARB cycle and diminish during the subsequent cycles. Texture inhomogeneities appear in different forms as rolling progresses. High frictional shear forces in the surface and in-plane shear forces across bonding interfaces derive these inhomogeneities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47...89W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTB...47...89W"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation Study of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while <span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA...46.4783L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA...46.4783L"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> on the Wetting Behavior Between TiC x and Molten Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xuyang; Lv, Xuewei; Dong, Hongbiao; Li, Chunxin; Bai, Chenguang</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The wetting behavior and the interfacial reactions between TiC x substrate and molten Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with different <span class="hlt">Al</span> contents were studied using the Sessile Drop method at 1758 K (1485 °C) in argon atmosphere. It is found that the wettability and interface reaction products depend on <span class="hlt">Al</span> content in the molten alloy. The initial contact angles between the molten Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy and TiC0.78 surface reduces from 110 to 80 deg when <span class="hlt">Al</span> content in the alloy changes from 40 to 80 wt pct. The reduction in the initial contact angle is due to the decrease of surface tension of the molten Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys with increasing <span class="hlt">Al</span> contents. The segregation of <span class="hlt">Al</span> atoms to the surface occurred at all bulk concentrations of Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. <span class="hlt">Al</span> with lower surface tension tends to segregate on the surface of liquid Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy. In the spreading stage, the interfacial reaction led to the decrease in the contact angle. The adhesion in Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span>/TiC x system can be interpreted in terms of strong chemical interactions, which is greatly affected by the diffusion of C. The equilibrium contact angle was measured less than 10 deg. Finally, the reaction sequence at the Ti-<span class="hlt">Al</span> melt and TiC x substrate interface is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26373112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26373112"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> Doping on Optical Band Gap Energy of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 Thin Films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Yo-Seung; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Deuk Yong</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 thin films were prepared using a sol-gel derived spin coating by varying the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">Al</span> doping on the optical band gap energy (Eg) of the films. GAXRD results indicated that <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 is composed of anatase and FTO phases when the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti molar ratio was less than 0.18. Above 0.38, no other peaks except FTO were found and transparency of the films was severely deteriorated. Eg of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 decreased from 3.20 eV to 2.07 eV when the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti ratio was raised from 0 to 0.38. Eg of 2.59 eV was found for the anatase <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 films having the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/Ti ratio of 0.18. The absorption band of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2 coatings shifted dramatically from the UV region to the visible region with increasing the amount of <span class="hlt">Al</span> dopant. The <span class="hlt">Al</span> doping was mainly attributed to the optical band gap energy of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-TiO2. PMID:26373112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB..tmp..216W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTB..tmp..216W"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation Study of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while <span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 ?m, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-1Mn alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890030007&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcoal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890030007&hterms=coal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcoal"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of elevated-temperature deformation in the B2 aluminides Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yaney, D. L.; Nix, W. D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A strain rate change technique, developed previously for distinguishing between pure-metal and alloy-type creep behavior, was used to study the elevated-temperature deformation behavior of the intermetallic compounds Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> and Co<span class="hlt">Al</span>. Tests on Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> were conducted at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 K while tests on Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> were performed at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 K. Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> exhibits pure-metal type behavior over the entire temperature range studied. Co<span class="hlt">Al</span>, however, undergoes a transition from pure-metal to alloy-type deformation behavior as the temperature is decreased from 1400 to 1200 K. Slip appears to be inherently more difficult in Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> than in Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>, with lattice friction effects limiting the mobility of dislocations at a much higher tmeperature in Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> than in Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>. The superior strength of Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> at elevated temperatures may, therefore, be related to a greater lattice friction strengthening effect in Co<span class="hlt">Al</span> than in Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMoSt1100..154M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMoSt1100..154M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison on the interaction of <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+/nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 with calf thymus DNA /salmon sperm DNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Fei; Ma, Yue; Du, Changwen; Yang, Xiaodi; Shen, Renfang</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The conformation change, binding mode and binding site between <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+/nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and calf thymus DNA/salmon sperm DNA were investigated by UV-vis absorption, FTIR spectra, Raman spectroscopy and CD spectra, as well as melting curves measurement. The UV-vis spectra and circular dichroism spectra results suggested that the phosphate group structure was changed when <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ interacted with DNA, while the double-helix was distorted when nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 interacted with DNA. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the binding sites were <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ … PO2, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ … N7/guanine PO2 … <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 … N7-C8/guanine with calf thymus DNA, and <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ … N3-O2/cytosine, <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … <span class="hlt">Al</span>13 … N1/adenine with salmon sperm DNA, respectively. The electrostatic binding was existed between <span class="hlt">Al</span>3+ and DNA, and the electrostatic binding and complexing were found between nano-<span class="hlt">Al</span>13 and DNA.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JTST...25..509Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JTST...25..509Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> Content on Microstructure and Bonding Strength of Plasma-Sprayed FeCr<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 Coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liang; Luo, Fa; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Low-power plasma-sprayed FeCr<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 composite coatings with 1.5 mm thickness have been fabricated for radar absorption applications. The effects of FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content on the coating properties were studied. The FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> presents in the form of a few thin lamellae and numerous particles, demonstrating relatively even distribution in all the coatings. Results show that the micro-hardness and porosity decrease with the increase in FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content. With FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content increasing from 28 to 47 wt.%, the bonding strength of the coatings with 1.5 mm thickness increases from 10.5 to 27 MPa, and the failure modes are composed of cohesive and adhesive failure, which are ascribed to the coating microstructure and the residual stress, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST..tmp..151Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTST..tmp..151Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> Content on Microstructure and Bonding Strength of Plasma-Sprayed FeCr<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 Coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Liang; Luo, Fa; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Low-power plasma-sprayed FeCr<span class="hlt">Al/Al</span>2O3 composite coatings with 1.5 mm thickness have been fabricated for radar absorption applications. The effects of FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content on the coating properties were studied. The FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> presents in the form of a few thin lamellae and numerous particles, demonstrating relatively even distribution in all the coatings. Results show that the micro-hardness and porosity decrease with the increase in FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content. With FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> content increasing from 28 to 47 wt.%, the bonding strength of the coatings with 1.5 mm thickness increases from 10.5 to 27 MPa, and the failure modes are composed of cohesive and adhesive failure, which are ascribed to the coating microstructure and the residual stress, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1178259','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1178259"><span id="translatedtitle">MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bond coat with enhanced Yttrium layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Jablonski, Paul D; Hawk, Jeffrey A</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>One or more embodiments relates to an MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bond coat comprising an MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y layer in contact with a Y--<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the <span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. Both the MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y layer and the Y--<span class="hlt">Al</span>.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y--<span class="hlt">Al</span> oxides, providing advantage in the maintainability of the Yttrium reservoir within the MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bulk. The MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y bond coat may be fabricated through application of a Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste to an MCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y material, followed by heating in a non-oxidizing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=als&id=EJ1004284','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=als&id=EJ1004284"><span id="translatedtitle">The Practical Enactment of Adventure Learning: Where Will You <span class="hlt">AL</span>@?