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Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Elaeis guineensis on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Elaeis guineensis methanol extract on MCF-7 and Vero cell. Methods In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in by MTT assay. Cell morphological changes were observed by using light microscope. Results The MTT assay indicated that methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on MCF-7. Morphological alteration of the cell lines after exposure with Elaeis guineensis extract were observed under phase contrast microscope in the dose dependent manner. Conclusions The results suggest the probable use of the Elaeis guineensis methanol extract in preparing recipes for cancer-related ailments. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their in vivo cytotoxicity are under investigation.

Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan



Evaluation of antiviral activities of curcumin derivatives against HSV-1 in Vero cell line.  


Antiviral drug resistance is one of the most common problems in medicine, and, therefore, finding new antiviral agents, especially from natural resources, seems to be necessary. This study was designed to assay the antiviral activity of curcumin and its new derivatives like gallium-curcumin and Cu-curcumin on replication of HSV-1 in cell culture. The research was performed as an in vitro study in which the antiviral activity of different concentrations of three substances including curcumin, Gallium-curcumin and Cu-curcumin were tested on HSV-1. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds was also evaluated on the Vero cell line. The CC50 values for curcumin, gallium-curcumin and Cu-curcumin were 484.2 microg/mL, 255.8 microg/mL and 326.6 microg/mL, respectively, and the respective IC50 values 33.0 microg/mL, 13.9 microg/mL and 23.1 microg/mL. The calculated SI values were 14.6, 18.4 and 14.1, respectively. The results showed that curcumin and its new derivatives have remarkable antiviral effects on HSV-1 in cell culture. PMID:21299124

Zandi, Keivan; Ramedani, Elissa; Mohammadi, Khosro; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Deilami, Iman; Rastian, Zahra; Fouladvand, Moradali; Yousefi, Forough; Farshadpour, Fatemeh



Comparison of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells (MDCK) with a Green Monkey Continuous Cell Line (Vero) and Human Lung Embryonated Cells (MRC5) in the Isolation of Influenza A Virus from Nasopharyngeal Aspirates by Shell Vial Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a comparative study of the MDCK, Vero, and MRC-5 cell lines in the isolation of the influenza A (IA) virus. We studied 746 samples in which 63 IA viruses were isolated. The MDCK line displayed 100% sensitivity, the Vero line displayed 71.4%, and the MRC-5 displayed 57.1%. The MDCK line showed a statistically significant difference with respect to




Autophagic cell death is induced by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts from Eupatorium odoratum in vitro: effects on MCF-7 and vero cell lines.  


Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100??g/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:22666123

Harun, Faizah Bt; Syed Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin; Yin, Khoo Boon; Othman, Zulkhairi; Tilwari, Anita; Balaram, Prabha



Arenoviruses in Vero Cells: Ultrastructural Studies  

PubMed Central

Thin-section electron microscopy was carried out on Vero green monkey kidney cell cultures infected with some viruses of the newly constituted arenovirus group. Junin, Machupo, Amapari, Pichinde, Parana, Tamiami, and Latino viruses were morphologically identical and indistinguishable from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, the prototype virus of the group. Virus particles were round, oval, or pleomorphic, 60 to 280 nm in diameter, and matured via budding from plasma membranes. Most characteristically, particles contained various amounts of homogeneous, 20- to 25-nm, dense granules; these granules in large masses also formed distinctive intracytoplasmic inclusions. In negative-contrast preparations from infected Vero cell culture supernatant fluids, several of the viruses appeared as pleomorphic membrane-bound forms with rather pronounced surface projections. Most particles were between 90 and 220 nm in diameter, although some reached 350 nm in their longest dimension. Internal structure was not resolved by negative-contrast electron microscopy. All observations supported the current delineation of a distinct arenovirus group. Images

Murphy, Frederick A.; Webb, Patricia A.; Johnson, Karl M.; Whitfield, Sylvia G.; Chappell, W. Adrian



Cytotoxic effects of Eryngium kotschyi and Eryngium maritimum on Hep2, HepG2, Vero and U138 MG cell lines.  


Abstract Context: Eryngium maritimum L. and the endemic Eryngium kotschyi Boiss. of the Apiaceae family are used for antiinflammatory, antivenom, antinociceptive and diuretic purposes in folk medicine in Turkey. Objective: This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts belonging to Eryngium L. genus on various cell lines. Materials and methods: Cytotoxic activites of the lyophilized aqueous aereal and root parts of the plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (Hep2), human glioma (U138-MG) and African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cell lines at 8.33-266.62?µg/ml concentrations were analyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) cell viability assays. Results: Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were found <100?µg/ml in most cases varying around 16.33-125.66?µg/ml. IC50 values for E. kostchyi and E. maritimum root parts on Hep2 cells (32.86 and 30.25?µg/ml, respectively), E. kotschyi aereal, E. maritimum aereal and root parts on HepG2 cells (31.75, 32.42 and 35.01?µg/ml, respectively) by MTT assay were found to be close to the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommendations (IC50?cells. The lowest IC50 values according to the LDH method were observed in Hep2 cells and the highest in U138-MG cells. Root parts were found to be more toxic than aereal parts for both plants in both methods in general. Discussion and conclusion: Both plant extracts exerted cytotoxic activity aganist Hep2 and HepG2 cells, with low IC50 values defining their promising anticancer property according to NCI; however, further analysis are needed to confirm their activity. PMID:24028780

Yurdakök, Begüm; Baydan, Emine



Arenoviruses in Vero cells: ultrastructural studies.  


Thin-section electron microscopy was carried out on Vero green monkey kidney cell cultures infected with some viruses of the newly constituted arenovirus group. Junin, Machupo, Amapari, Pichinde, Parana, Tamiami, and Latino viruses were morphologically identical and indistinguishable from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, the prototype virus of the group. Virus particles were round, oval, or pleomorphic, 60 to 280 nm in diameter, and matured via budding from plasma membranes. Most characteristically, particles contained various amounts of homogeneous, 20- to 25-nm, dense granules; these granules in large masses also formed distinctive intracytoplasmic inclusions. In negative-contrast preparations from infected Vero cell culture supernatant fluids, several of the viruses appeared as pleomorphic membrane-bound forms with rather pronounced surface projections. Most particles were between 90 and 220 nm in diameter, although some reached 350 nm in their longest dimension. Internal structure was not resolved by negative-contrast electron microscopy. All observations supported the current delineation of a distinct arenovirus group. PMID:5497898

Murphy, F A; Webb, P A; Johnson, K M; Whitfield, S G; Chappell, W A



Vero cell assay for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin.  

PubMed Central

A rapid assay which measured the biological activity of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin was developed. The method involved the rapid killing of Vero cells by enterotoxin produced by C. perfringens grown in Duncan and Strong sporulation medium. Serial dilutions of toxin were added to Vero cells either in suspension or grown as monolayers in wells of a 96-well cell tissue culture cluster plate. Vital staining of Vero cells with neutral red, followed by extraction of the dye, allowed toxin levels to be determined either visually or by optical density measurements with a micro-ELISA M580 computer program. The toxin produced was confirmed as different from the Vero toxin of Escherichia coli and the alpha and theta toxins of C. perfringens.

Mahony, D E; Gilliatt, E; Dawson, S; Stockdale, E; Lee, S H



Preparation and evaluation of Vero-cell infectious bursal disease vaccine in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was carried out to develop an effective vaccine to control infectious bursal disease (IBD). The very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was adapted to grow in Vero-cell line after three serial passages. The virus was then attenuated by further serial passages and pathogenicity of different passages was determined in broiler chicks free from antibodies against IBDV.

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool; Iftikhar Hussain



Oxidative Stress in Vero Cells Infected with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral-induced apoptosis might be mediated by oxidative stress. It has already been described that cell death in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells occurs by apoptosis. In this study, oxidative stress parameters present in VSV-infected Vero cells were analyzed. Lipid peroxides (LP) were evaluated in cellular extracts and expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. LP levels exhibited a rise at different times

Diego A. Riva; María C. Ríos de Molina; Iara Rocchetta; Elizabeth Gerhardt; Félix C. Coulombié; Susana E. Mersich



Vero cell platform in vaccine production: moving towards cell culture-based viral vaccines.  


The development of cell culture systems for virus propagation has led to major advances in virus vaccine development. Primary and diploid cell culture systems are now being replaced by the use of continuous cell lines (CCLs). These substrates are gaining increasing acceptance from regulatory authorities as improved screening technologies remove fears regarding their potential oncogenic properties. The Vero cell line is the most widely accepted CCL by regulatory authorities and has been used for over 30 years for the production of polio and rabies virus vaccines. The recent licensure of a Vero cell-derived live virus vaccine (ACAM2000, smallpox vaccine) has coincided with an explosion in the development of a range of new viral vaccines, ranging from live-attenuated pediatric vaccines against rotavirus infections to inactivated whole-virus vaccines against H5N1 pandemic influenza. These developments have illustrated the value of this cell culture platform in the rapid development of vaccines against a range of virus diseases. PMID:19397417

Barrett, P Noel; Mundt, Wolfgang; Kistner, Otfried; Howard, M Keith



Opposite effects of two different strains of equine herpesvirus 1 infection on cytoskeleton composition in equine dermal ED and African green monkey kidney Vero cell lines: application of scanning cytometry and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis in a quantitative study.  


Viruses can reorganize the cytoskeleton and restructure the host cell transport machinery. During infection viruses use different cellular cues and signals to enlist the cytoskeleton for their mission. However, each virus specifically affects the cytoskeleton structure. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the cytoskeletal changes in homologous equine dermal (ED) and heterologous Vero cell lines infected with either equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) strain Rac-H or Jan-E. We found that Rac-H strain disrupted actin fibers and reduced F-actin level in ED cells, whereas the virus did not influence Vero cell cytoskeleton. Conversely, the Jan-E strain induced polymerization of both F-actin and MT in Vero cells, but not in ED cells. Confocal-microscopy analysis revealed that alpha-tubulin colocalized with viral antigen in ED cells infected with either Rac-H or Jan-E viruses. Alterations in F-actin and alpha-tubulin were evaluated by confocal microscopy, Microimage analysis and scanning cytometry. This unique combination allowed precise interpretation of confocal-based images showing the cellular events induced by EHV-1. We conclude that examination of viral-induced pathogenic effects in species specific cell lines is more symptomatic than in heterologous cell lines. PMID:20349252

Turowska, A; Pajak, B; Godlewski, M M; Dzieciatkowski, T; Chmielewska, A; Tucholska, A; Banbura, M



Opposite effects of two different strains of equine herpesvirus 1 infection on cytoskeleton composition in equine dermal ED and African green monkey kidney Vero cell lines: application of scanning cytometry and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis in a quantitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses can reorganize the cytoskeleton and restructure the host cell transport machinery. During infection viruses use different\\u000a cellular cues and signals to enlist the cytoskeleton for their mission. However, each virus specifically affects the cytoskeleton\\u000a structure. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the cytoskeletal changes in homologous equine dermal (ED) and heterologous\\u000a Vero cell lines infected with

A. Turowska; B. Pajak; M. M. Godlewski; T. Dzieci?tkowski; A. Chmielewska; A. Tucholska; M. Banbura



A Vero cell method for potency testing of diphtheria vaccines.  


A collaborative study on the evaluation of an alternative functional assay to the Ph. Eur. in vivo challenge procedure for potency determination of diphtheria toxoid vaccines was initiated in January 2001. This study is an extension of the collaborative study for the validation of serological methods for potency testing of tetanus toxoid vaccines for human use. The primary aim was to examine whether a Vero cell assay is a valid alternative to the Ph. Eur. in vivo challenge methods for potency determination of the diphtheria toxoid component of combined vaccines. The study also investigated whether sera from the same immunised guinea pigs can be used for potency determination of both the diphtheria and the tetanus toxoid components. The project was divided into three parts. In part I, summarised in this publication, the operating procedures for the methods and the optimal vaccine dilutions for the immunisation of guinea pigs were established. From the results of the part I study, performed in two laboratories, the correlation co-efficients between the Vero cell method and the challenge assay were considered satisfactory to warrant continuing with the next phase. Comparable diphtheria potency estimates were obtained in the two assays for four vaccines of different activities (range ca. 20-200 IU/ml). The study also provided preliminary information that sera from the same guinea pigs may also be used for potency determination of both diphtheria and tetanus toxoid components of vaccines by ELISA. PMID:12678233

Winsnes, R; Sesardic, D; Daas, A; Rigsby, P



Adaptation of High-Growth Influenza H5N1 Vaccine Virus in Vero Cells: Implications for Pandemic Preparedness  

PubMed Central

Current egg-based influenza vaccine production technology can't promptly meet the global demand during an influenza pandemic as shown in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Moreover, its manufacturing capacity would be vulnerable during pandemics caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccine production using mammalian cell technology is becoming attractive. Current influenza H5N1 vaccine strain (NIBRG-14), a reassortant virus between A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1) virus and egg-adapted high-growth A/PR/8/1934 virus, could grow efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells but not Vero cells which is the most popular cell line for manufacturing human vaccines. After serial passages and plaque purifications of the NIBRG-14 vaccine virus in Vero cells, one high-growth virus strain (Vero-15) was generated and can grow over 108 TCID50/ml. In conclusion, one high-growth H5N1 vaccine virus was generated in Vero cells, which can be used to manufacture influenza H5N1 vaccines and prepare reassortant vaccine viruses for other influenza A subtypes.

Huang, Mei-Liang; Yeh, Wei-Zhou; Weng, Tsai-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Shuan; Chong, Pele; Lee, Min-Shi



Development of a Vero cell DNA reference standard for residual DNA measurement in China.  


This collaborative study developed a Vero cell DNA reference for standardizing dot blot hybridization, an assay widely employed to measure residual DNA contents of viral vaccines prepared with Vero cells. High purity of Vero cell DNA was extracted and characterized by Hind III enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Then, with a cooperative calibration, the concentration of Vero cell DNA reference bulk solution was determined (64.0 ± 1.9 ?g/mL, OD 260/OD 280 = 1.87) and diluted (40 ng/mL) with Tris-EDTA buffer containing bovine serum albumin as freeze-dried excipients. With industrial filling apparatus, the diluted bulk was loaded into ampoules (0.5 mL each) which were heat sealed after nitrogen filling. Finally, a collaborative study showed that the Vero cell DNA reference could reach a sensitivity of 1 to 5 pg/dot and maintained good stability after accelerated destruction test. The successful establishment of the Vero cell DNA quantitative reference will facilitate the standardization of dot blot hybridization for testing residual host cell DNA. PMID:23291952

Cao, Shouchun; Dong, Guanmu; Tang, Jianrong; Li, Jia; Liu, Jinghua; Shi, Leitai; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi



The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is cleaved in virus infected Vero-E6 cells.  


Spike protein is one of the major structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus. It is essential for the interaction of the virons with host cell receptors and subsequent fusion of the viral envelop with host cell membrane to allow infection. Some spike proteins of coronavirus, such as MHV, HCoV-OC43, AIBV and BcoV, are proteolytically cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2. In contrast, TGV, FIPV and HCoV-229E are not. Many studies have shown that the cleavage of spike protein seriously affects its function. In order to investigate the maturation and proteolytic processing of the S protein of SARS CoV, we generated S1 and S2 subunit specific antibodies (Abs) as well as N, E and 3CL protein-specific Abs. Our results showed that the antibodies could efficiently and specifically bind to their corresponding proteins from E.coli expressed or lysate of SARS-CoV infected Vero-E6 cells by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the anti-S1 and S2 Abs were proved to be capable of binding to SARS CoV under electron microscope observation. When S2 Ab was used to perform immune precipitation with lysate of SARS-CoV infected cells, a cleaved S2 fragment was detected with S2-specific mAb by Western blot analysis. The data demonstrated that the cleavage of S protein was observed in the lysate, indicating that proteolytic processing of S protein is present in host cells. PMID:15450134

Wu, Xiao Dong; Shang, Bo; Yang, Rui Fu; Yu, Hao; Ma, Zhi Hai; Shen, Xu; Ji, Yong Yong; Lin, Ying; Wu, Ya Di; Lin, Guo Mei; Tian, Lin; Gan, Xiao Qing; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Wei Hong; Dai, Er Hei; Wang, Xiao Yi; Jiang, Hua Liang; Xie, You Hua; Zhu, Xue Liang; Pei, Gang; Li, Lin; Wu, Jia Rui; Sun, Bing



Development of a mammalian cell (Vero) derived candidate influenza virus vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza vaccine production is dependent on the availability of embryonated hen eggs for virus growth. This is an extremely cumbersome system with many disadvantages with respect to selection of virus variants and presence of adventitious viruses. We have developed an alternative cell culture system which allows rapid production of large volumes of vaccine. The World Health Organisation (WHO) approved Vero

O Kistner; P. N. Barrett; W. Mundt; M. Reiter; S. Schober-Bendixen; F. Dorner



Possible involvement of receptors in the entry of Kunjin virus into Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The results obtained from electron microscopy, adsorbed and internalised virus assays and immunofluorescence studies supported that the most likely mode of entry of Kunjin virus into Vero cells was by receptor-mediated endocytosis. This was deduced indirectly from the time sequence of events that occurred. Electron microscopy revealed that endocytosis of the virus through coated vesicles had occurred. The adsorbed

Mah Lee Ng; Lionel C. L. Lau



Enhanced Growth of Influenza Vaccine Seed Viruses in Vero Cells Mediated by Broadening the Optimal pH Range for Virus Membrane Fusion  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the most effective preventive measures to combat influenza. Prospectively, cell culture-based influenza vaccines play an important role for robust vaccine production in both normal settings and urgent situations, such as during the 2009 pandemic. African green monkey Vero cells are recommended by the World Health Organization as a safe substrate for influenza vaccine production for human use. However, the growth of influenza vaccine seed viruses is occasionally suboptimal in Vero cells, which places limitations on their usefulness for enhanced vaccine production. Here, we present a strategy for the development of vaccine seed viruses with enhanced growth in Vero cells by changing an amino acid residue in the stem region of the HA2 subunit of the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule. This mutation optimized the pH for HA-mediated membrane fusion in Vero cells and enhanced virus growth 100 to 1,000 times in the cell line, providing a promising strategy for cell culture-based influenza vaccines.

Murakami, Shin; Ito, Mutsumi; Takano, Ryo; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shimojima, Masayuki



Generation of Recombinant Arenavirus for Vaccine Development in FDA-Approved Vero Cells.  


The development and implementation of arenavirus reverse genetics represents a significant breakthrough in the arenavirus field (4). The use of cell-based arenavirus minigenome systems together with the ability to generate recombinant infectious arenaviruses with predetermined mutations in their genomes has facilitated the investigation of the contribution of viral determinants to the different steps of the arenavirus life cycle, as well as virus-host interactions and mechanisms of arenavirus pathogenesis (1, 3, 11) . In addition, the development of trisegmented arenaviruses has permitted the use of the arenavirus genome to express additional foreign genes of interest, thus opening the possibility of arenavirus-based vaccine vector applications (5) . Likewise, the development of single-cycle infectious arenaviruses capable of expressing reporter genes provides a new experimental tool to improve the safety of research involving highly pathogenic human arenaviruses (16) . The generation of recombinant arenaviruses using plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques has so far relied on the use of rodent cell lines (7,19) , which poses some barriers for the development of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed vaccine or vaccine vectors. To overcome this obstacle, we describe here the efficient generation of recombinant arenaviruses in FDA-approved Vero cells. PMID:23928556

Cheng, Benson Y H; Ortiz-Riaño, Emilio; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis



Rose bengal inhibits herpes simplex virus replication in vero and human corneal epithelial cells in vitro.  


Rose bengal dye is thought to highlight corneal lesions induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by virtue of its binding to dead or dying HSV-1-infected epithelial cells. However, whether rose bengal binds specifically to damaged versus normal corneal epithelial cells is unclear. To determine the binding properties of rose bengal, the authors compared binding of the dye to HSV-1-infected and uninfected cells, determined the cellular binding sites of the dye, and investigated the effects of rose bengal on HSV-1 replication in dye-treated cells in vitro. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that uninfected and infected Vero cells bound equivalent amounts of dye at several times post inoculation, indicating that rose bengal does not preferentially bind to HSV-1-infected cells. By light microscopy, rose bengal was found to bind to the cell nuclei and perinuclear region of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) and Vero cells. Pretreatment of Vero and HCEC with different concentrations of rose bengal and exposure to 148 microW/cm2 of white light for 2 min reduced the ability of both cell types to support HSV-1 replication. Vero cells, in the absence of rose bengal, supported HSV-1 replication, whereas pre-treatment with 0.05% rose bengal reduced the yield of HSV-1 by 99.99% (P less than 0.000001) and 1% rose bengal completely prevented HSV replication. HCEC supported HSV-1 replication in the absence of rose bengal, but pre-treatment with 1% or 0.05% rose bengal completely prevented HSV-1 replication (P less than 0.000001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1321799

Chodosh, J; Banks, M C; Stroop, W G



Invasion of Vero cells and induction of apoptosis in macrophages by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans are correlated with virulence.  

PubMed Central

Interactions of virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae strain Verdun with Vero cells (African green monkey kidney fibroblasts) and a monocyte-macrophage-like cell line (J774A.1) were assayed by a double-fluorescence immunolabelling method. Infectivity profiles were investigated according to (i) the duration of contact between leptospires and eukaryotic cells and (ii) the number of in vitro passages after primary isolation from lethally infected guinea pigs. Comparative experiments were conducted with the corresponding high-passage avirulent variant and the saprophytic leptospire Leptospira biflexa Patoc I. In Vero cells, virulent leptospires were quickly internalized from 20 min postinfection, whereas avirulent and saprophytic strains remained extracellularly located. In addition, the virulent strain demonstrated an ability to actively invade the monocyte-macrophage-like J774A.1 cells during the early stages of contact and to induce programmed cell death, as shown by the detection of oligonucleosomes in a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In both cellular systems, subsequent in vitro subcultures demonstrated a progressive decrease of the invasiveness, pointing out the necessity of using primocultures of Leptospira for virulence studies. Invasiveness of virulent leptospires was significantly inhibited with monodansylcadaverine, indicating that internalization was dependent on receptor-mediated endocytosis. Invasion of epithelial cells and induction of apoptosis in macrophages may be related to the pathogenicity of Leptospira, and both could contribute to its ability to survive in the host and to escape from the immune response.

Merien, F; Baranton, G; Perolat, P



Oral efficacy of Vero cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus DR13 strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Vero cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, DR13, was distinguished from wild-type PEDV using restric- tion enzyme fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Cell attenuated DR13 was orally or intramuscularly (IM) administered to late-term pregnant sows, and mortality resulting from the highly virulent PEDV challenge was investigated in passively immunized suckling piglets of the two different groups. The mortality

D. S. Song; J. S. Oh; B. K. Kang; J. S. Yang; H. J. Moon; H. S. Yoo; Y. S. Jang; B. K. Park



Oral efficacy of Vero cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus DR13 strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Vero cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, DR13, was distinguished from wild-type PEDV using restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Cell attenuated DR13 was orally or intramuscularly (IM) administered to late-term pregnant sows, and mortality resulting from the highly virulent PEDV challenge was investigated in passively immunized suckling piglets of the two different groups. The mortality rate

D. S. Song; J. S. Oh; B. K. Kang; J. S. Yang; H. J. Moon; H. S. Yoo; Y. S. Jang; B. K. Park



Formation of varicella-zoster virus antigens in infected Vero cells.  


The formation of varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus-associated antigens was studied in V-Z virus-infected Vero cells by means of indirect immunofluorescence. Early antigen (EA) was first detected inside V-Z virus-infected Vero cells 4 to 6 hr after infection, whereas surface membrane antigen (SMA) was expressed on the outer surface of infected cells 2 to 3 hr later than EA, and intranuclear late antigen (LA) was detected several hours later than SMA antigen. EA expression was not inhibited by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) treatment, whereas LA formation was completely blocked by Ara-C. The presence of two components of SMA early SMA (ESMA) and late SMA (LSMA), was suggested by this difference in susceptibility to Ara-C. The formation of all viral antigens, EA, SMA, and LA, was blocked by inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis. PMID:3003545

Takayama, M; Oya, A



Increased response of Vero cells to PHBV matrices treated by plasma.  


The copolymers poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) are being intensely studied as a tissue engineering substrate. It is known that poly 3-hydroxybutyric acids (PHBs) and their copolymers are quite hydrophobic polyesters. Plasma-surface modification is an effective and economical surface treatment technique for many materials and of growing interest in biomedical engineering. In this study we investigate the advantages of oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatment to modify the PHBV surface to enable the acceleration of Vero cell adhesion and proliferation. PHBV was dissolved in methylene chloride at room temperature. The PHBV membranes were modified by oxygen or nitrogen-plasma treatments using a plasma generator. The membranes were sterilized by UV irradiation for 30 min and placed in 96-well plates. Vero cells were seeded onto the membranes and their proliferation onto the matrices was also determined by cytotoxicity and cell adhesion assay. After 2, 24, 48 and 120 h of incubation, growth of fibroblasts on matrices was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analyses of the membranes indicated that the plasma treatment decreased the contact angle and increased the surface roughness; it also changed surface morphology, and consequently, enhanced the hydrophilic behavior of PHBV polymers. SEM analysis of Vero cells adhered to PHBV treated by plasma showed that the modified surface had allowed better cell attachment, spreading and growth than the untreated membrane. This combination of surface treatment and polymer chemistry is a valuable guide to prepare an appropriate surface for tissue engineering application. PMID:17619989

Lucchesi, Carolina; Ferreira, Betina M P; Duek, Eliana A R; Santos, Arnaldo R; Joazeiro, Paulo P



Equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV1) infection induces alterations in the cytoskeleton of Vero cells but not apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Effects of infection with two different strains of equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1; Piber 178\\/83, Kentucky D) on the cytoskeleton\\u000a of Vero cells were investigated immunohistochemically, and evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Twenty four hours\\u000a post EHV-1 infection the assembly of the microtubulus system of Vero cells was heavily disturbed. The Golgi region was dispersed\\u000a into vesicles spread

I. Walter; N. Nowotny



Protective effect of zinc chloride against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity on vero cells: preliminary results.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the possible time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cobalt chloride on Vero cells. The cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of cobalt chloride ranging from 0.5 to 1,000 ?M, and cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and resazurin assays. Possible protective effects of vitamin E, coenzyme Q(10), and zinc chloride were also tested in this system. A gradual decrease in cell proliferation was observed at concentrations ~? 200 ?M in incubation periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h with MTT assay. Exposure of cells to 500 and 1,000 ?M cobalt chloride caused significant decrease in cell survival. A biphasic survival profile of cells was observed at 1-25 ?M concentration range following 96 h of incubation. With resazurin assay, cytotoxicity profile of CoCl(2) was found comparable to the results of MTT assay, particularly at high concentrations and long incubation periods. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was noted following exposure of cells to ? 250 ?M of CoCl(2) for 24 h and ? 100 ?M concentrations of CoCl(2) for 48-96 h. Pretreatment of cells with ZnCl(2) for 4 or 24 h provided significant protection against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity when measured with MTT assay. However, vitamin E or coenzyme Q(10) was not protective. CoCl(2) had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. Preventive effect of ZnCl(2) against CoCl(2)-induced cytotoxicity should be considered in detail to define exact mechanism of toxicity in Vero cells. PMID:22281816

Gürbay, Aylin



Immunofluorescent sites in vero cells infected with the flavivirus Kunjin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The sites of replication and of accumulation of viral macromolecules were examined using fluorescent antibodies to viral products and to cell organelles. Synthesis of envelope protein and its accumulation in a narrow rim around the nucleus were detected at 4 hours post infection; concurrently, a progressive change was observed in the rough endoplasmic reticulum from a fine to a

Mah Lee Ng; J. S. Pedersen; Ban Hock Toh; E. G. Westaway



Intracellular location of Bartonella henselae cocultivated with Vero cells and used for an indirect fluorescent-antibody test.  

PubMed Central

Bartonella henselae, the major causative agent of cat scratch disease, was cocultivated with Vero cells on chamber slides and visualized by indirect immunofluorescence by using a patient serum containing specific antibodies. Confocal microscopy localized the granular B. henselae-specific fluorescence mainly around the nuclei of Vero cells. By transmission electron microscopy, these granules were identified as clusters of multiple intracellular organisms. Fixed slides with the monolayers of Vero cells with intracellular B. henselae were used for an indirect fluorescent-antibody test to investigate the seroprevalence of specific immunoglobulin G in 100 serum samples from blood donors. Seventy-four serum samples were negative; 19, 3, and 4 were positive at dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, and 1:256, respectively. In our population, a serum titer of 1:256 or greater should stimulate further investigations. Moreover, elucidation of the mechanism by which B. henselae enters the cells may help to understand the pathogenesis of cat scratch disease.

Zbinden, R; Hochli, M; Nadal, D



Diphtheria toxin-induced channels in Vero cells selective for monovalent cations  

SciTech Connect

Ion fluxes associated with translocation of diphtheria toxin across the surface membrane of Vero cells were studied. When cells with surface-bound toxin were exposed to low pH to induce toxin entry, the cells became permeable to Na+, K+, H+, choline+, and glucosamine+. There was no increased permeability to Cl-, SO4(-2), glucose, or sucrose, whereas the uptake of /sup 45/Ca2+ was slightly increased. The influx of Ca2+, which appears to be different from that of monovalent cations, was reduced by several inhibitors of anion transport and by verapamil, Mn2+, Co2+, and Ca2+, but not by Mg2+. The toxin-induced fluxes of N+, K+, and protons were inhibited by Cd2+. Cd2+ also protected the cells against intoxication by diphtheria toxin, suggesting that the open cation-selective channel is required for toxin translocation. The involvement of the toxin receptor is discussed.

Sandvig, K.; Olsnes, S.



Vero-cell rabies vaccine produced using serum-free medium.  


A new rabies vaccine was developed from Vero cells adhered to microcarriers, cultivated in a bioreactor in serum-free medium and infected with the PV/VERO-Paris rabies virus strain. The viral suspensions were concentrated by tangential filtration, purified by chromatography and inactivated with beta-propiolactone. In immunogenicity studies performed in mice immunized with three doses of the new vaccine (seven batches) and the commercial Verorab and HDCV, mean titers of neutralizing antibodies of 10.3-34.6, 6.54 and 9.36 IU/ml were found, respectively. The vaccine presented stability during 14 months at 2-8 degrees C, 30 days at 37 degrees C and 8 h at 45 degrees C. The use of serum-free medium facilitated the downstream process leading to residual cellular DNA values <22.8 pg per dose of vaccine in all produced batches. The effective immunogenicity induced in mice by this vaccine, the degree of purity of the product, the high antigen yield and the reduction of the cost of the product due to the virus production and purification processes, makes this technology very important for countries where rabies presents a great public health problem. PMID:15530700

Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza M; Mourão-Fuches, Regina M; Paoli, Rosana L; Silva, Maria L N; Miyaki, Cosue; Valentini, Elizabeth J G; Raw, Isaias; Higashi, Hisako G



[Inhibition of the accumulation of the Lassa virus in Vero cells by immune gamma globulin and complement].  


Specific inhibition of Lassa virus replication in Vero cells was found to be better achieved with immune gamma globulin in combination with complement than with gamma globulin alone. According to the authors, the inhibitory effect of these preparations is due to the cyto-destructive action of antibodies and complement on the infected cells. PMID:6208692

Vladyko, A S; Rogacheva, T A; Orlova, S V; Votiakov, V I


RNA interference targeting virion core protein ORF095 inhibits Goatpox virus replication in Vero cells  

PubMed Central

Background Goatpox is an economically important disease in goat and sheep-producing areas of the world. Many vaccine strategies developed to control the disease are not yet completely successful. Hairpin expression vectors have been used to induce gene silencing in a large number of studies on viruses. However, none of these studies has been attempted to study GTPV. In the interest of exploiting improved methods to control goat pox, it is participated that RNAi may provide effective protection against GTPV. In this study we show the suppression of Goatpox virus (GTPV) replication via knockdown of virion core protein using RNA interference. Results Four short interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences (siRNA-61, siRNA-70, siRNA-165 and siRNA-296) against a region of GTPV ORF095 were selected. Sense and antisense siRNA-encoding sequences separated by a hairpin loop sequence were designed as short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression cassettes under the control of a human U6 promoter. ORF095 amplicon was generated using PCR, and then cloned into pEGFP-N1 vector, named as p095/EGFP. p095/EGFP and each of the siRNA expression cassettes (p61, p70, p165 and p296) were co-transfected into BHK-21 cells. Fluorescence detection, flow cytometric analysis, retro transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real time PCR were used to check the efficiency of RNAi. The results showed that the ORF095-specific siRNA-70 effectively down-regulated the expression of ORF095. When Vero cells were transfected with shRNA expression vectors (p61/GFP, p70/GFP, p165/GFP and p296/GFP) and then infected with GTPV, GTPV-ORF095-70 was found to be the most effective inhibition site in decreasing cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by GTPV. The results presented here indicated that DNA-based siRNA could effectively inhibit the replication of GTPV (approximately 463. 5-fold reduction of viral titers) on Vero cells. Conclusions This study demonstrates that vector-based shRNA methodology can effectively inhibit GTPV replication on Vero cells. Simultaneously, this work represents a strategy for controlling goatpox, potentially facilitating new experimental approaches in the analysis of both viral and cellular gene functions during of GTPV infection.



Promising Rabies Vaccine for Postexposure Prophylaxis in Developing Countries, a Purified Vero Cell Vaccine Produced in China?  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence of a Vero cell rabies vaccine manufactured in China, compared with those of Verorab. Adequate titers of antibody were observed for the two vaccines. ChengDa rabies vaccine could be a promising alternative vaccine for many developing countries which cannot afford expensive rabies vaccines.

Wang, Chuanlin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Song, Qingkun; Tang, Kun



Promising rabies vaccine for postexposure prophylaxis in developing countries, a purified vero cell vaccine produced in china.  


We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence of a Vero cell rabies vaccine manufactured in China, compared with those of Verorab. Adequate titers of antibody were observed for the two vaccines. ChengDa rabies vaccine could be a promising alternative vaccine for many developing countries which cannot afford expensive rabies vaccines. PMID:20147495

Wang, Chuanlin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Song, Qingkun; Tang, Kun



Safety and efficacy of purified vero cell rabies vaccine given intramuscularly and intradermally. (Results of a prospective randomized trial)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: to determine adverse reactions as a result of pre- and post-exposure rabies vaccination, using the conventional intramuscular, and reduced dose intradermal regimens and purified Vero cell rabies vaccine. Design: a prospective and randomized study of patients exposed to rabies and of subjects in need of pre-exposure rabies vaccination. Setting: a metropolitan rabies control center in a canine rabies endemic

W. Jaiiaroensup; J. Lang; P. Thipkong; O. Wimalaratne; P. Samranwataya; A. Saikasem; S. Chareonwai; W. Yenmuang; S. Prakongsri; V. Sitprija; H. Wilde



The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is cleaved in virus infected Vero-E6 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spike protein is one of the major structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus. It is essential for the interaction of the virons with host cell receptors and subsequent fusion of the viral envelop with host cell membrane to allow infection. Some spike proteins of coronavirus, such as MHV, HCoV-OC43, AIBV and BcoV, are proteolytically cleaved into two subunits, S1

Xiao Dong WU; Bo SHANG; Rui Fu YANG; Hao YU; Zhi Hai MA; Xu SHEN; Yong Yong JI; Ying LIN; Ya Di WU; Guo Mei LIN; Lin TIAN; Xiao Qing GAN; Sheng YANG; Wei Hong JIANG; Er Hei DAI; Xiao Yi WANG; Hua Liang JIANG; You Hua XIE; Xue Liang ZHU; Gang PEI; Lin LI; Jia Rui WU; Bing SUN




Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinogenic or tumourigenic testing of seven animal kidney cell lines (F-81, CRFK, MDCK, Vero, Vero-2 cell line, MA-104 and BHK-21) established in China, were carried out in more than 700 nude mice for colony formation in soft agar and for agglutination under different density of plant lectins. Tests showed that there were correlation between cell line chromosome number variations

De-Li Zhang; Shang-Gao Liu; Long-Fei Yan; Liu-Jin Li; Gao-Sheng Huang; Fu-De Fang; Geng-Tian Xia; Xu-Yu He; Bu-Xian Gao; Xiao-Hong Bai; Wei Wang; Pei-Guo Ding



Assessment of in vitro prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine against Chikungunya virus in vero cells.  


The resurgence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the form of unprecedented and explosive epidemics in India and the Indian Ocean islands after a gap of 32 years is a major public health concern. Currently, there is no specific therapy available to treat CHIKV infection. In the present study, the in vitro prophylactic and therapeutic effects of chloroquine on CHIKV replication in Vero cells were investigated. Inhibitory effects were observed when chloroquine was administered pre-infection, post-infection, and concurrent with infection, suggesting that chloroquine has prophylactic and therapeutic potential. The inhibitory effects were confirmed by performing a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis of viral RNA levels, and cell viability assays. Chloroquine diminished CHIKV infection in a dose-dependent manner, with an effective concentration range of 5-20 microM. Concurrent addition of drug with virus, or treatment of cells prior to infection drastically reduced virus infectivity and viral genome copy number by >/=99.99%. The maximum inhibitory effect of chloroquine was observed within 1-3 hr post-infection (hpi), and treatment was ineffective once the virus successfully passed through the early stages of infection. The mechanism of inhibition of virus activity by chloroquine involved impaired endosomal-mediated virus entry during early stages of virus replication, most likely through the prevention of endocytosis and/or endosomal acidification, based on a comparative evaluation using ammonium chloride, a known lysosomotropic agent. PMID:20336760

Khan, Mohsin; Santhosh, S R; Tiwari, Mugdha; Lakshmana Rao, P V; Parida, Manmohan



Pre-clinical development of cell culture (Vero)-derived H5N1 pandemic vaccines.  


The rapid spread of avian influenza (H5N1) and its transmission to humans has raised the possibility of an imminent pandemic and concerns over the ability of standard influenza vaccine production methods to supply sufficient amounts of an effective vaccine. We report here on a robust and flexible strategy which uses wild-type virus grown in a continuous cell culture (Vero) system to produce an inactivated whole virus vaccine. Candidate vaccines based on clade 1 and clade 2 influenza H5N1 strains, produced at a variety of manufacturing scales, were demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in animal models without the need for adjuvant. The vaccines induce cross-neutralising antibodies and are protective in a mouse challenge model not only against the homologous virus but against other H5N1 strains, including those from other clades. These data indicate that cell culture-grown, whole virus vaccines, based on the wild-type virus, allow the rapid high-yield production of a candidate pandemic vaccine. PMID:18953724

Howard, M Keith; Kistner, Otfried; Barrett, P Noel



Production in Vero cells of an inactivated rabies vaccine from strain FRV/K for animal and human use.  


A new concentrated and purified rabies vaccine was produced in Vero cells. Two rabies virus strains, the fixed rabies virus Pasteur (FRV) and Pittman Moore (PM) were adapted to Vero cells by 20 cycles of alternating passages in the brain of weaning mice. Intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of weaning mice was followed then by 17 and 20 serial passages in Vero cells of RFV and PM strains, respectively. The adapted strains designated as FRV/K and PM/K gave titres of 10(6) +/- 1.5 log (LD50/ml for i.c. inoculated mice) in several harvests taken from one infected cell culture. Pooled harvests were concentrated 20-fold by ultrafiltration and were tested as animal vaccine after inactivation with beta-propiolactone (BPL). Another vaccine preparation destined for human use, in addition to concentration and inactivation, was also purified by gel filtration. Control tests revealed that the antigenic content of different strain FRV/K harvests was very high in comparison with that of strain PM/K and the reference tissue culture vaccine (RIV, Netherland). In sheep the antibody response induced by the FRV/K strain was very high; serum neutralizing index (NI) higher than 4 was reached 40 days after the second vaccine dose, whereas the vaccine preparation from strain PM/K gave NI of 2.3 and the reference vaccine NI of 3.8, respectively. Safety tests in rabbits and guinea pigs showed neither pyrogenicity nor toxicity. PMID:2892381

el-Karamany, R M



Inhibition of toll-like receptor 2-mediated NF-kappaB activation in Vero cells with herpesvirus of turkeys.  


In a previous study, vaccination with a live bivalent vaccine consisting of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and SB-1 was found to be associated with distinct cytokine expression patterns and the modulation of cytokine responses in the spleen. This vaccine could play a role in mediating protection against infection with the RB1B strain of Marek's disease virus. In the present study, vectors for chicken Toll-like receptor 1 (chTLR1) and 2 (chTLR2) expression were constructed and transfected into Vero cells. Nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cell (NF-kappaB) activation was detected after HVT infection. Compared with normal Vero cells, NF-kappaB activation was significantly inhibited by HVT in Vero cells transfected with chTLR1-1, chTLR1-2, or both. The results demonstrate the significant characteristics of HVT in activating TLR2 signaling. chTLR1 plays a key role in TLR2 subfamily-mediated NF-kappaB inhibition after HVT infection. PMID:23901754

Yang, Qingli; Chen, Hao; Wei, Tianchao; Wei, Ping



Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the receptor specificity of modern human influenza H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, the analogs of natural receptors, namely sialyloligosaccharides conjugated with high molecular weight (about 1500 kDa) polyacrylamide as biotinylated and label-free probes, have been used. Viruses isolated from clinical specimens were grown in African green monkey kidney (Vero) or Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and chicken embryonated eggs.

Larisa Mochalova; Alexandra Gambaryan; Julia Romanova; Alexander Tuzikov; Alexander Chinarev; Dietmar Katinger; Herman Katinger; Andrej Egorov; Nicolai Bovin



Metabolic pathways of N-methanocarbathymidine, a novel antiviral agent, in native and herpes simplex virus type 1 infected Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-Methanocarbathymidine ((N)-MCT), a thymidine analog incorporating a pseudosugar with a fixed Northern conformation, exhibits potent antiherpetic activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). This study contrasts the metabolic pathway of (N)-MCT and the well-known antiherpetic agent ganciclovir (GCV) in HSV-1-infected and uninfected Vero cells. Treatment of HSV-1 infected Vero cells immediately after viral infection with (N)-MCT

Livnat Zalah; Mahmoud Huleihel; Esther Manor; Alexander Konson; Harry Ford; Victor E Marquez; David G Johns; Riad Agbaria



Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein gA/B: Evidence that the Infected Vero Cell Products Comap and Arise by Proteolysis  

PubMed Central

We recently reported (Pereira et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:5202-5206, 1981) that herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 glycoproteins, previously designated gA and gB, could not be differentiated by a bank of independently derived type-specific and type-common monoclonal antibodies. We also reported that from lysates of infected Vero cells, all but one monoclonal antibody precipitated gA/B glycoproteins which had faster electrophoretic mobility than the corresponding infected HEp-2 cell glycoproteins and a set of three small polypeptides which we designated g(A + B) reactive polypeptides 1, 2, and 3. Antibody H368, the single exception, failed to react with the gA/B glycoproteins or related antigens accumulating in infected Vero cells. In this paper, we report the following results. (i) The high-apparent-molecular-weight gA/B glycoproteins accumulating in infected HEp-2 cells were cleaved by a proteolytic enzyme contained in Vero cell lysates to yield more rapidly migrating proteins that were indistinguishable from authentic Vero cell gA/B glycoproteins. Like its authentic counterpart, the cleaved gA/B glycoproteins failed to react with H368 monocolonal antibody. In addition, the lysate cleaved HEp-2 cell gA/B glycoproteins into g(A + B) reactive polypeptides 2 and 3. (ii) The proteolytic activity contained in the uninfected cell lysates was inhibited by N-?-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone and is therefore trypsin-like. (iii) Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the cleavage of gA/B glycoproteins occurred during or soon after translation but that the accumulation of g(A + B) reactive polypeptide 1 was a consequence of a delayed processing event. (iv) Analysis of herpes simplex virus 1 × herpes simplex virus 2 recombinants indicated that the determinants of type-specific immune reactivity and electrophoretic mobility of gA/B glycoproteins and g(A + B) polypeptides map near the right terminus of herpes simplex virus 1 BamHI-G. Images

Pereira, Lenore; Dondero, Dale; Roizman, Bernard



Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gA/B: evidence that the infected Vero cell products comap and arise by proteolysis.  


We recently reported (Pereira et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:5202-5206, 1981) that herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 glycoproteins, previously designated gA and gB, could not be differentiated by a bank of independently derived type-specific and type-common monoclonal antibodies. We also reported that from lysates of infected Vero cells, all but one monoclonal antibody precipitated gA/B glycoproteins which had faster electrophoretic mobility than the corresponding infected HEp-2 cell glycoproteins and a set of three small polypeptides which we designated g(A + B) reactive polypeptides 1, 2, and 3. Antibody H368, the single exception, failed to react with the gA/B glycoproteins or related antigens accumulating in infected Vero cells. In this paper, we report the following results. (i) The high-apparent-molecular-weight gA/B glycoproteins accumulating in infected HEp-2 cells were cleaved by a proteolytic enzyme contained in Vero cell lysates to yield more rapidly migrating proteins that were indistinguishable from authentic Vero cell gA/B glycoproteins. Like its authentic counterpart, the cleaved gA/B glycoproteins failed to react with H368 monocolonal antibody. In addition, the lysate cleaved HEp-2 cell gA/B glycoproteins into g(A + B) reactive polypeptides 2 and 3. (ii) The proteolytic activity contained in the uninfected cell lysates was inhibited by N-alpha-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone and is therefore trypsin-like. (iii) Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the cleavage of gA/B glycoproteins occurred during or soon after translation but that the accumulation of g(A + B) reactive polypeptide 1 was a consequence of a delayed processing event. (iv) Analysis of herpes simplex virus 1 x herpes simplex virus 2 recombinants indicated that the determinants of type-specific immune reactivity and electrophoretic mobility of gA/B glycoproteins and g(A + B) polypeptides map near the right terminus of herpes simplex virus 1 BamHI-G. PMID:6292507

Pereira, L; Dondero, D; Roizman, B



In Vitro Induction of Neospora caninum Bradyzoites in Vero Cells Reveals Differential Antigen Expression, Localization, and Host-Cell Recognition of Tachyzoites and Bradyzoites  

PubMed Central

We report on an optimized method for the in vitro culture of tissue cyst-forming Neospora caninum bradyzoites in Vero cells and the separation of viable parasites from host cells. Treatment of tachyzoite-infected Vero cell cultures with 17 ?M sodium nitroprusside for 8 days severely scaled down parasite proliferation, led to reduced expression of tachyzoite surface antigens, and induced the expression of the bradyzoite marker NcBAG1 and the cyst wall antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody MAbCC2. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that intracellular parasites were located within parasitophorous vacuoles that were surrounded by a cyst wall-like structure, and the dense granule antigens NcGRA1, NcGRA2, and NcGRA7 were incorporated into the cyst wall. Adhesion-invasion assays employing purified tachyzoites and bradyzoites showed that tachyzoites adhered to, and invaded, Vero cells with higher efficiency than bradyzoites. However, removal of terminal sialic acid residues from either the host cell or the parasite surface increased the invasion of Vero cells by bradyzoites, but not tachyzoites.

Vonlaufen, Nathalie; Guetg, Nicole; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Muller, Norbert; Bjorkman, Camilla; Schares, Gereon; von Blumroeder, Daniela; Ellis, John; Hemphill, Andrew



Production and evaluation of a chromatographically purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) in China using microcarrier technology  

PubMed Central

China is a high population country with millions of animal bite cases every year; thus, it is necessary to explore and develop more effective and productive rabies vaccines for human use. To establish a safe, effective, inexpensive and high-yield rabies vaccine, a non-adjuvant purified Vero cell rabies vaccine produced in the SPEEDA PVRV microcarrier bioreactor was developed by Liaoning Chengda Biology Co. Ltd. in China. This vaccine was produced using Vero cells that were cultured in a microcarrier bioreactor. A microcarrier bioreactor containing 25 g/L of Cytodex-1 was used for perfusion culture. The Vero cell culture density was up to 1.2–1.5 × 107 cells/ml, viruses could be constantly harvested for 18–22 days, and the resulting vaccine immunizing potency was ? 4.5 IU/ml. Vaccine safety and immunogenicity post-immunization were also assessed. A total of 602 volunteers were enrolled and divided into two groups that were vaccinated with either SPEEDA PVRV or VERORAB PVRV on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28. All subjects vaccinated with SPEEDA PVRV showed no serious local or systemic adverse effects. The positive conversion rate of serum neutralizing antibodies against the rabies virus reached 100% in both the test and control groups (inoculated with VERORAB PVRV) at 14 days and 45 days after vaccination, and no significant difference was found between the neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) of the two groups. SPEEDA PVRV is appropriate for mass production and shows satisfactory clinical safety and immunogenicity for human post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies.

Yu, Pengcheng; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Yibin; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong



Safety and immunogenicity of two freeze-dried Vero cell rabies vaccines for human use in post-exposure prophylaxis.  


To provide basis for human rabies vaccination in China, the safety and immunogenicity of two freeze-dried Vero cell rabies vaccines for human use were assessed. A total of 250 volunteers were enrolled and divided into two groups: volunteers in Group A (n=200) were vaccinated five doses of Speeda Vero cell rabies vaccine manufactured by Liaoning Chengda Biotechnology Co. Ltd. on day 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 after exposure. Volunteers in Group B (n=50) were treated with Verorab Vero cell rabies vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur on the same schedule. The local and systematic adverse reactions were observed. Serum neutralizing antibody levels of 80 individuals in Group A and 50 individuals in Group B were tested with RFFIT on day 7, 14, 45, 180, 360 after the first dose. The seroconversion rates in Groups A and B were 40.3% and 37.0% on day 7 after the first dose, 95.5% and 97.7% on day 14, 100% and 100% on day 45, 100% and 100% on day 180, 89.1% and 89.5% on day 360 respectively, indicating no significant differences between the two groups. And no significant differences were found between the neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) of the two groups on day 7, 14, 45, 180 and 360 after the first dose, with the GMTs of day 14, 45, 180 and 360 all higher than 0.5IU/ml. Antibody levels of the two groups peaked around 2 weeks after the full vaccination program, followed by a 55% decrease up to day 180 and another 76% decrease up to day 360. Both groups experienced occasions of transient fever, rash, edema, and scleroma after vaccination. Neither group had any severe adverse reactions. It was concluded that both vaccines showed satisfactory safety and immunogenicity. Booster vaccination is recommended following another exposure after six months since the full vaccination program. PMID:21296694

Wang, Ling-yun; Sun, Mei-ping; Zhang, Xue-chun; Suo, Luo-dan; Xu, Ruo-hui; Zou, Yan-jie; Zuo, Li-bo; Qi, Hua



Antioxidant and antigenotoxic role of recombinant human erythropoeitin against alkylating agents: cisplatin and mitomycin C in cultured Vero cells.  


Cisplatin (CDDP) and mitomycin C (MMC), two alkylating agents used against various solid tumours, are a common source of acute kidney injury. Thus, strategies for minimizing CDDP and MMC toxicity are of a clinical interest. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective role of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) against oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by CDDP and MMC in cultured Vero cells. Three types of treatments were performed: (i) cells were treated with rhEPO 24?h before exposure to CDDP/MMC (pre-treatment), (ii) cells were treated with rhEPO and CDDP/MMC simultaneously (co-treatment), (iii) cells were treated with rhEPO 24?h after exposure to CDDP/MMC (post-treatment). Our results showed that rhEPO decreased the reactive oxygen species levels, the malondialdehyde levels and ameliorated glutathione (reduced and oxidized glutathione) modulation induced by CDDP and MMC in cultured Vero cells. Furthermore, rhEPO administration prevented alkylating agents-induced DNA damage accessed by comet test. Altogether, our results suggested a protective role of rhEPO, against CDDP- and MMC-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity, especially in pre-treatment condition. PMID:23970409

Rjiba-Touati, Karima; Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Soualeh, Nidhal; Achour, Abdellatif; Bacha, Hassen; Abid, Salwa



High cell density perfusion cultures of anchorage-dependent Vero cells in a depth filter perfusion system.  


A depth filter perfusion system (DFPS) with polypropylene fibers had been demonstrated to support high density cultures of anchorage-independent hybridoma cells. The DFPS provides advantages of high surface-to-volume ratio of 450-600 cm(2)/cm(3), low cost set-up, easy operation and scale-up. To test the feasibility of using DFPS for high density cultures of anchorage-dependent cells, Vero cells were cultivated in the DFPS. Gelatin coating on polypropylene fibers in the DFPS was necessary to promote cell attachment and growth. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations could be controlled by sparging air into the reservoir vessel through a filter sparger. When DO concentration was controlled above 40% of air saturation in the DFPS with 40 ?m pore size, the maximum cell concentration as estimated on specific lactate production rate, was 3.81×10(7) cells/ml of the total reactor volume. This viable cell concentration is approximately 18 times higher than that obtained in a T-flask batch culture. Taken together, the results obtained here showed the potential of DFPS for high-density cultures of anchorage-dependent cells. PMID:22358557

Choi, S K; Chang, H N; Lee, G M; Kim, I H; Oh, D J



Evaluation of the serum-free medium MDSS2 for the production of poliovirus on vero cells in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serum-free medium MDSS2 (Merten et al., 1994), was used for cultivating Vero cells as well as for producing poliovirus\\u000a (Sabin type 1) in static and in perfused micro-carrier cultures. At slightly different growth rates of 0.0120\\/h and 0.0106\\/h,\\u000a respectively, static cultures in serum-containing (SCM) and serum-free (SFM) medium produced titers of 106.75 and 106.67 TCID50 per 50 µl; signifying

O.-W. Merten; R. Wu; E. Couvé; R. Crainic



Cell lines  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Genomic instability in T-antigen expressing cells can be overcome by modifying the gene expressing T-antigen so that it lacks Bub1 binding. Stable cell lines can be produced by incorporation of the modified T-antigen gene, preferably together with the catalytic sub-unit of the telomerase construct.



Preclinical evaluation of Vaxfectin(®)-adjuvanted Vero cell-derived seasonal split and pandemic whole virus influenza vaccines.  


Increasing the potency and supply of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines remains an important unmet medical need which may be effectively accomplished with adjuvanted egg- or cell culture-derived vaccines. Vaxfectin(®), a cationic lipid-based adjuvant with a favorable safety profile in phase 1 plasmid DNA vaccines trials, was tested in combination with seasonal split, trivalent and pandemic whole virus, monovalent influenza vaccines produced in Vero cell cultures. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in Vaxfectin(®)-adjuvanted to nonadjuvanted vaccinated mice and guinea pigs revealed 3- to 20-fold increases in antibody titers against each of the trivalent influenza virus vaccine strains and 2- to 8-fold increases in antibody titers against the monovalent H5N1 influenza virus vaccine strain. With the vaccine doses tested, comparable antibody responses were induced with formulations that were freshly prepared or refrigerated at conventional 2-8°C storage conditions for up to 6 mo. Comparison of T-cell frequencies measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay between groups revealed increases of between 2- to 10-fold for each of the adjuvanted trivalent strains and up to 22-fold higher with monovalent H5N1 strain. Both trivalent and monovalent vaccines were easy to formulate with Vaxfectin(®) by simple mixing. These preclinical data support further testing of Vaxfectin(®)-adjuvanted Vero cell culture vaccines toward clinical studies designed to assess safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans. PMID:23857272

Smith, Larry R; Wodal, Walter; Crowe, Brian A; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Bruehl, Peter; Schwendinger, Michael G; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sullivan, Sean M; Shlapobersky, Mark; Hartikka, Jukka; Rolland, Alain; Barrett, P Noel; Kistner, Otfried



Authentication of the R06E Fruit Bat Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Fruit bats and insectivorous bats are believed to provide a natural reservoir for a wide variety of infectious diseases. Several lines of evidence, including the successful isolation of infectious viruses, indicate that Marburg virus and Ravn virus have found a major reservoir in colonies of the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus). To facilitate molecular studies on virus-reservoir host interactions and isolation of viruses from environmental samples, we established cell lines from primary cells of this animal. The cell lines were given to several laboratories until we realized that a contamination with Vero cells in one of the cultures had occurred. Here we describe a general diagnostic procedure for identification of cross-species contamination with the focus on Vero and Rousettus cell lines, and summarize newly discovered properties of the cell lines that may pertain to pathogen discovery.

Jordan, Ingo; Munster, Vincent J.; Sandig, Volker



Adaptation of yellow fever virus 17D to Vero cells is associated with mutations in structural and non-structural protein genes.  


Serial passaging of yellow fever virus 17D in Vero cells was employed to derive seed material for a novel inactivated vaccine, XRX-001. Two independent passaging series identified a novel lysine to arginine mutation at amino acid 160 of the envelope protein, a surface-exposed residue in structural domain I. A third passage series resulted in an isoleucine to methionine mutation at residue 113 of the NS4B protein, a central membrane spanning region of the protein which has previously been associated with Vero cell adaptation of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. These studies confirm that flavivirus adaptation to growth in Vero cells can be mediated by structural or non-structural protein mutations. PMID:23602827

Beasley, David W C; Morin, Merribeth; Lamb, Ashley R; Hayman, Edward; Watts, Douglas M; Lee, Cynthia K; Trent, Dennis W; Monath, Thomas P



[The morphological and karyological characteristics of MDCK and vero (B) cells cultures on plant hydrolyzate-based nutrient media].  


MDCK and Vero (B) cell cultures were propagated during 10 passages in the experimental nutrient media containing the soybean powder hydrolyzate prepared using trypsin and bromelain enzymes and the rice powder hydrolysate prepared with trypsin and in the control DMEM and SFM4 MegaVir media. The karyological, morphological, and proliferative characteristics of continuous cultures were examined and compared. The experimental media supplied with 3% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gibco, U.S.A.) showed high growth-enhancing properties and failed to affect their morphology. After propagated during 10 passages in the experimental media preserved a stable karyotype. MDCK cell cultures in the nutrient media based on rice and soybean powder hydrolyzates low (2%) in FBS caused no substantial changes in the proliferation indices and morphological and karyological characteristics of cell cultures. PMID:21545033

Mikhailova, G R; Mazurkova, N A; Podchernyaeva, R Ya; Ryabchikova, E I; Troshkova, G P; Shishkina, L N


Inhibition of dengue NS2B-NS3 protease and viral replication in Vero cells by recombinant retrocyclin-1  

PubMed Central

Background Global resurgence of dengue virus infections in many of the tropical and subtropical countries is a major concern. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of successful drugs that are both economical and offer a long-lasting protection. The viral NS2B-NS3 serine protease (NS2B-NS3pro) is a promising target for the development of drug-like inhibitors, which are not available at the moment. In this study, we report retrocyclin-1 (RC-1) production in E. coli as a recombinant peptide to test against dengue NS2B-NS3pro. Methods Dengue NS2B-NS3pro was produced as a recombinant single chain protein in E. coli and purified by Ni+ affinity chromatography. The RC-1 peptide was produced in E. coli and the tri-disulphide bonds were reformed in a diluted alkaline environment. Protease assay was performed using a fluorogenic peptide substrate and measured by fluorescence spectrometry. Real-time PCR was used for quantification of dengue serotype 2 (DENV-2) viral RNA produced in Vero cells. Results The RC-1 peptide inhibited the activity of recombinant NS2B-NS3pro with different values at 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) which are temperature dependent (28°C, 46.1?±?1.7 ?M; 37°C, 21.4?±?1.6 ?M; 40°C, 14.1?±?1.2 ?M). The presence of RC-1 significantly reduced viral replication in Vero cells infected with DENV-2 at simultaneous treatment after 48 hrs (70%) and 75 hrs (85%). Furthermore, moderate reduction in viral replication was observed at pre-treatment mode after 48 hrs (40%) and 72 hrs (38%) and post-treatment at 48 hrs (30%) and 72 hrs (45%). Conclusion Recombinant RC-1 inhibits DENV-2 replication in Vero cells by interfering with the activity of its serine protease. Thus, we propose that recombinant RC-1 is a potent, cost-effective dengue virus inhibitor. Therefore, it is suitable to consider RC-1 as a new candidate for drug development against dengue infection.



Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B? levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells.  


Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B? (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel



Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed.

Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel



Rapid screening of serum-free media for the growth of adherent Vero cells by using a small-scale and non-invasive tool.  


The paper proposes a rapid screening method for a first step improvement of an animal component-free medium dedicated to the growth of the anchorage-dependent Vero cell line. A new, rapid, and non-invasive technique is presented to specifically monitor cultures of adherent cells in 96-well plates. The operating conditions of an image analyzer are adapted to take into account the decrease of cell size when the attached cell density increases. An experimental design is carried out to assess the influence of ten component groups in the original medium. Two groups including protein extracts, growth factor, insulin, glucose, and pyruvate show significant positive effects. The groups with vitamins and molecules related to nitrogenous bases display a less pronounced influence. The mixture of amino acids, B(1) vitamin, magnesium sulfate, and sodium phosphate as well as the couple sodium citrate and ferric chloride lead to a downward trend. The screening results are proved to be scalable in stirred cultures with cells on microcarriers. An improved serum-free medium, with some component groups being removed or added, can be rapidly formulated to reach respectively similar or 1.6 times higher cell density than in the original medium. The results from this global approach could be helpful to further focus experiments on identified medium components. PMID:19504358

Petiot, Emma; Fournier, Frantz; Gény, Cécile; Pinton, Hervé; Marc, Annie



A herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein D mutant generated by bacterial artificial chromosome mutagenesis is severely impaired for infecting neuronal cells and infects only Vero cells expressing exogenous HVEM.  


We constructed a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone, bHSV2-BAC38, which contains full-length HSV-2 inserted into a BAC vector. Unlike previously reported HSV-2 BAC clones, the virus genome inserted into this BAC clone has no known gene disruptions. Virus derived from the BAC clone had a wild-type phenotype for growth in vitro and for acute infection, latency, and reactivation in mice. HVEM, expressed on epithelial cells and lymphocytes, and nectin-1, expressed on neurons and epithelial cells, are the two principal receptors used by HSV to enter cells. We used the HSV-2 BAC clone to construct an HSV-2 glycoprotein D mutant (HSV2-gD27) with point mutations in amino acids 215, 222, and 223, which are critical for the interaction of gD with nectin-1. HSV2-gD27 infected cells expressing HVEM, including a human epithelial cell line. However, the virus lost the ability to infect cells expressing only nectin-1, including neuronal cell lines, and did not infect ganglia in mice. Surprisingly, we found that HSV2-gD27 could not infect Vero cells unless we transduced the cells with a retrovirus expressing HVEM. High-level expression of HVEM in Vero cells also resulted in increased syncytia and enhanced cell-to-cell spread in cells infected with wild-type HSV-2. The inability of the HSV2-gD27 mutant to infect neuronal cells in vitro or sensory ganglia in mice after intramuscular inoculation suggests that this HSV-2 mutant might be an attractive candidate for a live attenuated HSV-2 vaccine. PMID:22993162

Wang, Kening; Kappel, Justin D; Canders, Caleb; Davila, Wilmer F; Sayre, Dean; Chavez, Mayra; Pesnicak, Lesley; Cohen, Jeffrey I



A Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Glycoprotein D Mutant Generated by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Is Severely Impaired for Infecting Neuronal Cells and Infects Only Vero Cells Expressing Exogenous HVEM  

PubMed Central

We constructed a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone, bHSV2-BAC38, which contains full-length HSV-2 inserted into a BAC vector. Unlike previously reported HSV-2 BAC clones, the virus genome inserted into this BAC clone has no known gene disruptions. Virus derived from the BAC clone had a wild-type phenotype for growth in vitro and for acute infection, latency, and reactivation in mice. HVEM, expressed on epithelial cells and lymphocytes, and nectin-1, expressed on neurons and epithelial cells, are the two principal receptors used by HSV to enter cells. We used the HSV-2 BAC clone to construct an HSV-2 glycoprotein D mutant (HSV2-gD27) with point mutations in amino acids 215, 222, and 223, which are critical for the interaction of gD with nectin-1. HSV2-gD27 infected cells expressing HVEM, including a human epithelial cell line. However, the virus lost the ability to infect cells expressing only nectin-1, including neuronal cell lines, and did not infect ganglia in mice. Surprisingly, we found that HSV2-gD27 could not infect Vero cells unless we transduced the cells with a retrovirus expressing HVEM. High-level expression of HVEM in Vero cells also resulted in increased syncytia and enhanced cell-to-cell spread in cells infected with wild-type HSV-2. The inability of the HSV2-gD27 mutant to infect neuronal cells in vitro or sensory ganglia in mice after intramuscular inoculation suggests that this HSV-2 mutant might be an attractive candidate for a live attenuated HSV-2 vaccine.

Kappel, Justin D.; Canders, Caleb; Davila, Wilmer F.; Sayre, Dean; Chavez, Mayra; Pesnicak, Lesley; Cohen, Jeffrey I.



Differentiation of a Vero cell adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea virus from Korean field strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ORF 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) designated DR13 was isolated in Vero cells and serially passaged by level 100. The virus was titrated at regular intervals of the passage level. Open reading frame (ORF) 3 sequences of the virus at passage levels 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 were aligned and compared using a computer software program. Suitability of the

D. S Song; J. S Yang; J. S Oh; J. H Han; B. K Park



Samarangenin B from Limonium sinense suppresses herpes simplex virus type 1 replication in Vero cells by regulation of viral macromolecular synthesis.  


Inhibitory effects of ethanolic extracts from 10 Chinese herbs on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication were investigated. By a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure, samarangenin B (Sam B) was isolated from Limonium sinense; Sam B significantly suppressed HSV-1 multiplication in Vero cells without apparent cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition experiments suggested that the inhibitory action of Sam B on HSV-1 replication was not due to the blocking of virus adsorption. In an attempt to further localize the point in the HSV-1 replication cycle where arrest occurred, a set of key regulatory events leading to viral multiplication was examined, including viral immediate-early (alpha), early (beta), and late (gamma) gene expression and DNA replication. Results indicated that levels of glycoprotein B (gB), gC, gD, gG, and infected-cell protein 5 (ICP5) expression and gB mRNA expression in Vero cells were impeded by Sam B. Data from PCR showed that replication of HSV-1 DNA in Vero cells was arrested by Sam B. Furthermore, Sam B decreased DNA polymerase, ICP0, and ICP4 gene expression in Vero cells. Results of an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Sam B interrupted the formation of an alpha-trans-induction factor/C1/Oct-1/GARAT multiprotein complex. The mechanisms of antiviral action of Sam B seem to be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting HSV-1 alpha gene expression, including expression of the ICP0 and ICP4 genes, by blocking beta transcripts such as DNA polymerase mRNA, and by arresting HSV-1 DNA synthesis and structural protein expression in Vero cells. These results show that Sam B is an antiviral agent against HSV-1 replication. PMID:12183238

Kuo, Yuh-Chi; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Chou, Cheng-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Ho, Yen-Hui



Letter to Sponsors Using Vero Cells as a Cell Substrate for ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... The term "EOPC" is meant to include cells at ... preferably be described in terms of population ... of Vaccines Research and Review Center for Biologics ... More results from


Immunogenicity and safety in adults of a new chromatographically purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (CPRV): a randomized, double-blind trial with purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (PVRV).  


Recent improvements in chromatographic purification procedures have made it possible to develop a new chromatographically purified rabies vaccine (CPRV) by further purifying the current rabies vaccine prepared from Vero-cell culture (Verorab; Pasteur Mérieux Connaught). The immunogenicity and safety of primary immunization, followed by a booster at one year, with CPRV was compared to that of the purified Vero cell vaccine (PVRV) in a randomized, double-blind study carried out at four veterinary schools in France. A total of 330 healthy, male and female, first-year veterinary students, aged at least 18 years and who required pre-exposure rabies prophylaxis, were enrolled in this study. Included subjects were randomly assigned either CPRV (n = 163) or PVRV (n = 167) to be given as a primary immunization series of three intramuscular injections (D0, D7, D28), followed by a booster after 1 year (D365). Blood samples for serological analysis were taken at D0 (before first injection), D28, D42, D180, D365 (before booster) and D379. All subjects developed a strong immune response to the primary series, and at D42, all subjects had seroconverted for rabies neutralizing antibody (serum titre > or = 0.5 IU/ml). The rabies virus-neutralizing antibody GMT value at D42 in the CPRV group (23.0 IU/ml) was non-inferior to that in the PVRV group (29.6 IU/ml), according to a one-sided non-inferiority test. While antibody titres tended to decrease over the period of follow-up, at D365 (before booster), 97.5% subjects in the CPRV group and 98.8% of subjects in the PVRV group remained seroconverted. After booster, although the rabies antibody GMT value in the CPRV group was lower than that in the PVRV group, all subjects in both groups were seroconverted, and the difference is probably not clinically important. The incidence of local and systemic reactions tended to decrease with each dose during the primary immunization series, followed by a slight increase after booster (significant time-effect in an exploratory logistic regression analysis). Although mild or moderate local reactions tended to be more frequent after injection with CPRV compared to PVRV, systemic reactions were reported less often (significant group-effects in exploratory logistic regression analyses). One serious adverse event possibly related to vaccine occurred during this study (severe asthenia after the third dose of PVRV). This comparative study in healthy young adults demonstrates that the new chromatographically purified rabies vaccine is as immunogenic as PVRV, and seems to be associated with fewer systemic reactions. PMID:10403033

Lang, J; Cetre, J C; Picot, N; Lanta, M; Briantais, P; Vital, S; Le Mener, V; Lutsch, C; Rotivel, Y



Vero cells co-infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus type 2: a scanning and transmission electron microscope study.  


Vero (African Green Monkey Kidney) cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) (CT-L2) for 48 hr and superinfected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were fixed 24 hr later and examined with the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ultrastructural examination of the co-infected cells showed that, although many CT-L2 inclusions were present, most were empty of reticulate bodies or elementary bodies. However, large numbers of viruses were observed in the co-infected Vero cells and, in some instances, were seen inside the CT-L2 inclusions. SEM studies of the co-infected cells revealed a swelling and rounding up of the Vero cells typical of a CT-L2 or HSV-2 infection. The outer surface of the co-infected cells were covered with many long microvilli typical of HSV-2 infection with only a few surface protruberances similar to those found in CT-L2 infected cells. PMID:2545004

Pontefract, R D; Ng, C W; Bergeron, G


JNK and PI3k\\/Akt signaling pathways are required for establishing persistent SARS-CoV infection in Vero E6 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence was established after most of the SARS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells died. RNA of the defective interfering virus was not observed in the persistently infected cells by Northern blot analysis. SARS-CoV diluted to 2 PFU failed to establish persistence, suggesting that some particular viruses in the seed virus did not induce persistent infection. Interestingly, a viral receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme

Tetsuya Mizutani; Shuetsu Fukushi; Masayuki Saijo; Ichiro Kurane; Shigeru Morikawa



Morphological Analysis of the Transfer of VSV ts-045 G Glycoprotein from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Intermediate Compartment in Vero Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vero cells were infected with the ts-045 strain of vesicular stomatitis virus, and the cells were incubated at 39°C to accumulate the mutant G glycoprotein in the ER as a misfolded aggregate. Cycloheximide was added to the culture medium 3.5 h after infection to prevent further protein synthesis, and the temperature was lowered to 10, 15, or 31°C. At these

Lavinia Vittoria Lotti; Maria Rosaria Torrisi; Maria Carmen Erra; Stefano Bonatti



Apoptosis induction in BEFV-infected Vero and MDBK cells through Src-dependent JNK activation regulates caspase-3 and mitochondria pathways  

PubMed Central

Our previous report demonstrated that bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)-infected cultured cells could induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. This study aims to further elucidate how BEFV activates the caspase cascade in bovine cells. BEFV replicated and induced apoptosis in Vero and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, and a kinetic study showed a higher efficiency of replication and a greater apoptosis induction ability of BEFV in Vero cells. Src and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 inhibitor, alleviated BEFV-mediated cytopathic effect and apoptosis. In BEFV-infected Vero and MDBK cells, BEFV directly induced Src tyrosine-418 phosphorylation and JNK phosphorylation and kinase activity, which was inhibited specifically by SU6656 and SP600125, respectively. The caspase cascade and its downstream effectors, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DFF45, were also activated simultaneously upon BEFV infection. In addition, cytochrome c, but not Smac/DIABLO, was released gradually from mitochondria after BEFV infection. SU6656 suppressed Src, JNK, and caspase-3 and -9 activation, as well as PARP and DFF45 cleavage; SP600125 reduced JNK and caspase-3 and -9 activation, as well as PARP and DFF45 cleavage. Taken together, these results strongly support the hypothesis that a Src-dependent JNK signaling pathway plays a key role in BEFV-induced apoptosis. The molecular mechanism identified in our study may provide useful information for the treatment of BEFV.

Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Chin-Yang; Liu, Hung-Jen; Liao, Ming-Huei; Chang, Chi-I; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Shih, Wen-Ling



In vitro efficacy of nitro- and bromo-thiazolyl-salicylamide compounds (thiazolides) against Besnoitia besnoiti infection in Vero cells.  


Nitazoxanide (NTZ) and its deacetylated metabolite tizoxanide (TIZ) exhibit considerable in vitro activity against Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites grown in Vero cells. Real-time-PCR was used to assess B. besnoiti tachyzoite adhesion, invasion, and intracellular proliferation in vitro. A number of NTZ-derivatives, including Rm4822 and Rm4803, were generated, in which the thiazole-ring-associated nitro-group was replaced by a bromo-moiety. We here show that replacement of the nitro-group on the thiazole ring with a bromo (as it occurs in Rm4822) does not impair the efficacy of the drug, but methylation of the salicylate ring at the ortho-position in a bromo-derivative (Rm4803) results in complete abrogation of the antiparasitic activity. Treatment of extracellular B. besnoiti tachyzoites with NTZ has an inhibitory effect on host cell invasion, while treatments with TIZ, Rm4822 do not. TEM demonstrates that the effects of Rm4822 treatment upon the parasites are similar to the damage induced by NTZ. This includes increased vacuolization of the parasite cytoplasm, and loss of the structural integrity of the parasitophorous vacuole and its membrane. Thus, Rm4822, due to the absence of a potentially mutagenic nitro-group, may represent an important potential addition to the anti-parasitic arsenal for food animal production, especially in cattle. PMID:17306057

Cortes, H C E; Mueller, N; Esposito, M; Leitão, A; Naguleswaran, A; Hemphill, A



Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses of differential human gene expression patterns induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus infection of Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vero E6 African green monkey kidney cells are highly susceptible to infection with the newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and they are permissive for rapid viral replication, with resultant cytopathic effects. We employed cDNA microarray analysis to characterize the cellular transcriptional responses of homologous human genes at 12 h post-infection. Seventy mRNA transcripts belonging to various functional classes

W. F. Leong; H. C. Tan; E. E. Ooi; D. R. Koh; Vincent T. K. Chow



In vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. to fluoroquinolone antibiotics as determined by immunofluorescent antibody analysis of infected Vero cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. to different concentrations of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin and sparfloxacin in Vero cell cultures, were determined by enumeration of immunofluorescent-stained bacilli. After incubation in a CO2-enriched atmosphere, inocula were replaced and tested with media containing 12 different concentrations of each antibiotic in replicate for each species and the monolayers were re-incubated. Growth

Timothy J Ives; Eric L Marston; Russell L Regnery; John D Butts



A vero cell-derived whole-virus H5N1 vaccine effectively induces neuraminidase-inhibiting antibodies.  


A Vero cell-derived whole-virus H5N1 influenza vaccine has been shown to induce neutralizing antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of diverse H5N1 strains in animal studies and clinical trials. However, neuraminidase-inhibiting (NAi) antibodies can reduce viral spread and may be of particular importance in the event of an H5N1 pandemic, where immunity due to HA antibodies is likely absent in the general population. Here we demonstrate the effective induction of NAi antibody titers after H5N1 vaccination in humans. In contrast to the immune response directed toward HA, a single vaccine dose induced a strong NAi response that was not significantly boosted by a second dose, most probably due to priming by previous vaccination or infection with seasonal influenza viruses. After 2 immunizations, seroconversion rates based on antibody titers against HA and NA were similar, indicating the induction of equally strong immune responses against both proteins by this H5N1 vaccine. PMID:22090447

Fritz, Richard; Sabarth, Nicolas; Kiermayr, Stefan; Hohenadl, Christine; Howard, M Keith; Ilk, Reinhard; Kistner, Otfried; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Barrett, P Noel; Kreil, Thomas R



Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH  

SciTech Connect

The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/. Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na/sup +/ was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na/sup +/. At a constant external concentration of HCO/sub 3/-, the amount of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO/sub 3/- decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO/sub 3/- is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ both in the absence and presence of Na/sup +/. At alkaline internal pH, HCO/sub 3/- stimulated the efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na/sup +/ and HCO/sub 3/- were required to induce /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.

Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.



Immunogenicity and safety of purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine in severely rabies-exposed patients in China.  


The immunogenicity and safety of a purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (PVRV, VERORAB; Aventis Pasteur, France) were evaluated in 171 patients treated for severe exposure to rabies (WHO category III contacts) at the Shandong Provincial Antiepidemic Station in Jinan and an EPI center in Ping Yin, China. Post-exposure treatment consisted of a single dose of equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIG, 40 IU/kg body weight) on Day (D) 0, and intra-muscular administration of PVRV on D 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28. Antirabies antibody levels were evaluated on D 0, 7, 14, 28, 90 and 180 using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. By D 14 all subjects had seroconverted (> or = 0.5 IU/ml), with a geometric mean titer of 50.3 IU/ml. Antibody titers remained above the seroprotection threshold in all patients for 3 months, and in 98.2% of subjects for 6 months. All patients were still alive 6 months after the start of treatment. PVRV and ERIG were shown to be well tolerated and no serious adverse events were observed. Following PVRV administration, 12 patients (7.0%) had at least one local reaction (mostly pruritus, erythematous rash and pain). Fourteen patients (8.2%) developed local reactions at the site of ERIG administration. Twelve patients (7.0%) developed systemic reactions following post-exposure treatment, the most frequent of which were pruritus, rash and vertigo. This study demonstrates that PVRV is immunogenic and safe in Chinese patients treated according to WHO recommendations for severe rabies exposure. PMID:11127328

Wang, X J; Lang, J; Tao, X R; Shu, J D; Le Mener, V; Wood, S C; Huang, J T; Zhao, S L



Chemical Mutagenesis of Dengue Virus Type 4 Yields Mutant Viruses Which Are Temperature Sensitive in Vero Cells or Human Liver Cells and Attenuated in Mice  

PubMed Central

A recombinant live attenuated dengue virus type 4 (DEN4) vaccine candidate, 2A?30, was found previously to be generally well tolerated in humans, but a rash and an elevation of liver enzymes in the serum occurred in some vaccinees. 2A?30, a non-temperature-sensitive (non-ts) virus, contains a 30-nucleotide deletion (?30) in the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genome. In the present study, chemical mutagenesis of DEN4 was utilized to generate attenuating mutations which may be useful in further attenuation of the 2A?30 candidate vaccine. Wild-type DEN4 2A virus was grown in Vero cells in the presence of 5-fluorouracil, and a panel of 1,248 clones were isolated. Twenty ts mutant viruses were identified that were ts in both simian Vero and human liver HuH-7 cells (n = 13) or only in HuH-7 cells (n = 7). Each of the 20 ts mutant viruses possessed an attenuation phenotype, as indicated by restricted replication in the brains of 7-day-old mice. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 20 ts mutant viruses identified nucleotide substitutions in structural and nonstructural genes as well as in the 5? and 3? UTRs, with more than one change occurring, in general, per mutant virus. A ts mutation in the NS3 protein (nucleotide position 4995) was introduced into a recombinant DEN4 virus possessing the ?30 deletion, thereby creating rDEN4?30-4995, a recombinant virus which is ts and more attenuated than rDEN4?30 virus in the brains of mice. We are assembling a menu of attenuating mutations that should be useful in generating satisfactorily attenuated recombinant dengue vaccine viruses and in increasing our understanding of the pathogenesis of dengue virus.

Blaney, Joseph E.; Johnson, Daniel H.; Firestone, Cai-Yen; Hanson, Christopher T.; Murphy, Brian R.; Whitehead, Stephen S.



Establishment of cell lines with increased susceptibility to EV71/CA16 by stable overexpression of SCARB2  

PubMed Central

Background Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A group type 16 (CA16) belong to human Enterovirus species A of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses are recognized as the major pathogens responsible for epidemics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), which presents with fever and vesicular eruptions of palms, soles of the feet or mouth. Human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been identified as the receptor for both EV71 and CA16, as overexpression of SCARB2 in cells can enhance virus replication significantly. Methods In this study, we used a lentivirus packaging vector to transduce the SCARB2 gene into human embryonic kidney cells (293), human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) to create stable expression lines. Expression of SCARB2 in the resulting three transgenic cell lines was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Results Levels of SCARB2 mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR in 293-SCARB2 (293S) or RD-SCARB2 (RDS) transgenic cell lines were approximately 2?×?102 times higher than those in 293 and RD cells, respectively, and three times higher in Vero-SCARB2 (VeroS) than in Vero cells. Furthermore, EV71 and CA16 virus titers in 293S and RDS cells were 102–103-fold higher (detected in RD cell) than those in the parental cells, and a 10-fold higher titer of EV71 was achieved in VeroS cells compared with that in Vero cells. Conclusions We established for the first time three cell lines stably overexpressing SCARB2, which showed drastic increases in susceptibility to EV71/CA16 infection. These optimal cell lines may be utilized to develop inactivated vaccines for EV71/CA16 and facilitate rapid detection and isolation of HFMD pathogens or other Enterovirus serotypes. Furthermore, these stable cell lines also can serve as tools to facilitate drug screenings as well as molecular studies on virus-host interactions and pathogenesis of causative agents for HFMD.



Degradation of cellular mRNAs induced by a virion-associated factor during herpes simplex virus infection of Vero cells.  

PubMed Central

We have used Northern blot hybridization to study the accumulation of specific cellular mRNAs in Vero cells infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or type 2. HSV-1 infection decreased the cytoplasmic levels of beta- and gamma-actin, beta-tubulin, and histone H3 and H4 mRNAs, though not all at the same rate. HSV-2 infection resulted in a more rapid decrease in actin and histone mRNA levels compared with HSV-1 infection. The turnover rate of each type of mRNA studied was accelerated in HSV-infected cells compared with the rate in uninfected cells. Cellular mRNA degradation was induced by HSV infection under conditions of (i) inhibition of de novo protein synthesis, (ii) inhibition of de novo RNA synthesis, (iii) infection with HSV-1(17) tsK, which fails to produce early and late viral gene products at the nonpermissive temperature, and (iv) infection with purified virions in the presence of actinomycin D. We have concluded that, in Vero cells, cellular mRNA degradation is induced by a factor associated with the infecting HSV virion and thus does not require de novo RNA or protein synthesis. Despite the overall inhibition of cellular mRNA accumulation, a novel 2.2-kilobase cytoplasmic actin transcript was produced in HSV-infected cells when viral gene expression was allowed. The level of accumulation of cytoplasmic host mRNAs was compared with the rate of cellular protein synthesis under different conditions of infection. This analysis suggests that both HSV-1 and HSV-2 require an additional function(s) to completely inhibit cellular protein synthesis. Images

Schek, N; Bachenheimer, S L



Preparation and characterization of an anti-inflammatory agent based on a zinc-layered hydroxide-salicylate nanohybrid and its effect on viability of Vero-3 cells.  


A new organic-inorganic nanohybrid based on zinc-layered hydroxide intercalated with an anti-inflammatory agent was synthesized through direct reaction of salicylic acid at various concentrations with commercially available zinc oxide. The basal spacing of the pure phase nanohybrid was 15.73 Å, with the salicylate anions arranged in a monolayer form and an angle of 57 degrees between the zinc-layered hydroxide interlayers. Fourier transform infrared study further confirmed intercalation of salicylate into the interlayers of zinc-layered hydroxide. The loading of salicylate in the nanohybrid was estimated to be around 29.66%, and the nanohybrid exhibited the properties of a mesoporous-type material, with greatly enhanced thermal stability of the salicylate compared with its free counterpart. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that free salicylic acid, pure zinc oxide, and the nanohybrid have a mild effect on viability of African green monkey kidney (Vero-3) cells. PMID:23345976

Ramli, Munirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Yusoff, Khatijah



Antibody response of patients after postexposure rabies vaccination with small intradermal doses of purified chick embryo cell vaccine or purified Vero cell rabies vaccine.  