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Brant G.; Hougham, R. Justin; Eitel, Karla Bradley</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Adventure Learning (<span class="hlt">AL</span>) approach to designing and implementing learning experiences has great potential for practitioners. This manuscript delineates the practical enactment of <span class="hlt">AL</span> to support the K-12 community, teacher educators, and residential environmental science program providers in the conceptualization and delivery of their own <span class="hlt">AL</span>…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981792"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic timelines and delays in diagnosing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paganoni, Sabrina; Macklin, Eric A; Lee, Alexandra; Murphy, Alyssa; Chang, Judith; Zipf, Amanda; Cudkowicz, Merit; Atassi, Nazem</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to characterize the diagnostic timelines and their predictors in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (<span class="hlt">ALS</span>). Patients were identified through <span class="hlt">ALS</span> billing codes. Time from presenting symptom to first doctor visit, first doctor visit to suspected <span class="hlt">ALS</span> diagnosis, suspected to confirmed <span class="hlt">ALS</span> diagnosis, and presenting symptom to confirmed <span class="hlt">ALS</span> diagnosis (total diagnostic time) were collected. Regression models were used to analyze the predictors of diagnostic delay. Three hundred and four <span class="hlt">ALS</span> patients were included in the analysis. Median total diagnostic time was 11.5 months. Diagnostic timelines were longer in patients with age > 60 years (p < 0.001), sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> (p = 0.043), and limb onset (p = 0.010). The presence of fasciculations, slurred speech, and lower extremity weakness when symptoms were first noted were independent predictors of shorter time to <span class="hlt">ALS</span> diagnosis (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, and p = 0.04, respectively). About half of the patients (52%) received an alternative diagnosis and each patient saw an average of three different physicians before <span class="hlt">ALS</span> diagnosis was confirmed. In conclusion, diagnostic timelines in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> are long, and patients see many physicians and receive multiple alternative diagnoses before the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">ALS</span> is confirmed. Older age, sporadic disease, and limb onset can delay <span class="hlt">ALS</span> diagnosis. PMID:24981792</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24607221"><span id="translatedtitle">Motor neuron death in <span class="hlt">ALS</span>: programmed by astrocytes?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pirooznia, Sheila K; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Motor neurons in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> die via cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et <span class="hlt">al</span>. (2014), in this issue of Neuron, discover that familial and sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span>-derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4040524','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4040524"><span id="translatedtitle">Motor neuron death in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> – programmed by astrocytes?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Motor neurons in <span class="hlt">ALS</span> die via cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et <span class="hlt">al</span> (2014) discover that familial and sporadic <span class="hlt">ALS</span> derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1051528.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1051528.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Indigenous Students' Attitudes towards Learning English through a Virtual Program: A Study in a Colombian Public University (Actitudes de estudiantes indígenas <span class="hlt">frente</span> <span class="hlt">al</span> aprendizaje de inglés a través de un programa virtual: un estudio en una universidad pública colombiana)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cuasialpud Canchala, Ruth Elena</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article reports an exploratory study carried out at a public university in Bogotá, Colombia, with two indigenous students who took a level I virtual English-course during the second term of 2008 and the first term of 2009. The aim was to analyse their attitudes towards the learning of English through the virtual modality. Interviews,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5k7115F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPA....5k7115F"><span id="translatedtitle">Screw dislocation-induced growth spirals as emissive exciton localization centers in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N quantum wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Funato, Mitsuru; Banal, Ryan G.; Kawakami, Yoichi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Screw dislocations in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N quantum wells cause growth spirals with an enhanced Ga incorporation, which create potential minima. Although screw dislocations and their surrounding potential minima suggest non-radiative recombination processes within growth spirals, in reality, screw dislocations are not major non-radiative sinks for carriers. Consequently, carriers localized within growth spirals recombine radiatively without being captured by non-radiative recombination centers, resulting in intense emissions from growth spirals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JNuM..399..189A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JNuM..399..189A"><span id="translatedtitle">U-Mo/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si interaction: Influence of Si concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allenou, J.; Palancher, H.; Iltis, X.; Cornen, M.; Tougait, O.; Tucoulou, R.; Welcomme, E.; Martin, Ph.; Valot, C.; Charollais, F.; Anselmet, M. C.; Lemoine, P.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Within the framework of the development of low enriched nuclear fuels for research reactors, U-Mo/<span class="hlt">Al</span> is the most promising option that has however to be optimised. Indeed at the U-Mo/<span class="hlt">Al</span> interfaces between U-Mo particles and the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix, an interaction layer grows under irradiation inducing an unacceptable fuel swelling. Adding silicon in limited content into the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix has clearly improved the in-pile fuel behaviour. This breakthrough is attributed to an U-Mo/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si protective layer around U-Mo particles appeared during fuel manufacturing. In this work, the evolution of the microstructure and composition of this protective layer with increasing Si concentrations in the <span class="hlt">Al</span> matrix has been investigated. Conclusions are based on the characterization at the micrometer scale (X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy) of U-Mo7/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si diffusion couples obtained by thermal annealing at 450 °C. Two types of interaction layers have been evidenced depending on the Si content in the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloy: the threshold value is found at about 5 wt.% but obviously evolves with temperature. It has been shown that for Si concentrations ranging from 2 to 10 wt.%, the U-Mo7/<span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si interaction is bi-layered and the Si-rich part is located close to the <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si for low Si concentrations (below 5 wt.%) and close to the U-Mo for higher Si concentrations. For Si weight fraction in the <span class="hlt">Al</span> alloy lower than 5 wt.%, the Si-rich sub-layer (close to <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si) consists of U(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Si) 3 + UMo 2<span class="hlt">Al</span> 20, when the other sub-layer (close to U-Mo) is silicon free and made of UAl 3 and U 6Mo 4<span class="hlt">Al</span> 43. For Si weight concentrations above 5 wt.%, the Si-rich part becomes U 3(Si, <span class="hlt">Al</span>) 5 + U(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Si) 3 (close to U-Mo) and the other sub-layer (close to <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si) consists of U(<span class="hlt">Al</span>, Si) 3 + UMo 2<span class="hlt">Al</span> 20. On the basis of these results and of a literature survey, a scheme is proposed to explain the formation of different types of ILs between U-Mo and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Si alloys (i.e. different protective layers).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21518326','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21518326"><span id="translatedtitle">Ab initio molecular dynamics of <span class="hlt">Al</span> irradiation-induced processes during <span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Music, Denis; Nahif, Farwah; Friederichsen, Niklas; Schneider, Jochen M.; Sarakinos, Kostas</p> <p>2011-03-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Al</span> bombardment induced structural changes in {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R-3c) and {gamma}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Fd-3m) were studied using ab initio molecular dynamics. Diffusion and irradiation damage occur for both polymorphs in the kinetic energy range from 3.5 to 40 eV. However, for {gamma}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) subplantation of impinging <span class="hlt">Al</span> causes significantly larger irradiation damage and hence larger mobility as compared to {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Consequently, fast diffusion along {gamma}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) gives rise to preferential {alpha}-<span class="hlt">Al</span>{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) growth, which is consistent with published structure evolution experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhRvB..6112570Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhRvB..6112570Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic structure and bonding properties of layered machinable Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>C and Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>N ceramics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yanchun; Sun, Zhimei</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>The electronic structure and chemical bonding of the layered ternary compounds Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>C and Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>N have been calculated by the ab initio pseudopotential total-energy method. The results show that Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>C and Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>N exhibit metallic electrical conductivity with an anisotropic character and Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>C should be more conductive than Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>N. The chemical bonding in Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>C and Ti2<span class="hlt">Al</span>N is also anisotropic and is metallic-covalent-ionic in nature. On the basis of total-energy estimation we conclude that the replacement of C by N will result in a stabilization of the hexagonal structure and decrease in metallic properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.683a2015K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.683a2015K"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>- and 