PubMed Central

Although the introduction of tissue culture vaccines for rabies has dramatically improved the immunogenicity and safety of rabies vaccines, they are often prohibitively expensive for developing countries. To examine whether smaller doses of these vaccines could be used, we tested the safety and immunogenicity of purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) on 211 patients in Thailand with World Health Organization (WHO) category II and III exposures to rabies. The patients presented at two Thai hospitals and were randomized into three groups. Patients in Group 1 received 0.1 ml PCECV intradermally at two sites on days 0, 3, 7, and at one site on days 30 and 90. Group 2 was treated similarly, except that purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) was used instead of PCECV. Group 3 received 1.0 ml PCECV intramuscularly on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90. After 0, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 days serum was collected from the subjects and the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of rabies virus neutralizing antibody determined. After 14 days the GMT of 59 patients vaccinated intradermally with PCECV was equivalent to that of patients who received PVRV. Adverse reactions were more frequent in patients who received vaccines intradermally, indicating the reactions were associated with the route of injection, rather than the vaccine per se. We conclude that PCECV is a safe and highly immunogenic vaccine for postexposure rabies vaccination when administered intradermally in 0.1-ml doses using the two-site method ("2,2,2,0,1,1") recommended by WHO.

Briggs, D. J.; Banzhoff, A.; Nicolay, U.; Sirikwin, S.; Dumavibhat, B.; Tongswas, S.; Wasi, C.



In vitro assessment of the cytotoxicity of nisin, pediocin, and selected colicins on simian virus 40-transfected human colon and Vero monkey kidney cells with trypan blue staining viability assays.  


Gram-positive bacterial bacteriocins (nisin and pediocin) and gram-negative bacterial bacteriocins (colicins [Col] E1, E3, E6, E7, and K) were evaluated for cytotoxicity against cultured simian virus 40-transfected human colon (SV40-HC) and Vero monkey kidney (Vero) cells. Bacteriocin-treated cells were assessed for viability by trypan blue staining. Monolayers of SV40-HC and Vero cells were cultured in tissue culture plates (35 degrees C, 10% CO2 in humidified air) with the use of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) calf serum. Actively growing cells in the log phase (ca. 10(4) cells per ml) were treated with individual partially purified bacteriocin preparations at 170, 350, and 700 activity units per ml. Duplicate culture plates for each bacteriocin treatment and untreated controls were withdrawn after 16, 32, and 48 h of incubation. Cells were dissociated with trypsin and treated with trypan blue and were then counted in a hemocytometer with the use of a phase-contrast microscope. Viability assays indicated dose-dependent toxicity for some bacteriocins. Nisin, pediocin, and Col E6 were the most cytotoxic bacteriocins; SV40-HC cells demonstrated greater sensitivity than Vero cells did. Some bacteriocins can be toxic to mammalian cells; therefore, bacteriocins intended for use as biopreservatives must be evaluated for toxicity to mammalian cells and for other toxicities. Col E1, Col E3, Col E7, and Col K demonstrated little toxicity at the activities tested, indicating that they are safe and thus have potential for use as food biopreservatives. PMID:12747695

Murinda, S E; Rashid, K A; Roberts, R F



ACAM2000 clonal Vero cell culture vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health strain)--a second-generation smallpox vaccine for biological defense.  


The threat of smallpox as a biological weapon has spurred efforts to create stockpiles of vaccine for emergency preparedness. In lieu of preparing vaccine in animal skin (the original method), we cloned vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health strain, Dryvax by plaque purification and amplified the clone in cell culture. The overarching goal was to produce a modern vaccine that was equivalent to the currently licensed Dryvax in its preclinical and clinical properties, and could thus reliably protect humans against smallpox. A variety of clones were evaluated, and many were unacceptably virulent in animal models. One clonal virus (ACAM1000) was selected and produced at clinical grade in MRC-5 human diploid cells. ACAM1000 was comparable to Dryvax in immunogenicity and protective activity but was less neurovirulent for mice and nonhuman primates. To meet requirements for large quantities of vaccine after the events of September 11th 2001, the ACAM1000 master virus seed was used to prepare vaccine (designated ACAM2000) at large scale in Vero cells under serum-free conditions. The genomes of ACAM1000 and ACAM2000 had identical nucleotide sequences, and the vaccines had comparable biological phenotypes. ACAM1000 and ACAM2000 were evaluated in three Phase 1 clinical trials. The vaccines produced major cutaneous reactions and evoked neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in the vast majority of subjects and had a reactogenicity profile similar to that of Dryvax. PMID:15491873

Monath, Thomas P; Caldwell, Joseph R; Mundt, Wolfgang; Fusco, Joan; Johnson, Casey S; Buller, Mark; Liu, Jian; Gardner, Bridget; Downing, Greg; Blum, Paul S; Kemp, Tracy; Nichols, Richard; Weltzin, Richard



Inhibition of Cytotoxicity of Shiga Toxin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Vero Cells by Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae) and Ziziphus mistol Griseb (Rhamnaceae) Extracts.  


The capacity of Prosopis alba Griseb. and Ziziphus mistol Griseb. fruit extracts to inhibit the toxic action of Shiga toxin (Stx) was investigated. Purification of Stx from Escherichia coli O157:H7 was performed by saline precipitation and affinity chromatography using a column with globotriaosylceramide, while the fruits were subjected to ethanolic or aqueous extractions. The protective action of both fruits was determined by pre-, co-, and postincubation of one 50% cytotoxic dose per ml of Stx with different concentrations of ethanolic and aqueous extracts in confluent monolayers of Vero cells for 72 h at 37°C (5% CO2). The inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of Stx by fruit extracts was determined by the neutral red vital staining technique. The extraction of the polyphenols and flavonoids was effective, and more polyphenols per milligram of dissolved solids were obtained from P. alba than from Z. mistol. However, there were more flavonoids in Z. mistol than in P. alba. Components of both fruits increased the viability of cells treated with Stx when the extracts were preincubated with Stx for 1 h before being applied to the cell cultures, with the ethanolic extract of P. alba showing 95% cell viability at a concentration of 2.45 mg/ml. The extracts were less effective in protecting cells when Stx, extracts, and cells were coincubated together without a previous incubation of Stx; only the concentrations of 19.46 mg/ml for the P. alba aqueous extract and 3.75 mg/ml for the Z. mistol ethanolic extract resulted in the inhibition of cytotoxicity, with 52 and 56% cell viability occurring, respectively. Investigation into this difference in the protection of cells indicated that the protein molecule of Stx suffered degradation to advanced oxidative protein products during preincubation with extracts, principally with P. alba, which exhibited a greater amount of nonflavonoid polyphenols than Z. mistol. The prooxidant action on Stx favored the cells and enhanced the protective action of both fruits. PMID:24112573

Pellarín, M G; Albrecht, C; Rojas, M J; Aguilar, J J; Konigheim, B S; Paraje, M G; Albesa, I; Eraso, A J



Performance of six cell lines in the suspension-infection test used for the detection of herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six cell lines were assessed in the suspension-infection (SI) test for suitability for the rapid culture of herpes simplex virus (HSV). For the SI test, the specimen was combined in growth medium with trypsinized, suspended culture cells before allowing the cells to settle into a monolayer growth pattern. The cells tested in the SI assay were MV1-Lu, vero, C1008, BSC-1,

Teresa Rich; F. Brent Johnson



Mouse cell line authentication.  


The scientific community has responded to the misidentification of human cell lines with validated methods to authenticate these cells; however, few assays are available for nonhuman cell line identification. We have developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay that targets nine tetranucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) markers in the mouse genome. Unique profiles were obtained from seventy-two mouse samples that were used to determine the allele distribution for each STR marker. Correlations between allele fragment length and repeat number were determined with DNA Sanger sequencing. Genotypes for L929 and NIH3T3 cell lines were shown to be stable with increasing passage numbers as there were no significant differences in fragment length with samples of low passage when compared to high passage samples. In order to detect cell line contaminants, primers for two human STR markers were incorporated into the multiplex assay to facilitate detection of human and African green monkey DNA. This multiplex assay is the first of its kind to provide a unique STR profile for each individual mouse sample and can be used to authenticate mouse cell lines. PMID:23430347

Almeida, Jamie L; Hill, Carolyn R; Cole, Kenneth D



Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated, Vero cell culture-derived whole virus influenza A\\/H5N1 vaccine given alone or with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dosage-sparing strategies, adjuvants and alternative substrates for vaccine production are being explored for influenza vaccine development. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a Vero cell culture-grown inactivated whole virus influenza A\\/H5N1 vaccine with or without aluminum hydroxide adjuvant [Al(OH)3] in healthy young adults. Vaccines were well tolerated, but injection site discomfort was more frequent in groups receiving Al(OH)3. Dose-related

Wendy A. Keitel; Cornelia L. Dekker; ChrisAnna Mink; James D. Campbell; Kathryn M. Edwards; Shital M. Patel; Dora Y. Ho; Helen K. Talbot; Kuo Guo; Diana L. Noah; Heather Hill



Isolation of Hokkaido virus, genus Hantavirus, using a newly established cell line derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae).  


Hantaviruses belong to the family Bunyaviridae and are maintained in wild rodents. Although Vero E6 cells, which originate from African green monkey kidney, are used widely in hantavirus research, isolation of hantaviruses from this cell line is difficult. To develop an efficient method of propagation and isolation of hantaviruses we established a novel cell line, MRK101, derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), the natural host of Hokkaido virus (HOKV). The MRK101 cells showed a significantly higher susceptibility to Puumala virus (PUUV) hosted by Myodes glareolus than Vero E6 cells. Viral nucleocapsid protein in PUUV-infected MRK101 cells was detected earlier than in Vero E6 cells, and the viral titre in the culture fluid of MRK101 cells was higher than that of Vero E6 cells during the early phase of infection. In contrast, MRK101 cells showed no susceptibility to Hantaan virus. HOKV, which has not been isolated to date, was isolated successfully using MRK101 cells. Moreover, the newly isolated HOKV was successfully propagated in MRK101, but not Vero E6, cells. Phylogenic analyses of the S (small), M (medium) and L (large) segment sequences revealed that HOKV is related most closely to PUUV, but is distinct from other hantaviruses. These data suggest that the MRK101 cell line is a useful tool for the isolation and propagation of hantaviruses. Moreover, this is (to our knowledge) the first report of hantavirus isolation in a cell line that originated from the natural host. PMID:22791608

Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Ozaki, Yuka; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki



Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir protects vero cells from cytotoxicity by type-II shiga toxin from Escherichia coli O157:H7.  


Kefir is a fermented-milk beverage originating and widely consumed in the Caucasus as well as in Eastern Europe and is a source of bacteria with potential probiotic properties. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxin is commonly associated with food-transmitted diseases; the most prevalent serotype causing epidemics is Esch. coli O157:H7. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonism of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir against the action on Vero cells of supernatants of the Esch. coli O157:H7 strain 69160 expressing the type-II Shiga toxin (Stx2) and to study the role of the Lactobacillus cell wall in that inhibition. Spent culture supernatants of Esch. coli O157:H7 strain 69160 led to cytotoxic effects on cultured eukaryotic cells as evidenced by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide-cleavage assay or by lactate-dehyrogenase release. Lb. plantarum CIDCA 83114 reduced the cytotoxic activity of Stx present in strain-69160 supernatants, and this protection was markedly higher than those of Lactobacillus kefir CIDCA 83113 and 8348 and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CIDCA 333. This antagonism of cytotoxicity was mimicked by Lb. plantarum cell walls but was reduced after heating or protease treatments, thus indicating a protein or peptide as being involved in the protection mechanism. The cell surface of the lactobacilli bound the subunit B of Stx thereby decreasing the cytotoxicity. These interactions could constitute the first step in preventing the damage induced by Esch. coli O157:H7 supernatants, thus representing a valuable means of potentially mitigating the noxious effects of this food pathogen. PMID:23186804

Kakisu, Emiliano; Abraham, Analía G; Farinati, Carla Tironi; Ibarra, Cristina; De Antoni, Graciela L



Selection of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) inhibitors using both the GM1-ELISA and the cAMP vero cell assay.  


Weaned piglets are very susceptible to diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. In the past, various natural components were proposed to have beneficial effects by reducing the effects of diarrheal infectious diseases in humans and animals, and thus may represent an alternative for the use of (prophylactic) antibiotics. Alternatives may inactivate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) by interfering with toxin binding to the cellular receptor GM1. In this study, various plants and other natural substances were tested for inhibitory properties, in the GM1 binding assay, and in the LT-induced cAMP production in Vero cells. The toxic dose of each compound was determined in a cell viability assay, and the highest nontoxic concentrations were used in the GM1 and cAMP assays. Results demonstrated that only d-(+)-galactose, lactose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, and two tea extracts were able to inhibit the binding of LT to its GM1 receptor. In the cAMP assay, only the two tea extracts showed inhibitory activity. This shows that d-(+)-galactose, lactose, and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine can indeed inhibit LT binding to GM1 based on structural homology with GM1 in the absence of living cells. However, in the cAMP assay, d-(+)-galactose, and lactose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine are apparently metabolized to below their effective inhibitory concentration, likely predicting limited practical applicability in vivo. Both tea extracts maintained their activity in the presence of cells. The active compounds in both are probably polyphenols, which are not easily metabolized, and most likely work by aggregating the toxin. In conclusion, the combination of methods used here is a convenient and fast method for preselecting natural substances containing potentially toxin-binding compounds. Furthermore, if antidiarrhea activity is attributed to compounds found inactive here, their activity is unlikely based on interference with toxin binding. PMID:23692076

Verhelst, Roderick; Schroyen, Martine; Buys, Nadine; Niewold, Theo



Adherence of Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia cobof serotype 0 157: H7 to human epithelial cells in tissue culture: role of outer membranes as bacterial ad hesins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Escherichia coli of serotype 01 57 : H7 are Vero cytotoxin-producing enteric pathogens that have recently been associated with outbreaks of haemorrhagic colitis, sporadic cases of haemorrhagic colitis and with the haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The organisms demonstrate attaching and effacing binding to the caecum and colon of orally infected gnotobiotic piglets, chickens and infant rabbits. E. coli 01 57




Continuous cell lines and immune ascitic fluid pools in arbovirus detection.  


Successive experiments led us to use two cellular systems, MOS61 (Aedes pseudoscutellaris cells) and Vero cells, among the continuous cell lines recommended by the WHO Collaborating Center for systematic research and isolation of arboviruses. Virus detection in cell cultures is carried out with 7 mixtures containing 10 hyperimmune ascitic fluids made with the reference viruses. This technique enables the detection of 70 of the 80 arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa and very easily detects arbovirus associations by using either monospecific or monoclonal immune ascitic fluids (dengue-1-2-3-4 and yellow fever viruses) used in the indirect immunofluorescence technique. PMID:1297177

Digoutte, J P; Calvo-Wilson, M A; Mondo, M; Traore-Lamizana, M; Adam, F


Development of a cell culture system susceptible to measles, canine distemper, and rinderpest viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three strains of chick embryo adapted canine distemper virus (Lederle, Wisconsin, and Onderstepoort strains) and chick embryo adapted LA strain of rinderpest virus were easily adapted to an established line of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells), which has been routinely employed for the titration of measles virus. By using these Vero cell adapted strains of canine distemper

A. Shishido; K. Yamanouchi; M. Hikita; T. Sato; A. Fukuda; F. Kobune



Bovine Milk Inhibits Both Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Sulfatide and Helicobacter pylori-Induced Vacuolation of Vero Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastricmucosal cells is an initial important step incolonization and infection. To study adhesion, weinvestigated whether milk inhibits the adhesion ofHelicobacter pylori to sulfatide, an acidicglycosphingolipid that exists in human gastric mucosaand to which Helicobacter pylori adheres. As a measureof functional significance, we also studied whether milkinhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced vacuolation of Verocells. We used sulfatide-coated polystyrene

Yoshiyuki Hata; Toru Kita; Motonobu Murakami



Complete genome sequence of a Vero cell-adapted isolate of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in eastern China.  


In early 2012, a widespread porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) occurred in eastern China. A cell-adapted isolate, SD-M, was at the four-passage level of virulent field strain SD, which was isolated from a 2-day-old dead suckling piglet that had suffered from severe diarrhea in Shandong Province, China. We report here the complete genome sequence of SD-M. This sequence will promote a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PEDV. PMID:23166259

Zhao, Mengjiao; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Guisheng; Wang, Hui; Yang, Fangfang; Tian, Fulin; Jiang, Shijin



Vero response to a cytotoxin of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

A cytotoxin was found in culture filtrates of a number of Escherichia coli strains that differed from the known heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins of E. coli. It was cytotoxic for Vero but not for Y-1 or CHO cells, and its effect on Vero was distinctly different from that of heat-labile enterotoxin. It was labile to heat and antigenically different from heat-labile enterotoxin, and membrane filtration indicated a molecular weight of 10,000 to 30,000. Images

Konowalchuk, J; Speirs, J I; Stavric, S



In Vitro Susceptibilities ofBartonella henselae,B. quintana, B. elizabethae,Rickettsia rickettsii,R. conorii,R. akari, andR. prowazekii to Macrolide Antibiotics as Determined by Immunofluorescent Antibody Analysis of Infected Vero Cell Monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro susceptibilities ofBartonella(Rochalimaea)henselae,B. quintana,B. elizabethae,Rickettsia akari, R. conorii,R. prowazekii, andR. rickettsiito different concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithro- mycin,erythromycin,androxithromycininVerocellcultureswereevaluated.BartonellaandRickettsiaspp.were allowed to initiate infection of the antibiotic-free Vero cell monolayers, which were maintained in 16-chamber microscope slides in the absence of antibiotics at 32& Ci n aC O 2-enriched atmosphere. The monolayers were then incubated fo r3ht oallow for initial




The Products of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Immediate-Early US1/US1.5 Genes Downregulate Levels of S-Phase-Specific Cyclins and Facilitate Virus Replication in S-Phase Vero Cells  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP22?/US1.5? mutants initiate viral gene expression in all cells; however, in most cell types, the replication process stalls due to an inability to express ?2 late proteins. Although the function of ICP22/US1.5 has not been established, it has been suggested that these proteins activate, induce, or repress the activity of cellular proteins during infection. In this study, we hypothesized that cell cycle-associated proteins are targets of ICP22/US1.5. For this purpose, we first isolated and characterized an ICP22?/US1.5? mutant virus, 22/n199. Like other ICP22?/US1.5? mutants, 22/n199 replicates in a cell-type-specific manner and fails to induce efficient ?2 late gene expression in restrictive cells. Although synchronization of restrictive human embryonic lung cells in each phase of the cell cycle did not overcome the growth restrictions of 22/n199, synchronization of permissive Vero cells in S phase rendered them less able to support 22/n199 plaque formation and replication. Consistent with this finding, expression of cellular S-phase cyclins was altered in an ICP22/US1.5-dependent manner specifically when S-phase Vero cells were infected. Collectively, these observations support the notion that ICP22/US1.5 deregulates the cell cycle upon infection of S-phase permissive cells by altering expression of key cell cycle regulatory proteins either directly or indirectly.

Orlando, Joseph S.; Astor, Todd L.; Rundle, Scott A.; Schaffer, Priscilla A.



Comparison of initial feasibility of host cell lines for viral vaccine production.  


In order to reduce the time required for the development and production of viral vaccines, host cell lines should be available as expression systems for production of viral vaccines against groups of viral pathogens. A selection of cell lines was compared for their initial feasibility as expression system for the replication of polioviruses, influenza A viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (wild type strain A2). Six adherent cell lines (Vero, HEK-293, MRC-5, CHO-K1, BHK-21 c13, MDCK) and six single cell suspension cell lines (CAP, AGE1.CR.HS, sCHO-K1, BHK-21 c13 2p, MDCK SFS) were studied for their ability to propagate viruses. First, maximum cell densities were determined. Second, virus receptor expression and polarization of the cell lines regarding receptor distribution of eight different viruses were monitored using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Organization of the actin cytoskeleton was studied by transfection of the cells with Lifeact™, a construct coding for actin-EGFP. Finally, the ability to produce virus progeny of the viruses studied was assayed for each cell line. The results suggest that single cell suspension cell lines grown on serum free medium are the best candidates to serve as host cell lines for virus replication. PMID:23684847

Vlecken, Danielle H W; Pelgrim, Ralf P M; Ruminski, Slawomir; Bakker, Wilfried A M; van der Pol, Leo A



Establishment and characterization of a new Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) cell line with special emphasis on virus susceptibility.  


A new cell line from the neonate larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) mosquito was established and characterized. The cell line at the 50th passage (P) level consisted of three prominent cell types, i.e., epithelial-like cells (92%), fibroblast-like cells (7%), and giant cells ( approximately 1%). Karyological analysis showed diploid (2n = 6) number of chromosomes in >75% cells at P-50. The growth kinetics studied at 52nd passage level showed approximately tenfold increase in cell number over a 10-d study period. The species specificity studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting profile analysis using RAPD primers demonstrated 100% homology with the host profile showing the integrity of the cell line. Electron microscopy revealed the absence of mycoplasma or other adventitious agents. The cell line supported the multiplication of seven arboviruses, i.e., Chikungunya (CHIK), Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue 2 (DEN-2), Chandipura, vesicular stomatitis, and Chittoor viruses. The cell line did not replicate Ganjam and Kaisodi viruses. CHIK virus yield in the new cell line was approximately 3log and 0.5log 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50))/mL higher than Vero E6 and C6/36 cell lines, respectively. In the case of DEN-2 virus, it yielded 1log TCID(50)/mL higher than Vero E6, but lesser than C6/36 cell line. Due to its high susceptibility to a broad spectrum of viruses, the new cell line may find application in virus isolation during epidemics and in antigen production. PMID:19533252

Sudeep, A B; Parashar, Deepti; Jadi, Ramesh S; Basu, Atanu; Mokashi, Chetan; Arankalle, Vidya A; Mishra, Akhilesh C



Ovarian granulosa cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovary is a complex endocrine gland responsible for production of sex steroids and is the source of fertilizable ova for reproduction. It also produces various growth factors, transcription factors and cytokines that assist in the complex signaling pathways of folliculogenesis. The ovary possesses two primary steroidogenic cell types. The theca cells (and to a lesser extent, the stroma) are

Jon C. Havelock; William E. Rainey; Bruce R. Carr



Adrenocortical Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Initially, primary cultures of adrenocortical cells have traditionally been utilized to study the mechanisms controlling adrenocortical\\u000a steroidogenesis. However, the eventual onset of senescence in culture creates a recurring need for the costly and difficult\\u000a isolation of fresh cultures, and subsequently increases the risk of contamination. For these reasons, the use of primary cultures\\u000a has been increasingly replaced by immortalized cell

Jeniel Parmar; Anita Kulharya; William Rainey


Plant cell lines in cell morphogenesis research.  


Plant organs and tissues consist of many various cell types, often in different phases of their development. Such complex structures do not allow direct studies on behavior of individual cells. In contrast, populations of in vitro-cultured plant cells represent valuable tool for studying processes on a single-cell level, including cell morphogenesis. Here we describe characteristics of well-established model tobacco and Arabidopsis cell lines and provide detailed protocol on their cultivation, characterization, and genetic transformation. PMID:24132432

Seifertová, Daniela; Klíma, Petr; Pa?ezová, Markéta; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Opatrný, Zden?k



Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.  


Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H



A comparative study on the safety and immunogenicity of Purified duck embryo vaccine [corrected] (PDEV, Vaxirab) with purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCEC, Rabipur) and purifed vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV, Verorab).  


Rabies is a fatal but preventable disease. Cell culture vaccines (CCV) and purified duck embryo vaccines (PDEV) are currently recommended by WHO for post-exposure prophylaxis. In India, a PDEV (Vaxirab) is being manufactured and is in use since 2003. In the present study, we have evaluated the safety, immunogenicity and tolerance of this vaccine with two other WHO approved CCVs, viz., purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCEC, Rabipur) and purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV, Veroroab). This study was an open label, randomized phase IV comparative clinical trial. A total of 152 people bitten by dogs and other animals were recruited from 4 different centres from India. They were randomly assigned to receive one of the vaccines by Essen intramuscular regimen (52 subjects received Vaxirab and 50 each Rabipur and Verorab) and rabies immunoglobulin was also administered in all category III exposures. Their blood samples were collected on day 0 (prior to vaccination), 14, 28, 90 and 180. Side effects if any were monitored. The rabies neutralizing antibody titers in their blood samples were estimated by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Subjects in all three groups had neutralizing antibody titers by day 14 (>0.5 IU/mL) and geometric mean titers (GMT) observed for different vaccines on all days tested did not vary significantly (p>0.5). Side effects observed were minimal and did not vary significantly among the groups. The results of the present study indicate that PDEV (Vaxirab) is as safe, tolerable and immunogenic as both PCEC (Rabipur) and PVRV (Verorab). Thus this vaccine can be a good alternative to WHO approved CCVs for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:19818720

Ashwathnarayana, Doddabele Hanumantaiah; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayana; Sampath, Gadey; Sathpathy, Durga Madhab; Mankeshwar, Ranjit; Ravish, Haradana Halli Shankariah; Ullas, Padinjaremattathil Thankappan; Behra, Tapas Ranjan; Sudarshan, Mysore Kalappa; Gangaboraiah; Shamanna, Manjula



Modified vaccinia virus Ankara multiplies in rat IEC-6 cells and limited production of mature virions occurs in other mammalian cell lines.  


Recombinant viruses based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) are vaccine candidates against infectious diseases and cancers. Presently, multiplication of MVA has been demonstrated in chicken embryo fibroblast and baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells only. The multiplication and morphogenesis of a recombinant (MVA-HANP) and non-recombinant MVA strain in BHK-21 and 12 other mammalian cell lines have now been compared. Rat IEC-6 cells were fully permissive to MVA infection. The virus yield in IEC-6 cells was similar to that obtained in BHK-21 cells at low as well as high multiplicities of infection. Vero cells were semi-permissive to MVA infection. Mature virions were produced in supposedly non-permissive cell lines. The multiplication and morphogenesis of non-recombinant MVA and MVA-HANP were similar. These results are relevant to the production and biosafety of MVA-vectored vaccines. PMID:16361414

Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Nilssen, Oivind; Traavik, Terje



Pandemic influenza A H1N1 vaccine in recipients of solid organ transplants: immunogenicity and tolerability outcomes after vero cell derived, non-adjuvanted, whole-virion vaccination.  


During the 2009/10 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1), the American Society of Transplantation and other health organizations recommended that immunocompromised patients should be vaccinated as the key preventive measure. Since there are no data available for the immunogenicity of the unadjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine in immunocompromised patients - as opposed to the adjuvanted preparation - the objective of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity of an adjuvant-free H1N1 vaccine in recipients of solid organ transplants. Patients were recruited at the Vienna General Hospital, Austria. The vaccination schedule consisted of 2 doses of a whole-virion, vero cell derived, inactivated, non-adjuvanted influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) vaccine given with an interval of 3 weeks. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay on blood samples obtained prior to the first and after each vaccination was used for serologic analysis. The primary immunologic endpoint was the seroconversion rate, defined as the proportion of subjects with an individual 4-fold increase in HI titer of at least 1:40. In addition, virus-specific IgG antibodies to the pandemic H1N1 strain were measured using a commercially available ELISA. Twenty-five organ transplant patients (16 males, 9 females) aged 25-79 years were vaccinated and provided blood samples for serologic analysis. The time elapsed since transplantation was 10 months to 25 years (mean: 9 years; 95% CI 6-13 years). The vaccine was well tolerated and no local adverse events were noticed. After two vaccinations 37% of the patients demonstrated seroconversion in the HI assay as defined above and 70% had virus-specific IgG antibodies. Among the HI vaccine responders were 6 of 14 heart transplant recipients and 1 of 4 liver transplant recipients. The number and type of immunosuppressive agents did not significantly differ in their effect on the immune response. Our results show that the novel vero cell derived and adjuvant-free pandemic A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) influenza vaccine induced limited but measurable immune responses in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. PMID:21803100

Lagler, Heimo; Wenisch, Judith M; Tobudic, Selma; Gualdoni, Guido A; Rödler, Susanne; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Susanne; Jaksch, Peter; Redlberger-Fritz, Monika; Popow-Kraupp, Theresia; Burgmann, Heinz




PubMed Central

Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 ?g/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

Anajwala, Chetan C.; Patel, Rajesh M.; Dakhara, Sanjay L.; Jariwala, Jitesh K.



Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 in culture.  


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains possessing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, CFA/III, and antigen 2230 were tested for their ability to adhere to the following cell lines: HeLa, HEp-2, HRT 18, Hutu 80, MDBK, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2. ETEC strains adhered only to the Caco-2 cell line. Irrespective of the known adhesive factors, the ETEC strains that adhered to the brush border of human enterocytes also adhered to the Caco-2 cell line. The negative variants, which were cured of the plasmid encoding the adhesive factor, did not adhere. Adhesion of ETEC strains no longer occurred when the Caco-2 cells were pretreated with the homologous colonization factor antigen or when the bacterial cells were pretreated with homologous antibodies raised against the adhesive factors. This indicates that this adhesion is specific and that a different receptor exists for each type of adhesion factor. Electron micrographs of cross sections of the monolayer showed that the adhesion of ETEC strains to the brush border microvilli does not induce any lesion. Therefore, the Caco-2 cell line behaves in the same way as human enterocytes do. PMID:2180823

Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Aubel, D; Chauviere, G; Rich, C; Bourges, M; Servin, A; Joly, B



Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 in culture.  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains possessing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, CFA/III, and antigen 2230 were tested for their ability to adhere to the following cell lines: HeLa, HEp-2, HRT 18, Hutu 80, MDBK, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2. ETEC strains adhered only to the Caco-2 cell line. Irrespective of the known adhesive factors, the ETEC strains that adhered to the brush border of human enterocytes also adhered to the Caco-2 cell line. The negative variants, which were cured of the plasmid encoding the adhesive factor, did not adhere. Adhesion of ETEC strains no longer occurred when the Caco-2 cells were pretreated with the homologous colonization factor antigen or when the bacterial cells were pretreated with homologous antibodies raised against the adhesive factors. This indicates that this adhesion is specific and that a different receptor exists for each type of adhesion factor. Electron micrographs of cross sections of the monolayer showed that the adhesion of ETEC strains to the brush border microvilli does not induce any lesion. Therefore, the Caco-2 cell line behaves in the same way as human enterocytes do. Images

Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Aubel, D; Chauviere, G; Rich, C; Bourges, M; Servin, A; Joly, B



Gene therapy with cytokine-transfected xenogenic cells (Vero-IL-2) in patients with metastatic solid tumors: mechanism(s) of elimination of the transgene-carrying cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven patients with advanced cancer were treated in a clinical gene therapy trial by repeated intra- tumoral injections\\u000a with different doses of xenogenic fibroblasts secreting high amounts of human interleukin-2 (Vero-IL2). Treatments in a total\\u000a of 14 courses were well tolerated and resulted in clinical responses and measurable biological effects. Together with increases\\u000a in serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), modifications of the

Peter Jantscheff; Richard Herrmann; Giulio Spagnoli; Jürgen Reuter; Majid Mehtali; Michael Courtney; Christoph Rochlitz



Usutu virus growth in human cell lines: induction of and sensitivity to type I and III interferons.  


The mechanisms of Usutu virus (USUV) pathogenesis are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of USUV to interferon (IFN) and the capacity of USUV to stimulate IFN production. Initial experiments were conducted to characterize the susceptibility of human cell lines to USUV infection and to evaluate the single-growth cycle replication curve of USUV. Results indicate that USUV is able to infect a variety of human cell lines, completing the replication cycle in Hep-2 and Vero cells within 48 h. Pre-treatment of cells with types I and III IFNs significantly inhibited the replication of USUV. However, the inhibitory effects of IFNs were considerably less if IFN was added after viral infection had been initiated. Also, USUV weakly induced types I and III IFNs. PMID:23255619

Scagnolari, Carolina; Caputo, Beniamino; Trombetti, Simona; Cacciotti, Giulia; Soldà, Annalisa; Spano, Lucia; Villari, Paolo; della Torre, Alessandra; Nowotny, Norbert; Antonelli, Guido



Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies.

Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.



Transmission line analysis of MRAM cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test configuration of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) unit cell was modeled and its three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) analysis was utilized to calculate S-parameters. Transmission line analysis was performed for word line, bit line and readout signal path. Line width was varied from 0.5 to 2 ?m, line thickness from 0.1 to 1 ?m, and line length from

S. Jo



Development and characterization of insect cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the wide availability of insect cell culture media, it can generally be considered a routine process to develop new cell lines. Exceptions to this statement do exist, of course. Difficulties may arise when attempting to culture a specific cell type. For example, while there are a few cell lines from insect fat body and at least one from the

Dwight E. Lynn



Cell culture (Vero) derived whole virus (H5N1) vaccine based on wild-type virus strain induces cross-protective immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid spread and the transmission to humans of avian influenza virus (H5N1) have induced world-wide fears of a new pandemic and raised concerns over the ability of standard influenza vaccine production methods to rapidly supply sufficient amounts of an effective vaccine. We report here on a robust and flexible strategy which uses wild-type virus grown in a continuous cell

Otfried Kistner; M. Keith Howard; Martin Spruth; Walter Wodal; Peter Brühl; Marijan Gerencer; Brian A. Crowe; Helga Savidis-Dacho; Ian Livey; Manfred Reiter; Ines Mayerhofer; Christa Tauer; Leopold Grillberger; Wolfgang Mundt; Falko G. Falkner; P. Noel Barrett



Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.  


Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita



Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3?-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare.

Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita



Molecular Characterization of Putative Chordoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Immortal tumor cell lines are an important model system for cancer research, however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines are a common problem. Seven chordoma cell lines are reported in the literature, but none has been characterized in detail. We analyzed gene expression patterns and genomic copy number variations in five putative chordoma cell lines (U-CH1, CCL3, CCL4, GB60, and CM319). We also created a new chordoma cell line, U-CH2, and provided genotypes for cell lines for identity confirmation. Our analyses revealed that CCL3, CCL4, and GB60 are not chordoma cell lines, and that CM319 is a cancer cell line possibly derived from chordoma, but lacking expression of key chordoma biomarkers. U-CH1 and U-CH2 both have gene expression profiles, copy number aberrations, and morphology consistent with chordoma tumors. These cell lines also harbor genetic changes, such as loss of p16, MTAP, or PTEN, that make them potentially useful models for studying mechanisms of chordoma pathogenesis and for evaluating targeted therapies.

Bruderlein, Silke; Sommer, Joshua B.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Li, Sufeng; Osada, Takuya; Ng, David; Moller, Peter; Alcorta, David A.; Kelley, Michael J.



CellLineMiner: a knowledge portal for human cell lines  

PubMed Central

Experimental models of human tissues and disease phenotypes frequently rely upon immortalized cell lines, which are easily accessible and simple to use due to their infinite capability of cell division. For decades, cell lines have been used to investigate cellular mechanisms of disease and the efficacy of drugs, most prominently for human cancers. However, the large body of knowledge with respect to human cell lines exists primarily in an unstructured fashion, that is, as free text in the scientific literature. Here we present CellLineMiner, a novel text mining-based web database that provides a comprehensive view of human cell line knowledge. The application offers a simple search in all indexed cell lines, accompanied by a rapid display of all identified literature associations. The CellLineMiner is intended to serve as a knowledge resource companion to the cellular model systems used in biomedical research. Availability CellLineMiner is accessible at

Nakken, Sigve; Johansen, Morten; Fillebeen, Julien; Berge, Ole Petter; Kirker?d, Harald; Jenssen, Tor-Kristian; Hovig, Eivind



Immunogenicity and effectiveness of post-exposure rabies prophylaxis with a new chromatographically purified Vero-cell rabies vaccine (CPRV): a two-stage randomised clinical trial in the Philippines.  


Recent improvements in chromatographic purification procedures have made it possible to develop a new chromatographically purified rabies vaccine (CPRV) by further purifying the current rabies vaccine prepared from Vero-cell culture (PVRV) (Verorab; Pasteur Merieux Connaught). The immunogenicity and effectiveness of post-exposure rabies prophylaxis with this new vaccine were evaluated in a two-stage clinical trial conducted in the Philippines. In both study stages. post-exposure treatment consisted of five injections of vaccine [(D)ays 0, 3, 7, 14, 28], together with a dose of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) of equine or human origin on D0. In stage 1, 231 subjects with low-risk rabies exposure (WHO category I or II), and who had a negative ERIG skin test, were treated with either CPRV (n = 114) or PVRV (n = 117). By D14, all subjects in each group had achieved rabies antibody titres over ten times that recommended by the WHO as indicating seroconversion (> or = 0.5 IU/ml). The kinetics of the immune response to vaccination were very similar in the two groups, and at D28, the immunogenicity of CPRV was equivalent to that of PVRV (one-sided equivalence test). Following these positive results, 132 subjects with severe rabies exposure were included in the second stage of this trial. All were scheduled to receive four vaccine doses with CPRV. After D14, only those 57 patients with confirmed rabies exposure (animal with positive FA test) and seven patients for whom rabies exposure could not be excluded (animal lost or not tested) completed the treatment and were followed for one year to assess survival. After 1 year, 62 patients treated for confirmed or possible severe rabies exposure had been examined and were still alive. Two patients contacted by letter and telephone confirmed good health 7 and 16 months after exposure. No severe local or systemic reactions were reported in either stage of the study, and no treatment-related serious adverse event occurred. This two-stage clinical trial attests to the safety and satisfactory immunogenicity of CPRV in post-exposure rabies treatment, and confirms the effectiveness of a new rabies vaccine in patients with severe confirmed exposure. PMID:10708006

Quiambao, B P; Lang, J; Vital, S; Montalban, C G; Le Mener, V; Wood, S C; Miranda, E



Cell culturing of human and murine microglia cell lines.  


Despite the fact that microglia cells were first described almost a century ago, microglia-derived immortalized cell lines have only been established in the last two decades. One should be aware of their limitations but also of their advantages. Cell lines offer a potentially powerful tool to investigate some functional aspects of microglia. Cell culturing of human and murine microglia cell lines will be described in this chapter. It includes a presentation of equipment needed, cell culture medium and supplements, cell culture monitoring, and a protocol describing the steps for subculturing of microglia cell lines. PMID:23813364

Rodhe, Johanna



Red blood cell production from immortalized progenitor cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply of transfusable red blood cells (RBCs) is not sufficient in many countries. If immortalized erythroid progenitor\\u000a cell lines able to produce transfusable RBCs in vitro were established, they would be valuable resources. However, such cell\\u000a lines have not been established. We have developed a robust method to establish immortalized erythroid progenitor cell lines\\u000a following the induction of hematopoietic

Yukio Nakamura; Takashi Hiroyama; Kenichi Miharada; Ryo Kurita



Cell Lines Secreting Uteroglobin In vitro.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is two immortal cell lines that secrete uteroglobin in vitro when stimulated by a steroid hormone. The invention includes a method for screening the steroid stimulating property of a compound.

A. B. Mukherjee J. Y. Chou



Ecdysone action on insect cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cell lines derived from embryos of the tobacco hornworm,Manduca sexta (L.), showed a marked morphological response to treatment with physiological doses of ?-ecdysone. The response of these cell\\u000a lines with ?-ecdysone indicated that the penta-ol (?-ecdysone) must be converted to the hexa-ol (?-ecdysone) form before the\\u000a morphological response can appear. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the spent medium confirmed that the

Edwin P. Marks; G. Mark Holman



[Growth of Coxiella burnetii in selected cell cultures].  


Usefulness of monolayer cell cultures for C. burnetii multiplication was evaluated. Continuous Vero cell line and primary cell (cultures cell culture of monkey kidney Cercopithecus aethiops, cell culture of chicken fibroblasts, diploid cell line of human embryo) was inoculated for this purpose. Two Coxiella burnetii strains suspensions were used as inoculum of standard Henzerling strain and Zamo?? strain isolated from an area of Poland. Primary cell lines were characterized by considerable degree of sensitivity to, C. burnetii infection, and at the same time, the most sensitive was the line derived from monkey kidney. Progressive vacuolisation of infected culture cells was designated as cytopathic effect. Henzerling strain showed higher infectivity (4.7 x 10(8) PFU/ml) for chicken fibroblasts as compared to Zamo?? strain (8.7 x 10(6) PFU/ml). On the other hand both strains induced cytopathic effect in Vero cell line without degeneration of host cells. PMID:2087134

Rumin, W; Kruszewska, D; Sadowski, W; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, S



Comparison of the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts of nine salvia species grown in Jordan against breast cancer cell line models  

PubMed Central

Background: The antiproliferative activity of Salvia species grown in Jordan has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this work was to study the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts from nine Salvia species grown in Jordan against a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in human tumor models of breast cancer; MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, and BT 474 by the sulforhodamine B assay. In addition, the extracts were evaluated using a non-transformed cell line (Vero) and normal fibroblast cells in order to demonstrate their selectivity and safety. Results: From the nice ethanol extracts under investigation, those of S. dominica and S. fruticosa showed an inhibitory concentration of 50% of cells (IC50) in concentrations less than 30?g/mL against the four cell lines under investigation. S. syriaca and S. hormium showed an IC50 below 30?g/ml for two out of the four cell lines. S. fruticosa, S. hormium and S. syriaca showed selectivity in their antiproliferative activity against estrogen receptor positive cell lines with minimal toxicity against normal human periodontal fibroblasts. Phytochemical screening using thin layer chromatography indicated the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins in all examined extracts. Conclusion: Three of the plant extracts under investigation exhibited antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells and were shown to be safe and selective. These could be considered as a potential source for novel anticancer therapy.

Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma; Kasabri, Violet; Majdalawi, Lara; Naffa, Randa



Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines  

PubMed Central

The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB ( is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (, that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines.

Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara



Fish cell lines: Establishment and characterization of nine cell lines from salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Nine permanent cell lines have been established from five species of salmonids native to America's Pacific Northwest. With\\u000a the exception of a hepatoma from an adult trout, the lines were derived from normal tissues of embryonic or juvenile fish.\\u000a Cells were routinely grown in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. Optimum growth temperatures for\\u000a these lines ranged

C. N. Lannan; J. R. Winton; J. L. Fryer



Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks versus L929 and Vero cell lines in Rickettsia slovaca life cycle evaluated by quantitative real time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ticks transmit many different pathogens to animals, humans and their pets. Rickettsia slovaca, as a member of the spotted-fever-group rickettsiae is an agent of the human disease Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA),\\u000a also called Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL), which occurs from the Mediterranean to central Europe, transmitted\\u000a by Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor marginatus (Acari: Ixodidae). In this study, quantitative real

Vojtech Boldiš; Eva Špitalská



Anomalous dystroglycan in carcinoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dystroglycan is a receptor responsible for crucial interactions between extracellular matrix and cytoplasmic space. We provide the first evidence that dystroglycan is truncated. In HC11 normal murine and the 184B5 non-tumorigenic mammary human cell lines, the expected ?-dystroglycan 43 kDa band was found but human breast T47D, BT549, MCF7, colon HT29, HCT116, SW620, prostate DU145 and cervical HeLa cancer cells

Carmen Losasso; Francesca Di Tommaso; Alessandro Sgambato; Raffaele Ardito; Achille Cittadini; Bruno Giardina; Tamara C. Petrucci; Andrea Brancaccio



Peptidomic analysis of human cell lines  

PubMed Central

Peptides have been proposed to function in intracellular signaling within the cytosol. Although cytosolic peptides are considered to be highly unstable, a large number of peptides have been detected in mouse brain and other biological samples. In the present study, we evaluated the peptidome of three diverse cell lines: SH-SY5Y, MCF7, and HEK293 cells. A comparison of the peptidomes revealed considerable overlap in the identity of the peptides found in each cell line. The majority of the observed peptides are not derived from the most abundant or least stable proteins in the cell, and approximately half of the cellular peptides correspond to the N- or C- termini of the precursor proteins. Cleavage site analysis revealed a preference for hydrophobic residues in the P1 position. Quantitative peptidomic analysis indicated that the levels of most cellular peptides are not altered in response to elevated intracellular calcium, suggesting that calpain is not responsible for their production. The similarity of the peptidomes of the three cell lines and the lack of correlation with the predicted cellular degradome implies the selective formation or retention of these peptides, consistent with the hypothesis that they are functional in the cells.

Gelman, Julia S.; Sironi, Juan; Castro, Leandro M.; Ferro, Emer S.; Fricker, Lloyd D.



Fish cell lines: Establishment and characterization of three new cell lines from grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Three new cell lines were established from tissues of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. Derived from the fin, snout, and swim bladder of two apparently healthy diploid fry, these cell lines have been designated\\u000a GCF, GCS-2, and GCSB, respectively. The cells grew at temperatures between 24° and 36° C with optimal growth at 32° C and\\u000a have been subcultured more than

Yuanan Lu; C. N. Lannan; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer



The clinical relevance of cancer cell lines.  


Although advances in genomics during the last decade have opened new avenues for translational research and allowed the direct evaluation of clinical samples, there is still a need for reliable preclinical models to test therapeutic strategies. Human cancer-derived cell lines are the most widely used models to study the biology of cancer and to test hypotheses to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. Since the development of the first cancer cell line, the clinical relevance of these models has been continuously questioned. Based upon recent studies that have fueled the debate, we review the major events in the development of the in vitro models and the emergence of new technologies that have revealed important issues and limitations concerning human cancer cell lines as models. All cancer cell lines do not have equal value as tumor models. Some have been successful, whereas others have failed. However, the success stories should not obscure the growing body of data that motivates us to develop new in vitro preclinical models that would substantially increase the success rate of new in vitro-assessed cancer treatments. PMID:23434901

Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Varma, Sudhir; Gottesman, Michael M



Characterization of a new megakaryocytic cell line: the Dami cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new human megakaryocytic cell line (Dami) has been established from the blood of a patient with megakaryo- blastic leukemia. The Dami cells grow primarily in suspen- sion with a doubling time of 24 to 30 hours. By light and electron microscopy. the Dami cells range in size from 1 2 to 120 ?tm in diameter and have lobulated nuclei

SM Greenberg; DS Rosenthal; TA Greeley; R Tantravahi; RI Handin



Response of cells persistently infected with arenaviruses to superinfection with homotypic and heterotypic viruses.  


Vero cell cultures persistently infected with the arenaviruses Junin, Pichinde, Tacaribe, and Tamiami were established and designated Vero-Jun, Vero-Pic, Vero-Tac, and Vero-Tam, respectively. Two types of carrier cultures could be easily distinguished: Vero-Jun and Vero-Tac systems were characterized by a lack of infectious virus production after a few cell transfers, whereas a more productive state with continuous release of virus was observed in Vero-Pic and Vero-Tam cultures. These differences appeared to be related to resistance of the culture to viral superinfection. In fact, Vero-Jun and Vero-Tac cultures totally excluded only the replication of the serologically more closely related arenaviruses Amapari, Junin, or Tacaribe, while the refractoriness of Vero-Pic and Vero-Tam cultures was extended to most of the virus group members. The resistance of Vero-Jun cells to superinfection by Junin or Tacaribe virus could be ascribed to the production of specific uv-resistant Junin interfering particles, which showed a specific range of interference against Junin and Tacaribe viruses. Interfering particles against homotypic and heterotypic arenaviruses were isolated from Vero-Pic cultures. However, the degree of interference developed by these Pic-interfering particles was not enough to fully explain reinfecting virus exclusion from Vero-Pic cultures. Viral susceptibility of persistent cultures is proposed as a useful tool to examine relationships of members of the arenavirus group. PMID:6312683

Damonte, E B; Mersich, S E; Coto, C E



Glioma Cell Lines: Role of Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we review the cancer stem cell hypothesis and discuss implications for this paradigm in considering whether\\u000a glioma cell lines contain bonafide cancer stem cells, the source material used for tissue culture, and experimental methods\\u000a used in preclinical research. We identify three key modifications to standard tissue culture protocols that allow for enrichment\\u000a of cancer stem cells that

John R. Ohlfest; Stacy A. Decker


New cell lines with chondrocytic phenotypes from human chondrosarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated chondrocytic characterization for newly established human chondrosarcoma cell lines. A chondrosarcoma cell line, HCS-TG, was established by the implantation of grade-2 human chondrosarcoma into athymic mice. Cloning of HCS-TG cells from passage 17 was performed. After cell cloning, two clonal-cell lines (HCS-TG C3 and E2) with good proliferative activities were obtained. These cell lines

Ikuo Kudawara; Nobuhito Araki; Akira Myoui; Yoichi Kato; Atsumasa Uchida; Hideki Yoshikawa



Establishment and characterisation of two novel breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer cell lines, BCa-11 (familial) and BCa-15 (sporadic) were successfully established from primary tumours. Characterisation of these cell lines showed expression of epithelial specific antigen and cytokeratins confirming their epithelial lineage. Analysis of ultrastructure and anchorage independent growth confirmed the epithelial nature and transformed phenotype of these cells. Both cell lines showed loss

Sarangadhara Appala Raju Bagadi; Jatinder Kaur; Ranju Ralhan



Generation of Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited lifespan of human microvascular endothelial cells in cell culture represents a major obstacle for the study of microvascular pathobiology. To date, no endothelial cell line is available that demonstrates all of the fundamental characteristics of microvascular endothelial cells. We have generated endothelial cell lines from human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) isolated from adult donors. HPMEC were cotransfected

Vera Krump-Konvalinkova; Fernando Bittinger; Ronald E Unger; Kirsten Peters; Hans-Anton Lehr; C James Kirkpatrick



CellLineNavigator: a workbench for cancer cell line analysis  

PubMed Central

The CellLineNavigator database, freely available at, is a web-based workbench for large scale comparisons of a large collection of diverse cell lines. It aims to support experimental design in the fields of genomics, systems biology and translational biomedical research. Currently, this compendium holds genome wide expression profiles of 317 different cancer cell lines, categorized into 57 different pathological states and 28 individual tissues. To enlarge the scope of CellLineNavigator, the database was furthermore closely linked to commonly used bioinformatics databases and knowledge repositories. To ensure easy data access and search ability, a simple data and an intuitive querying interface were implemented. It allows the user to explore and filter gene expression, focusing on pathological or physiological conditions. For a more complex search, the advanced query interface may be used to query for (i) differentially expressed genes; (ii) pathological or physiological conditions; or (iii) gene names or functional attributes, such as Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes pathway maps. These queries may also be combined. Finally, CellLineNavigator allows additional advanced analysis of differentially regulated genes by a direct link to the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources.

Krupp, Markus; Itzel, Timo; Maass, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Andreas; Galle, Peter R.; Teufel, Andreas



Pancreastatin producing cell line from human pancreatic islet cell tumor.  


It has been characterized that cell line QGP-1 derived from human non-functioning pancreatic islet cell tumor produces human pancreastatin. Exponentially growing cultures produced 5.7 fmol of pancreastatin/10(6) cells/hr. Human pancreastatin immunoreactivities in plasma and tumor after xenografting with QGP-1 into nude mouse were 92.7 fmol/ml and 160.2 pmol/g wet weight, respectively. Immunocytochemical study revealed both chromogranin A and pancreastatin immunoreactive cells in the tumor. Gel filtrations of culture medium and tumor extract identified heterogenous molecular forms of PST-LI which eluted as large and smaller molecular species. These results suggest that plasma pancreastatin levels may be useful as a tumor marker of endocrine tumor of the pancreas, and the pancreastatin producing cell line may be useful for studies of the mechanism of secretions and processing of chromogranin A and pancreastatin. PMID:2159299

Funakoshi, A; Tateishi, K; Tsuru, M; Jimi, A; Wakasugi, H; Ikeda, Y; Kono, A



A bioinformatics analysis of the cell line nomenclature  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Cell lines are used extensively in biomedical research, but the nomenclature describing cell lines has not been standardized. The problems are both linguistic and experimental. Many ambiguous cell line names appear in the published literature. Users of the same cell line may refer to it in different ways, and cell lines may mutate or become contaminated without the knowledge of the user. As a first step towards rationalizing this nomenclature, we created a cell line knowledgebase (CLKB) with a well-structured collection of names and descriptive data for cell lines cultured in vitro. The objectives of this work are: (i) to assist users in extracting useful information from biomedical text and (ii) to highlight the importance of standardizing cell line names in biomedical research. This CLKB contains a broad collection of cell line names compiled from ATCC, Hyper CLDB and MeSH. In addition to names, the knowledgebase specifies relationships between cell lines. We analyze the use of cell line names in biomedical text. Issues include ambiguous names, polymorphisms in the use of names and the fact that some cell line names are also common English words. Linguistic patterns associated with the occurrence of cell line names are analyzed. Applying these patterns to find additional cell line names in the literature identifies only a small number of additional names. Annotation of microarray gene expression studies is used as a test case. The CLKB facilitates data exploration and comparison of different cell lines in support of clinical and experimental research. Availability: The web ontology file for this cell line collection can be downloaded at Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Ade, Alexander S.; Athey, Brian D.; States, David J.



On the Ontology Based Representation of Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Cell lines are frequently used as highly standardized and reproducible in vitro models for biomedical analyses and assays. Cell lines are distributed by cell banks that operate databases describing their products. However, the description of the cell lines' properties are not standardized across different cell banks. Existing cell line-related ontologies mostly focus on the description of the cell lines' names, but do not cover aspects like the origin or optimal growth conditions. The objective of this work is to develop an ontology that allows for a more comprehensive description of cell lines and their metadata, which should cover the data elements provided by cell banks. This will provide the basis for the standardized annotation of cell lines and corresponding assays in biomedical research. In addition, the ontology will be the foundation for automated evaluation of such assays and their respective protocols in the future. To accomplish this, a broad range of cell bank databases as well as existing ontologies were analyzed in a comprehensive manner. We identified existing ontologies capable of covering different aspects of the cell line domain. However, not all data fields derived from the cell banks' databases could be mapped to existing ontologies. As a result, we created a new ontology called cell culture ontology (CCONT) integrating existing ontologies where possible. CCONT provides classes from the areas of cell line identification, origin, cell line properties, propagation and tests performed.

Ganzinger, Matthias; He, Shan; Breuhahn, Kai; Knaup, Petra



Establishment and characterization of four human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized four pancreatic carcinoma cell lines (designated SNU-213, SNU-324, SNU-410, and SNU-494) established from histopathologically varied primary or liver metastatic tumor samples of Korean patients. Three cell lines grew as adherent monolayers and one as adherent and floating cell clumps. All lines had: (1) relatively high viability; (2) an absence of mycoplasma or bacterial contamination; (3) genetic heterogeneity as

Ja-Lok Ku; Kyong-Ah Yoon; Woo-Ho Kim; Jin Jang; Kyung-Suk Suh; Sun-Whe Kim; Yong-Hyun Park; Jae-Gahb Park



Human Myeloma Cell Line Carrying a Philadelphia Chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new human plasmacytoma cell line (Karpas 707) has been established from a myeloma patient. The cultured cells are negative for Epstein-Barr viral nuclear antigen and free of mycoplasma. They are similar to plasma cells and secrete only lambda light chains. The cells are hypodiploid and contain the Philadelphia chromosome and other abnormalities. This cell line may be suitable for

Abraham Karpas; Patricia Fischer; David Swirsky



Role of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Germ-Line Stem Cell Fate  

PubMed Central

The overall goal of this study is to unravel the role(s) played by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the fate of spermatogonial stem cells. There is great interest in the biology of spermatogonial stem cells, or Asingle spermatogonia, because of their importance in the treatment of infertility, the development of contraceptives, and the understanding of the etiology of testicular cancer, particularly seminoma. In the mouse, spermatogonial stem cells express GFR?-1, the receptor for GDNF, and respond to this growth factor in vivo and in vitro. GDNF is produced by the adjacent Sertoli cells, which are part of the germ-line stem cell niche in vertebrates. We specifically isolated GFR?-1–positive spermatogonia using an immunomagnetic bead technique. We then stimulated the cells with 100 ng/mL of rGDNF for 10 hours; unstimulated cells served as negative controls. Microarray analysis, immunocytochemistry, and Western blotting revealed that Numb, a regulator of the Notch pathway, is upregulated by GDNF in spermatogonial stem cells. There are indications that in rats, mice, and humans, the Notch pathway promotes spermatogonial differentiation. We observed that an increase in Numb expression is concomitant with Notch degradation in these cells. Thus, through Numb, GDNF might inhibit differentiation and allows the maintenance of the stem cell pool in the mouse seminiferous epithelium.

Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Nolan, Courtney; Dym, Martin; Hofmann, Marie-Claude



Tetanus toxin as a marker for small-cell lung cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetanus toxin labeling of human lung cancer cell lines was investigated using direct and indirect immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining. Cells of characterized permanent cell lines, eight small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines of classic subtype, six SCLC cell lines of variant subtype and seven non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, were incubated with a saturating concentration of tetanus toxin. For

Jochen Heymanns; Kurt Neumann; Klaus Havemann



Caveolin-1 is incorporated into mature respiratory syncytial virus particles during virus assembly on the surface of virus-infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed immunofluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to examine the assembly and maturation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the Vero cell line C1008. RSV matures at the apical cell surface in a filamentous form that extends from the plasma membrane. We observed that inclusion bodies containing viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) cores predominantly appeared immediately below the plasma membrane,

Gaie Brown; James Aitken; Richard J. Sugrue


Detection Algorithm for the Validation of Human Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Cell lines are an important tool in understanding all aspects of cancer growth, development, metastasis, and tumor cell death. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of cell lines and diversity of the cancers they represent; however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines can lead to erroneous conclusions. One method that has gained favor for authenticating cell lines is the use of short tandem repeats (STR) to generate a unique DNA profile. The challenge in validating cell lines is the requirement to compare the large number of existing STR profiles against cell lines of interest, particularly when considering that the profiles of many cell lines have drifted over time and original samples are not available. We report here methods that analyze the variations and the proportional changes extracted from tetra-nucleotide repeat regions in the STR analysis. This technique allows a paired match between a target cell line and a reference database of cell lines to find cell lines that match within a user designated percentage cut-off quality matrix. Our method accounts for DNA instability and can suggest whether the target cell lines are misidentified or unstable.

Eltonsy, Nevine; Gabisi, Vivian; Li, Xuesong; Russe, K. Blair; Mills, Gordon B.; Stemke-Hale, Katherine



Road for understanding cancer stem cells: model cell lines.  


There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics in tumor biopsies such as brain and breast. Evidence supporting the cancer stem cell hypothesis has gained impact due to progress in stem cell biology and development of new models to validate the self-renewal potential of stem cells. Recent evidence on the possible identification of cancer stem cells may offer an opportunity to use these cells as future therapeutic targets. Therefore, model systems in this field have become very important and useful. This review will focus on the state of knowledge on cancer stem cell research, including cell line models for cancer stem cells. The latter will, as models, help us both in the identification and characterization of cancer stem cells and in the further development of therapeutic strategies including tissue engineering. PMID:18034633

Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can



Match criteria for human cell line authentication: where do we draw the line?  


Continuous human cell lines have been used extensively as models for biomedical research. In working with these cell lines, researchers are often unaware of the risk of cross-contamination and other causes of misidentification. To reduce this risk, there is a pressing need to authenticate cell lines, comparing the sample handled in the laboratory to a previously tested sample. The American Type Culture Collection Standards Development Organization Workgroup ASN-0002 has developed a Standard for human cell line authentication, recommending short tandem repeat (STR) profiling for authentication of human cell lines. However, there are known limitations to the technique when applied to cultured samples, including possible genetic drift with passage. In our study, a dataset of 2,279 STR profiles from four cell banks was used to assess the effectiveness of the match criteria recommended within the Standard. Of these 2,279 STR profiles, 1,157 were grouped into sets of related cell lines-duplicate holdings, legitimately related samples or misidentified cell lines. Eight core STR loci plus amelogenin were used to unequivocally authenticate 98% of these related sets. Two simple match algorithms each clearly discriminated between related and unrelated samples, with separation between related samples at ?80% match and unrelated samples at <50% match. A small degree of overlap was noted at 50-79% match, mostly from cell lines known to display variable STR profiles. These match criteria are recommended as a simple and effective way to interpret results from STR profiling of human cell lines. PMID:23136038

Capes-Davis, Amanda; Reid, Yvonne A; Kline, Margaret C; Storts, Douglas R; Strauss, Ethan; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Sykes, Gregory; Kohara, Arihiro; Nakamura, Yukio; Elmore, Eugene; Nims, Raymond W; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Barallon, Rita; Los, Georgyi V; Nardone, Roland M; Price, Paul J; Steuer, Anton; Thomson, Jim; Masters, John R W; Kerrigan, Liz



Comparison of saftey and immunogenicity of purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) and purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) using the Thai Red Cross intradermal regimen at a dose of 0.1 ML.  


Intradermal (ID) vaccination with modern cell culture rabies vaccines is a means to significantly reduce the cost of post-exposure prophylaxis as compared to intramuscular vaccination. In this study we evaluated the efficacy, immunogenicity and tolerability of PCECV and PVRV administered ID in doses of 0.1 mL per site according to the 2-site Thai Red Cross (TRC) regimen. Patients with WHO category III exposure to suspect or laboratory proven rabid animals were administered either PCECV (n = 58) or PVRV (n = 52) ID at a dose of 0.1 mL per site at two sites on days 0, 3 and 7 and at one site on days 30 and 90. Serum samples were withdrawn on days 0, 14, 30, 90 and 180 and rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were determined by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Patients who were exposed to laboratory confirmed rabid animals were followed up for one year after exposure. All 110 patients developed RVNA titers above 0.5 IU/mL by day 14. Adequate titers >0.5 IU/mL were maintained up to day 180. Both vaccines induced equivalent RVNA titers at all time points and were well tolerated. Five subjects who were bitten by laboratory confirmed rabid dogs were alive and healthy one year after exposure. As demonstrated, PCECV and PVRV are both immunogenic, efficacious and well tolerated when administered in the TRC post-exposure prophylaxis regimen in ID doses of 0.1 mL as recommended by WHO guidelines. The use of PCECV in this regimen may prove more economical in developing countries like India. PMID:17035734

Madhusudana, Shampur N; Sanjay, Thitamaranahalli V; Mahendra, Bangalore J; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Giri, Anand; Muhamuda, Kader; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Vakil, Hoshang B; Malerczyk, Cladius


Distinct differentiation characteristics of individual human embryonic stem cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individual differences between human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation of five hESC lines (called FES 21, 22, 29, 30 and 61) from frozen-thawed human embryos and compare their individual differentiation characteristic. RESULTS: The cell lines were cultured either on human or mouse feeder cells. The cells grew significantly faster and could

Milla Mikkola; Cia Olsson; Jaan Palgi; Jarkko Ustinov; Tiina Palomaki; Nina Horelli-Kuitunen; Sakari Knuutila; Karolina Lundin; Timo Otonkoski; Timo Tuuri



Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from the Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six human embryonic stem cell lines were established from surplus blastocysts. The cell lines expressed alkaline phosphatase and molecules typical of primate embryonic stem cells, including Oct-4, Nanog, TDGF1, Sox2, EBAF, Thy-1, FGF4, Rex-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1–81. Five of the six lines formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of a variety of cell types; four of them formed

Zhen Fu FANG; Fan JIN; Hui GAI; Ying CHEN; Li WU; Ai Lian LIU; Bin CHEN; Hui Zhen SHENG



Establishment and characterization of human neuroblastoma cell lines.  


Three new tissue culture cell lines, CHP-100, CHP-126, and CHP-134, have been established from explant cultures of human neuroblastoma. The cell lines have been characterized with respect to morphology, chromosomes constitution, growth, neural enzyme content, and their ability to grow in nude mice. The cells grow as dense masses comprised of fibroblast-or neuroblast-like cells with small processes. The cell lines differ in their neural enzyme acitivity. The chromosomal content of the 3 cell lines is near diploid, and all are capable of forming tumors in nude mice. The morphological findings indicate that the cells in culture resemble those found in the tumor, and the enzyme activities are consistent with those of nervous tissue. This the morphological, biochemical, and tumorigenic properties confirm that the 3 cell lines are neoplastic cells of neural origin. PMID:10079

Schlesinger, H R; Gerson, J M; Moorhead, P S; Maguire, H; Hummeler, K



Cell line misidentification: the beginning of the end.  


Cell lines are used extensively in research and drug development as models of normal and cancer tissues. However, a substantial proportion of cell lines is mislabelled or replaced by cells derived from a different individual, tissue or species. The scientific community has failed to tackle this problem and consequently thousands of misleading and potentially erroneous papers have been published using cell lines that are incorrectly identified. Recent efforts to develop a standard for the authentication of human cell lines using short tandem repeat profiling is an important step to eradicate this problem. PMID:20448633



Characterization of a transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to establish a rat retinal ganglion cell line by transformation of rat retinal cells. For this investigation, retinal cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (PN1) rats and transformed with the ?2 E1A virus. In order to isolate retinal ganglion cells (RGC), single cell clones were chosen at random from the transformed cells.

R. R. Krishnamoorthy; P. Agarwal; G. Prasanna; K. Vopat; W. Lambert; H. J. Sheedlo; I.-H. Pang; D. Shade; R. J. Wordinger; T. Yorio; A. F Clark; N. Agarwal



Growth properties and alloantigenic expression of murine lymphoblastoid cell lines  

PubMed Central

Murine lymphoblastoid cell lines were evaluated for their expression of Thy-1 and thymus leukemia (TL) differentiation alloantigens. Two culture conditions were shown to affect this expression. Cells grown in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-enriched medium expressed up to 15 times the amount of TL as cells grown in horse serum (HS)-enriched medium. Thy-1 expression was less affected by the type of serum used for culture. The phase of growth when the cells were harvested, was demonstrated to affect the expression of Thy-1. The expression of Thy- 1.2 for one cell line examined, L-251A, during logarithmic growth was threefold greater than cells collected during either lag or stationary growth. When culture conditions were standardized a ranking of the amount of Thy-1 and TL expressed by several cell lines was made. All cell lines, except one, L-1210, expressed Thy-1. There was a 450-fold difference in the expression of Thy-1 between the cell lines evaluated. Seven cell lines expressed TL-1,2,3 with a ninefold difference in the amount of expression. The L-251A cell line was cultured in a 14 liter fermentor for a 26 day period. During this time TL and Thy-1 expression did not vary significantly, demonstrating that lymphoblastoid cell lines can be cultured on a continuous basis and will continue to express their surface alloantigens.



Human embryonic stem cell lines with genetic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous study described the establishment of human embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines from different sources of embryonic material, including morula, whole blastocyst and isolated inner cell mass. Using these methods, a repository of ESC lines has been established with different genetic abnormalities, which provides an unlimited source of disease cells in culture for undertaking research on the primary disturbances

Y Verlinsky; N Strelchenko; V Kukharenko; S Rechitsky; O Verlinsky; V Galat; A Kuliev



Characterization and Analysis of Human Chordoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Study Design An experimental study to investigate the characterization of 3 chordoma cell lines. Objective To characterize chordoma cell lines and generate hypothesis for further chordoma studies. Summary of Background Data Three cultured human chordoma cell lines have been successfully generated; however, their characterization is incomplete. Complete characterization of chordoma cell lines is necessary for these reagents to be a useful preclinical model. Methods Three chordoma cell lines, CH 8, U-CH1, and GP 60, were cultured in different commercially available tissue culture media. They were also cultured in different environments, which included collagen substrate, various concentrations of glucose, and various levels of hypoxic conditions. The rate of cell proliferation was assessed by either MTT or numeration assay. A 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture model of these chordoma cell lines was also studied, and the expression of vimentin and cytokeratin was measured by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Additionally, the sensitivity of the 3 chordoma cell lines to 6 chemotherapeutic drugs was analyzed. Results CH 8, GP 60, and U-CH1 cells proliferate more actively in Iscove Modified Dulbecco Medium or Dulbecco modified Eagle Medium and less actively in RPMI medium. All 3 chordoma cell lines universally grow better in collagen substrate and survive in hypoxic conditions, whereas glucose concentration has no significant influence on their growth properties. Chordoma cell lines grew well in 3D culture systems and formed acini-like spheroids and retained the expression of vimentin and cytokeratin. MTT analysis indicates that all 3 chordoma cell lines are sensitive to doxorubicin, yondelis, zalypsis, and cisplatin. Conclusion We characterized 3 chordoma cell lines for differential growth properties in a variety of media and response to chemotherapeutic agents.

Yang, Cao; Hornicek, Francis J.; Wood, Kirkham B.; Schwab, Joseph H.; Choy, Edwin; Iafrate, John; Rosenberg, Andrew; Nielsen, G. Petur; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Mankin, Henry; Duan, Zhenfeng



Antiproliferative action of metformin in human lung cancer cell lines.  


The oral antidiabetic agent metformin has anticancer properties, probably via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation. In the present study, growth inhibition was assessed by a clonogenic and by a cell survival assay, apoptosis induction was assessed by Hoechst staining and caspase activities and cell cycle alteration after exposure to metformin, and the interaction of metformin with cisplatin in vitro were elucidated in four human lung cancer cell lines representing squamous, adeno-, large cell and small cell carcinoma. Clonogenicity and cell proliferation were inhibited by metformin in all the cell lines examined. This inhibitory effect was not specific to cancer cells because it was also observed in a non-transformed human mesothelial cell line and in mouse fibroblast cell lines. Inhibition of clonogenicity was observed only when the cells were exposed to metformin for a long period, (10 days) and the surviving fraction, obtained after inhibiting proliferation by increasing the dose, reached a plateau at approximately 0.1-0.3, indicating the cytostatic characteristics of metformin. Metformin induced significant apoptosis only in the small cell carcinoma cell line. A tendency of cell cycle accumulation at the G0/G1 phase was observed in all four cell lines. Cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner, severely antagonized the growth inhibitory effect of metformin, and even reversed the effect in three cell lines but not in the adenocarcinoma cell line. The present data obtained using various histological types of human lung cancer cell lines in vitro illustrate the cytostatic nature of metformin and its cytoprotective properties against cisplatin. PMID:22576795

Ashinuma, Hironori; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Kitazono, Satoru; Kitazono-Saitoh, Miyako; Kitamura, Atsushi; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Tada, Yuji; Kurosu, Katsushi; Sakaida, Emiko; Sekine, Ikuo; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Yokosuka, Osamu; Tatsumi, Koichiro



Hyaluronan production regulation from porcine hyalocyte cell line by cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study were to establish a cell line derived from porcine hyalocytes and to investigate the regulation of hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in response to cytokines. After 50 passages of the cells derived from porcine vitreous tissue, a cell line was generated. The immortalized cells showed fibroblastic morphology. The cell doubling time was 56.9h. In the mRNA level,

Koichi Nishitsuka; Yoshiko Kashiwagi; Naoki Tojo; Chikako Kanno; Yoshinori Takahashi; Teiko Yamamoto; Paraskevi Heldin; Hidetoshi Yamashita



Establishment and therapeutic use of human embryonic stem cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, which are derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, proliferate indefinitely in vitro,\\u000a retaining their potency to differentiate into various cell types derived from all of the three embryonic germ layers: the\\u000a ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Establishment of human ES cell lines in 1 998 has indicated the great potential of ES cells\\u000a for

Hirofumi Suemori



Clonal derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are isolated as clusters of cells from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and thus should formally be considered as heterogeneous cell populations. Homogenous hESC cultures can be obtained through subcloning. Here, we report the clonal derivation and characterization of two new hESC lines from the parental cell line SA002 and the previously clonally derived

Nico Heins; Anders Lindahl; Ulrika Karlsson; Marie Rehnström; Gunilla Caisander; Katarina Emanuelsson; Charles Hanson; Henrik Semb; Petter Björquist; Peter Sartipy; Johan Hyllner



Comparative recombinant protein production of eight insect cell lines.  


A recombinant Autographa californica baculovirus expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene was used to evaluate the expression of a secreted glycoprotein in eight insect cell lines derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, Trichoplusia ni, Mamestra brassicae and Estigmene acrea. Because cell density was found to influence protein production, SEAP production was evaluated at optimal cell densities for each cell line on both a per cell and per milliliter basis. On a per cell basis, the T. ni-derived BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells produced a minimum of 20-fold more SEAP than the S. frugiperda-derived Sf9 or Sf2l cell lines and a minimum of 9-fold more than any of the other cell lines growing in serum-containing medium. On a per milliliter basis, BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells produced a minimum of fivefold more SEAP than any of the other cell lines tested. Using cell lines that were adapted to serum-free medium, SEAP yields were the same or better than their counterparts in serum-containing medium. At 3 days postinoculation, extracellular SEAP activity ranged from 59 to 85% of total SEAP activity with cell lines grown in serum-free and serum-containing media. PMID:8314732

Davis, T R; Wickham, T J; McKenna, K A; Granados, R R; Shuler, M L; Wood, H A



Shortest path based splitting line finding for touching cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shortest path based algorithm is proposed in this paper to find splitting lines for touching cells. Firstly, an initial splitting line is obtained through the distance transform of a marker image and the watershed algorithm. Then, the initial splitting line is separated into different line segments if necessary, and the start and end points of these line segments act as the start and end points of shortest path. Finally, the shortest path algorithm is used to find the splitting line between the start and end points, and the final result of touching cells splitting can be formed by the contour of the touching cells and the splitting lines. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for different types of touching cells.

Bai, Xiangzhi; Sun, Changming; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Fugen



Polyamine synthesis in maize cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Uptake of ({sup 14}C)putrescine, ({sup 14}C)arginine, and ({sup 14}C)ornithine was measured in five separate callus cell lines of Zea mays. Each precursor was rapidly taken into the intracellular pool in each culture where, on the average 25 to 50% of the total putrescine was found in a conjugated form, detected after acid hydrolysis. Half-maximal labeling of each culture was achieved in less than 1 minute. Within this time frame of precursor incorporation, only putrescine derived from arginine was conjugated, indicating that putrescine pools derived from arginine may initially be sequestered from ornithine-derived putrescine. The decarboxylase activities were measured in each culture after addition of exogenous polyamine to the growth medium to assess differential regulation of the decarboxylases. Arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities were augmented by added polyamine, the effect on arginine decarboxylase being eightfold greater than on ornithine decarboxylase. Levels of extractable ornithine decarboxylase were consistently 15- to 100-fold higher than arginine decarboxylase, depending on the titer of extracellular polyamine. Taken as whole the results support the idea that there are distinct populations of polyamine that are initially sequestered after the decarboxylase reactions and that give rise to separate end products and possibly have separate functions.

Hiatt, A. (Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, CA (USA))



Expression of the acidic nuclear immediate-early protein (IE1) of human cytomegalovirus in stable cell lines and its preferential association with metaphase chromosomes.  


Stable DNA-transfected Vero cell lines that express the major immediate-early nuclear antigen (IE68) of HCMV-(Towne) have been established. Immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the protein was distributed either in a uniform diffuse nuclear pattern or as punctate nuclear granules in up to 80% of the cells in these cultures. In addition, 1 to 2% of the positive nuclei gave a distinctive staining pattern suggesting an association with the chromosomes of mitotic cells. Colcemid-blocking studies confirmed that most of the IE antigen was localized in the vicinity of condensed chromosomes in all metaphase cells after methanol fixation. In contrast, the SV40 large T-antigen protein was found to be preferentially excluded from metaphase chromosomes in a similar colcemid-treated human cell line. In transient expression assays, 1 to 2% of IE antigen-positive Vero, 293, or Balb/c3T3 cells also displayed a metaphase chromosome association pattern. Mapping studies using deletion and truncation mutants revealed that the monoclonal antibodies recognized epitopes encoded within the small NH2-terminal exons that are common to both the IE1 and IE2 gene products. However, an intact exon-4 (IE1) region, but not the exon-5 (IE2) region of the HCMV IE gene complex, was required for conferring both the normal diffuse nuclear localization pattern and the chromosome-association properties. Furthermore, removal of the glutamic acid-rich COOH-terminal coding portions of exon-4 resulted in aberrant staining patterns with production of large, phase-dense nuclear globules in all positive cells. An association between the IE68 IE1 protein and metaphase chromosomes was also detected after HCMV-(Towne) infection in a small proportion of both nonpermissive Balb/c3T3 cells and permissive HF cells. We conclude that the IE1 acidic nuclear phosphoprotein displays some properties similar to those of the EBNA-1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus and suggest that it may potentially play a role in maintenance of the latent state of HCMV DNA. PMID:2477948

Lafemina, R L; Pizzorno, M C; Mosca, J D; Hayward, G S



Establishment and characterization of seven human breast cancer cell lines including two triple-negative cell lines.  


Permanently growing cell lines can be invaluable because of their usefulness in a variety of experimental situations. We report the characteristics of seven cell lines designated, SNU-306, SNU-334, SNU-1528, SNU-1553, SNU-1581, SNU-1958 and SNU-2372, which were established from three primary carcinomas, two pleural effusion, one pericardial effusion and one ascitic fluid samples obtained from seven Korean breast carcinoma patients. The histopathology of the primary tumors and their in vitro growth characteristics are described. DNA fingerprinting analysis and genetic alterations in the p53 and EGFR genes were conducted. The expression levels of the ER-?, PR, C-erbB2, E-cadherin, COX-2, MDR and MXR genes were investigated and sensitivity to anticancer drugs was screened. Growth was as adherent cells (four cell lines), floating aggregates (one cell line) and both (two cell lines). All lines were free of mycoplasma or bacteria and were proven unique by DNA fingerprinting analysis using 18 microsatellite markers. Estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA was highly expressed in five cell lines and low or undetectable in SNU-1958 and SNU-2372. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was expressed only in the SNU-306. SNU-1958 and SNU-2372 were hormone receptor-negative and C-erbB2-negative (triple-negative). SNU-1528 had an in-frame deletion of 42 base pairs of p53 gene and showed over 20-fold resistance for taxol compared to the other cell lines. There were no mutation in the EGFR gene; COX-2 was expressed in four cell lines and MXR was expressed in two cell lines. These well-characterized seven breast cancer cell lines, which include two triple-negative cell lines, will be useful for the study of breast cancer biology. PMID:24141649

Ku, Ja-Lok; Park, Sung-Chan; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Jeon, You-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hee; Shin, Young-Kyoung; Noh, Dong-Young; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Yung-Jue; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Woo Ho; Park, Jae-Gahb



Establishment of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Erythroid Progenitor Cell Lines Able to Produce Functional Red Blood Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe supply of transfusable red blood cells (RBCs) is not sufficient in many countries. If erythroid cell lines able to produce transfusable RBCs in vitro were established, they would be valuable resources. However, such cell lines have not been established. To evaluate the feasibility of establishing useful erythroid cell lines, we attempted to establish such cell lines from mouse embryonic

Takashi Hiroyama; Kenichi Miharada; Kazuhiro Sudo; Inaho Danjo; Naoko Aoki; Yukio Nakamura; Simon Williams



Topic: Consideration of the Appropriateness of Cell Lines ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 9:20 History and Characterization of the A3.01 Cell Line Seung Ho Choo and its Tumorigenic Evaluation ... or Cells Derived from Human Tumors ... More results from


Human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines for rhabdomyosarcoma research: utility and pitfalls.  


Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell-line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis. PMID:23882450

Hinson, Ashley R P; Jones, Rosanne; Crose, Lisa E S; Belyea, Brian C; Barr, Frederic G; Linardic, Corinne M



Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated from Adult Somatic Cells by Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in vitro and

Teruhiko Wakayama; Viviane Tabar; Ivan Rodriguez; Anthony C. F. Perry; Lorenz Studer; Peter Mombaerts



Survey of Interferon Production and Sensitivity in Human Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Seven presumed diploid and 11 established cell lines were studied for their ability to produce free interferon in response to a standardized Newcastle disease virus challenge. Interferon production was evaluated in both serum-containing and serum-free medium. The ability of these cell lines to respond to the application of a standard interferon preparation by becoming resistant to virus was also examined. The diploid lines were distinctly more efficient producers of interferon than were the established lines. They also evidenced a greater requirement for serum to produce their maximum titers, but some were able to produce good titers in serum-free medium. The diploid lines were uniformly more sensitive to the application of exogenous interferon than were the established cell lines and attained greater degrees of virus resistance, but all lines tested displayed measurable sensitivity to interferon.

Moehring, J. M.; Stinebring, W. R.; Merchant, D. J.



Caffeine markedly sensitizes human mesothelioma cell lines to pemetrexed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pemetrexed is a new generation antifolate approved for the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer. Caffeine\\u000a is known to augment radiation or chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell killing. The current study addresses the impact of caffeine\\u000a on the activity of pemetrexed in mesothelioma cell lines. Caffeine enhanced pemetrexed activity in all four mesothelioma cell\\u000a lines tested (H2052, H2373, H28 and

Sang Hee Min; I. David Goldman; Rongbao Zhao



The transcriptional diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Drosophila melanogaster cell lines are important resources for cell biologists. Here, we catalog the expression of exons, genes, and unannotated transcriptional signals for 25 lines. Unannotated transcription is substantial (typically 19% of euchromatic signal). Conservatively, we identify 1405 novel transcribed regions; 684 of these appear to be new exons of neighboring, often distant, genes. Sixty-four percent of genes are expressed detectably in at least one line, but only 21% are detected in all lines. Each cell line expresses, on average, 5885 genes, including a common set of 3109. Expression levels vary over several orders of magnitude. Major signaling pathways are well represented: most differentiation pathways are ‘‘off’’ and survival/growth pathways ‘‘on.’’ Roughly 50% of the genes expressed by each line are not part of the common set, and these show considerable individuality. Thirty-one percent are expressed at a higher level in at least one cell line than in any single developmental stage, suggesting that each line is enriched for genes characteristic of small sets of cells. Most remarkable is that imaginal discderived lines can generally be assigned, on the basis of expression, to small territories within developing discs. These mappings reveal unexpected stability of even fine-grained spatial determination. No two cell lines show identical transcription factor expression. We conclude that each line has retained features of an individual founder cell superimposed on a common ‘‘cell line‘‘ gene expression pattern. Wereport the transcriptional profiles of 25 Drosophila melanogaster cell lines, principally by whole-genome tiling microarray analysis of total RNA, carried out as part of the modENCODE project. The data produced in this study add to our knowledge of the cell lines and of the Drosophila transcriptome in several ways. We summarize the expression of previously annotated genes in each of the 25 lines with emphasis on what those patterns reveal about the origins of the lines and the stability of spatial expression patterns. We also offer an initial analysis of previously unannotated transcripts in the cell lines.

Cherbas, Lucy; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Dayu; Yang, Li; Zou, Yi; Eads, Brian D.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Landolin, Jane M.; Kapranov, Philipp; Dumais, Jacqueline; Samsonova, Anastasia; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Roberts, Johnny; Davis, Carrie A.; Tang, Haixu; van Baren, Marijke J.; Ghosh, Srinka; Dobin, Alexander; Bell, Kim; Lin, Wei; Langton, Laura; Duff, Michael O.; Tenney, Aaron E.; Zaleski, Chris; Brent, Michael R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Andrews, Justen; Graveley, Brenton R.; Perrimon, Norbert; Celniker, Susan E.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Cherbas, Peter



Using Neuroblastoma Cell Lines to Examine Organophosphate Neurotoxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the initial characterization of neuroblastoma cell lines to address several aspects of organophosphate neurotoxicity. Several commercially available human and mouse cell lines (i.e., SY5Y, IMR-32, SK-N-MC, NB41A3) were evaluated for th...

B. Veronesi M. Ehrich



A comparison of the cell lines used in meningioma research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundImmortal cell lines and cell lines derived from operative specimens transplanted into animal models are used in meningioma research. We address 2 criticisms of the mouse xenograft flank tumor model: Why are tumor induction rates derived from operative specimens low and inconsistent? Are flank tumors meningiomas?

Brian T. Ragel; William T. Couldwell; David L. Gillespie; Merideth M. Wendland; Kum Whang; Randy L. Jensen



Development and characterization of rabbit proximal tubular epithelial cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and characterization of rabbit proximal tubular epithelial cell lines. We have isolated rabbit kidney proximal tubular epithelial cell lines. The selection was based on their ability to form confluent monolayers on porous supports and to maintain receptor-mediated signal transduction and ion transport, characteristic of the proximal tubule. The isolation method consisted of several steps: (1) superficial cortical proximal tubule

Michael F Romero; Janice G Douglas; Richard L Eckert; Ulrich Hopfer; James W Jacobberger



Permissiveness of human hepatoma cell lines for HCV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Although primary and established human hepatoma cell lines have been evaluated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in vitro, thus far only Huh7 cells have been found to be highly permissive for infectious HCV. Since our understanding of the HCV lifecycle would benefit from the identification of additional permissive cell lines, we assembled a panel of hepatic and non-hepatic cell lines and assessed their ability to support HCV infection. Here we show infection of the human hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B with cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), albeit to lower levels than that achieved in Huh7 cells. To better understand the reduced permissiveness of PLC and Hep3B cells for HCVcc infection, we performed studies to evaluate the ability of each cell line to support specific steps of the viral lifecycle (i.e. entry, replication, egress and spread). Results We found that while the early events in HCV infection (i.e. entry plus replication initiation) are cumulatively equivalent or only marginally reduced in PLC and Hep3B cells, later steps of the viral life cycle such as steady-state replication, de novo virus production and/or spread are impaired to different degrees in PLC and Hep3B cultures compared to Huh7 cell cultures. Interestingly, we also observed that interferon stimulated gene (i.e. ISG56) expression was significantly and differentially up-regulated in PLC and Hep3B cells following viral infection. Conclusions We conclude that the restrictions observed later during HCV infection in these cell lines could in part be attributed to HCV-induced innate signaling. Nevertheless, the identification of two new cell lines capable of supporting authentic HCVcc infection, even at reduced levels, expands the current repertoire of cell lines amendable for the study of HCV in vitro and should aid in further elucidating HCV biology and the cellular determinants that modulate HCV infection.