93Nb-NMR spectra of PrNb2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 single crystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kubo, Tetsuro; Kotegawa, Hisashi; Tou, Hideki; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Nakama, Akihiro; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We report the results of 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>- and 93Nb- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements in PrNb2<span class="hlt">Al</span>20 single crystals. The field angle dependence of the observed 93Nb-NMR lines for the single crystal at around 5 T and at 50 K is reproduced by a simulation using previously reported NQR parameters νQ,Nb ≈ 1.82 MHz and ηNb ≈ 0, while 27<span class="hlt">Al</span>-NMR lines were not reproduce by the previously reported NQR parameters νQ,<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3) ≈ 1.53 MHz and η<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3) ≈ 0.17. By reexamining and reconsidering the NMR and NQR lines for powder samples, we obtained a correct NQR parameters for <span class="hlt">Al</span>(3) site to be νQ,<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3),new ≈ 1 MHz and η<span class="hlt">Al</span>(3),new ≈ 0.4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......204K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......204K"><span id="translatedtitle">The structure and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">Al</span> and <span class="hlt">Al-Al</span>(2)O(3) microlaminate films synthesized by ion beam-assisted deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalnas, Christine Elaine</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>The effects of the constituent <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Alsb2Osb3 layer properties, as modified by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), on the fracture behavior of <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Alsb2Osb3 microlaminate films were analyzed. Residual stress in monolithic <span class="hlt">Al</span> and Alsb2Osb3 films could be tailored by proper control of the R-ratio (ion to atom arrival rate ratio) and Esbn (ion energy deposited per atom, eV/atom). Residual stress in microlaminate films could be controlled by adjusting the deposition parameters of the individual layers because the stress followed a rule of mixtures. Alsb2Osb3 films exhibited a transition from tensile to compressive stress with increasing Esbn. <span class="hlt">Al</span> films exhibited a tensile residual stress over the entire range of Esbn from 0 to 50 eV/atom. Fracture behaviors of Alsb2Osb3 films and <span class="hlt">Al</span>-Alsb2Osb3 microlaminate films were assessed by deformation of films deposited on ductile substrates. The true fracture strain of both PVD and IBAD (R = 0.1), 5-bilayer microlaminate films increased with decreasing magnitude of residual stress as the volume fraction of <span class="hlt">Al</span> was increased from 0.20 to 0.55. Critical strain energy release rates, calculated from the experiments, for two IBAD R = 0.02 Alsb2Osb3 films indicated that differences in the strain energy release rates by a factor of 2 are not significant. The role of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> layer on microlaminate fracture was analyzed in trilayer films with near zero residual film stress. Critical strain energy release rates for all trilayer films were similar (6-14 J/msp2); there was no effect of the <span class="hlt">Al</span> layer processing or mixing at the interfaces. However, the effects of IBAD on the structure and mechanical properties of 500 nm thick <span class="hlt">Al</span> films were significant. Mean grain size of IBAD <span class="hlt">Al</span> was 120 nm compared with a mean grain size of 260 nm for IBAD <span class="hlt">Al</span>. 0.2% offset yield strengths of both films were similar (˜180 GPa). IBAD <span class="hlt">Al</span> exhibited a region of increased work-hardening compared to PVD <span class="hlt">Al</span>, albeit a decreased mean elongation to fracture. PVD <span class="hlt">Al</span> failed by necking to a point, while the IBAD <span class="hlt">Al</span> exhibited intergranular fracture. Differences in grain boundary character between PVD and IBAD may be responsible for both the reduced ductility and the intergranular fracture in IBAD <span class="hlt">Al</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117k5702I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117k5702I"><span id="translatedtitle">Co-existence of a few and sub micron inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N quantum wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iwata, Yoshiya; Oto, Takao; Gachet, David; Banal, Ryan G.; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Inhomogeneity in <span class="hlt">Al</span>-rich <span class="hlt">AlGaN/Al</span>N quantum wells is directly observed using our custom-built confocal microscopy photoluminescence (?-PL) apparatus with a reflective system. The ?-PL system can reach the <span class="hlt">Al</span>N bandgap in the deep ultra-violet spectral range with a spatial resolution of 1.8 ?m. In addition, cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements with a higher spatial resolution of about 100 nm are performed. A comparison of the ?-PL and CL measurements reveals that inhomogeneities, which have different spatial distributions of a few- and sub-micron scales that are superimposed, play key roles in determining the optical properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SHK.B5002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SHK.B5002B"><span id="translatedtitle">Constitutive Model Constants for <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T651 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T6</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant; Harris, Bryan</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these material. J-C strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250^oC. J-C strength model constants for <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T651 are: A=527 MPa, B=676 MPa, n=0.71, C=0.017, and m=1.61 and for <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T6: A = 546 MPa, B = 674 MPa, n = 0.72, C = 0.059, and m =1.56. J-C fracture model constants are determined form quasi-static and high strain rate/high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. J-C fracture model constants for the two alloys are: <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T651; D1 = 0.110, D2 = 0.573, D3= -3.4446, D4 = 0.016, and D 5= 1.099 and <span class="hlt">Al</span>7075-T6; D1= 0.451 D2= -0.952 D3= -.068, D4 =0.036, and D5 = 0.697.