Production of Uniparental Embryonic Stem Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent cells derived from somatic cells, can yield differentiated progeny with potential\\u000a applicability for tissue repair. This chapter describes the generation of embryonic stem cells from gamete-derived uniparental\\u000a embryos. These embryonic stem cells can be patient-derived and potentially histocompatible with the gamete donor. The production\\u000a of uniparental embryos followed by derivation of embryonic stem cells

Sigrid Eckardt; K. John McLaughlin


Cell-cell signaling interactions coordinate multiple cell behaviors that drive morphogenesis of the lateral line  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish sensory lateral line system has emerged as a powerful model for the mechanistic study of collective cell migration and morphogenesis. Recent work has uncovered the details of a signaling network involving the Wnt/?-catenin, Fgf and Delta-Notch pathways that patterns the migrating lateral line primordium into distinct regions. Cells within these regions exhibit different fundamental behaviors that together orchestrate normal lateral line morphogenesis. In this review, we summarize the signaling network that patterns the migrating lateral line primordium and describe how this patterning coordinates crucial morphogenic cell behaviors.

Aman, Andy



Establishment and culture of leukemia-lymphoma cell lines.  


The advent of continuous human leukemia-lymphoma cell lines as a rich resource of abundant, accessible, and manipulable living cells has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hematopoietic tumors. The first leukemia-lymphoma cell lines were established in 1963 and since then large numbers of new cell lines have been described. The major advantages of continuous leukemia-lymphoma cell lines are the unlimited supply and worldwide availability of identical cell material and the infinite viable storability in liquid nitrogen. These cell lines are characterized generally by monoclonal origin and differentiation arrest, sustained proliferation in vitro under preservation of most cellular features, and by specific genetic alterations. Here some of the more promising techniques for establishing new leukemia-lymphoma cell lines and the basic principles for culturing these cells are described. Several clinical and cell culture parameters might have some influence on the success rate, e.g., choice of culture medium and culture conditions, specimen site of the primary cells, and status of the patient at the time of sample collection. PMID:21516408

Drexler, Hans G



GREG cells, a dysferlin-deficient myogenic mouse cell line  

PubMed Central

The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large (~200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by laser wounding in the presence of FM1-43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority (~66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.

Humphrey, Glen W.; Mekhedov, Elena; Blank, Paul S.; de Morree, Antoine; Pekkurnaz, Gulcin; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Zimmerberg, Joshua



Isolation of Amniotic Stem Cell Lines With Potential for Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells capable of differentiating to multiple lineages may be valuable for therapy. We report the isolation of human and rodent amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells that express embryonic and adult stem cell markers. Undifferentiated AFS cells expand extensively without feeders, double in 36 h and are not tumorigenic. Lines maintained for over 250 population doublings retained long telomeres and

Paolo De Coppi; Georg Bartsch; M Minhaj Siddiqui; Tao Xu; Cesar C. Santos; Laura Perin; Gustavo Mostoslavsky; Evan Y. Snyder; James J. Yoo; Mark E. Furth; Shay Soker; Anthony Atala



Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Human pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells have important potential in regenerative medicine and as models for human preimplantation development; how- ever, debate continues over whether embryos should be destroyed to produce human ES cells. We have derived four ES cell lines on mouse embryonic fibroblast cells in medium supplemented with basic fibroblast growth fac- tor, human recombinant leukemia inhibitory

Maisam Mitalipova; John Calhoun; Soojung Shin; David Wininger; Thomas Schulz; Scott Noggle; Alison Venable; Ian Lyons; Allan Robins; Steven Stice



Effects of Ammonia and Volatile Fatty Acids Produced by Oral Bacteria on Tissue Culture Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture filtrates of several bacterial species isolated from the oral cavity were tested for their effects on two types of tissue culture cells: Vero cells, the continuous cell line of African green monkey kidney cells; and chondrocytes, isolated from 15-day-old chick embryo tibiae. Only a limited number of bacterial species — i.e., the asaccharolytic black-pigmented Bacteroides species and Fusobacterium species

T. J. M. van Steenbergern; L. M. S. van der Mispel; J. de Graaff



Respiratory epithelial cell lines exposed to anoxia produced inflammatory mediator  

PubMed Central

Human epithelial cell lines were utilized to examine the effects of anoxia on cellular growth and metabolism. Three normal human epithelial cells lines (A549, NHBE, and BEAS-2B) as well as a cystic fibrosis cell line (IB3-1) and its mutation corrected cell line (C38) were grown in the presence and absence of oxygen for varying periods of time. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Cellular metabolism and proliferation were assayed by determining mitochondrial oxidative burst activity by tetrazolium compound reduction. The viability of cells was indirectly measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. A549, NHBE, and BEAS-2B cells cultured in the absence of oxygen showed a progressive decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation after one to three days. There was a concomitant increase in IL-8 production. Cell lines from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients did not show a similar detrimental effect of anoxia. However, the IL-8 level was significantly increased only in IB3-1 cells exposed to anoxia after two days. Anoxia appears to affect certain airway epithelial cell lines uniquely with decreased cellular proliferation and a concomitant increased production of a cytokine with neutrophilic chemotactic activity. The increased ability of the CF cell line to respond to anoxia with increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the inflammatory damage seen in CF bronchial airway. This study indicates the need to use different cell lines in in vitro studies investigating the role of epithelial cells in airway inflammation and the effects of environmental influences.

Shahriary, Cyrus M.; Nussbaum, Eliezer



Plant cell biology through the window of the highly synchronized tobacco BY2 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous cell systems are highly desirable for investigating various aspects of plant cell biology. However, to date, the tobacco BY-2 cell line is the only plant cell line which can be synchronized to high levels. A cell synchrony starting from S phase is obtained after release of BY-2 cells from aphidicolin treatment, while that from M phase is available after

Toshiyuki Nagata; Fumi Kumagai



Genotyping of 73 UM-SCC head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background We established multiple UM-SCC (University of Michigan Squamous Cell Carcinoma) cell lines. With time, these have been distributed to other labs all over the world. Recent scientific discussions have noted the need to confirm the origin and identity of cell lines in grant proposals and journal articles. We genotyped the UM-SCC cell lines in our collection to confirm their unique identity. Design Early passage UM-SCC cell lines were genotyped and photographed. Results Thus far, 73 unique head and neck UM-SCC cell lines (from 65 donors including 21 lines from 17 females) were genotyped. In 7 cases separate cell lines were established from the same donor. Conclusions These results will be posted on the U of M Head and Neck SPORE Tissue Core website for other investigators to confirm that the UM-SCC cells used in their laboratories have the correct features. Publications using UM-SCC cell lines should confirm the genotype.

Brenner, J. Chad; Graham, Martin P.; Kumar, Bhavna; Saunders, Lindsay M.; Kupfer, Robbi; Lyons, Robert H.; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.



Establishment of Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines from Fresh Tumors versus Xenografts: Comparison of Success Rate and Cell Line Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining representative human colon cancer cell lines from fresh tumors is technically difficult. Using 32 tumor fragments from patients with colon cancer, the present study shows that prior xenograft leads to more efficient cell line establishment compared with direct establishment from fresh tumors (P < 0.05). From 26 tumor specimens, we successfully established 20 tumor xenografts in nude mice (77%);

Virginie Dangles-Marie; Marc Pocard; Sophie Richon; Louis-Bastien Weiswald; Jean-Gabriel Judde; Jean-Louis Janneau; Nathalie Auger; Pierre Validire; Bernard Dutrillaux; Francoise Praz; Dominique Bellet; Marie-France Poupon; Departement de Biologie



Expression pattern of galectin-3 in neural tumor cell lines.  


Galectin-3 is a member of the galectin family of beta-galactoside-specific animal lectins. Here we show that galectin-3 is constitutively expressed in 15 out of 16 glioma cell lines tested, but not by normal or reactive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, glial O-2A progenitor cells and the oligodendrocyte precursor cell line Oli-neu. Galectin-3 is also expressed by one oligodendroglioma cell line, but not by primitive neuroectodermal tumor and 4 neuroblastoma cell lines tested so far. In all galectin-3 expressing cell lines, the lectin is predominantly, if not exclusively, localized intracellularly and carries an active carbohydrate recognition domain (shown for C6 rat glioma cells). Moreover, in contrast to primary astrocytes, glioma cells do not or only weakly adhere to substratum-bound galectin-3, probably reflecting an unusual glycosylation pattern. Our findings indicate that the expression of galectin-3 selectively correlates with glial cell transformation in the central nervous system and could thus serve as a marker for glial tumor cell lines and glial tumors. PMID:10723067

Kuklinski, S; Pesheva, P; Heimann, C; Urschel, S; Gloor, S; Graeber, S; Herzog, V; Pietsch, T; Wiestler, O D; Probstmeier, R



Differential effects of bisphosphonates on breast cancer cell lines.  


Bisphosphonates may induce direct anti-tumor effects in breast cancer cells in vitro. In this study, six bisphosphonates were administered to three breast cancer cell lines. Cell proliferation was measured by quantification of the expression of Cyclin D1 mRNA. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry of a DNA fragmentation assay. We demonstrated that bisphosphonates have direct effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis in different breast cancer cell lines. However, not all bisphosphonates act equally on breast cancer cells in vitro. Zoledronate seems to be the most potent of the six bisphosphonates. This in vitro study showed that bisphosphonates possess promising anti-tumor potential. PMID:16621245

Verdijk, R; Franke, H R; Wolbers, F; Vermes, I



Novel human bronchial epithelial cell lines for cystic fibrosis research  

PubMed Central

Immortalization of human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells often entails loss of differentiation. Bmi-1 is a protooncogene that maintains stem cells, and its expression creates cell lines that recapitulate normal cell structure and function. We introduced Bmi-1 and the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) into three non-cystic fibrosis (CF) and three ?F508 homozygous CF primary bronchial cell preparations. This treatment extended cell life span, although not as profoundly as viral oncogenes, and at passages 14 and 15, the new cell lines had a diploid karyotype. Ussing chamber analysis revealed variable transepithelial resistances, ranging from 200 to 1,200 ?·cm2. In the non-CF cell lines, short-circuit currents were stimulated by forskolin and inhibited by CFTR(inh)-172 at levels mostly comparable to early passage primary cells. CF cell lines exhibited no forskolin-stimulated current and minimal CFTR(inh)-172 response. Amiloride-inhibitable and UTP-stimulated currents were present, but at lower and higher amplitudes than in primary cells, respectively. The cells exhibited a pseudostratified morphology, with prominent apical membrane polarization, few apoptotic bodies, numerous mucous secretory cells, and occasional ciliated cells. CF and non-CF cell lines produced similar levels of IL-8 at baseline and equally increased IL-8 secretion in response to IL-1?, TNF-?, and the Toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3Cys. Although they have lower growth potential and more fastidious growth requirements than viral oncogene transformed cells, Bmi-1/hTERT airway epithelial cell lines will be useful for several avenues of investigation and will help fill gaps currently hindering CF research and therapeutic development.

Fulcher, M. L.; Gabriel, S. E.; Olsen, J. C.; Tatreau, J. R.; Gentzsch, M.; Livanos, E.; Saavedra, M. T.; Salmon, P.; Randell, S. H.



Recent developments on human cell lines for the bioartificial liver.  


Most bioartificial liver (BAL) devices contain porcine primary hepatocytes as their biological component. However, alternatives are needed due to xenotransplantation associated risks. Human liver cell lines have excellent growth characteristics and are therefore candidates for application in BAL devices. Tumour-derived cell lines HepG2 and C3A express a variety of liver functions, but some specific liver functions, like ammonia detoxification and ureagenesis are insufficient. Immortalised human hepatocytes might offer better prospects. The balance between immortalisation and transformation with dedifferentiation of cells seems controllable by conditional immortalisation and/or the use of telomerase as immortalising agent. Another promising approach will be the use of embryonic or adult human stem cells. Rodent stem cells have been directed to hepatic differentiation in vitro, which might be applicable to human stem cells. However, both functionality and safety of immortalised human liver cell lines and differentiated stem cells should be improved before successful use in BAL devices becomes reality. PMID:11999190

Hoekstra, R; Chamuleau, R A F M



Steroid hormone receptors in three human gastric cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormone receptors in three human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines and their transplanted tumors (except nontumorigenic KATO-III) in nude mice were determined by dextran-coated charcoal assay. Progesterone receptors (PgR) were found in all cell lines, transplanted NUGC-3, and AZ 521 tumors. Estrogen receptors (ER) were found in KATO-III cells, transplanted NUGC-3, and AZ 521 tumors, whereas glucocorticoid receptors (GR) were

Chew-Wun Wu; Yuh-Fang Chang; Tsuey-Hwa Yeh; Tai-Jay Chang; Wing-Yiu Lui; Fang-Ku P'eng; Chin-Wen Chi



Epithelial mesenchymal transition traits in human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) has long been associated with breast cancer cell invasiveness and evidence of EMT\\u000a processes in clinical samples is growing rapidly. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of increasingly larger numbers of\\u000a human breast cancer (HBC) cell lines have confirmed the existence of a subgroup of cell lines (termed Basal B\\/Mesenchymal)\\u000a with enhanced invasive properties and a predominantly mesenchymal gene

T. Blick; E. Widodo; H. Hugo; M. Waltham; M. E. Lenburg; R. M. Neve; E. W. Thompson



SK HEP1: A human cell line of endothelial origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  SK-HEP-1 is an immortal, human cell line derived from the ascitic fluid of a patient with adenocarcinoma of the liver. We\\u000a have determined that these cells are of endothelial origin. Despite the location of the tumor from which SK HEP-1 was derived,\\u000a the cell line does not have properties of hepatocytes. Northern blot analysis of total cellular RNA shows no

Sue C. Heffelfinger; Hal H. Hawkins; Jim Barrish; Linda Taylor; Gretchen J. Darlington



Hepatitis C virus infection of neuroepithelioma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes chronic infections in 3% of the world's population. Infection leads to progressive liver disease; hepatocytes are the major site of viral replication in vivo. However, chronic infection is associated with a variety of extrahepatic syndromes, including central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities. We therefore screened a series of neural and brain-derived cell lines for their ability to support HCV entry and replication. Methods We used a panel of neural-derived cell lines, HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp), and an infectious, HCV JFH-1 cell-culture system (HCVcc) to assess viral tropism. Results Two independently derived neuroepithelioma cell lines (SK-N-MC and SK-PN-DW) permitted HCVpp entry. In contrast, several neuroblastoma, glioma, and astrocytoma cell lines were refractory to HCVpp infection. HCVcc infected the neuroepithelioma cell lines and established a productive infection. Permissive neuroepithelioma cells expressed CD81, scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), and the tight junction proteins Claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin, whereas non-permissive neural cell lines lacked CLDN1 and in some cases SR-BI. HCVpp infection of the neuroepithelioma cells was neutralized by antibodies to CD81, SR-BI, CLDN1 and HCV E2. Furthermore, anti-CD81, interferon and the anti-NS3 protease inhibitor VX-950 significantly reduced HCVcc infection of neuroepithelioma and hepatoma cells. Conclusions Neuroepithelioma-derived cell lines express functional receptors that support HCV entry at comparable levels to that of hepatoma cells. HCV infection in vitro is not restricted to hepatic-derived cells, so HCV might infect cells of the CNS in vivo.

Fletcher, Nicola F; Yang, Jian Ping; Farquhar, Michelle J; Hu, Ke; Davis, Christopher; He, Qiuchen; Dowd, Kimberly; Ray, Stuart C; Krieger, Sophie E; Neyts, Johan; Baumert, Thomas F; Balfe, Peter; McKeating, Jane A; Wong-Staal, Flossie



Cell line models for differentiation: preadipocytes and adipocytes.  


In vitro models have been invaluable in determining the mechanisms involved in adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, adipokine secretion and gene/protein expression. The cells presently available for research purposes all have unique advantages and disadvantages that one should be aware of when selecting cells. Established cell lines, such as 3T3-L1 cells, are easier and less costly to use than freshly isolated cells, even though freshly isolated cells allow for various comparisons such as the in vitro evaluation of different in vivo conditions that may not be possible using cell lines. Moreover, stem cells, transdifferentiated cells or dedifferentiated cells are relatively new cell models being evaluated for the study of adipocyte regulation and physiology. The focus of this brief review is to highlight similarities and differences in adipocyte models to aid in appropriate model selection and data interpretation for successful advancement of our understanding of adipocyte biology. PMID:20864461

Poulos, Sylvia P; Dodson, Michael V; Hausman, Gary J



Antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and Euphorbia hirta on Shigella spp.--a cell culture study.  


Antibacterial effect of compounds extracted from Camellia sinensis L. and the methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L. were studied against dysentery causing Shigella spp. using the Vero cell line. Cytotoxicity studies of the extracts were performed using the cell line and the non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract was tested for antibacterial activity against the cytopathic dose of the pathogen. These extracts were found to be non-cytotoxic and effective antibacterial agents. PMID:8847884

Vijaya, K; Ananthan, S; Nalini, R



Hybridization between T and B lymphoma cell lines.  

PubMed Central

The AKR thymoma line BW 5147 has been successfully hybridized with the IgM-bearing (BALB/c x NZB)F1 B lymphoma line WEHI 231. In the hybrids formed, T-cell characteristics were dominant, i.e. there was no expression of IgM but continued expression of Thy-1.1 in eight out of eight lines. Moreover, in two out of eight lines, the Thy-1.2 allele was also expressed. We conclude that, in its ability to hybridize, BW 5147 is not restricted to cells of similar ontogenetic origin (i.e. T cells) and that fusion with the thymoma can lead to suppression of B-cell gene expression and derepression of genes for T-cell markers.

Taussig, M J; Holliman, A; Wright, L J



Development of a cell line from Echinococcus granulosus germinal layer.  


In vitro culture of parasitic helminths provides an important tool to study cell regeneration and physiology, as well as for molecular biology and genetic engineering studies. In the present study, we established in vitro propagation of cells from Echinococcus granulosus germinal cyst layer. E. granulosus germinal cells grew beyond 100 passages and showed no signs of reduced proliferation capacity. Microscopic analysis revealed that cells grew both attached to the substrate and in suspension, forming three-dimensional structures like mammalian stem cell aggregates. Examination of the chromosome number of attached germinal cells showed a high degree of heteroploidy, suggesting the occurrence of transformation during culture. Monolayer cells survived cryopreservation and were able to proliferate after thawing. Based on the characteristics displayed by E. granulosus germinal cells, we establish a cell line from the E. granulosus germinal layer. Furthermore, we propose that this cell line could be useful for drug screening and for obtaining parasite material. PMID:23860182

Albani, Clara María; Cumino, Andrea Carina; Elissondo, María Celina; Denegri, Guillermo María



[Decontamination of continual cell lines spontaneously infected with mycoplasmas].  


The continual cell lines of bovine kidneys MDBK and AUBEK, and porcine kidneys RPD and IBRS, spontaneously infected with Mycoplasma arginini and Acholeplasma laidlawii, were decontaminated by the method of selective elimination. Two elimination procedures were modified to be used for the decontamination: one based on the reduction of infection by the light treatment of the cultures, the other based on the selection of mycoplasma-free cell population through cell clonation. On the basis of a long-continued control of the cell clones a methodical procedure of the preparation of mycoplasma-free cell lines was worked out. PMID:3090766

Machatková, M; Jurmanová, K; Snejdar, V



Human papillomavirus in vulvar and vaginal carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed Central

A number of reports associate human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer and cancer cell lines derived from this tumour type. Considerably fewer reports have focused on the role of HPV in carcinomas from other sites of female anogenital squamous epithelia. In this study we have tested for the presence of HPV in eight low-passage vulvar carcinoma cell lines and one extensively passaged cell line, A431. One cell line from a primary vaginal carcinoma was included. The presence of the HPV was evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), by Southern blot analysis and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. General primer-mediated PCR was applied by using primers from the L1 region, E1 region and HPV 16 E7 region. Southern blot hybridisation was performed under low-stringency conditions (Tm = -35 degrees C) using a whole genomic HPV 6/16/18 probe mixture and under high stringency conditions (Tm = -18 degrees C) with the whole genomic probes of HPV 16 and 33. HPV 16 E6-E7 mRNA was assessed by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). HPV was found in only one vulvar carcinoma cell line, UM-SCV-6. The identified type, HPV 16, was integrated in the cell genome and could be amplified with all primers used. Also E6-E7 transcripts were found in these cells. Five original tumour biopsies were available from the HPV-negative cell lines for in situ hybridisation. All these were HPV negative with both the HPV 6/16/18 screening probe mixture under low stringency and the HPV 16 probe under high stringency. The results indicate that vulvar carcinoma cell lines contain HPV less frequently than cervical carcinoma cell lines and suggest that a significant proportion of vulvar carcinomas may evolve by an HPV-independent mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Hietanen, S.; Grenman, S.; Syrjanen, K.; Lappalainen, K.; Kauppinen, J.; Carey, T.; Syrjanen, S.



Establishment of a corneal epithelial cell line spontaneously derived from human limbal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to establish a spontaneously derived human corneal epithelial cell line from a normal human limbus that retains differentiation potential and proliferative properties under continuous cell culture. After 50 passages of epithelial cells obtained from human limbal tissue a cell line spontaneously emerged. The immortalized cells showed a cobblestone appearance and displayed dense microvilli on

Jingbo liu; Ge Song; Zhichong Wang; Bing Huang; Qianying Gao; Bingqian Liu; Ying Xu; Xuanwei Liang; Ping Ma; Nan Gao; Jian Ge



Isolation and Growth of Prostate Stem Cells and Establishing Cancer Cell Lines from Human Prostate Tumors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this proposal was to isolate, grow, and characterize normal prostate stem cells and establish new prostate cancer cell lines from fresh human prostate tissues. The hypothesis is that prostate stem cells express defined stem cell markers, ...

D. V. Griend



Susceptibilities of medaka (Oryzias latipes) cell lines to a betanodavirus  

PubMed Central

Background Betanodaviruses, members of the family Nodaviridae, have bipartite, positive-sense RNA genomes and are the causal agents of viral nervous necrosis in many marine fish species. Recently, the viruses were shown to infect a few freshwater fish species including a model fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Although virological study using cultured medaka cells would provide a lot of insight into virus-fish interactions in molecular aspects, no such cells have yet been tested for virus susceptibility. Results We tested ten medaka cell lines for susceptibilities to redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). Although the viral coat protein was detected in all the cell lines inoculated, the levels of cytopathic effect development and viral propagation were quite different among the cell lines. Those levels were especially high in OLHNI-1 and OLHNI-2 cells, but were extremely low in OLME-104 cells. Some cell lines entered into antiviral state after RGNNV infections probably because of inducing an antiviral system. This is the first report to examine the susceptibilities of cultured medaka cells against a virus. Conclusion OLHNI-1 and OLHNI-2 cells are candidates of new standard cells for betanodavirus study because of their high susceptibilities to the virus and their several advantages as model fish cells.



Establishment and characterization of a chicken mononuclear cell line.  


A new chicken mononuclear cell line (MQ-NCSU) has been established. The starting material used to initiate this cell line was a transformed spleen from a female Dekalb XL chicken which had been experimentally challenged with the JM/102W strain of the Marek's disease virus. After homogenization, a single cell suspension of splenic cells was cultured using L.M. Hahn medium supplemented with 10 microM 2-mercaptoethanol. Under these culture conditions, a rapidly proliferating cell was observed and then expanded after performing limiting dilution cultures. These cells were moderately adherent and phagocytic for sheep red blood cells and Salmonella typhimurium. When tested against a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) using the flow cytometry, MQ-NCSU cells stained readily with anti-chicken monocyte specific (K-1) mAb but did not stain with mAb detecting T-helper, T-cytotoxic/suppressor, and NK cells. MQ-NCSU cells expressed very high levels of Ia antigens and transferrin receptors. In addition, cell-free supernatant obtained from MQ-NCSU culture contained a factor which exhibited cytolytic activity against tumor cell targets. Based on their cultural, morphological, and functional characteristics and mAb reactivity profile, we conclude that MQ-NCSU cell line represents a malignantly-transformed cell which shares features characteristic of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage. PMID:2176014

Qureshi, M A; Miller, L; Lillehoj, H S; Ficken, M D



Phenotypes and Karyotypes of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of serosal surfaces most commonly pleura. Characterised cell lines represent a valuable tool to study the biology of mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to develop and biologically characterise six malignant mesothelioma cell lines to evaluate their potential as models of human malignant mesothelioma. Methods Five lines were initiated from pleural biopsies, and one from pleural effusion of patients with histologically proven malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelial origin was assessed by standard morphology, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and immunocytochemistry. Growth characteristics were assayed using population doubling times. Spectral karyotyping was performed to assess chromosomal abnormalities. Authentication of donor specific derivation was undertaken by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of SNPs. Results Most of cell lines exhibited spindle cell shape, with some retaining stellate shapes. At passage 2 to 6 all lines stained positively for calretinin and cytokeratin 19, and demonstrated capacity for anchorage-independent growth. At passage 4 to 16, doubling times ranged from 30–72 hours, and on spectral karyotyping all lines exhibited numerical chromosomal abnormalities ranging from 41 to 113. Monosomy of chromosomes 8, 14, 22 or 17 was observed in three lines. One line displayed four different karyotypes at passage 8, but only one karyotype at passage 42, and another displayed polyploidy at passage 40 which was not present at early passages. At passages 5–17, TEM showed characteristic features of mesothelioma ultrastructure in all lines including microvilli and tight intercellular junctions. Conclusion These six cell lines exhibit varying cell morphology, a range of doubling times, and show diverse passage-dependent structural chromosomal changes observed in malignant tumours. However they retain characteristic immunocytochemical protein expression profiles of mesothelioma during maintenance in artificial culture systems. These characteristics support their potential as in vitro model systems for studying cellular, molecular and genetic aspects of mesothelioma.

Relan, Vandana; Morrison, Leanne; Parsonson, Kylie; Clarke, Belinda E.; Duhig, Edwina E.; Windsor, Morgan N.; Matar, Kevin S.; Naidoo, Rishendran; Passmore, Linda; McCaul, Elizabeth; Courtney, Deborah; Yang, Ian A.; Fong, Kwun M.; Bowman, Rayleen V.



Cadherin-11 is expressed in invasive breast cancer cell lines.  


In several cancers, including breast cancer, loss of E-cadherin expression is correlated with a loss of the epithelial phenotype and with a gain of invasiveness. Cells that have lost E-cadherin expression are either poorly invasive with a rounded phenotype, or highly invasive, with a mesenchymal phenotype. Most cells lacking E-cadherin still retain weak calcium-dependent adhesion, indicating the presence of another cadherin family member. We have now examined the expression of the mesenchymal cadherin, cadherin-11, in breast cancer cell lines. Cadherin-11 mRNA and protein, as well as a variant form, are expressed in the most invasive cell lines but not in any of the noninvasive cell lines. Cadherin-11 is localized to a detergent-soluble pool and is associated with both alpha- and beta-catenin. Immunocytochemistry shows that cadherin-11 is localized to the cell membrane at sites of cell-cell contact as well as at lamellipodia-like projections, which do not interact with other cells. These results suggest that cadherin-11 expression may be well correlated with the invasive phenotype in cancer cells and may serve as a molecular marker for the more aggressive, invasive subset of tumors. Cadherin-11 may mediate the interaction between malignant tumor cells and other cell types that normally express cadherin-11, such as stromal cells or osteoblasts or perhaps even with the surrounding extracellular matrix, thus facilitating tumor cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:10029089

Pishvaian, M J; Feltes, C M; Thompson, P; Bussemakers, M J; Schalken, J A; Byers, S W




EPA Science Inventory

THIS ABSTRACT WAS SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY;. SPACE CONSTRAINTS WERE SEVERE) Methylation of Arsenite by Some Mammalian Cell Lines. Methylation of arsenite is thought to play an important role in the carcinogenicity of arsenic. Aim 1: Determine if there is diffe...



Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo examine the cytokine profile of epithelial cells lining the human urinary tract with the aim of differentiating between the constitutive and disease-related cytokine production in these tissues.




Human oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines JROECL 47 and JROECL 50 are admixtures of the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT 116  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two recently described human oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines JROECL 47 and JROECL 50, derived from one tumour, we detected identical E-cadherin and ?-catenin gene mutations as in colon carcinoma cell line HCT 116. We demonstrate by HLA-typing, mutation analysis and microsatellite analysis that cell lines JROECL 47 and JROECL 50 are admixtures of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line

B P L Wijnhoven; M G J Tilanus; A G Morris; S J Darnton; H W Tilanus; W N M Dinjens



Phosphorylation of Pyruvate Kinase and Glycolytic Metabolism in Three Human Glioma Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cell lines established from human gliomas were found to differ in the capacity to phosphorylate the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase in vitro. Phosphorylation in the glioblastoma cell line U-138 was more pronounced than in the glioma cell line Hs 683 and in the glioblastoma cell line A-172. All 3 cell lines showed similar pyruvate kinase isozyme patterns and expressed

Paschal A. Oude Weernink; Gert Rijksen; Gerard E. J. Staal




Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Zamzam water is unique in its natural characteristics as zamzam water has a strong anti-inflammatory and it caused downregulation of genes after induction of colon tumor in rate, we test this hypothesis on human by studying the cell lines from uterine fibro-chondrosarcoma. Material and methods: Uterine fibrochondrosarcoma cell line were incubated with zamzam water 20 c.c. for one week

Ali Farid Mohammed Ali; Ermilando Cosemi; Sayed Kamel; Sana Mohammed; Maged Elhefnawy; Laila Farid; Samer Shaker


Alkylating Agent Resistance: In vitro Studies with Human Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of in vitro resistance to HN2 (also called mustargen or mechlorethamine hydrochloride), N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU), and cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] was achieved in two human cell lines, the Raji\\/Burkitt lymphoma and a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. A 10- to 20-fold increase in resistance relative to the parental line was achieved in 3-4 months of continuous selection pressure. At this time,

Emil Frei; Carol A. Cucchi; Andre Rosowsky; Ramana Tantravahi; Samuel Bernal; Thomas J. Ervin; Ruth M. Ruprecht; William A. Haseltine



Isolation of two chloroethylnitrosourea-sensitive Chinese hamster cell lines  

SciTech Connect

1-((4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl)-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3- nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), a cancer chemotherapeutic bifunctional alkylating agent, causes chloroethylation of DNA and subsequent DNA strand cross-linking through an ethylene bridge. We isolated and characterized two ACNU-sensitive mutants from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary cells and found them to be new drug-sensitive recessive Chinese hamster mutants. Both mutants were sensitive to various monofunctional alkylating agents in a way similar to that of the parental cell lines CHO9. One mutant (UVS1) was cross-sensitive to UV and complemented the UV sensitivity of all Chinese hamster cell lines of 7 established complementation groups. Since UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis was very low, a new locus related to excision repair is thought to be defective in this cell line. Another ACNU-sensitive mutant, CNU1, was slightly more sensitive to UV than the parent cell line. CNU1 was cross-sensitive to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and slightly more sensitive to mitomycin C. No increased accumulation of ACNU and a low level of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in this cell as compared with the parental cell line suggest that there is abnormality in a repair response of this mutant cell to some types of DNA cross-links.

Hata, H.; Numata, M.; Tohda, H.; Yasui, A.; Oikawa, A. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan))



Baculovirus studies in new, indigenous lepidopteran cell lines.  


Eight lepidopteran cell lines were established recently and their susceptibility to different insect viruses was studied. Two Spodoptera litura cell lines from the larval and pupal ovaries, were found highly susceptible to S. litura nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SLNPV, 5-6 x 10(6) NPV/ml). The Helicoverpa armigera cell line from the embryonic tissue was highly susceptible to H. armigera NPV (HaNPV, 6.3 x 10(6) NPV/ml). These in vitro grown SLNPV and HaNPV caused 100% mortality to respective 2nd instar larvae. The susceptibility of the cryo-preserved cell lines to respective baculoviruses (SLNPV/HaNPV) was studied and no significant difference in their susceptibility status was observed. The cultures could grow as suspension culture on shakers and may find application for in vitro production of wild type/recombinant baculoviruses as bio-insecticides. S. litura and Bombyx mori cell lines from larval ovaries, were highly susceptible to Autographa californica NPV (5.5 x 10(6) NPV/ml) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV, 6.1 x 10(6) NPV/ml) respectively. These cell lines may find application in baculovirus expression vector studies for the production of recombinant proteins, useful in the development of diagnostic kits or as vaccines. PMID:12561971

Pant, U; Sudeep, A B; Athawale, S S; Vipat, V C



Metronidazole Decreases Viability of DLD-1 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line.  


Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50??g/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250??g/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test. PMID:23777253

Sadowska, Anna; Kr?towski, Rafa?; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna; Car, Halina



Variation in Hematopoietic Potential of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were originally generated from somatic cells by ectopic expression of four transcription\\u000a factor genes: Oct3\\/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Currently, iPS cell lines differ in tissue origin, the combination of factors used to construct them, the method of gene\\u000a delivery and expression of pluripotency markers. Thus to evaluate iPS cells for haematotherapy, the hematopoietic potential

Kasem Kulkeaw; Yuka Horio; Chiyo Mizuochi; Minetaro Ogawa; Daisuke Sugiyama



Fibronectin Synthesized by a Human Hepatoma Cell Line1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibronectin is a family of immunologically similar glycoproteins which mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-substratum interac tions. It is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and circulates in plasma. When suspension and adherent cultures of a human hepatoma cell line (SK-HEP-1) were incu bated in serum-free medium, the resulting conditioned medium contained material which was specifically

James E. Glasgow; Robert W. Colman


Fibronectin synthesized by a human hepatoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibronectin is a family of immunologically similar glycoproteins which mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. It is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and circulates in plasma. When suspension and adherent cultures of a human hepatoma cell line (SK-HEP-1) were incubated in serum-free medium, the resulting conditioned medium contained material which was specifically immunoprecipitated by

J. E. Glasgow; R. W. Colman



Cancer Stem Cell-Like Side Population Cells in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Line 769P  

PubMed Central

Although cancers are widely considered to be maintained by stem cells, the existence of stem cells in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has seldom been reported, in part due to the lack of unique surface markers. We here identified cancer stem cell-like cells with side population (SP) phenotype in five human RCC cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 769P, a human clear cell RCC cell line, contained the largest amount of SP cells as compared with other four cell lines. These 769P SP cells possessed characteristics of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation, as well as strong resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that were possibly related to the ABCB1 transporter. In vivo experiments with serial tumor transplantation in mice also showed that 769P SP cells formed tumors in NOD/SCID mice. Taken together, these results indicate that 769P SP cells have the properties of cancer stem cells, which may play important roles in tumorigenesis and therapy-resistance of RCC.

Yao, Zhi Jun; Chen, Xu; Guo, Sheng Jie; Mao, Xiao Peng; Wang, Dao Hu; Chen, Jun Xing; Qiu, Shao Peng



Comparative analysis of cell death induction by Taurolidine in different malignant human cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Taurolidine (TRD) represents an anti-infective substance with anti-neoplastic activity in many malignant cell lines. So far, the knowledge about the cell death inducing mechanisms and pathways activated by TRD is limited. The aim of this study was therefore, to perform a comparative analysis of cell death induction by TRD simultaneously in different malignant cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five

Ansgar M Chromik; Adrien Daigeler; Daniel Bulut; Annegret Flier; Christina May; Kamran Harati; Jan Roschinsky; Dominique Sülberg; Peter R Ritter; Ulrich Mittelkötter; Stephan A Hahn; Waldemar Uhl



Transcription profiles of non-immortalized breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Searches for differentially expressed genes in tumours have made extensive use of array technology. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Here we compare cultures of non-immortalized breast cancer cells, normal non-immortalized breast cells and immortalized normal and breast cancer cells to identify which elements of a defined set of well-known cancer-related genes are differentially expressed. Methods Cultures of cells from pleural effusions or ascitic fluids from breast cancer patients (MSSMs) were used in addition to commercially-available normal breast epithelial cells (HMECs), established breast cancer cell lines (T-est) and established normal breast cells (N-est). The Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 cDNA expression array was employed. The data obtained were analysed using widely-available statistical and clustering software and further validated through real-time PCR. Results According to Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) and AtlasImage software, 48 genes differed at least 2-fold in adjusted intensities between HMECs and MSSMs (p < 0.01). Some of these genes have already been directly linked with breast cancer, metastasis and malignant progression, whilst others encode receptors linked to signal transduction pathways or are otherwise related to cell proliferation. Fifty genes showed at least a 2.5-fold difference between MSSMs and T-est cells according to AtlasImage, 2-fold according to SAM. Most of these classified as genes related to metabolism and cell communication. Conclusion The expression profiles of 1176 genes were determined in finite life-span cultures of metastatic breast cancer cells and of normal breast cells. Significant differences were detected between the finite life-span breast cancer cell cultures and the established breast cancer cell lines. These data suggest caution in extrapolating information from established lines for application to clinical cancer research.

Fernandez-Cobo, Mariana; Holland, James F; Pogo, Beatriz GT



Novel cell lines established from pediatric brain tumors  

PubMed Central

The paucity of cell culture models for childhood brain tumors prompted us to establish pediatric cell lines for use in biological experiments and preclinical developmental therapeutic studies. Three cell lines were established, CHLA-200 (GBM), CHLA-259 (anaplastic medulloblastoma) and CHLA-266 (atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, AT/RT). Consistent with an AT/RT origin, CHLA-266 lacked INI1 expression and had monosomy 22. All lines had unique DNA short tandem repeat “fingerprints” matching that of the patient’s tumor tissue and were adherent on tissue culture plastic, but differed in morphology and doubling times. CHLA-200 had a silent mutation in TP53. CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 had wild-type TP53. All three lines were relatively resistant to multiple drugs when compared to the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line, using the DIMSCAN fluorescence digital image microscopy cytotoxicity assay. RNA expression of MYC and MYCN were quantified using RT-PCR (Taqman). CHLA-200 expressed MYC, DAOY and CHLA-259 expressed MYCN, and CHLA-266 expressed both MYCN and MYC. CHLA-200 was only tumorigenic subcutaneously, but CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 were tumorigenic both subcutaneously and in brains of NOD/SCID mice. Immunohistochemistry of the xenografts revealed GFAP staining in CHLA-200 and PGP 9.5 staining in CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 tumors. As expected, INI1 expression was lacking in CHLA-266 (AT/RT). These three new cell lines will provide useful models for research of pediatric brain tumors.

Xu, Jingying; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Melendez, Elizabeth Y.; Smbatyan, Goar; Moats, Rex A.; Rosol, Michael; Biegel, Jaclyn A.



Stem-like Cells in Bladder Cancer Cell Lines with Differential Sensitivity to Cisplatin  

PubMed Central

Background Recurrence is a common problem in bladder cancer; this has been attributed to cancer stem cells. In this study, we characterized potential cancer stem cell populations isolated from three cell lines that demonstrate different responses to cisplatin. Materials and Methods The ALDEFLUOR® assay was used to isolate cells from TCCSUP, T24, and 5637 cell lines, and these cells were evaluated for their ability to form colonies, differentiate, migrate and invade. Results The cell lines demonstrate a spectrum of aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHHigh)populations that correlate with resistance to cisplatin. In the two resistant cell lines, T24 and 5637, the ALDHHigh cells demonstrate increased colony formation, migration, invasion, and ability to differentiate. The resistant T24 and 5637 cell lines may serve as models to investigate alternative therapies for bladder cancer.

Sarachine Falso, Miranda J.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; deVere White, Ralph W.



[Effect of NKG2D in eliminating hematological malignant cell lines by natural killer cells].  


The aim of this study was to clarify whether NKG2D plays an activating role in eliminating hematological malignant cells lines by natural killer (NK) cells. Several hematological malignant cell lines (K562, NB4, Kasumi-1 THP-1, MV-4-11, MOLT-4, Jurkat, RS4; 11, Raji) were used as target cells. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I)-related molecules A/B (MICA, MICB), whose corresponding ligand was NKG2D, were detected in target cells by flow cytometry. Firstly, the target cell lines were co-incubated with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) for 30 min. In the meanwhile, NK92MI, a kind of NK cell line, was co-incubated respectively with isotype control antibody or blocking antibody, the latter could block NKG2D specifically. Then, NK92MI cells were co-cultured with different target cell lines. After incubation for 2 h, the apoptotic ratio of each target cell line was detected by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that there was a significant reduction of the apoptotic ratio in Kasumi-1, an acute myeloid leukemia cell line, when NK92MI cells were incubated with NKG2D blocking antibody previously. In contrast, the apoptotic ratio of other cell lines varied minimally. It is concluded that NKG2D can activate NK cells through inducing cytotoxicity to certain target cells. PMID:22541085

Wang, Wei; Gao, Li; Ma, Yi-Gai



76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute...repeat (STR) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and...



Clonal derivation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines.  


Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are isolated as clusters of cells from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and thus should formally be considered as heterogeneous cell populations. Homogenous hESC cultures can be obtained through subcloning. Here, we report the clonal derivation and characterization of two new hESC lines from the parental cell line SA002 and the previously clonally derived cell line AS034.1, respectively. The hESC line SA002 was recently reported to have an abnormal karyotype (trisomy 13), but within this population of cells we observed rare individual cells with an apparent normal karyotype. At a cloning efficiency of 5%, we established 33 subclones from SA002, out of which one had a diploid karyotype and this subline was designated SA002.5. From AS034.1 we established one reclone designated AS034.1.1 at a cloning efficiency of 0.1%. These two novel sublines express cell surface markers indicative of undifferentiated hESC (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81), Oct-4, alkaline phosphatase, and they display high telomerase activity. In addition, the cells are pluripotent and form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro as well as in vivo. These results, together with the clonal character of SA002.5 and AS034.1.1 make these homogenous cell populations very useful for hESC based applications in drug development and toxicity testing. In addition, the combination of the parental trisomic hESC line SA002 and the diploid subclone SA002.5 provides a unique experimental system to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathologies associated with trisomy 13. PMID:16324761

Heins, Nico; Lindahl, Anders; Karlsson, Ulrika; Rehnström, Marie; Caisander, Gunilla; Emanuelsson, Katarina; Hanson, Charles; Semb, Henrik; Björquist, Petter; Sartipy, Peter; Hyllner, Johan




EPA Science Inventory

We have measured the levels of amplification of oncogenes and tumor marker genes or other genes of interest in nine human lung tumor cell lines in comparison to normal human bronchial epithelial cells or normal blood lymphocytes to test the hypothesis that aberrant amplification ...


In vitro Rb-1 gene transfer to retinoblastoma cell lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After transfection of Rb-vector to packaging cell line (CRIP) by Ca-P precipitation method, we could select nineteen colonies of G-418 resistant clone by ring cloning. Each colony was transduced to NIH3T3 cells to select the one which produces high titer ...

S. W. Choi Y. H. Ham M. H. Kim



Isolation of a Primate Embryonic Stem Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem cells have the ability to remain undifferentiated and proliferate indefinitely in vitro while maintaining the potential to differentiate into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. Here we report the derivation of a cloned cell line (R278.5) from a rhesus monkey blastocyst that remains undifferentiated in continuous passage for >1 year, maintains a normal XY karyotype, and expresses

James A. Thomson; Jennifer Kalishman; Thaddeus G. Golos; Maureen Durning; Charles P. Harris; Robert A. Becker; John P. Hearn



Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines after blastocyst microsurgery.  


Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. Because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an unlimited source of cells for clinical medicine and have begun to be used in clinical trials. Presently, although several hundred hESC lines are available in the word, only few have been widely used in basic and applied research. More and more hESC lines with differing genetic backgrounds are required for establishing a bank of hESCs. Here, we report the first Canadian hESC lines to be generated from cryopreserved embryos and we discuss how we navigated through the Canadian regulatory process. The cryopreserved human zygotes used in this study were cultured to the blastocyst stage, and used to isolate ICM via microsurgery. Unlike previous microsurgery methods, which use specialized glass or steel needles, our method conveniently uses syringe needles for the isolation of ICM and subsequent hESC lines. ICM were cultured on MEF feeders in medium containing FBS or serum replacer (SR). Resulting outgrowths were isolated, cut into several cell clumps, and transferred onto fresh feeders. After more than 30 passages, the two hESC lines established using this method exhibited normal morphology, karyotype, and growth rate. Moreover, they stained positively for a variety of pluripotency markers and could be differentiated both in vitro and in vivo. Both cell lines could be maintained under a variety of culture conditions, including xeno-free conditions we have previously described. We suggest that this microsurgical approach may be conducive to deriving xeno-free hESC lines when outgrown on xeno-free human foreskin fibroblast feeders. PMID:20555390

Meng, Guoliang; Liu, Shiying; Li, Xiangyun; Krawetz, Roman; Rancourt, Derrick E



Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line  

SciTech Connect

In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to test fuel cell components at a scale and under conditions that can be accurately extrapolated to full system performance. This requires specially designed equipment that replicates the pressure (up to 6.5 bara), temperature (about 910 C), anode and cathode gas compositions, flows and power generation density of the full scale design. The SBTS fuel cell anode gas is produced through the reaction of pipeline natural gas with a mixture of steam, CO2, and O2 in a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor. Production of the fuel cell anode gas in this manner provides the capability to test a fuel cell with varying anode gas compositions ranging from traditional reformed natural gas to a coal-syngas surrogate fuel. Stark State College and RRFCS have a history of collaboration. This is based upon SSCAs commitment to provide students with skills for advanced energy industries, and RRFCS need for a workforce that is skilled in high temperature fuel cell development and testing. A key to this approach is the access of students to unique SOFC test and evaluation equipment. This equipment is designed and developed by RRFCS, with the participation of SSC interns. In the near-term, the equipment will be used by RRFCS for technology development. When this stage is completed, and RRFCS has moved to commercial products, SSC will utilize this equipment for workforce training. The RRFCS fuel cell design is based upon a unique ceramic substrate architecture in which a porous, flat substrate (tube) provides the support structure for a network of solid oxide fuel cells that are electrically connected in series. These tubes are grouped into a {approx}350-tube repeat configuration, called a stack/block. Stack/block testing, performed at system conditions, provides data that can be confidently scaled to full scale performance. This is the basis for the specially designed and developed test equipment that is required for advancing and accelerating the RRFCS SOFC power system development program. All contract DE-EE0003229 objectives were achieved and deliverables completed during the peri

Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems



Female Sex Bias in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The factors limiting the rather inefficient derivation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the sex ratio in our 42 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-HESC lines, in an attempt to verify its affect on the establishment of HESC lines. The ratio between male and female PGD-derived cell lines was compared. We found a significant increase in female cell lines (76%). This finding was further confirmed by a meta-analysis for combining the results of all PGD-derived HESC lines published to date (148) and all normal karyotyped HESC lines derived from spare in vitro fertilization embryos worldwide (397). Further, gender determination of embryos demonstrated that this difference originates from the actual derivation process rather than from unequal representation of male and female embryos. It can therefore be concluded that the clear-cut tendency for female preponderance is attributed to suboptimal culture conditions rather than from a true gender imbalance in embryos used for derivation of HESC lines. We propose a mechanism in which aberrant X chromosome inactivation and/or overexpression of critical metabolic X-linked genes might explain this sex dimorphism.

Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Amit, Ami; Malcov, Mira; Frumkin, Tsvia; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Eldar, Ido; Mey-Raz, Nava; Azem, Foad; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Beeri, Rachel; Varshaver, Irit; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat



Definitive molecular cytogenetic characterization of 15 colorectal cancer cell lines.  


In defining the genetic profiles in cancer, cytogenetically aberrant cell lines derived from primary tumors are important tools for the study of carcinogenesis. Here, we present the results of a comprehensive investigation of 15 established colorectal cancer cell lines using spectral karyotyping (SKY), fluorescence in situ hybridization, and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Detailed karyotypic analysis by SKY on five of the lines (P53HCT116, T84, NCI-H508, NCI-H716, and SK-CO-1) is described here for the first time. The five lines with karyotypes in the diploid range and that are characterized by defects in DNA mismatch repair had a mean of 4.8 chromosomal abnormalities per line, whereas the 10 aneuploid lines exhibited complex karyotypes and a mean of 30 chromosomal abnormalities. Of the 150 clonal translocations, only eight were balanced and none were recurrent among the lines. We also reviewed the karyotypes of 345 cases of adenocarcinoma of the large intestine listed in the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer. The types of abnormalities observed in the cell lines reflected those seen in primary tumors: there were no recurrent translocations in either tumors or cell lines; isochromosomes were the most common recurrent abnormalities; and breakpoints occurred most frequently at the centromeric/pericentromeric and telomere regions. Of the genomic imbalances detected by array CGH, 87% correlated with chromosome aberrations observed in the SKY studies. The fact that chromosome abnormalities predominantly result in copy number changes rather than specific chromosome or gene fusions suggests that this may be the major mechanism leading to carcinogenesis in colorectal cancer. PMID:19927377

Knutsen, Turid; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Wangsa, Danny; Barenboim-Stapleton, Linda; Camps, Jordi; McNeil, Nicole; Difilippantonio, Michael J; Ried, Thomas



The pursuit of ES cell lines of domesticated ungulates.  


In contrast to differentiated cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC) maintain an undifferentiated state, have the ability to self-renew, and exhibit pluripotency, i.e., they can give rise to most if not all somatic cell types and to the germ cells, egg and sperm. These characteristics make ES cell lines important resources for the advancement of human regenerative medicine, and, if established for domesticated ungulates, would help make possible the improvement of farm animals through their contribution to genetic engineering technology. Combining other genetic engineering technologies, such as somatic cell nuclear transfer with ESC technology may result in synergistic gains in the ability to precisely make and study genetic alterations in mammals. Unfortunately, despite significant advances in our understanding of human and mouse ESC, the derivation of ES cell lines from ungulate species has been unsuccessful. This may result from a lack of understanding of species-specific mechanisms that promote or influence cell pluripotency. Thorough molecular characterizations, including the elucidation of stem cell "marker" signaling cascade hierarchy, species-appropriate pluripotency markers, and pluripotency-associated chromatin alterations in the genomes of ungulate species, should improve the chances of developing efficient, reproducible technologies for the establishment of ES cell lines of economically important species like the pig, cow, goat, sheep and horse. PMID:18612851

Talbot, Neil C; Blomberg, Le Ann



Characterization of a spontaneously immortalized bovine trabecular meshwork cell line.  


Trabecular meshwork (TM) cells have widely been used as an in vitro model for glaucoma research. However, primary TM cells suffer the disadvantages of limited cell numbers and slow rates of proliferation. We discovered a spontaneously transformed bovine TM (BTM) cell line, BTM-28T. This cell line proliferated rapidly in low-glucose culture medium but also demonstrated contact inhibition in high-glucose culture medium. BTM-28T cells expressed key TM cell markers including ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), laminin and collagen IV (col IV). Also, 100 nM dexamethasone (DEX) enhanced the formation of cross-linked actin networks (CLANs) in confluent BTM-28T cell cultures. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF?2) induced the expression of fibronectin (FN), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in our cell cultures. This cell line will be helpful to better understand the aqueous humor outflow pathway as related to the pathophysiology of glaucoma. PMID:23116564

Mao, Weiming; Liu, Yang; Mody, Avani; Montecchi-Palmer, Michela; Wordinger, Robert J; Clark, Abbot F



Embryonic germ cell lines and their derivation from mouse primordial germ cells.  


When primordial germ cells of the mouse are cultured on feeder layers with the addition of the polypeptide signalling molecules leukaemia inhibitory factor, Steel factor and basic fibroblast growth factor they give rise to cells that resemble undifferentiated blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells. These primordial germ cell-derived embryonic germ cells (EG cells) can be induced to differentiate extensively in culture and also form teratocarcinomas when injected into nude mice. Additionally, they contribute to chimeras when injected into host blastocysts. We have derived multiple EG cell lines from 8.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos of C57BL/6 inbred mice. Four independent EG cell lines with normal male karyotypes have formed chimeras (up to 70% coat colour chimerism) when injected into BALB/c host blastocysts. Chimeric mice from all four cell lines are fertile, but only those from one line have transmitted coat colour markers through the germline. Studies have also been carried out to determine whether gonadal primordial germ cells can give rise to pluripotent EG cells. Germ cells from gonads of 15.5 dpc C57BL/6 embryos and newborn mice failed to produce EG cell lines. EG cell lines capable of forming teratocarcinomas and coat colour chimeras have been established from primordial germ cells of 12.5 dpc genital ridges. We are currently testing the genomic imprinting status of the insulin-like growth factor type 2 receptor gene (Igf2r) in our different EG cell lines. PMID:7835148

Labosky, P A; Barlow, D P; Hogan, B L



The Organelle Proteome of the DT40 Lymphocyte Cell Line*S?  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in eukaryotic cell biology is to understand the roles of individual proteins and the subcellular compartments in which they reside. Here, we use the localization of organelle proteins by isotope tagging technique to complete the first proteomic analysis of the major organelles of the DT40 lymphocyte cell line. This cell line is emerging as an important research tool because of the ease with which gene knockouts can be generated. We identify 1090 proteins through the analysis of preparations enriched for integral membrane or soluble and peripherally associated proteins and localize 223 proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosome, mitochondrion, or plasma membrane by matching their density gradient distributions to those of known organelle residents. A striking finding is that within the secretory and endocytic pathway a high proportion of proteins are not uniquely localized to a single organelle, emphasizing the dynamic steady-state nature of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells.

Hall, Stephanie L.; Hester, Svenja; Griffin, Julian L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Jackson, Antony P.



Omeprazole inhibits growth of cancer cell line of colonic origin.  


The direct effects of omeprazole on colonic cells has not been evaluated. Controversy exists regarding the potential adverse effects of omeprazole on cell proliferation. In order to mimic the in vivo situation in the patient treated with omeprazole, proliferation cell culture experiments were performed, monitoring directly the effects of gastrin and omeprazole both alone and in combination. Three colonic cancer cell lines were used, two with neuroendocrine features (NCI-H716, LCC-18) and one (DLD-1) not known to have these features. In these in vitro proliferation experiments, only the NCI-H716 colorectal cancer cell line responded to omeprazole by decreased proliferation (P < 0.05). The effect was concentration dependent shown for all doses of omeprazole used. Gastrin had a statistically significant effect on increasing proliferation in the NCS-H716 cell line alone but only at the highest concentration (10(-6) M). Omeprazole has a cytostatic effect on one of three colorectal cancer cell lines but the mechanism for this effect of omeprazole and its potential role in treatment awaits elucidation. PMID:7628278

Tobi, M; Chintalapani, S; Goo, R; Maliakkal, B; Reddy, J; Lundqvist, M; Oberg, K; Luk, G



Comparative Metabolic Flux Profiling of Melanoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Metabolic rewiring is an established hallmark of cancer, but the details of this rewiring at a systems level are not well characterized. Here we acquire this insight in a melanoma cell line panel by tracking metabolic flux using isotopically labeled nutrients. Metabolic profiling and flux balance analysis were used to compare normal melanocytes to melanoma cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. All melanoma cells exhibited the Warburg phenomenon; they used more glucose and produced more lactate than melanocytes. Other changes were observed in melanoma cells that are not described by the Warburg phenomenon. Hypoxic conditions increased fermentation of glucose to lactate in both melanocytes and melanoma cells (the Pasteur effect). However, metabolism was not strictly glycolytic, as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was functional in all melanoma lines, even under hypoxia. Furthermore, glutamine was also a key nutrient providing a substantial anaplerotic contribution to the TCA cycle. In the WM35 melanoma line glutamine was metabolized in the “reverse” (reductive) direction in the TCA cycle, particularly under hypoxia. This reverse flux allowed the melanoma cells to synthesize fatty acids from glutamine while glucose was primarily converted to lactate. Altogether, this study, which is the first comprehensive comparative analysis of metabolism in melanoma cells, provides a foundation for targeting metabolism for therapeutic benefit in melanoma.

Scott, David A.; Richardson, Adam D.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Knutzen, Christine A.; Chiang, Gary G.; Ronai, Ze'ev A.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith, Jeffrey W.



Characterization of immunotoxins active against ovarian cancer cell lines.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to develop immunotoxins directed against human ovarian carcinoma cells. Four monoclonal antibodies (260F9, 454C11, 280D11, and 245E7) were chosen because they were found to bind to various ovarian carcinoma cell lines. These antibodies were covalently linked to either Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) or ricin A chain (RTA), and the conjugates were tested against five ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-2, -3, -4, -5; A1847). The ability of the immunotoxins to inhibit both protein synthesis and colony formation was evaluated. Qualitatively similar results were obtained for both types of assays. Usually, PE conjugates were more toxic than their corresponding RTA conjugates. 454C11-PE was very toxic for all ovarian carcinoma lines, whereas 454C11-RTA had low activity. Both 260F9-PE and 260F9-RTA were active in all OVCAR cell lines but not in A1847 cells. 280D11-PE was toxic for OVCAR-4; otherwise, 280D11-PE and RTA conjugates of both 280D11 and 245E7 had little activity. Specificity of immunotoxin action was shown by competition by excess antibody, nontoxicity in nontarget cells, and inactivity of an irrelevant immunotoxin. To investigate the basis of antibody-dependent differences in activity of the various immunotoxins, antibody uptake was studied in OVCAR-2 cells, and the results indicate that antibody internalization is one important factor in the activity of immunotoxins. Images

Pirker, R; FitzGerald, D J; Hamilton, T C; Ozols, R F; Laird, W; Frankel, A E; Willingham, M C; Pastan, I



Proteoglycans Secreted by Packaging Cell Lines Inhibit Retrovirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a model recombinant retrovirus encoding theEscherichia coli lacZgene, we have found that medium conditioned with NIH 3T3 cells and packaging cell lines derived from NIH 3T3 cells inhibits infection. Most of the inhibitory activity was greater than 100 kDa and was sensitive to chondroitinase ABC digestion, which is consistent with the inhibitor being a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Proteoglycans secreted




Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from parthenogenetic blastocysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parthenogenesis is one of the main, and most useful, methods to derive embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which may be an important source of histocompatible cells and tissues for cell therapy. Here we describe the derivation and characterization of two ESC lines (hPES-1 and hPES-2) from in vitro developed blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes. Typical ESC morphology was seen,

Qingyun Mai; Yang Yu; Tao Li; Liu Wang; Mei-jue Chen; Shu-zhen Huang; Canquan Zhou; Qi Zhou



An established avian fibroblast cell line without mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

tAn established avian fibroblast cell line (LSCC-H32) has been found to be inherently resistant to the growth-inhibitory effect of ethidium bromide, when supplied with exogenous urdine. After long-term exposure to ethidium bromide (90 days), the cell population has been transferred to drug-free medium for 60 days, and then seeded at low cell density. Three clones have been isolated and propagated

Paul Desjardins; Jean-Marc de Muys; Réjean Morais



Biological behaviors and proteomics analysis of hybrid cell line EAhy926 and its parent cell line A549  

PubMed Central

Background It is well established that cancer cells can fuse with endothelial cells to form hybrid cells spontaneously, which facilitates cancer cells traversing the endothelial barrier to form metastases. However, up to now, little is known about the biologic characteristics of hybrid cells. Therefore, we investigate the malignant biologic behaviors and proteins expression of the hybrid cell line EAhy926 with its parent cell line A549. Methods Cell counting and flow cytometry assay were carried out to assess cell proliferation. The number of cells attached to the extracellular matrix (Matrigel) was measured by MTT assay for the adhesion ability of cells. Transwell chambers were established for detecting the ability of cell migration and invasion. Tumor xenograft test was carried out to observe tumorigenesis of the cell lines. In addition, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry were utilized to identify differentially expressed proteins between in Eahy926 cells and in A549 cells. Results The doubling time of EAhy926 cell and A549 cell proliferation was 25.32 h and 27.29 h, respectively (P > 0.1). Comparing the phase distribution of cell cycle of EAhy926 cells with that of A549 cells, the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase, in S phase and in G2/M phase was (63.7% ± 2.65%) VS (60.0% ± 3.17%), (15.4% ± 1.52%) VS (13.8% ± 1.32%), and (20.9% ± 3.40%) VS (26.3% ± 3.17%), respectively (P > 0.05). For the ability of cell adhesion of EAhy926 cells and A549 cells, the value of OD in Eahy926 cells was significantly higher than that in A549 cells (0.3236 ± 0.0514 VS 0.2434 ± 0.0390, P < 0.004). We also found that the migration ability of Eahy926 cells was stronger than that of A549 cells (28.00 ± 2.65 VS 18.00 ± 1.00, P < 0.01), and that the invasion ability of Eahy926 cells was significantly weak than that of A549 cells (15.33 ± 0.58 VS 26.67 ± 2.52, P < 0.01). In the xenograft tumor model, expansive masses of classic tumor were found in the A549 cells group, while subcutaneous inflammatory focuses were found in the EAhy926 cells group. Besides, twenty-eight proteins were identified differentially expressed between in EAhy926 cells and in A549 cells by proteomics technologies. Conclusion As for the biological behaviors, the ability of cell proliferation in Eahy926 cells was similar to that in A549 cells, but the ability in adhesion and migration of Eahy926 cells was higher. In addition, Eahy926 cells had weaker ability in invasion and could not form tumor mass. Furthermore, there were many differently expressed proteins between hybrid cell line Eahy926 cells and A549 cells, which might partly account for some of the differences between their biological behaviors at the molecular level. These results may help to understand the processes of tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, and to search for screening method for more targets for tumor therapy in future.

Lu, Ze Jun; Ren, Ya Qiong; Wang, Guo Ping; Song, Qi; Li, Mei; Jiang, Sa Sa; Ning, Tao; Guan, Yong Song; Yang, Jin Liang; Luo, Feng



Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.



The cell line data base and the new catalogue: detailed information on 2650 human and animal cell lines.  


The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB), set up within the Interlab Project, is a relational database containing data on 2650 human and animal cell lines which are available in labs and cell banks all over Europe. The second edition of the catalogue, directly generated from the database, has been produced, and will be published in the first months of 1993. Furthermore, the electronic catalogue is available for IBM-compatible personal computers and the version for MacIntosh is under preparation. PMID:7763741

Manniello, A; Aresu, O; Parodi, B; Romano, P; Iannotta, B; Rondanina, G; Viegi, L; Ruzzon, T



The cell line data base and the new catalogue: Detailed information on 2650 human and animal cell lines.  


The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB), set up within the Interlab Project, is a relational database containing data on 2650 Human and animal cell lines which are available in labs and cell banks all over Europe. The second edition of the catalogue, directly generated from the database, has been produced, and will be published in the first months of 1993. Furthermore, the electronic catalogue is available for IBM-compatible personal computers and the version for MacIntosh is under preparation. PMID:22358677

Manniello, A; Aresu, O; Parodi, B; Romano, P; Iannotta, B; Rondanina, G; Viegi, L; Ruzzon, T



Establishment and characterization of five cell lines derived from human malignant gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established and characterized five cell lines derived from human malignant gliomas (four glioblastomas multiforme and one highly anaplastic astrocytoma). All cell lines exhibited tumor cell morphology and growth kinetics, and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Cytogenetic analysis revealed significant aneuploidy in all five cases as well as clonal chromosomal alterations unique to each cell line. No cell line was

J. T. Rutka; J. R. Giblin; D. Y. Dougherty; H. C. Liu; J. R. McCulloch; C. W. Bell; R. S. Stern; C. B. Wilson; M. L. Rosenblum



Gene expression analysis of cell death induction by Taurolidine in different malignant cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The anti-infective agent Taurolidine (TRD) has been shown to have cell death inducing properties, but the mechanism of its action is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify potential common target genes modulated at the transcriptional level following TRD treatment in tumour cell lines originating from different cancer types. METHODS: Five different malignant cell lines (HT29,

Ansgar M Chromik; Stephan A Hahn; Adrien Daigeler; Annegret Flier; Daniel Bulut; Christina May; Kamran Harati; Jan Roschinsky; Dominique Sülberg; Dirk Weyhe; Ulrich Mittelkötter; Waldemar Uhl



Molecular cytogenetic analysis of breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

The extensive chromosome rearrangements of breast carcinomas must contribute to tumour development, but have been largely intractable to classical cytogenetic banding. We report here the analysis by 24-colour karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of 19 breast carcinoma cell lines and one normal breast epithelial cell line, which provide model examples of karyotype patterns and translocations present in breast carcinomas. The CGH was compared with CGH of 106 primary breast cancers. The lines varied from perfectly diploid to highly aneuploid. Translocations were very varied and over 98% were unbalanced. The most frequent in the carcinomas were 8;11 in five lines; and 8;17, 1;4 and 1;10 in four lines. The most frequently involved chromosome was 8. Several lines showed complex multiply-translocated chromosomes. The very aneuploid karyotypes appeared to fall into two groups that evolved by different routes: one that steadily lost chromosomes and at one point doubled their entire karyotype; and another that steadily gained chromosomes, together with abnormalities. All karyotypes fell within the range seen in fresh material and CGH confirmed that the lines were broadly representative of fresh tumours. The karyotypes provide a resource for the cataloguing and analysis of translocations in these tumours, accessible at © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Davidson, J M; Gorringe, K L; Chin, S-F; Orsetti, B; Besret, C; Courtay-Cahen, C; Roberts, I; Theillet, C; Caldas, C; Edwards, P A W



Establishment and characterisation of two novel breast cancer cell lines.  


Two novel oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer cell lines, BCa-11 (familial) and BCa-15 (sporadic) were successfully established from primary tumours. Characterisation of these cell lines showed expression of epithelial specific antigen and cytokeratins confirming their epithelial lineage. Analysis of ultrastructure and anchorage independent growth confirmed the epithelial nature and transformed phenotype of these cells. Both cell lines showed loss of pRb, Dab2 and ERalpha and elevated levels of proliferation marker Ki67. In addition, BCa-11 cells showed loss of HOXA5, tumour suppressor genes p16(INK4A) and RARbeta as well as overexpression of CyclinD1. Elevation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B transcript levels, promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A, RARbeta2, and HOXA5 further support their neoplastic origin. In conclusion, the two ERalpha negative breast cancer cell lines established herein have certain useful characteristics that may make them valuable for understanding the mechanism of oestrogen receptor negative breast tumours and testing new drugs. PMID:17959394

Raju Bagadi, Sarangadhara Appala; Kaur, Jatinder; Ralhan, Ranju



Caffeine augments Alprazolam induced cytotoxicity in human cell lines.  


Combined effects of alprazolam (Alp), a member of benzodiazepine group of drugs and caffeine on human cell lines, HeLa and THP1 were investigated in this study. Alp mediated cytotoxicity was enhanced while caffeine was present. The cell death was confirmed by observing morphological changes, LDH assay and membrane anisotropic study. Also such combined effects induced elevated level of ROS and depletion of GSH. The mechanism of cell death induced by simultaneous treatment of Alp and caffeine was associated with the calcium-mediated activation of mu-calpain, release of lysosomal protease cathepsin B, activation of PARP and cleavage of caspase 3. Our results indicate that, Alp alone induces apoptosis in human cells but in the presence of caffeine it augments necrosis in a well-regulated pathway. Thus our observations strongly suggest that, alprazolam and caffeine together produce severe cytotoxicity in human cell lines. PMID:19490937

Saha, Biswarup; Mukherjee, Ananda; Samanta, Saheli; Saha, Piyali; Ghosh, Anup Kumar; Santra, Chitta Ranjan; Karmakar, Parimal



Effects of curcumin on stem-like cells in human esophageal squamous carcinoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Many cancers contain cell subpopulations that display characteristics of stem cells. Because these cancer stem cells (CSCs) appear to provide resistance to chemo-radiation therapy, development of therapeutic agents that target CSCs is essential. Curcumin is a phytochemical agent that is currently used in clinical trials to test its effectiveness against cancer. However, the effect of curcumin on CSCs is not well established. The current study evaluated curcumin-induced cell death in six cancer cell lines derived from human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Moreover, these cell lines and the ones established from cells that survived curcumin treatments were characterized. Methods Cell loss was assayed after TE-1, TE-8, KY-5, KY-10, YES-1, and YES-2 cells were exposed to 20–80 ?M curcumin for 30 hrs. Cell lines surviving 40 or 60 ?M curcumin were established from these six original lines. The stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1) and CD44 as well as NF-?B were used to compare CSC-like subpopulations within and among the original lines as well as the curcumin-surviving lines. YES-2 was tested for tumorsphere-forming capabilities. Finally, the surviving lines were treated with 40 and 60 ?M curcumin to determine whether their sensitivity was different from the original lines. Results The cell loss after curcumin treatment increased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines. The percentage of cells remaining after 60 ?M curcumin treatment varied from 10.9% to 36.3% across the six lines. The cell lines were heterogeneous with respect to ALDH1A1, NF-?B and CD44 expression. KY-5 and YES-1 were the least sensitive and had the highest number of stem-like cells whereas TE-1 had the lowest. The curcumin-surviving lines showed a significant loss in the high staining ALDH1A1 and CD44 cell populations. Tumorspheres formed from YES-2 but were small and rare in the YES-2 surviving line. The curcumin-surviving lines showed a small but significant decrease in sensitivity to curcumin when compared with the original lines. Conclusion Our results suggest that curcumin not only eliminates cancer cells but also targets CSCs. Therefore, curcumin may be an effective compound for treating esophageal and possibly other cancers in which CSCs can cause tumor recurrence.



Toxic effects induced by curcumin in human astrocytoma cell lines.  


Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the toxicity induced by curcumin in human astrocytoma cell lines. Methods: The effects induced by curcumin, at 100?µM for 24?h, were evaluated in four astrocytoma cell lines using crystal violet assay and through the evaluation of morphological and ultrastructural changes by electron microscopy. Also, the results of vital staining with acridine orange and propidium iodide for acidic vesicles and apoptotic bodies were analyzed and the expression of the Beclin1 gene was assessed by RT-PCR. Results: The cells treated with curcumin at 100?µM induced an inhibitory concentration50 of viability with morphological changes characterized by a progressive increase in large, non-acidic vesicles devoid of cytoplasmic components and organelles, but that conserved the cell nuclei. No DNA breakage was observed. The astrocytoma cells showed no apoptosis, necrosis or autophagy. Expression of BECLIN1 was not induced (p?cells. Conclusions: Curcumin at 100?µm induced a new type of death cell in astrocytoma cell lines. PMID:23889520

Romero-Hernández, Mirna A; Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Perézpeña-Diazconti, Mario; Rodríguez-Leviz, Alejandra; Sadowinski-Pine, Stanislaw; Velasco-Rodríguez, Luis A; Cortés, Julio Roberto Cáceres; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco



Regulation of telomerase activity in immortal cell lines.  


Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein whose activity has been detected in germ line cells, immortal cells, and most cancer cells. Except in stem cells, which have a low level of telomerase activity, its activity is absent from normal somatic tissues. Understanding the regulation of telomerase activity is critical for the development of potential tools for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol, we found that immortal, telomerase-positive, pseudodiploid human cells (HT1080 and HL60 cells) sorted by flow repressed in quiescent cells. This was true whether quiescence was induced by contact inhibition (NIH 3T3 mouse cells), growth factor removal (bromodeoxyuridine-blocked mouse myoblasts), reexpression of cellular senescence (the reversibly immortalized IDH4 cells), or irreversible cell differentiation (HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells and C2C12 mouse myoblasts). Taken together, these results indicate that telomerase is active throughout the cell in dividing, immortal cells but that its activity is repressed in cells that exit the cell cycle. This suggests that quiescent stem cells that have the potential to express telomerase may remain unaffected by potential antitelomerase cancer therapies. PMID:8649404

Holt, S E; Wright, W E; Shay, J W



Regulation of telomerase activity in immortal cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein whose activity has been detected in germ line cells, immortal cells, and most cancer cells. Except in stem cells, which have a low level of telomerase activity, its activity is absent from normal somatic tissues. Understanding the regulation of telomerase activity is critical for the development of potential tools for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol, we found that immortal, telomerase-positive, pseudodiploid human cells (HT1080 and HL60 cells) sorted by flow repressed in quiescent cells. This was true whether quiescence was induced by contact inhibition (NIH 3T3 mouse cells), growth factor removal (bromodeoxyuridine-blocked mouse myoblasts), reexpression of cellular senescence (the reversibly immortalized IDH4 cells), or irreversible cell differentiation (HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells and C2C12 mouse myoblasts). Taken together, these results indicate that telomerase is active throughout the cell in dividing, immortal cells but that its activity is repressed in cells that exit the cell cycle. This suggests that quiescent stem cells that have the potential to express telomerase may remain unaffected by potential antitelomerase cancer therapies.

Holt, S E; Wright, W E; Shay, J W



Genetic design of an optimized packaging cell line for gene vectors transducing human B cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral gene vectors often rely on packaging cell lines, which provide the necessary factors in trans for the formation of virus-like particles. Previously, we reported on a first-generation packaging cell line for gene vectors, which are based on the B-lymphotropic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a human ?-herpesvirus. This 293HEK-derived packaging cell line harbors a helper virus genome with a genetic modification

E Hettich; A Janz; R Zeidler; D Pich; E Hellebrand; B Weissflog; A Moosmann; W Hammerschmidt



Molecular cytogenetic analysis of 11 new breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

We describe a survey of genetic changes by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 11 human breast cancer cell lines recently established in our laboratory. The most common gains took place at 8q (73%), 1q (64%), 7q (64%), 3q (45%) and 7p (45%), whereas losses were most frequent at Xp (54%), 8p (45%), 18q (45%) and Xq (45%). Many of the cell lines displayed prominent, localized DNA amplifications by CGH. One-third of these loci affected breast cancer oncogenes, whose amplifications were validated with specific probes: 17q12 (two cell lines with ERBB2 amplifications), 11q13 (two with cyclin-D1), 8p11–p12 (two with FGFR1) and 10q25 (one with FGFR2). Gains and amplifications affecting 8q were the most common genetic alterations in these cell lines with the minimal, common region of involvement at 8q22–q23. No high-level MYC (at 8q24) amplifications were found in any of the cell lines. Two-thirds of the amplification sites took place at loci not associated with established oncogenes, such as 1q41–q43, 7q21–q22, 7q31, 8q23, 9p21–p23, 11p12–p14, 15q12–q14, 16q13–q21, 17q23, 20p11–p12 and 20q13. Several of these locations have not been previously reported and may harbour important genes whose amplification is selected for during cancer development. In summary, this set of breast cancer cell lines displaying prominent DNA amplifications should facilitate discovery and functional analysis of genes and signal transduction pathways contributing to breast cancer development. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Forozan, F; Veldman, R; Ammerman, C A; Parsa, N Z; Kallioniemi, A; Kallioniemi, O-P; Ethier, S P



Production of Skeletal Muscle Elements by Cell Lines Derived from Neoplastic Rat Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-cell-cloned cell lines intermediate in morphology be tween the cuboidal epithelial and fully elongated myoepithelial- like cells have been isolated from the single-cell-cloned epithelial stem cell lines Rama 25 and Rama 37 originally obtained from dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors from Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Furth rats, respectively. These are designated Rama 25-11, Rama 25-I2, Rama 25-I4 (Sprague- Dawley) and Rama 50-55, Rama 59,

Philip S. Rudland; Damien J. Dunnington; Barry Gusterson; Paul Monaghan; Christine M. Hughes


Mediators from Cloned T Helper Cell Lines Affect Immunoglobulin Expression by B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cloned T helper cells encounter antigen presented by I-A-compatible macrophages, soluble mediators are produced that affect the differentiation and activation of normal B lymphocytes and cell lines of the B lineage. Exposure to such T cell culture supernatants causes two effects in the murine 70Z\\/3 cell line, which represents a pre-B stage of differentiation. These cells begin to synthesize

Christopher J. Paige; Max H. Schreier; Charles L. Sidman



Mediators from cloned t helper cell lines affect immunoglobulin expression by b cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cloned T helper cells encounter antigen presented by I-A-compatible macrophages, soluble mediators are produced that affect the differentiation and activation of normal B lymphocytes and cell lines of the B lineage. Exposure to such T cell culture supernatants causes two effects in the murine 70Z\\/3 cell line, which represents a pre-B stage of differentiation. These cells begin to synthesize

C. J. Paige; M H Schreier; C L Sidman



Generation of a human urinary bladder smooth muscle cell line.  


We report a cell line (hBSM) established from human urinary bladder wall smooth muscle that maintains most of the phenotypic characteristics of smooth muscle cells. Cells were dissociated from the muscular layer with collagenase (1 mg/ml) and collected and grown in M199 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. Primary cultures were grown for 2 d and small colonies were isolated by placing glass rings around the colonies. These colonies were picked up with a fine-tipped Pasteur pipette and subcultured. This procedure was repeated several times until a culture with a uniform stable morphology was obtained. hBSM cells are elongated with tapered ends, and in high density cultures, they form swirls of cells arranged in parallel. These cells have a doubling time of approximately 72 h. Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed stable expression of smooth muscle-specific proteins, including myosin isoforms (N-terminal isoforms SM-A/B and C-terminal isoforms SM1/2), SM22, ?-smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon, Ca(2+)-dependent myosin light chain kinase, and protein kinase G. These cells contract upon exposure to 10 ?M bethanechol and this contraction is reversible by washing away the drug. Karyotyping showed tetraploidy with a modal chromosome number of 87, with multiple rearrangements. To our knowledge, the hBSM cell line is the first human cell line established from bladder wall smooth muscle that expresses both N- and C-terminal smooth muscle myosin isoforms. This cell line will provide a valuable tool for studying transcriptional regulation of smooth muscle myosin isoforms and effects of drugs on cellular function. PMID:22259013

Zheng, Yongmu; Chang, Shaohua; Boopathi, Ettickan; Burkett, Sandra; John, Mary; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Chacko, Samuel



Derivation of ductlike cell lines from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma of the rat pancreas.  

PubMed Central

Two cell lines were derived from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma that had been established from a primary carcinoma of the pancreas in an azaserine-treated Lewis rat. The cultured tumor cells initially produced amylase, but production of exocrine enzymes ceased after 1-2 weeks in culture. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in Lewis rats, and one line produced solid tumors composed of ductlike structures surrounded by dense fibrous tissue. The second cell line produced partially solid and partially cystic tumors with a mixed phenotype of squamous, mucinous, and glandular areas when it grew in vivo following regrafting. Both cell lines lost structural and immunohistochemical acinar cell markers while acquiring duct cell markers during culture and regrafting. These studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that ductlike carcinomas can arise from neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells in rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12

Pettengill, O. S.; Faris, R. A.; Bell, R. H.; Kuhlmann, E. T.; Longnecker, D. S.



Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Summary The recent identification of frequent activating mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 in uveal melanoma provides an opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of this melanoma subtype, and to develop rational therapeutics to target the cellular effects mediated by these mutations. Cell lines from uveal melanoma tumors are an essential tool for these types of analyses. We report the mutation status of relevant melanoma genes, expression levels of proteins of interest and DNA fingerprinting of a panel of uveal melanoma cell lines used in the research community. Significance This study represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of uveal melanoma cell lines performed to date. The data confirms the mutually exclusive nature of GNAQ and GNA11 mutations in vitro. The lack of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, PI3K, and AKT mutations reveal GNAQ and GNA11 uveal melanoma cells to be distinct among melanoma types. The data provided is intended as a reference for investigators to select appropriate model systems and assist with authentication of uveal melanoma cell lines.

Griewank, Klaus G.; Yu, Xiaoxing; Khalili, Jahan; Sozen, M. Mert; Stempke-Hale, Katherine; Bernatchez, Chantale; Wardell, Seth; Bastian, Boris C.; Woodman, Scott E.



Spontaneously arising immortal cell line of rat retinal pigmented epithelial cells.  


A continuous cell line of rat retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), named BPEI-1, has been established and characterized. Sheets of pure RPE cells, uncontaminated by choroidal or neural retinal cell types, were isolated from eyes of 7-day-old Long Evans rats and established in primary culture. The primary RPE cells became extensively spread and grew slowly for approximately 1 month, at which time a colony of small rapidly dividing cells spontaneously appeared. Following trypsinization, most of the typical primary RPE cells did not survive and were quickly outnumbered by the smaller cells, which gave rise to a cell line that was grown continuously for several hundred generations. When growing at the maximal rate in media containing 20% FBS (doubling time 18 h), the cells were fibroblastic and nearly devoid of pigment, but were capable of morphologic transition back to a pigmented, epithelioid form when cultured under low serum conditions. Evidence that these cells originated from RPE included specific immunolabeling with antibodies to cellular retinaldehyde binding protein and cytokeratin, negative GFAP immunoreactivity, and demonstration of avid phagocytosis of isolated rod outer segments by these cells. Partial characterization of choroidal cells eliminated the latter cells as possible contaminants which could have given rise to the cell line. The BPEI-1 cell line, and other rat RPE cell lines currently being developed from pigmented normal (LE, RCS rdy+p+) and retinal dystrophic (RCS p+) rats should facilitate biochemical and molecular biological approaches to study of RPE cell function in health and disease. PMID:7679997

McLaren, M J; Sasabe, T; Li, C Y; Brown, M E; Inana, G



Hypoxic cell turnover in different solid tumor lines  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and the amount of tumor hypoxia has been shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of radiotherapy. The efficacy of combined modality treatments depends both on the sequence and timing of the treatments. Hypoxic cell turnover in tumors may be important for optimal scheduling of combined modality treatments, especially when hypoxic cell targeting is involved. Methods and Materials: Previously we have shown that a double bioreductive hypoxic marker assay could be used to detect changes of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature after carbogen and hydralazine treatments. This assay was used in the current study to establish the turnover rate of hypoxic cells in three different tumor models. The first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times before tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. Hypoxic cell turnover was defined as loss of pimonidazole (first marker) relative to CCI-103F (second marker). Results: The half-life of hypoxic cell turnover was 17 h in the murine C38 colon carcinoma line, 23 h and 49 h in the human xenograft lines MEC82 and SCCNij3, respectively. Within 24 h, loss of pimonidazole-stained areas in C38 and MEC82 occurred concurrent with the appearance of pimonidazole positive cell debris in necrotic regions. In C38 and MEC82, most of the hypoxic cells had disappeared after 48 h, whereas in SCCNij3, viable cells that had been labeled with pimonidazole were still observed after 5 days. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the double hypoxia marker assay can be used to study changes in both the proportion of hypoxic tumor cells and their lifespan at the same time. The present study shows that large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rates may exist among tumor lines, with half-lives ranging from 17-49 h.

Ljungkvist, Anna S.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands) and Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail:; Bussink, Johan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rijken, Paulus F.J.W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Begg, Adrian C. [Division of Experimental Therapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Raleigh, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands)



Ultra-wideband time-delay line inspired by composite right\\/left-handed transmission line unit cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design of ultra-wideband time-delay line inspired by the composite right\\/left-handed transmission line (CRLH TL) unit cell. A rotated version of the conventional CRLH TL unit cell is used to increase the operating bandwidth. The time-delay line is optimized using computer simulation and then fabricated on a PCB for measurement. For comparison, the time-delay lines using the

J. Zhang; S. W. Cheung; T. I. Yuk



Optimized protocol for derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines.  