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000030652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000030652"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclic Oxidation of FeCr<span class="hlt">AlY/Al</span>2O3 Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Three-ply FeCr<span class="hlt">AlY/Al</span>2O3 composites and FeCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>Y matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing <span class="hlt">Al</span>2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897563"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetization anomaly of Nb3<span class="hlt">Al</span> strands and instability of Nb3<span class="hlt">Al</span> Rutherford cables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamada, Ryuji; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Using a Cu stabilized Nb{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> strand with Nb matrix, a 30 meter long Nb{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> Rutherford cable was made by a collaboration of Fermilab and NIMS. Recently the strand and cable were tested. In both cases instability was observed at around 1.5 Tesla. The magnetization of this Nb{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> strand was measured first using a balanced coil magnetometer at 4.2 K. Strands showed an anomalously large magnetization behavior around at 1.6 T, which is much higher than the usual B{sub c2} {approx} 0.5 Tesla (4.2 K) of Nb matrix. This result is compared with the magnetization data of short strand samples using a SQUID magnetometer, in which a flux-jump signal was observed at 0.5 Tesla, but not at higher field. As a possible explanation for this magnetization anomaly, the interfilament coupling through the thin Nb films in the strands is suggested. The instability problem observed in low field tests of the Nb{sub 3}<span class="hlt">Al</span> Rutherford cables is attributed to this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat..44..194K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat..44..194K"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural, Optical, and Electrical Characterization of <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ n-ZnO/ p-Si/<span class="hlt">Al</span> Heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Rajender; Chand, Subhash</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For heterojunction fabrication, zinc oxide thin films were grown on p-Si by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to study the grain size and morphology of the films. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Experimental observations confirmed that the deposited films have potential for sharp emission in the visible region. High-purity (99.999%) vacuum evaporated aluminium metal was used to make contacts to the n-ZnO and p-Si. The current-voltage characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ n-ZnO/ p-Si(100)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> heterostructure measured over the temperature range 60-300 K were studied on the basis of the thermionic emission diffusion mechanism. The equivalent Schottky barrier height and the diode ideality factor were determined by fitting measured current-voltage data to the thermionic emission diffusion equation. It was observed that the barrier height decreased and the ideality factor increased with decreasing temperature, and that the activation energy plot was non-linear at low temperature. These characteristics are attributed to the Gaussian distribution of barrier heights. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of the <span class="hlt">Al</span>/ n-ZnO/ p-Si(100)/<span class="hlt">Al</span> heterostructure diode were studied over a wide temperature range. The impurity concentration in deposited n-type ZnO films was estimated from measured capacitance-voltage data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011519','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011519"><span id="translatedtitle">A sulfur segregation study of PWA 1480, NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jayne, D. T.; Smialek, J. L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Some nickel based superalloys show reduced oxidation resistance from the lack of an adherent oxide layer during high temperature cyclic oxidation. The segregation of sulfur to the oxide-metal interface is believed to effect oxide adhesion, since low sulfur alloys exhibit enhanced adhesion. X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was combined with an in situ sample heater to measure sulfur segregation in NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span>, PWA 1480, and Ni<span class="hlt">Al</span> alloys. The polished samples with a 1.5 to 2.5 nm (native) oxide were heated from 650 to 1100 C with hold times up to 6 hr. The sulfur concentration was plotted as a function of temperature versus time at temperature. One NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> sulfur study was performed on the same casting used by Browning to establish a base line between previous Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results and the XPS results of this study. Sulfur surface segregation was similar for PWA 1480 and NiCr<span class="hlt">Al</span> and reached a maximum of 30 at% at 800 to 850 C. Above 900 C the sulfur surface concentration decreased to about 3 at% at 1100 C. These results are contrasted to the minimal segregation observed for low sulfur hydrogen annealed materials which exhibit improved scale adhesion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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