For the past 12 years, the biology and applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have received great attention from the scientific community. Derivatives of the first hESC line obtained by J. Thomson's group (Science 282(5391):1145-1147, 1998) have been used in clinical trials in patients with spinal cord injury, and other hESC lines have now been used to generate cells for use in treating blindness (Lancet 379(9817):713-720, 2012). In addition to the classical protocol based on mouse or human feeder layers using open culture methods (In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 46(3-4):386-394, 2010; Stem Cells 23(9):1221-1227, 2005; Nature Biotechnology 24(2):185-187, 2006; Human Reproduction 21(2):503-511, 2006; Human Reproduction 20(8):2201-2206, 2005; Fertility and Sterility 83(5):1517-1529, 2005), novel hESC lines have been derived xeno-free (without using animal derived reagents) (PLoS One 5 (4):1024-1026, 2010), feeder-free (without supporting cell monolayers) (Lancet 365(9471):1601-1603, 2005), in microdrops under oil (In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 46(3-4):236-41, 2010) and in suspension with ROCK inhibitor (Nature Biotechnology 28(4):361-4, 2010). Regardless of the culture system, successful hESC derivation usually requires optimization of embryo culture, the careful and timely isolation of its inner cell mass (ICM), and precise culture conditions up to the establishment of pluripotent cell growth during hESC line derivation. Herein we address the crucial steps of the hESC line derivation protocol, and provide tips to apply quality control to each step of the procedure. PMID:22614996

Camarasa, María Vicenta; Galvez, Víctor Miguel; Brison, Daniel Roy; Bachiller, Daniel



Mechanisms of prodigiosin cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prodigiosin is a bacterial red pigment with cytotoxic properties and potential antitumor activity that has been tested against different cancerous cells. In this study we report the effect and mechanisms of action of prodigiosin against different human neuroblastoma cell lines: SH-SY5Y, LAN-1, IMR-32 (N-type) and SK-N-AS (S-type). We compare the anticancerous effect of prodigiosin with that of cisplatin at different

Roser Francisco; Ricardo Pérez-Tomás; Pepita Gimènez-Bonafé; Vanessa Soto-Cerrato; Pol Giménez-Xavier; Santiago Ambrosio



Intermittent PTH Administration Converts Quiescent Lining Cells to Active Osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone mass, at least in part, by increasing osteoblast number. One possible source of osteoblasts might be conversion of inactive lining cells to osteoblasts, and indirect evidence is consistent with this hypothesis. To better understand the possible effect of PTH on lining cell activation, a lineage tracing study was conducted using an inducible gene system. Dmp1-CreERt2 mice were crossed with ROSA26R reporter mice to render targeted mature osteoblasts and their descendents, lining cells and osteocytes, detectable by X-gal staining. Dmp1-CreERt2(+):ROSA26R mice were injected with 0.25 mg 4-OH-tamoxifen (4-OHTam) on postnatal day 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21. The animals were sacrificed on postnatal day 23, 33 or 43 (2, 12 or 22 days after the last 4-OHTam injection). On day 43, mice were challenged with a subcutaneous injection of human PTH (1–34, 80 ?g/kg) or vehicle once daily for 3 days. By 22 days after the last 4-OHTam injection, most X-gal (+) cells on the periosteal surfaces of both the calvaria and tibia were flat. Moreover, bone formation rate and collagen I(?1) mRNA expression were decreased at day 43 compared to day 23. After 3 days of PTH injections, the thickness of X-gal (+) cells increased, as did their expression of osteocalcin and collagen I(?1) mRNA. Electron microscopy revealed X-gal-associated chromagen particles in both thin cells prior to PTH administration and cuboidal cells following PTH administration. These data support the hypothesis that intermittent PTH treatment can increase osteoblast number by converting lining cells to mature osteoblasts in vivo.

Kim, Sang Wan; Pajevic, Paola Divieti; Selig, Martin; Barry, Kevin J.; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Shin, Chan Soo; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun



Conditionally immortalized cell line of inducible metanephric mesenchyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditionally immortalized cell line of inducible metanephric mesenchyme.BackgroundThe mesenchymal-epithelial conversion of metanephric mesenchyme (MM) in the formation of nephronic tubules has long served as a paradigm for inductive signaling in morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this differentiation have remained an enigma due to insufficient numbers of primary mesenchymal cells that must be isolated manually from animal embryos. To overcome this

Zoia B. Levashova; Sergei Y. Plisov; Alan O. Perantoni



Decorin Suppresses Bone Metastasis in a Breast Cancer Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decorin, the prototype of an expanding family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is involved in a number of cellular processes including matrix assembly, fibrillogenesis and the control of cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the role of decorin in suppressing tumor aggressiveness and bone metastases. We used a metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, to show that decorin causes marked

Kentaro Araki; Hiroki Wakabayashi; Ken Shintani; Joji Morikawa; Akihiko Matsumine; Katsuyuki Kusuzaki; Akihiro Sudo; Atsumasa Uchida



A CNS Catecholaminergic Cell Line Expresses Voltage-gated Currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   CATH.a is a central nervous system (CNS) catecholaminergic cell line derived from a transgenic mouse carrying the SV40 T antigen\\u000a oncogene under the transcriptional control of regulatory elements from the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene (Suri et al., 1993).\\u000a CATH.a cells express several differentiated neuronal characteristics including medium and light chain neurofilament proteins,\\u000a synaptophysin, tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine ?-hydroxylase; they

M. Lazaroff; K. Dunlap; D. M. Chikaraishi



Pheochromocytoma cell lines from heterozygous neurofibromatosis knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantable tumors and cell lines have been developed from pheochromocytomas arising in mice with a heterozygous knockout mutation of the neurofibromatosis gene, Nf1. Nf1 encodes a ras-GTPase-activating protein, neurofibromin, and mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells in primary cultures typically show extensive spontaneous neuronal differentiation that may result from the loss of the remaining wild-type allele and defective regulation of ras signaling.

J. F. Powers; M. J. Evinger; P. Tsokas; S. Bedri; J. Alroy; M. Shahsavari; A. S. Tischler



Evolutionary dynamics of two related malignant plasma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Cancer is the consequence of sequential acquisition of mutations within somatic cells. Mutations alter the relative reproductive fitness of cells, enabling the population to evolve in time as a consequence of selection. Cancer therapy itself can select for or against specific subclones. Given the large population of tumor cells, subclones inevitably emerge and their fate will depend on the evolutionary dynamics that define the interactions between such clones. Using a combination of in vitro studies and mathematical modeling, we describe the dynamic behavior of two cell lines isolated from the same patient at different time points of disease progression and show how the two clones relate to one another. We provide evidence that the two clones coexisted at the time of initial presentation. The dominant clone presented with biopsy-proven cardiac AL amyloidosis. Initial therapy selected for the second clone that expanded leading to a change in the diagnosis to multiple myeloma. The evolutionary dynamics relating the two cell lines are discussed and a hypothesis is generated in regard to the mechanism of one of the phenotypic characteristics that is shared by these two cell lines.

Arendt, Bonnie K; Bajzer, Zeljko; Jelinek, Diane F



DNA methylation and sensitivity to antimetabolites in cancer cell lines.  


The prediction of the cellular direction of metabolic pathways toward either DNA synthesis or DNA methylation is crucial for determining the susceptibility of cancers to anti-metabolites such as fluorouracil (5-FU). We genotyped the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in NCI-60 cancer cell lines, and identified the methylation status of 24 tumor suppressor genes using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The susceptibility of the cancer cell lines to seven antimetabolites was then determined. Cells homozygous for CC at MTHFR-A1298C were significantly more sensitive to cyclocytidine, cytarabine (AraC) and floxuridine than those with AA or AC (p=0.0215, p=0.0166, and p=0.0323, respectively), and carried more methylated tumor suppressor genes (p=0.0313). Among the 12 tumor suppressor genes which were methylated in >25% of cancer cell lines, the methylation status of TIMP3, APC and IGSF4 significantly correlated with sensitivity to pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors. In particular, cells with methylated TIMP3 had reduced mRNA levels and were significantly more sensitive to aphidicolin-glycinate, AraC and 5-FU than cells with unmethylated TIMP3. We speculate that MTHFR-A1298C homozygous CC might direct the methylation rather than the synthesis of DNA, and result in the methylation of several tumor suppressor genes such as TIMP3. These genes could be useful biological markers for predicting the efficacy of antimetabolites. PMID:18202788

Sasaki, Shin; Kobunai, Takashi; Kitayama, Joji; Nagawa, Hirokazu



Evolutionary dynamics of two related malignant plasma cell lines.  


Cancer is the consequence of sequential acquisition of mutations within somatic cells. Mutations alter the relative reproductive fitness of cells, enabling the population to evolve in time as a consequence of selection. Cancer therapy itself can select for or against specific subclones. Given the large population of tumor cells, subclones inevitably emerge and their fate will depend on the evolutionary dynamics that define the interactions between such clones. Using a combination of in vitro studies and mathematical modeling, we describe the dynamic behavior of two cell lines isolated from the same patient at different time points of disease progression and show how the two clones relate to one another. We provide evidence that the two clones coexisted at the time of initial presentation. The dominant clone presented with biopsy proven cardiac AL amyloidosis. Initial therapy selected for the second clone that expanded leading to a change in the diagnosis to multiple myeloma. The evolutionary dynamics relating the two cell lines are discussed and a hypothesis is generated in regard to the mechanism of one of the phenotypic characteristics that is shared by these two cell lines. PMID:20890105

Dingli, David; Arendt, Bonnie K; Bajzer, Zeljko; Jelinek, Diane F



Differential proteomic analysis of nuclear extracts from thyroid cell lines.  


Nuclear proteins play a major role in controlling cell functions. Differential proteomic analysis of nuclear proteins by combined 2D gel electrophoresis (2D-E) and mass spectrometry procedures can provide useful information to understand the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. To identify proteins involved in dedifferentiation, we used a differential proteomics approach by comparing nuclear extracts from the differentiated rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5 and the derived undifferentiated Ki-mol cell line, obtained by transformation with the Ki-ras oncogene. Thirteen proteins were identified as differently expressed in the nuclear compartment between the two cell lines. RT-PCR analysis performed on seven differently expressed genes showed that only in two cases the difference may be ascribable to a transcriptional mechanism. Since one of the identified proteins, namely apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1), is suspected to play a role in thyroid tumorigenesis, we used a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pulldown assay coupled to a 2D electrophoretic/matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to detect and identify its interacting partners. We show here that beta-actin directly interacted with APE1/Ref-1, as confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation assays and that this interaction was enhanced by oxidative stress on FRTL-5 cells. PMID:16431169

Salzano, Anna Maria; Paron, Igor; Pines, Alex; Bachi, Angela; Talamo, Fabio; Bivi, Nicoletta; Vascotto, Carlo; Damante, Giuseppe; Quadrifoglio, Franco; Scaloni, Andrea; Tell, Gianluca



Telomere stability genes are not mutated in osteosarcoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary bone tumor in adolescents and young adults, is characterized by a high degree of chromosomal abnormalities. Because telomeres are important for maintaining chromosomal integrity, it is plausible that germ-line or somatic mutations in the genes responsible for stabilizing the telomere complex could contribute to OS. We performed bi-directional sequence analysis in five OS cell

Sharon A. Savage; Brian J. Stewart; Jason S. Liao; Lee J. Helman; Stephen J. Chanock



Gastric cancer cell lines induced by trichostatin A  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To explore the effect of trichostatin A (TSA) on apoptosis and acetylated histone H3 levels in gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901. METHODS: The effect of TSA on growth inhibition and apoptosis was examined by MTT, fluorescence microscopy and PI single-labeled flow cytometry. The acetylated histone H3 level was detected by Western blot.

Xiao-Ming Zou; Yun-Long Li; Hao Wang; Wu Cui; Xiao-Lin Li; Song-Bin Fu; Hong-Chi Jiang



Expression of melatoninergic receptors in human placental choriocarcinoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Melatonin crosses the placenta and enters the fetal circulation. Moreover, experimental data sug- gest a possible influence of melatonin on placental function and fetal development in humans. To date, the expression and role of melatonin receptors in human placenta choriocarcinoma cell lines and in human term placental tissues remain to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Results from RT-PCR, western

Dave Lanoix; Rodney Ouellette; Cathy Vaillancourt




EPA Science Inventory

Diversity of arsenic metabolism in cultured human cancer cell lines. Arsenic has been known to cause a variety of malignancies in human. Pentavalent As (As 5+) is reduced to trivalent As (As3+) which is further methylated by arsenic methyltransferase(s) to monomethylarson...



EPA Science Inventory

The production of arachidonic acid metabolites by the HL60, ML3, and U937 human phagocyte cell lines were determined after incubation with interferongamma (IFNg; 500 U/ml) or vehicle for 4 days. ells were prelabeled with tritiated arachidonic acid for 4 hours, and media supernata...


Inhibition of West Nile virus replication in cells stably transfected with vector-based shRNA expression system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the efficacies of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting different regions of West Nile virus (WNV) strain Sarafend genome were investigated. Short hairpin RNAs targeting Capsid, NS2B and NS4B genes were cloned into pSilencer™ 3.1-H1 neo and designated as pshCapsid, pshNS2B and pshNS4B, respectively. Vero cells that were positively transfected were selected for creating stable cell lines expressing

S. P. Ong; J. J. H. Chu; M. L. Ng



Establishment and Identification of Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines Having Classic and Variant Features1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a chemically defined medium containing hydrocortisone, insulin, transferrin, 17\\/3-estradiol and selenium, with or without serum supplementation (2.5% v\\/v), continuous cell lines can be established from 72% of all fresh biopsy specimens of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) containing tumor cells. No differences were observed in the rate of establishing cell lines from newly diag nosed untreated patients, or from

Desmond N. Carney; Adi F. Gazdar; Gerold Bepler; John G. Guccion; Paul J. Marangos; Terry W. Moody; Mark H. Zweig; John D. Minna


Cell surface proteins and glycoproteins from biologically different human colon carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Six cultured human colon cancer cell lines possessing different biological characteristics were enzymatically radiolabeled in situ with 125I and 3H, and the labeled cell surface proteins and glycoproteins were compared. The electrophoretic patterns of labeled cell surface material suggest correlations between biological properties and cell surface proteins. Highly aggressive cell lines (as assessed by in vitro parameters) had predominant peaks of 125I-labeled proteins between molecular weights 66,000 and 92,500. The major peak of radioiodinated material from the more indolent cell lines occurred between molecular weights 31,000 and 45,000. The profile of one 125I-labeled intermediately aggressive cell line was similar to the profiles of the more aggressive lines, whereas another intermediate line exhibited a profile different from those of both indolent and aggressive lines. Electrophoresis of tritiated material indicated that essentially all of the recovered labeled glycoprotein was of relatively high molecular weight (92,000-180,000) in the indolent lines, whereas the intermediate and highly aggressive lines had patterns with significant peaks between molecular weights 45,000 and 92,500.

Marks, M.E.; Danbury, B.H.; Miller, C.A.; Brattain, M.G.



The secretome signature of colon cancer cell lines.  


The definition of the secretome signature of a cancer cell line can be considered a potential tool to investigate tumor aggressiveness and a preclinical exploratory study required to optimize the search of cancer biomarkers. Dealing with a cell-specific secretome limits the contamination by the major components of the human serum and reduces the range of dynamic concentrations among the secreted proteins, thus favouring under-represented tissue-specific species. The aim of the present study is to characterize the secretome of two human colon carcinoma cell lines, CaCo-2 and HCT-GEO, in order to evaluate differences and similarities of two colorectal cancer model systems. In this study, we identified more than 170 protein species, 64 more expressed in the secretome of CaCo-2 cells and 54 more expressed in the secretome of HCT-GEO cells; 58 proteins were shared by the two systems. Among them, more than 50% were deemed to be secretory according to their Gene Ontology annotation and/or to their SignalP or SecretomeP scores. Such a characterization allowed corroborating the potential of a cell culture-based model in order to describe the cell-specific invasive properties and to provide a list of putative cancer biomarkers. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 2577-2587, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23744648

Imperlini, Esther; Colavita, Irene; Caterino, Marianna; Mirabelli, Peppino; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Vecchio, Luigi Del; Noto, Rosa Di; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Orrù, Stefania



Transgene expression enhancement in T-lymphoma cell lines.  


In transfection protocols, the expression levels of the transgene is important to define, still is difficult to obtain in certain cell lines such as those derived from T-lymphoma cells. In this study we evaluate transgene expression kinetics in the presence and absence of two well known transcription activators such as phorbol-12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) and Ionomicin (IO). Three murine T lymphoma cell lines (LBC, EL4 and BW5147) were transfected by electroporation using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene and analyzed by flow cytometry. Addition of PMA/IO resulted in a significant increase of the Mean Fluorescence Intensity but not in GFP-positive cell percentages, either in transient or stable transfected LBC and EL4 cells. Remarkable, BW5147 cells showed low GFP induction with a significant increment only in stable transfected cells. Our results demonstrated that CMV promoter activity can be enhanced in transfected lymphoma cells by PMA/IO suggesting that transgene expression levels can be optimized by means of the use of transcription activators. PMID:16102518

Ruybal, Paula; Gravisaco, María José; Barcala, Virna; Escalada, Ana; Cremaschi, Graciela; Taboga, Oscar; Waldner, Claudia; Mongini, Claudia



Immortality of cell lines: challenges and advantages of establishment.  


Cellular immortality happens upon impairment of cell-cycle checkpoint pathways (p53/p16/pRb), reactivation or up-regulation of telomerase enzyme, or upregulation of some oncogenes or oncoproteins leading to a higher rate of cell division.There are also some other factors and mechanisms involved in immortalisation, which need to be discovered. Immortalisation of cells derived from different sources and establishment of immortal cell lines has proven useful in understanding the molecular pathways governing cell developmental cascades in eukaryotic, especially human, cells. After the breakthrough of achieving the immortal cells and understanding their critical importance in the field of molecular biology, intense efforts have been dedicated to establish cell lines useful for elucidating the functions of telomerase, developmental lineage of progenitors, self-renewal potency, cellular transformation, differentiation patterns and some bioprocesses, like odontogenesis. Meanwhile, discovering the exact mechanisms of immortality, a major challenge for science yet, is believed to open new gateways toward understanding and treatment of cancer in the long term. This review summarises the methods involved in establishing immortality, its advantages and the challenges still being faced in this field. PMID:23723166

Maqsood, Muhammad Irfan; Matin, Maryam M; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Ghasroldasht, Mohammad M



Taurine regulates insulin release from pancreatic beta cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Pancreatic ?-cells release insulin via an electrogenic response triggered by an increase in plasma glucose concentrations. The critical plasma glucose concentration has been determined to be ~3 mM, at which time both insulin and GABA are released from pancreatic ?-cells. Taurine, a ?-sulfonic acid, may be transported into cells to balance osmotic pressure. The taurine transporter (TauT) has been described in pancreatic tissue, but the function of taurine in insulin release has not been established. Uptake of taurine by pancreatic ?-cells may alter membrane potential and have an effect on ion currents. If taurine uptake does alter ?-cell current, it might have an effect on exocytosis of cytoplasmic vesicle. We wished to test the effect of taurine on regulating release of insulin from the pancreatic ?-cell. Methods Pancreatic ?-cell lines Hit-TI5 (Syrian hamster) and Rin-m (rat insulinoma) were used in these studies. Cells were grown to an 80% confluence on uncoated cover glass in RPMI media containing 10% fetal horse serum. The cells were then adapted to a serum-free, glucose free environment for 24 hours. At that time, the cells were treated with either 1 mM glucose, 1 mM taurine, 1 mM glucose + 1 mM taurine, 3 mM glucose, or 3 mM glucose + 1 mM taurine. The cells were examined by confocal microscopy for cytoplasmic levels of insulin. Results In both cell lines, 1 mM glucose had no effect on insulin levels and served as a control. Cells starved of glucose had a significant reduction (p<0.001) in the level of insulin, but this level was significantly higher than all other treatments. As expected, the 3 mM glucose treatment resulted in a statistically lower (p<0.001) insulin level than control cells. Interestingly, 1 mM taurine also resulted in a statistically lower level of insulin (p<0.001) compared to controls when either no glucose or 1 mM glucose was present. Cells treated with 1 mM taurine plus 3 mM glucose showed a level of insulin similar to that of 3 mM glucose alone. Conclusions Taurine administration can alter the electrogenic response in ?-cell lines, leading to a change in calcium homeostasis and a subsequent decrease in intracellular insulin levels. The consequence of these actions could represent a method of increasing plasma insulin levels leading to a decrease in plasma glucose levels.



9-(beta)-arabinofuranosyladenine preferentially sensitizes radioresistant squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to x-rays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of 9-(beta)-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) on sensitivity to the deleterious effects of x-rays was studied in six squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Three lines were relatively radioresistant, having D(sub 0) values of 2.31 to 2.89 Gy, and th...

D. Heaton R. Mustafi J. L. Schwartz



9-{beta}-arabinofuranosyladenine preferentially sensitizes radioresistant squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to x-rays  

SciTech Connect

The effect of 9-{beta}-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) on sensitivity to the deleterious effects of x-rays was studied in six squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Three lines were relatively radioresistant, having D{sub 0} values of 2.31 to 2.89 Gy, and the other three lines were relatively radiosensitive, having D{sub 0} values of between 1.07 and 1.45 Gy. Ara-A (50 or 500 {mu}M) was added to cultures 30 min prior to irradiation and removed 30 min after irradiation, and sensitivity was measured in terms of cell survival. The radiosensitizing effect of ara-A was very dependent on the inherent radiosensitivity of the tumor cell line. Fifty micromolar concentrations of ara-A sensitized only the two most radioresistant lines, SCC-12B.2 and JSQ-3. Five hundred micromolar concentrations of ara-A sensitized the more sensitive cell lines, SQ-20B and SQ-9G, but failed to have any effect on the radiation response of the two most sensitive cell lines, SQ-38 and SCC-61. Concentrations of ara-A as low as 10 {mu}M were equally efficient in inhibiting DNA synthesis in all six cell lines. These results suggest that the target for the radiosensitizing effect of ara-A is probably related to the factor controlling the inherent radiosensitivity of human tumor cells. Therefore, ara-A might be useful in overcoming radiation resistance in vivo.

Heaton, D. [Rush Univ. Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States). Therapeutic Radiology; Mustafi, R. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation and Cellular Oncology; Schwartz, J.L. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation and Cellular Oncology]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)



Glycosylation potential of human prostate cancer cell lines.  


Altered glycosylation is a universal feature of cancer cells and altered glycans can help cancer cells escape immune surveillance, facilitate tumor invasion, and increase malignancy. The goal of this study was to identify specific glycoenzymes, which could distinguish prostate cancer cells from normal prostatic cells. We investigated enzymatic activities and gene expression levels of key glycosyl- and sulfotransferases responsible for the assembly of O- and N-glycans in several prostatic cells. These cells included immortalized RWPE-1 cells derived from normal prostatic tissues, and prostate cancer cells derived from metastasis in bone (PC-3), brain (DU145), lymph node (LNCaP), and vertebra (VCaP). We found that all cells were capable of synthesizing complex N-glycans and O-glycans with the core 1 structure, and each cell line had characteristic biosynthetic pathways to modify these structures. The in vitro measured activities corresponded well to the mRNA levels of glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases. Lectin and antibody binding to whole cells supported these results, which form the basis for the development of tumor cell-specific targeting strategies. PMID:22843320

Gao, Yin; Chachadi, Vishwanath B; Cheng, Pi-Wan; Brockhausen, Inka



Zebrafish kidney stromal cell lines support multilineage hematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Studies of zebrafish hematopoiesis have been largely performed using mutagenesis approaches and retrospective analyses based upon gene expression patterns in whole embryos. We previously developed transplantation assays to test the repopulation potentials of candidate hematopoietic progenitor cells. We have been impaired, however, in determining cellular differentiation potentials by a lack of short-term functional assays. To enable more precise analyses of hematopoietic progenitor cells, we have created zebrafish kidney stromal (ZKS) cell lines. Culture of adult whole kidney marrow with ZKS cells results in the maintenance and expansion of hematopoietic precursor cells. Hematopoietic growth is dependent upon ZKS cells, and we show that ZKS cells express many growth factors and ligands previously demonstrated to be important in maintaining mammalian hematopoietic cells. In the absence of exogenous growth factors, ZKS cells maintain early hematopoietic precursors and support differentiation of lymphoid and myeloid cells. With the addition of zebrafish erythropoietin, ZKS cells also support the differentiation of erythroid precursors. These conditions have enabled the ability to ascertain more precisely the points at which hematopoietic mutants are defective. The development of robust in vitro assays now provide the means to track defined, functional outcomes for prospectively isolated blood cell subsets in the zebrafish.

Stachura, David L.; Reyes, Jason R.; Bartunek, Petr; Paw, Barry H.; Zon, Leonard I.



3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing.

J.-Z. Qin; H. Xin; B. J. Nickoloff



Trichothecene-induced cytotoxicity on human cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichothecene cytotoxicity of type A (T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), type B (deoxynivalenol, DON, and nivalenol, NIV), and type\\u000a D (satratoxins G and H) compounds was determined comparatively by using eight permanent human cell lines (Hep-G2, A549, CaCo-2,\\u000a HEp-2, A204, U937, RPMI 8226, and Jurkat). Viability of cells was measured by a water-soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) reagent\\u000a cell proliferation assay assessing

Carina Nielsen; Maximilian Casteel; Andrea Didier; Richard Dietrich; Erwin Märtlbauer



Establishment and characterization of a mutagenized cell line exhibiting the 'cell-in-cell' phenotype at a high frequency.  


Cell-in-cell structures represent live cell events in which one cell internalizes another. Because formation of cell-in-cell structures is a rare event in most cell types and the event is associated with cell death, there has been limited clarification of this phenomenon, and its physiological role and molecular mechanism are yet to be precisely elucidated. In this study, we established a mutagenized cell line that exhibited cell-in-cell structures at a more than 10-fold higher frequency as compared to the parent cells. Interestingly, both engulfment and invasion were increased in the mutagenized cell line as compared with that in the parent cell line in the suspension culture condition. This finding indicates that this mutagenized cell line showed an interchangeable status in terms of its ability to form cell-in-cell structures, and the system described here could be useful for elucidation of the mechanisms regulating the formation of cell-in-cell structures, including engulfment and invasion, in a given cellular environment. Further studies using this cell line are warranted to understand the mechanism of formation and biological significance of the cell-in-cell formation. PMID:24165024

Kahyo, Tomoaki; Sugimura, Haruhiko



Radiation sensitivities of 31 human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the radiosensitivities of 31 human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines with a colony-formation assay. A large variation in radiosensitivity existed among 31 cell lines. Such a large variation may partly explain the poor result of radiotherapy for this cancer. One cell line (KYSE190) demonstrated an unusual radiosensitivity. Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene in these cells had five missense mutations, and ATM protein was truncated or degraded. Inability to phosphorylate Chk2 in the irradiated KYSE190 cells suggests that the ATM protein in these cells had lost its function. The dysfunctional ATM protein may be a main cause of unusual radiosensitivity of KYSE190 cells. Because the donor of these cells was not diagnosed with ataxia telangiectasia, mutations in ATM gene might have occurred during the initiation and progression of cancer. Radiosensitive cancer developed in non-hereditary diseased patients must be a good target for radiotherapy.

Ban, Sadayuki; Michikawa, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Sagara, Masashi; Watanabe, Koji; Shimada, Yutaka; Inazawa, Johji; Imai, Takashi



Transgenic cell lines for detection of animal viruses.  

PubMed Central

Rapid diagnostic assays based on direct detection of viral antigen or nucleic acid are being used with increasing frequency in clinical virology laboratories. Virus culture, however, remains the only way to detect infectious virus and to analyze clinically relevant viral phenotypes, such as drug resistance. Growth of viruses in cell culture is labor intensive and time-consuming and requires the use of many different cell lines. Transgenic technology, together with increasing knowledge of the molecular pathways of virus replication, offers the possibility of using genetically modified cell lines to improve virus growth in cell culture and to facilitate detection of virus-infected cells. Genetically modifying cells so that they express a reporter gene only after infection with a specific virus can allow the detection of infectious virus by rapid and simple enzyme assays such as beta-galactosidase assays without the need for antibodies. Although transgenic cells have recently been successfully used for herpes simplex virus detection, much more work needs to be done to adapt this technology to other human viral pathogens such as cytomegalovirus and respiratory viruses. This review offers some strategies for applying this technology to a wide spectrum of animal viruses.

Olivo, P D



Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of\\u000a CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the\\u000a stemness characteristics of spheres, the self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the

Lu Cao; Yanming Zhou; Beibei Zhai; Jian Liao; Wen Xu; Ruixiu Zhang; Jing Li; Yu Zhang; Lei Chen; Haihua Qian; Mengchao Wu; Zhengfeng Yin



Differences in cell proliferation in rodent and human hepatic derived cell lines exposed to ciprofibrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans appear to be refractory to some effects of peroxisome proliferators including alterations in cell proliferation, whereas rodents are susceptible. In this study, differences between the human and rat response to peroxisome proliferators were evaluated using rat and human tumour liver cell lines. Rat 7777 cells were more responsive than human HepG2 cells to ciprofibrate as they exhibited a higher

Marie-Claude Clemencet; Giuliana Muzio; Antonella Trombetta; Jeffrey M. Peters; Frank J. Gonzalez; Rosa A. Canuto; Norbert Latruffe



Functionally active Epstein-Barr virus-transformed follicular dendritic cell-like cell lines  

PubMed Central

Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are unique nonlymphoid cells found only in germinal centers. FDC can be distinguished from other accessory cells based on a characteristic set of cell surface markers. It is known that FDC are able to rescue germinal center B cells from apoptosis. To investigate the role of FDC in the process of selection and maturation of B cells during germinal center reactions, we tried to establish factor-independent immortalized FDC-like cell lines. Because freshly isolated FDC express the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) receptor CD21, we attempted EBV transformation on isolated FDC. After incubation of FDC-enriched cell populations with EBV, cell lines were obtained consisting of slowly duplicating very large cells. These cell lines have a fibroblast-like morphology but could be clearly distinguished from several human fibroblast cell lines by displaying a different phenotype including intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CD40, and CD75 expression. Detection of the EBV-encoded proteins latent membrane protein 1 and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 in our FDC-like cell lines implicated successful EBV transformation. FDC-like cells are able to bind nonautologous B cells and preserve the latter from apoptosis. The binding of B cells to FDC-like cells is dependent on adhesion via lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and closely resembles the pattern of emperipolesis as described by others. These data demonstrate that FDC can be successfully infected by EBV, and that the cell lines obtained share phenotypic and functional characteristics with freshly isolated FDC.



72 FR 34591 - Expanding Approved Stem Cell Lines in Ethically Responsible Ways  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Order 13435--Expanding Approved Stem Cell Lines in Ethically Responsible Ways...June 20, 2007 Expanding Approved Stem Cell Lines in Ethically Responsible Ways...respect to research on pluripotent stem cells derived by ethically...



Ganglioside GM3 Can Induce Megakaryocytoid Differentiation of Human Leukemia Cell Line K562 Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of acidic glycosphingolipids in cell growth and differentiation was investigated using the multipotent leukemia cell line KS62. When (¡Miwas added to cell culture media, the growth of K562 cells was remarkably inhibited and the cells were shown to have megakaryocytoid morphology. Ultrastructural study demonstrated that KS62 cells treated with CM., had platelet peroxidase-positive structures, which were con sidered

Mitsuru Nakamura; Keita Kirito; Jinko Yamanoi; Tasuku Wainai; Hisao Nojiri; Masaki Saito



Cytolytic replication of echoviruses in colon cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, killing nearly 50% of patients afflicted. Though progress is being made within surgery and other complementary treatments, there is still need for new and more effective treatments. Oncolytic virotherapy, meaning that a cancer is cured by viral infection, is a promising field for finding new and improved treatments. We have investigated the oncolytic potential of several low-pathogenic echoviruses with rare clinical occurrence. Echoviruses are members of the enterovirus genus within the family Picornaviridae. Methods Six colon cancer cell lines (CaCo-2, HT29, LoVo, SW480, SW620 and T84) were infected by the human enterovirus B species echovirus 12, 15, 17, 26 and 29, and cytopathic effects as well as viral replication efficacy were investigated. Infectivity was also tested in spheroids grown from HT29 cells. Results Echovirus 12, 17, 26 and 29 replicated efficiently in almost all cell lines and were considered highly cytolytic. The infectivity of these four viruses was further evaluated in artificial tumors (spheroids), where it was found that echovirus 12, 17 and 26 easily infected the spheroids. Conclusions We have found that echovirus 12, 17 and 26 have potential as oncolytic agents against colon cancer, by comparing the cytolytic capacity of five low-pathogenic echoviruses in six colon cancer cell lines and in artificial tumors.



Novel Cell-Based Method To Detect Shiga Toxin 2 from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Inhibitors of Toxin Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of food-borne illness. This human pathogen produces Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) which inhibit protein synthesis by inactivating ribosome function. The present study describes a novel cell-based assay to detect Stx2 and inhibitors of toxin activity. A Vero cell line harboring a destabilized variant (half-life, 2 h) of the enhanced green fluorescent protein

Beatriz Quinones; Shane Massey; Mendel Friedman; Michelle S. Swimley; Ken Teter



Identifying genes related to radiation resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  


Radioresistance is one of the main determinants of treatment outcome in oral cancer, but the prediction of radioresistance is difficult. The authors aimed to establish radioresistant oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines to identify genes with altered expression in response to radioresistance. To induce radioresistant cell lines, the authors treated OSCC cell lines with an accumulated dosage of 60Gy over 30 cycles of radiotherapy. They compared the results from cDNA arrays and proteomics between non-radiated and radioresistant cell lines in order to identify changes in gene expression. Western blot analysis was used to validate the results. The cDNA array revealed 265 commonly up-regulated genes and 268 commonly down-regulated genes in radioresistant cell lines, 30 of which were cancer-related genes. Proteomics identified 51 proteins with commonly altered expression in radioresistant cell lines, 18 of which were cancer-related proteins. Both the cDNA array and proteomics indicated that NM23-H1 and PA2G4 were over-expressed. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of NM23-H1, but not PA2G4, in radioresistant cell lines. The authors concluded that NM23-H1 may be a radioresistance-related gene and over-expression of NM23-H1 could serve as a biomarker to predict radioresistance in OSCC. PMID:23196067

Lee, S Y; Park, H R; Cho, N H; Choi, Y P; Rha, S Y; Park, S W; Kim, S H



Processing of proSAAS in neuroendocrine cell lines.  


ProSAAS, a recently discovered granin-like protein, potently inhibits prohormone convertase (PC)1, and might also perform additional functions. In the present study, the processing of proSAAS was compared in two neuroendocrine cell lines overexpressing this protein: the AtT-20 mouse pituitary corticotrophic line and the PC12 rat adrenal phaeochromocytoma line. The processing of proSAAS was examined by pulse-chase analysis using [(3)H]leucine, by MS, and by chromatography and radioimmunoassay. Various smaller forms of proSAAS were detected, including peptides designated as little SAAS, PEN and big LEN. Because the PC-12 cells used in the present study do not express either PC1 or PC2, the finding that these cells efficiently cleave proSAAS indicates that these cleavages do not require either enzyme. Two of the peptides identified in AtT-20 media represent novel C-terminally truncated forms of PEN. In both cell lines, the secretion of the small proSAAS-derived peptides is stimulated by secretagogues. However, long-term treatment of wild-type AtT-20 cells with two different secretagogues (8-bromo-cAMP and a phorbol ester) does not affect levels of proSAAS mRNA; this treatment significantly increases PC1 mRNA by approx. 60-80%. The lack of co-regulation of proSAAS and PC1 mRNA implies that enzyme activity can be induced without an accompanying increase in the inhibitor. In addition, the finding that the peptides are secreted via the regulated pathway is consistent with the proposal that they may function as neuropeptides. PMID:11742530

Mzhavia, Nino; Qian, Yimei; Feng, Yun; Che, Fa-Yun; Devi, Lakshmi A; Fricker, Lloyd D



Fibronectin synthesized by a human hepatoma cell line  

SciTech Connect

Fibronectin is a family of immunologically similar glycoproteins which mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. It is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and circulates in plasma. When suspension and adherent cultures of a human hepatoma cell line (SK-HEP-1) were incubated in serum-free medium, the resulting conditioned medium contained material which was specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera to human plasma fibronectin. By double immunodiffusion, a component in the conditioned culture medium was shown to form a line of identity with fibronectin in human plasma and to migrate as an alpha 2- to beta-globulin during immunoelectrophoresis. Human fibronectin was quantified in conditioned medium by electroimmunodiffusion, and was found to increase for at least three days at about 0.1 micrograms/10(6) cells/day. Adherent cultures of SK-HEP-1 cells were incubated with L-(/sup 35/S)methionine to label newly synthesized proteins. Labeled fibronectin in conditioned medium or in cell extracts comigrated with fibronectin in human plasma as shown by autoradiography following crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Fibronectin was demonstrated in the extra-cellular matrix of adherent SK-HEP-1 cultures by immunofluorescence. It was shown previously that SK-HEP-1 cells synthesize alpha 1-protease inhibitor, one of the products of normal hepatocytes. The finding that these hepatoma cells also synthesize fibronectin supports the concept that the hepatocyte may be one source of circulating fibronectin, a possibility consistent with the established role of this cell type in blood plasma protein synthesis.

Glasgow, J.E.; Colman, R.W.



Establishment of a corneal epithelial cell line spontaneously derived from human limbal cells.  


The objective of this study was to establish a spontaneously derived human corneal epithelial cell line from a normal human limbus that retains differentiation potential and proliferative properties under continuous cell culture. After 50 passages of epithelial cells obtained from human limbal tissue a cell line spontaneously emerged. The immortalized cells showed a cobblestone appearance and displayed dense microvilli on their apical cell surface membrane. Colony forming efficiency was 5-6% and population doubling time was 19.6 h. In the mRNA level, cytokeratin (CK) 3 and 12 were detected in this cell line. In the protein level, the cells expressed CK3, CK12, CK14, CK19, vimentin, and some other proteins such as F-actin and beta-tubulin and beta(1)-integrin. They lacked p63. The immortalized cells had a heteroploid karyotype, but did not exhibit tumorigenic features. When cultured on an air-liquid interface the cells could form stratified multilayer epithelia. In summary, all these results indicated that a new human corneal epithelial cell line was spontaneously established from normal limbal tissue through serial culture. This cell line would be useful for studies of corneal epithelial biology and reconstructive corneal tissue engineering. PMID:17223104

Liu, Jingbo; Song, Ge; Wang, Zhichong; Huang, Bing; Gao, Qianying; Liu, Bingqian; Xu, Ying; Liang, Xuanwei; Ma, Ping; Gao, Nan; Ge, Jian



Aberrant autophosphorylation of c-Kit receptor in canine mast cell tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies indicated that KIT mutation could cause ligand-independent activation of c-Kit receptor in canine mast cell tumor (MCT). The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms of c-Kit receptor activation in various canine MCT cell lines. Four cell lines, HRMC (derived from cutaneous MCT), VIMC1 (visceral MCT), CoMS1 (visceral MCT) and CMMC1 (cutaneous MCT), were cultured in stem

Yoshinori Takeuchi; Yasuhito Fujino; Manabu Watanabe; Takayuki Nakagawa; Koichi Ohno; Nobuo Sasaki; Sumio Sugano; Hajime Tsujimoto



Characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines by the International Stem Cell Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and SSEA4, the keratan sulfate antigens TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, GCTM2 and GCT343, and the

Oluseun Adewumi; Behrouz Aflatoonian; Lars Ahrlund-Richter; Michal Amit; Gemma Beighton; Paul A Bello; Nissim Benvenisty; Lorraine S Berry; Simon Bevan; Barak Blum; Justin Brooking; Kevin G Chen; Andre B H Choo; Gary A Churchill; Marie Corbel; Ivan Damjanov; Jon S Draper; Petr Dvorak; Katarina Emanuelsson; Roland A Fleck; Angela Ford; Karin Gertow; Marina Gertsenstein; Paul J Gokhale; Rebecca S Hamilton; Ales Hampl; Lyn E Healy; Outi Hovatta; Johan Hyllner; Marta P Imreh; Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor; Jamie Jackson; Jacqueline L Johnson; Mark Jones; Kehkooi Kee; Benjamin L King; Barbara B Knowles; Majlinda Lako; Franck Lebrin; Barbara S Mallon; Daisy Manning; Yoav Mayshar; Ronald D G Mckay; Anna E Michalska; Milla Mikkola; Masha Mileikovsky; Stephen L Minger; Harry D Moore; Christine L Mummery; Andras Nagy; Norio Nakatsuji; Carmel M O'Brien; Steve K W Oh; Cia Olsson; Timo Otonkoski; Kye-Yoon Park; Robert Passier; Hema Patel; Minal Patel; Roger Pedersen; Martin F Pera; Marian S Piekarczyk; Renee A Reijo Pera; Benjamin E Reubinoff; Allan J Robins; Janet Rossant; Peter Rugg-Gunn; Thomas C Schulz; Henrik Semb; Eric S Sherrer; Henrike Siemen; Glyn N Stacey; Miodrag Stojkovic; Hirofumi Suemori; Jin Szatkiewicz; Tikva Turetsky; Timo Tuuri; Steineke van den Brink; Kristina Vintersten; Sanna Vuoristo; Dorien Ward; Thomas A Weaver; Lesley A Young; Weidong Zhang; Peter W Andrews



Gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity in three salmonid cell lines: Cell death by apoptosis and necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial (CHSE-214), fibroblast (RTG-2) and macrophage (RTS11) cell lines from Chinook salmon and rainbow trout were tested for their sensitivity to gliotoxin, a fungal metabolite. Gliotoxin treatment for 6 or 24 h caused cell viability to decrease in a dose-dependent manner, with effective concentrations (EC50s) being similar for the three cell lines but varying with exposure time. Under some exposure

S. J. DeWitte-Orr; N. C. Bols



Relation of cell proliferation to expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) agonist [3H]Ro5-4864 has been shown to bind with high affinity to the human breast cancer cell line BT-20. Therefore, we investigated different human breast cancer cell lines with regard to binding to [3H]Ro5-4864 and staining with the PBR-specific monoclonal antibody 8D7. Results were correlated with cell proliferation characteristics. In flow cytometric analysis, the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative

Anne Beinlich; Renate Strohmeier; Manfred Kaufmann; Herbert Kuhl



Characterization of Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines Established before and after Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six new cell lines have been established from human neuroblastomas. Cell line SMS-KAN, from primary tumor before therapy, and line SMS-KANR, from bone marrow after chemotherapy and radiotherapy, were established from the same patient. Cell lines SMS-KCN (...

C. P. Reynolds J. L. Beidler B. A. Spengler D. A. Reynolds R. A. Ross



Double Minute Chromosomes and the Homogeneously Staining Regions in Chromosomes of a Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four human neuroblastoma cell lines were studied by chromosome banding techniques. All of the lines contained a marker chromosome with a long nonbanding homogeneously staining region (HSR). The HSR-containing chromosome differed in each line. One line contained two classes of cells: one with an HSR marker chromosome and the other with double minute chromosomes. Each cell had one of these

Gloria Balaban-Malenbaum; Fred Gilbert



Development of a pluripotent ES-like cell line from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer)--an oviparous stem cell line mimicking viviparous ES cells.  


We report a pluripotent embryonic stem cell-like cell line designated as SBES from blastula stage embryos of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), which is an economically important cultivable and edible marine fish species in India. The SBES cells were cultured at 28 degrees C in Leibovitz L-15 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum without a feeder layer. The ES-like cells were round or polygonal and grew exponentially in culture. The SBES cells exhibited an intense alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of transcription factor Oct 4. The undifferentiated state of these cells was maintained at low seeding densities and the cells formed embryoid bodies when seeded in bacteriological plates. On treatment with all-trans retinoic acid, these cells differentiated into neuron-like cells, muscle cells, and beating cardiomyocytes, indicating their pluripotency. This embryonic ES-like cell line derived from an oviparous fish blastula conserved several peculiar features of viviparous mammalian embryonic stem cell lines. The present study highlights the importance and potential of piscine ES-like cell line for stem cell research without evoking ethical issues and invasive interventions sparing mammalian embryos. PMID:17704967

Parameswaran, V; Shukla, Ravi; Bhonde, Ramesh; Hameed, A S Sahul



Characteristics of bovine inner cell mass-derived cell lines and their fate in chimeric conceptuses.  


Bovine embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to provide significant benefits in a range of agricultural and biomedical applications. Here, we employed a combination of conventional methods using glycogen synthase kinase 3 and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors to establish ES cell lines from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) bovine embryos. Five male cell lines were established from IVF embryos, and two female and three male cell lines from SCNT blastocysts; we named these lines bovine ES cell-like cells (bESLCs). The lines exhibited dome-shaped colonies, stained positively for alkaline phosphatase, and expressed pluripotent stem cell markers such as POU5F1, SOX2, and SSEA-1. The expression levels of these markers, especially for NANOG, varied among the cell lines. A DNA methylation assay showed the POU5F1 promoter region was hypomethylated compared to fibroblast cells. An in vitro differentiation assay showed that endoderm and ectoderm marker genes, but not mesoderm markers, were upregulated in differentiating bESLCs. To examine bESLCs in later embryonic stages, we created 22 chimeric blastocysts with a male bESLC line carrying a GFP marker gene and transferred these to a recipient cow. Four chimeric embryos were subsequently retrieved on Day 13 and retransferred to two recipient cows. One living fetus was obtained at Day 62. GFP signals were not identified in fetal cells by fluorescence microscopy; however, genomic PCR analysis detected the GFP gene in major organs. Clusters of GFP-positive cells were observed in amniotic membranes, suggesting that bESLCs can be categorized as a novel type of ICM-derived cells that can potentially differentiate into epiblast and hypoblast lineages. PMID:23782837

Furusawa, Tadashi; Ohkoshi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Koji; Matsuyama, Shuichi; Akagi, Satoshi; Kaneda, Masahiro; Ikeda, Mitsumi; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki



Can we develop ethically universal embryonic stem-cell lines?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human embryonic stem-cell (hESC) research faces opposition from those who object to the destruction of human embryos. Over the past few years, a series of new approaches have been proposed for deriving hESC lines without injuring a living embryo. Each of these presents scientific challenges and raises ethical and political questions. Do any of these methods have the potential to

Ronald M Green



Gypsy moth cell lines divergent in viral susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A series of cell lines unique in insect virus susceptibility pattern have been isolated from the ovaries of the gypsy moth\\u000a (Lymantria dispar: Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on a synthetic medium with mammalian and avian serum supplementation. Growth curves showed the\\u000a poorest growth occurring on peptone-based media with somewhat better growth on amino-acid-based media. The best growth was\\u000a obtained with combined media.

R. H. Goodwin; G. J. Tompkins; P. McCawley



The potency of acyclovir can be markedly different in different cell types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acyclovir is an acyclic guanine analog with a considerable activity against herpes simplex viruses. We studied the antiherpetic activity of acyclovir in macrophages and fibroblast cell lines. Utilising a plaque reduction assay we found that acyclovir potently inhibited the HSV-1 replication in macrophages (EC50 = 0.0025 ?M) compared to Vero (EC50 = 8.5 ?M) and MRC-5 (EC50 = 3.3 ?M)

Giorgio Brandi; Giuditta F. Schiavano; Emanuela Balestra; Barbara Tavazzi; Carlo-Federico Perno; Mauro Magnani



KIR Receptor-Ligand Incompatibility Predicts Killing of Osteosarcoma Cell Lines by Allogeneic NK Cells  

PubMed Central

Background The effectiveness of KIR incompatible, alloreactive NK cells has been primarily documented in hematological malignancies following stem cell transplant. This effect has not been thoroughly evaluated for pediatric solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated KIR receptor-ligand incompatibility of NK cells against osteosarcoma cell lines. Procedure Following the KIR receptor-ligand mismatch model, MHC I cell surface expression and KIR ligand mRNA content of 3 osteosarcoma cell lines was determined by flow cytometry and quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. NK cells were isolated from healthy volunteer donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and KIR surface expression determined by flow cytometry. An Annexin-V based flow cytometric killing assay was used to determine % of dying osteosarcoma target cells by donor NK effector cells. Results One of 7 healthy volunteer donors tested lacked phenotypic expression of one KIR. However, variable expression of KIR ligands was observed in 3 osteosarcoma cell lines. The highest rates of dying cells were seen in osteosarcoma cells with the lowest KIR ligand expression. Following down-regulation of KIR ligand expression, an increased susceptibility to NK cell mediated killing was observed in a previously NK-resistant osteosarcoma cell line. Conclusions Variable MHC I and KIR ligand expression was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines and this resulted in variable susceptibility to NK cell mediated killing predicted by the degree of KIR receptor-ligand incompatibility. Collectively, these data provide rationale for the study of KIR incompatible stem cell transplant for osteosarcoma, although further studies with fresh osteosarcoma samples are necessary.

Delgado, David; Webster, Daniel E.; DeSantes, Kenneth B.; Durkin, Emily T.; Shaaban, Aimen F.



Toxicological evaluation of magnetic ionic liquids in human cell lines.  


Magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) are new solvents with an interesting broad of applications however their toxicity is still an open issue. In this paper we report the toxicity of [C(8)MIM] and [Choline-C(n)] based magnetic ionic liquids assessed in two human cell lines: normal skin fibroblasts (CRL-1502) and colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (CaCo-2), acquiring this last characteristics of human enterocytes after differentiation. The results showed that [CoCl(4)] and [MnCl(4)] are more prone to generate cytotoxicity. PMID:23561571

Frade, Raquel F M; Simeonov, Svilen; Rosatella, Andreia A; Siopa, Filipa; Afonso, Carlos A M



Identification of a FXIIIA variant in human neuroblastoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

FXIII is a transglutaminase consisting of two catalytic (FXIIIA) and two non-catalytic subunits (FXIIIB) in plasma, where this enzyme is responsible for stabilizing fibrin clots. Although possible functions of intracellular FXIIIA have been proposed, these remain to be established. We show that a 40 kDa protein species of FXIIIA is present in the human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y and LAN5. These data reveal the presence of a new uncharacterised variant of FXIIIA, possibly due to an alternative splicing, in nervous cells.

lannaccone, Martina; Giuberti, Gaia; Vivo, Giulia De; Caraglia, Michele; Gentile, Vittorio



Sigma 1 binding in a human neuroblastoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviorally, sigma1 agents modulate opioid analgesia. To examine possible mechanisms responsible for these interactions, we have identified a\\u000a cell line containing both sigma1 and opioid receptors. [3H](+)-pentazocine binding in BE(2)-C human neuroblastoma cells is high affinity (KD 3.4±0.7 nM) and high density (Bmax 2.98±0.14 pmol\\/mg protein). Competition studies reveal a selectivity profile similar to that of sigma1 sites in guinea

Jennifer Ryan-Moro; Chih-Cheng Chien; Kelly M. Standifer; Gavril W. Pasternak



icb-1 Gene counteracts growth of ovarian cancer cell lines.  


Human gene icb-1 has been originally identified to be involved in differentiation processes of cancer cells. To examine the function of icb-1 in ovarian cancer, we knocked down its expression in three ovarian cancer cell lines and performed microarray-based gene expression profiling with subsequent gene network modeling. Loss of icb-1 expression accelerated proliferation of SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 and OAW-42 cells and led to upregulation of ovarian cancer biomarkers like KLK10 and CLDN16. Most of the upregulated genes were part of oncogenic pathways regulated by ER? or TNF. Our data suggest that icb-1 gene inhibits growth and progression of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:23474491

Treeck, Oliver; Schüler, Susanne; Häring, Julia; Skrzypczak, Maciej; Lattrich, Claus; Ortmann, Olaf



New cell lines from mouse epiblast share defining features with human embryonic stem cells.  


The application of human embryonic stem (ES) cells in medicine and biology has an inherent reliance on understanding the starting cell population. Human ES cells differ from mouse ES cells and the specific embryonic origin of both cell types is unclear. Previous work suggested that mouse ES cells could only be obtained from the embryo before implantation in the uterus. Here we show that cell lines can be derived from the epiblast, a tissue of the post-implantation embryo that generates the embryo proper. These cells, which we refer to as EpiSCs (post-implantation epiblast-derived stem cells), express transcription factors known to regulate pluripotency, maintain their genomic integrity, and robustly differentiate into the major somatic cell types as well as primordial germ cells. The EpiSC lines are distinct from mouse ES cells in their epigenetic state and the signals controlling their differentiation. Furthermore, EpiSC and human ES cells share patterns of gene expression and signalling responses that normally function in the epiblast. These results show that epiblast cells can be maintained as stable cell lines and interrogated to understand how pluripotent cells generate distinct fates during early development. PMID:17597760

Tesar, Paul J; Chenoweth, Josh G; Brook, Frances A; Davies, Timothy J; Evans, Edward P; Mack, David L; Gardner, Richard L; McKay, Ronald D G



Cell-type-dependent thyroid hormone effects on glioma tumor cell lines.  


Purpose. The present study investigated the potential effects of long-term T3 treatment on glioma tumor cell lines. Thyroid hormone action on cell growth, differentiation and survival during development may be of therapeutic relevance Methods and Results 1321N1 cell line, an astrocytoma grade II, and U87MG, a glioblastoma grade IV, were exposed for 2 and 4 days in medium deprived of T3 and in medium containing 1?nM T3. T3 promoted re-differentiation in both cell lines. However, T3 increased cell proliferation in 1321N1 (2?days) which declined thereafter (4?days) while in U87MG resulted in suppression of cell proliferation. At the molecular level, a 2.9 fold increase in the expression of TR?1 receptor was observed in U87MG versus 1321N1, P < 0.05. TR?1 receptor was undetectable. These changes corresponded to a distinct pattern of T3-induced kinase signaling activation; T3 had no effect on ERK activation in both cell lines but significantly increased phospho-Akt levels in 1321N1. Conclusion. In conclusion, T3 can re-differentiate glioma tumor cells, whereas its effect on cell proliferation appears to be dependent on the type of tumor cell line with aggressive tumors being more sensitive to T3. TR?1 receptor may, at least in part, be implicated in this response. PMID:22229106

Liappas, Alexandros; Alexandros, Liappas; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Iordanis, Mourouzis; Zisakis, Athanasios; Athanasios, Zisakis; Economou, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Economou; Lea, Robert-William; Robert-William, Lea; Pantos, Constantinos; Constantinos, Pantos



Cell-Type-Dependent Thyroid Hormone Effects on Glioma Tumor Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The present study investigated the potential effects of long-term T3 treatment on glioma tumor cell lines. Thyroid hormone action on cell growth, differentiation and survival during development may be of therapeutic relevance Methods and Results 1321N1 cell line, an astrocytoma grade II, and U87MG, a glioblastoma grade IV, were exposed for 2 and 4 days in medium deprived of T3 and in medium containing 1?nM T3. T3 promoted re-differentiation in both cell lines. However, T3 increased cell proliferation in 1321N1 (2?days) which declined thereafter (4?days) while in U87MG resulted in suppression of cell proliferation. At the molecular level, a 2.9 fold increase in the expression of TR?1 receptor was observed in U87MG versus 1321N1, P < 0.05. TR?1 receptor was undetectable. These changes corresponded to a distinct pattern of T3-induced kinase signaling activation; T3 had no effect on ERK activation in both cell lines but significantly increased phospho-Akt levels in 1321N1. Conclusion. In conclusion, T3 can re-differentiate glioma tumor cells, whereas its effect on cell proliferation appears to be dependent on the type of tumor cell line with aggressive tumors being more sensitive to T3. TR?1 receptor may, at least in part, be implicated in this response.

Alexandros, Liappas; Iordanis, Mourouzis; Athanasios, Zisakis; Konstantinos, Economou; Robert-William, Lea; Constantinos, Pantos



VIPARnd - GeVero® tool in planning of TPS scheduled brain tumour radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, VIPARnd - GeVero® tool is presented for the first time in an application to a brain tumour radiotherapy. Whereas usefulness of VIPARnd polymer gel in various radiotherapy techniques has recently been confirmed, GeVero® software for calculation of MRI polymer gel data and comparison with TPS dose distribution simulation is now examined. The results demonstrate satisfactory agreement between polymer gel dosimetry-MRI and TPS dose distributions and prove helpfulness of the software and VIPARnd polymer gel in radiotherapy dosimetry. It is also believed that the software facilitates data processing and therefore should be of further support in po-gel dosimetry studies.

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Rybka, Krzysztof; Biega?ski, Tadeusz



Analysis of Cell Surface N-glycosylation of the Human Embryonic Kidney 293T Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein glycosylation is a prominent posttranslational modification and is involved in many biological functions. Human cell lines used for the expression of recombinant glycoproteins present variations in their cell surface N-glycosylation due to their cell type–specific origin. We therefore investigated the presence of specific glycosyltransferases by RT-PCR and the cell surface N-glycan structures of HEK293T cells by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF\\/TOF-MS

Stefan O. Reinke; Marion Bayer; Markus Berger; Véronique Blanchard; Stephan Hinderlich



Coumarin modulates the cell-cycle progression of an MTV-EJras cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) onras oncogene expression during the cell cycle of an MTV-EJras cell line was determined by flow cytometry.ras oncogene expression in cells was induced by dexamethasone and increased fivefold during G1\\/G0 phase and threefold in S phase. Dexamethasone also increased the percentage of cells in S phase from 21% to 31%, compared to phosphate-buffered-saline-treated control cells

J. Kahn; P. Preis; F. Waldman; A. Tseng Jr



Cytotoxic Activity of New Acetoxycoumarin Derivatives in Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Coumarin and their derivatives are important and useful compounds with diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activity of new acetoxycoumarin derivatives: 4-(7-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (1), 4-(1-methyl-3-oxo-3H-benzo[f]chromen-2-yl)phenyl acetate (2), 4-(6-propionamido-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (3), 4-(7-acetoxy-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (4), 4-(2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (5), 4-(6-bromo-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (6), 4-(7-(diethylamino)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (7), 4-(6,8-dibromo-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (8) against A549 human lung cancer, CRL 1548 rat liver cancer and CRL 1439 normal rat liver cells. Materials and Methods The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by crystal violet dye-binding assay. The effect of compounds 5 and 7 on different phases of the cell cycle was determined using flow cytometry. Results In the A549 lung cancer cell line, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values for compounds 1–4, 6 and 8 were found to be >100 ?M while those for 5 and 7 were 89.3 and 48.1 ?M, respectively after 48 h treatment. In the CRL 1548 liver cancer cell line, only compound 7 showed toxicity, with an LD50 of 45.1 ?M. Compounds 5 and 7 caused different cell phase arrest in lung and liver cancer cell lines. Conclusion The results indicate that 4-(7-(diethylamino)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (7) had the highest cytotoxic activity in all of the examined cell lines.

Musa, Musiliyu A.; Badisa, Veera L. D.; Latinwo, Lekan M.; Cooperwood, John; Sinclair, Andre; Abdullah, Ahkinyala



Primed pluripotent cell lines derived from various embryonic origins and somatic cells in pig.  


Since pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines were first derived from the mouse, tremendous efforts have been made to establish ESC lines in several domestic species including the pig; however, authentic porcine ESCs have not yet been established. It has proven difficult to maintain an ESC-like state in pluripotent porcine cell lines due to the frequent occurrence of spontaneous differentiation into an epiblast stem cell (EpiSC)-like state during culture. We have been able to derive EpiSC-like porcine ESC (pESC) lines from blastocyst stage porcine embryos of various origins, including in vitro fertilized (IVF), in vivo derived, IVF aggregated, and parthenogenetic embryos. In addition, we have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) via plasmid transfection of reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) into porcine fibroblast cells. In this study, we analyzed characteristics such as marker expression, pluripotency and the X chromosome inactivation status in female of our EpiSC-like pESC lines along with our piPSC line. Our results show that these cell lines demonstrate the expression of genes associated with the Activin/Nodal and FGF2 pathways along with the expression of pluripotent markers Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, SSEA4, TRA 1-60 and TRA 1-81. Furthermore all of these cell lines showed in vitro differentiation potential, the X chromosome inactivation in female and a normal karyotype. Here we suggest that the porcine species undergoes reprogramming into a primed state during the establishment of pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:23326334

Park, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hye-Sun; Uh, Kyung-Jun; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Min; Lee, Taeheon; Yang, Byung-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jong; Ka, Hak-Hyun; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Chang-Kyu



Investigation of native fluorescence spectral difference among prostate cancer cell lines with different risk levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alteration of native fluorophores among different types of cancer cell lines was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy. Different types of cancer cell lines with different risk levels, such as moderate metastatic (DU-145) and advanced metastatic (PC-3) cell lines as well as normal cell line (Fibroblast), were excited by the selective excitation wavelength of 300 nm to explore changes of the relative contents of tryptophan and NADH using principal component analysis (PCA). The higher relative content of tryptophan was observed in the advanced metastatic cancer cell lines in comparison with the moderate metastatic and non aggressive cell lines.

Pu, Yang; Xue, Jianpeng; Xu, Baogang; Wang, Wubao; Gu, Yueqing; Tang, Rui; Achilefu, S.; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Koutcher, Jason A.; Alfano, R. R.


Differentiation Properties of Avian Tumor Cell Lines: Analysis Using Chicken Fetal Antigen and Other Markers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three avian lymphoblastoid tumor cell lines were compared for the expression of the serologically complex cell surface antigen, chicken fetal antigen (CFA), and other properties asso ciated with differentiation. Two Marek's disease cell lines (CU- 12 and CU-36) and a cell line associated with lymphoid leukosis (CU-10) were all found to differ qualitatively in the expression of CFA. While both

Kathryn A. Trembicki; Muquarrab A. Qureshi; Rodney R. Dieted


Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to mouse epidermal cells, hu- man skin keratinocytes are rather resistant to transfor- mation in vitro. Immortalization has been achieved by SV40 but has resulted in cell lines with altered differentiation. We have established a spontaneously transformed human epithelial cell line from adult skin, which maintains full epidermal differentiation capacity. This HaCaT cell line is obviously immortal (>140

Petra Boukamp; T. Petrussevska; Dirk Breitkreutz; Jiirgen Hornung; Alex Markham; Norbert E. Fusenig



Hormone Sensitivity is Reflected in the Phospholipid Profiles of Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that the profiles of total phospholipids in malignant breast cancer cell lines change going from hormone sensitive to highly hormone resistant cells lines. In particular, two phospholipid components that were absent or at very low levels in hormone sensitive MCF7 cells and moderately hormone sensitive cell lines (MIII, LCC2) were found in relatively high proportions in highly

Marina Sterin; Jack S. Cohen; Israel Ringel



Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Newly Established Rat Dental Pulp–derived Cell Line with Odontoblastic Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify mechanisms of pulp wound healing and regeneration, it is important to establish continuous odontoblast-lineage cell lines. In this study, we established the proliferating pulp progenitor cell lines from dental papilla cells of rat incisor. These cell lines showed high levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of Runx2 and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and extracellular formation of mineralized nodules.

Kimiko Nomiyama; Chiaki Kitamura; Toshiyuki Tsujisawa; Masato Nagayoshi; Takahiko Morotomi; Masmichi Terashita; Tatsuji Nishihara



Antiproliferative effect of Tualang honey on oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and human osteosarcoma (HOS) includes surgery and\\/or radiotherapy which often lead to reduced quality of life. This study was aimed to study the antiproliferative activity of local honey (Tualang) on OSCC and HOS cell lines. METHODS: Several concentrations of Tualang honey (1% - 20%) were applied on OSCC and HOS cell

Abdulmlik A Ghashm; Nor H Othman; Mohammed N Khattak; Noorliza M Ismail; Rajan Saini



The Establishment of a Cell Line of Human Hormone-synthesizing Trophoblastic Cells in Vitro1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A human hormone-synthesizing trophoblastic cell system has been established in vitro and may prove to be the first func tional human embryonic cell line in continuous culture. Cho- rionic gonadotropin hormone produced by these cultures serve as a marker for identification of the trophoblastic cell. No interruption in this property nor change in cytologie display has occurred during 1.5

Roland A. Pattillo; George O. Gey



Selectivity of compounds isolated from the leaves of Nerium indicum Mill. on various human cancer cell lines.  


The leaves of Nerium indicum Mill. have been utilized traditionally to cure cancer. By Bioassay (BST) guided isolation method, six compounds were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of the leaves. Selectivity of these compounds (in 0.6-12,500 ng/ml) was tested on various human cancer (MCF7, EVSA-T, T47D, H226, IGROV, A498, WIDR, M19, HeLa) and normal (Vero) cells in vitro. Doxorubicin and cysplatin were used as positive controls. The result indicated that NiO2D (5alpha-oleandrin) possessed the best cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells (IC50, 8.38 x10(-6) mM) and NiO2C (16, 17-dehidrodeasetil-5alpha-oleandrin) on A498 cells (IC50, 1.43 x 10(-6) mM). Those two compounds were not cytotoxic to normal cell. PMID:19024965

Mae, S H W; Sofia, M; Bolhuis, R L H; Nooter, K; Oostrum, R G; Subagus, W; Ibnu, G G



Suppression of Tumorigenicity in Human Cell Hybrids Derived from Cell Lines Expressing Different Activated ras Oncogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four different human tissue-derived cell lines, each previously shown to express either a Ha-, Ki-, or N-ras-activated oncogene, were fused in four different paired combinations. The three combinations that involved the tumor line HT1080 (activated N-ras oncogene) were found to be tumorigenic in nude mice, but to different degrees. However, the fusion of the tumor lines EJ and SW480 (activated

Andrew G. Geiser; Michael J. Anderson; Eric J. Stanbridge



Aberrant autophosphorylation of c-Kit receptor in canine mast cell tumor cell lines.  


Several studies indicated that KIT mutation could cause ligand-independent activation of c-Kit receptor in canine mast cell tumor (MCT). The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms of c-Kit receptor activation in various canine MCT cell lines. Four cell lines, HRMC (derived from cutaneous MCT), VIMC1 (visceral MCT), CoMS1 (visceral MCT) and CMMC1 (cutaneous MCT), were cultured in stem cell factor (SCF, a ligand of c-Kit receptor)-free medium and subjected to analyses of KIT mutation, c-Kit receptor phosphorylation, SCF expression and the effects of SCF stimulation. In addition, the SCF/c-Kit receptor autocrine mechanism was verified in HRMC cells. HRMC cells expressed wild type c-Kit receptor. Both VIMC1 and CoMS1 cells had the same one amino acid (AA) substitution in the extracellular domain of c-Kit receptor. CMMC1 cells had at least three variants of c-Kit receptor such as one AA deletion in the extracellular domain (variant A), one AA substitution in the extracellular domain as well as an internal tandem duplication in the juxtamembrane domain (variant B), and a nonsense mutation (variant C). Both mature and immature forms of c-Kit receptor were observed and the c-Kit receptors were phosphorylated in all cell lines. While both mature and immature forms of c-Kit receptor were substantially phosphorylated in CMMC1 cells, the immature form was slightly phosphorylated in other cell lines. Phosphorylation of c-Kit receptor in HRMC, VIMC1 and CoMS1 cells were enhanced by SCF stimulation whereas no enhancement was observed in CMMC1 cells. There was no effect of SCF stimulation on proliferation of all the cell lines. SCF protein was detectable in only HRMC cells although mRNA expression of SCF was detected in all the cell lines. A tyrosine kinase inhibitor Dasatinib (internal inhibitor) inhibited c-Kit receptor phosphorylation in HRMC cells whereas anti-canine SCF antibody (external inhibitor) had no inhibitory effect. Thus there could be no external SCF/c-Kit receptor autocrine mechanism whereas there could be an internal autocrine mechanism within HRMC cells. The results indicated that consistent c-Kit receptor phosphorylation could be caused by the stimulation with autocrine SCF in HRMC cells while it could be caused by functional mutations of KIT in VIMC1, CoMS1 and CMMC1 cells. As the four canine MCT cell lines had various aberrations associated with c-Kit receptor phosphorylation, KIT mutation and SCF expression, such molecular biological diversity might reflect the different biological behavior in canine MCT. PMID:20591500

Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Fujino, Yasuhito; Watanabe, Manabu; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ohno, Koichi; Sasaki, Nobuo; Sugano, Sumio; Tsujimoto, Hajime



Determinants of the sensitivity of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines to methotrexate.  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the determinants of methotrexate (MTX) responsiveness in eight patient-derived cell lines of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Clonogenic survival was correlated with factors known to affect sensitivity to drug. NCI-H209 and NCI-H128 were most drug sensitive, with drug concentrations required to inhibit clonogenic survival by 50% with less than 0.1 microM MTX. Six cell lines (NCI-H187, NCI-H345, NCI-H60, NCI-H524, NCI-H146, and NCI-N417D) were relatively drug resistant. In all cell lines studied, higher molecular weight MTX-polyglutamates (MTX-PGs) with 3-5 glutamyl moieties (MTX-Glu3 through MTX-Glu5) were selectively retained. Relative resistance to low (1.0 microM) drug concentrations appeared to be largely due to decreased intracellular metabolism of MTX. Five of the six resistant lines were able to synthesize polyglutamates at higher (10 microM) drug concentrations, although one resistant cell line (NCI-N417D) did not synthesize higher molecular weight MTX-PGs, even after exposure to 10 microM drug. Two cell lines with resistance to 10 microM MTX (NCI-H146 and NCI-H524) synthesized and retained higher molecular weight MTX-PGs in excess of binding capacity after exposure to 10 microM drug. However, the specific activity of thymidylate synthase in these cell lines was low. MTX sensitivity in patient-derived cell lines of SCLC requires the ability of cells to accumulate and retain intracellular drug in the form of polyglutamate metabolites in excess of dihydrofolate reductase, as well as a high basal level of consumption of reduced folates in the synthesis of thymidylate.

Curt, G A; Jolivet, J; Carney, D N; Bailey, B D; Drake, J C; Clendeninn, N J; Chabner, B A



Multiple activities of a cloned cell line mediating natural killer cell function.  


A special class of immunologic cells can lyse or damage a variety of target cells, notably malignant cells in vitro. These cells have been called natural killer (NK) cells because lysis does not require deliberate immunization by tumor cells. Although these cells can be distinguished from conventional T cells, B cells, and phagocytic cells, they have been difficult to define. We describe a representative cloned cell line that was obtained by cloning Ig -Ly-5+ cells from spleen. This clone, Cl.Ly-1-2-NK-1+/11, displays Thy-1, Ly-5, Qat-4, Qat-5 and NK-1 cell surface antigens and lyses the NK-sensitive YAC-1 lymphoma cells, but does not lyse RL-12 cells, an NK-resistant lymphoma. In addition, this clone lysed the P815 mastocytoma, EL4 lymphoma, and lipopolysaccharide-activated B lymphocyte targets. This cloned population therefore combined information for a unique display of cell surface antigens and specialized function similar to "activated" NK cells. Because this cloned population forms conjugates with susceptible but not resistant target cells, it may prove useful to identify the structure of cell surface molecules that recognize foreign cells. Finally, cells of this clone also specificity lysed target cells coated by antibodies to determinants on the target cell surface, demonstrating that a single cloned cell population can mediate two specialized immunologic functions: antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and NK cell lysis. PMID:6973001

Nabel, G; Bucalo, L R; Allard, J; Wigzell, H; Cantor, H



Fluorouracil Selectively Enriches Stem-like Leukemic Cells in a Leukemic Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) could be isolated from solid cancer cell lines, in which the purity of CSCs was higher than that from tumor tissues. Separation of CSCs from leukemic cell lines was rarely reported. In this study, CD34+CD38- stem-like cell subsets in human KG-1a leukemic cell line were enriched by cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). After 4 days incubation of KG-1a cell line with 5-FU (50 ?g/ml), the CD34+CD38- subpopulation of cell lines was enriched more than 10 times. The enriched cells had proliferate potential in vitro, low level of RNA transcription and Hoechst 33342 dye efflux ability, accompanied by high expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCG2. Our findings suggest that treatment with 5-FU offers an easy method to isolate leukemic stem-like subpopulation. It can facilitate studies of leukemic stem cell biology and the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Zhang, Ling; Yang, Song; He, Yu-Juan; Shao, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Li; Chen, Hui; Gao, Yu-Jie; Qing, Feng-Xian; Chen, Xian-Chun; Zhao, Liu-Yang; Tan, Shi



Mechanisms of prodigiosin cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cell lines.  


Prodigiosin is a bacterial red pigment with cytotoxic properties and potential antitumor activity that has been tested against different cancerous cells. In this study we report the effect and mechanisms of action of prodigiosin against different human neuroblastoma cell lines: SH-SY5Y, LAN-1, IMR-32 (N-type) and SK-N-AS (S-type). We compare the anticancerous effect of prodigiosin with that of cisplatin at different concentrations during 24 h of exposure. Prodigiosin is more potent, with IC50 values lower than 1.5 microM in N-type neuroblastoma cells and around 7 microM in the S-type neuroblastoma cell line. We describe prodigiosin as a proton sequestering agent that destroys the intracellular pH gradient, and propose that its main cytotoxic effect could be related to its action on mitochondria, where it exerts an uncoupling effect on the electronic chain transport of protons to mitochondrial ATP synthase. As a result of this action, ATP production is reduced but without decreasing in oxygen consumption. This mechanism of action differs from those induced by conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, suggesting a possible role for prodigiosin to enhance the effect of antitumor agents in the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:17678643

Francisco, Roser; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Gimènez-Bonafé, Pepita; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Ambrosio, Santiago



Altered Topoisomerase Ila in a Drug-resistant Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line Selected in VP-161  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H209\\/V6 cell line was derived from the H209 small cell lung cancer cell line by selection in etoposide (VP-16). Cytogenetic analysis indicates that the sensitive and resistant cell lines share 20 marker chromosomes and thus are clearly related. However, the H209\\/V6 cell line has four additional structurally altered chromosomes and a 2 N-modal chromo some number, while the H209

Shelagh E. L. Mirski; Cindy D. Evans; Kurt C. Almquist; Marilyn L. Slovak; Susan P. C. Cole


Characterization and chemosensitivity of two cell lines derived from human glioblastomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have characterized two human glioblastoma cell lines, which were designated as YH cells and AM cells. The two cell lines maintained morphological appearance observed in the primary culture and immunohis-tochemically expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein. Population doubling time for YH cells and AM cells indicated 30 hours and 25 hours, respectively, in an exponential

Ichiro Izumu; Katsuyoshi Mineura; Katsuo Watanabe; Masayoshi Kowada



Influence of 864 MHz electromagnetic field on growth kinetics of established cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering often contradictory data on biological effects of mobile phones frequencies on established cell culture lines, our study aimed at evaluating the influence of 864 MHz electromagnetic field on proliferation, colony forming ability and viability of Chinese hamster lung cells of line V79 cell. Prior to exposure for 1, 2 and 3 hours in transversal electromagnetic mode cell (TEM-cell) cell

Ivan Pavicic; Ivancica Trosic



Differences in radiation response among human cervix carcinoma cell lines.  


The radiobiological properties of five newly established carcinoma of the cervix cell lines have been determined. By means of an in vitro clonogenic assay, survival curves were compared at radiation dose rates of 150, 3.2 and 1.6 cGy/min. In terms of both acute radiosensitivity and the extent of low dose-rate sparing, large differences existed among the lines. Two of the lines, HX151c and HX160c, were radiosensitive (surviving fractions at 2 Gy of 0.23 and 0.33 respectively) and showed little radiation recovery capacity during protracted irradiation, whereas the remaining three lines had much higher surviving fraction at 2 Gy (up to 0.6) and showed considerable low dose-rate sparing. The data were well fitted by the Incomplete Repair model of Thames; repair half times ranged from 0.25 to 5.7 h. These findings indicate that large differences in intrinsic radiation recovery capacity exist within this tumour type, differences which emphasise that predictive testing of intrinsic radiosensitivity may be of clinical value in this disease. PMID:3222467

Kelland, L R; Steel, G G



Isolation and characterization of cancer stem like cells in human glioblastoma cell lines.  


To identify and compare the features of stem like cells in human glioblastoma cell lines U251, U87MG, A172 with primary cultured glioblastoma stem cells, the ratio of CD133+ cells, the ability of tumor sphere formation, and self-renewing capacity of U251, U87MG, A172 cells in serum free medium plus EGF, bFGF and B27 supplement were detected. The results suggested that there might be more cancer stem like cells in U251 cells compared with others. CD133+ cells enriched in SP cells and in U251 cells cultured with the serum free medium. They expressed the neural stem cell markers CD133 and Nestin, but lacked of neuronal and astrocyte marker MAP2, beta-III tubulin and GFAP. They could apparently generate both neurons and glial cells after serum retrieved in vitro. Gli1, Bmi1, Notch2 and PTEN were also found expressed highly in them. Moreover, CD133+ cells were more resistant to hypoxia, irradiations and some chemotherapeutics than CD133-cells. So we suggested that glioblastoma stem like cells were existed in CD133+ cells in U251 cell line with characteristics of self-renew and generation of an unlimited progeny of non-tumorigenic cells. Molecular and functional characterization of such a tumorigenic population may be exploited in the development of novel cancer therapeutic drugs. PMID:19232461

Qiang, Lei; Yang, Yong; Ma, Yan-Jun; Chen, Fei-Hong; Zhang, Ling-Bo; Liu, Wei; Qi, Qi; Lu, Na; Tao, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Tang; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Qing-Long



Alu expression in human cell lines and their retrotranspositional potential  

PubMed Central

Background The vast majority of the 1.1 million Alu elements are retrotranspositionally inactive, where only a few loci referred to as ‘source elements’ can generate new Alu insertions. The first step in identifying the active Alu sources is to determine the loci transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III). Previous genome-wide analyses from normal and transformed cell lines identified multiple Alu loci occupied by pol III factors, making them candidate source elements. Findings Analysis of the data from these genome-wide studies determined that the majority of pol III-bound Alus belonged to the older subfamilies Alu S and Alu J, which varied between cell lines from 62.5% to 98.7% of the identified loci. The pol III-bound Alus were further scored for estimated retrotransposition potential (ERP) based on the absence or presence of selected sequence features associated with Alu retrotransposition capability. Our analyses indicate that most of the pol III-bound Alu loci candidates identified lack the sequence characteristics important for retrotransposition. Conclusions These data suggest that Alu expression likely varies by cell type, growth conditions and transformation state. This variation could extend to where the same cell lines in different laboratories present different Alu expression patterns. The vast majority of Alu loci potentially transcribed by RNA pol III lack important sequence features for retrotransposition and the majority of potentially active Alu loci in the genome (scored high ERP) belong to young Alu subfamilies. Our observations suggest that in an in vivo scenario, the contribution of Alu activity on somatic genetic damage may significantly vary between individuals and tissues.



A Comparative Analysis of Extra-Embryonic Endoderm Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Prior to gastrulation in the mouse, all endodermal cells arise from the primitive endoderm of the blastocyst stage embryo. Primitive endoderm and its derivatives are generally referred to as extra-embryonic endoderm (ExEn) because the majority of these cells contribute to extra-embryonic lineages encompassing the visceral endoderm (VE) and the parietal endoderm (PE). During gastrulation, the definitive endoderm (DE) forms by ingression of cells from the epiblast. The DE comprises most of the cells of the gut and its accessory organs. Despite their different origins and fates, there is a surprising amount of overlap in marker expression between the ExEn and DE, making it difficult to distinguish between these cell types by marker analysis. This is significant for two main reasons. First, because endodermal organs, such as the liver and pancreas, play important physiological roles in adult animals, much experimental effort has been directed in recent years toward the establishment of protocols for the efficient derivation of endodermal cell types in vitro. Conversely, factors secreted by the VE play pivotal roles that cannot be attributed to the DE in early axis formation, heart formation and the patterning of the anterior nervous system. Thus, efforts in both of these areas have been hampered by a lack of markers that clearly distinguish between ExEn and DE. To further understand the ExEn we have undertaken a comparative analysis of three ExEn-like cell lines (END2, PYS2 and XEN). PYS2 cells are derived from embryonal carcinomas (EC) of 129 strain mice and have been characterized as parietal endoderm-like [1], END2 cells are derived from P19 ECs and described as visceral endoderm-like, while XEN cells are derived from blastocyst stage embryos and are described as primitive endoderm-like. Our analysis suggests that none of these cell lines represent a bona fide single in vivo lineage. Both PYS2 and XEN cells represent mixed populations expressing markers for several ExEn lineages. Conversely END2 cells, which were previously characterized as VE-like, fail to express many markers that are widely expressed in the VE, but instead express markers for only a subset of the VE, the anterior visceral endoderm. In addition END2 cells also express markers for the PE. We extended these observations with microarray analysis which was used to probe and refine previously published data sets of genes proposed to distinguish between DE and VE. Finally, genome-wide pathway analysis revealed that SMAD-independent TGFbeta signaling through a TAK1/p38/JNK or TAK1/NLK pathway may represent one mode of intracellular signaling shared by all three of these lines, and suggests that factors downstream of these pathways may mediate some functions of the ExEn. These studies represent the first step in the development of XEN cells as a powerful molecular genetic tool to study the endodermal signals that mediate the important developmental functions of the extra-embryonic endoderm. Our data refine our current knowledge of markers that distinguish various subtypes of endoderm. In addition, pathway analysis suggests that the ExEn may mediate some of its functions through a non-classical MAP Kinase signaling pathway downstream of TAK1.

Brown, Kemar; Legros, Stephanie; Artus, Jerome; Doss, Michael Xavier; Khanin, Raya; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Foley, Ann



In vitro uptake of polystyrene microspheres: effect of particle size, cell line and cell density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake of polycation–DNA particles is the first step in achieving gene delivery with non-viral vehicles. One of the important characteristics determining uptake of DNA particles is their size. Here we have characterized the ability of several cell lines to internalise labelled polystyrene microspheres of different sizes. All the cell lines tested ingested 20-nm microspheres avidly. With larger microspheres (93, 220,

Wolfgang Zauner; Neil A Farrow; Adrian M. R Haines



Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Identifies Cells with Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties in a Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSC) or cancer stem cell-like cells (CSC-LCs) have been identified in many malignant tumors. CSCs are proposed to be related with drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis and are considered as a new target for cancer treatment; however, there are only a few reports on CSCs or CSC-LCs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Different approaches have been reported for CSC identification, but there are no universal markers for CSC. We used two different approaches, the traditional side population (SP) approach, and the enzymatic (aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)) approach to identify CSC-LC population in two RCC cell lines, ACHN and KRC/Y. We found that ACHN and KRC/Y contain 1.4% and 1.7% SP cells, respectively. ACHN SP cells showed a higher sphere forming ability, drug resistance, and a slightly higher tumorigenic ability in NOD/SCID mice than Non-SP (NSP) cells, suggesting that cells with CSC-LC properties are included in ACHN SP cells. KRC/Y SP and NSP cells showed no difference in such properties. ALDH1 activity analysis revealed that ACHN SP cells expressed a higher level of activity than NSP cells (SP vs. NSP: 32.7% vs 14.6%). Analysis of ALDH1-positive ACHN cells revealed that they have a higher sphere forming ability, self-renewal ability, tumorigenicity and express higher mRNA levels of CSC-LC property-related genes (e.g., ABC transporter genes, self-replication genes, anti-apoptosis genes, and so forth) than ALDH1-negative cells. Drug treatment or exposure to hypoxic condition induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in number of ALDH1-positive cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that the ALDH1-positive cell population rather than SP cells show CSC-LC properties in a RCC cell line, ACHN.

Ueda, Kosuke; Ogasawara, Sachiko; Akiba, Jun; Nakayama, Masamichi; Todoroki, Keita; Ueda, Keiko; Sanada, Sakiko; Suekane, Shigetaka; Noguchi, Masanori; Matsuoka, Kei; Yano, Hirohisa



Immunocytochemical analysis of human synovial lining cells: phenotypic relation to other marrow derived cells.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic phenotype of human synovial lining cells in normal and hyperplastic synovium intima was determined with a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against a large number of well defined myeloid (macrophage/granulocyte associated) antigens. Synovial lining cells express numerous macrophage associated antigens, including CD11b (CR3), CD13, CD14, CD16 (FcRIII), CD18, CD32 (FcRII), CD45 (leucocyte common antigen), CD54 (ICAM-1), CD64 (FcRI), CD68, and CD71 (transferrin receptor). Few synovial lining cells expressed CD11a (LFA-1) and CD11c (p150,95). Subintimal macrophages expressed all the macrophage associated antigens which were present on synovial lining cells and, in addition, expressed CD15a, CD25 (interleukin-2 receptor), CD34, and CD35 (C3b receptor), none of which was present on synovial lining cells. Synovial lining cell expression of a wide range of macrophage antigens argues in favour of their marrow origin and membership of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Images

Athanasou, N A; Quinn, J



Establishment and characterisation of two cell lines derived from a primary adenocarcinoma of the duodenum  

PubMed Central

Aims—To establish two cell lines from a primary duodenal adenocarcinoma; to describe the morphological, growth, ploidy, and immunophenotypic characteristics of these cell lines. Methods—The cell lines, designated DAC/S and DAC/E, were characterised using both in vitro and in vivo cell culture techniques, light and electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and FACS analyses. Results—Both cell lines have an epithelial origin, are aneuploid and display characteristics of transformed cells. The cell lines differ from each other in morphology, doubling time and serum requirements. These cell lines are anchorage dependent and do not grow in nude mice. Conclusions—DAC/S and DAC/E cell lines are derived from neoplastic epithelium and could provide in vitro model systems for future investigations of the cell and molecular biology of duodenal neoplasia. Images

Golding, M; Stamp, G W H; Oates, T; Lalani, E-N



Production of skeletal muscle elements by cell lines derived from neoplastic rat mammary epithelial stem cells.  


Single-cell-cloned cell lines intermediate in morphology between the cuboidal epithelial and fully elongated myoepithelial-like cells have been isolated from the single-cell-cloned epithelial stem cell lines Rama 25 and Rama 37 originally obtained from dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors from Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Furth rats, respectively. These are designated Rama 25-l1, Rama 25-l2, Rama 25-l4 (Sprague-Dawley) and Rama 50-55, Rama 59, and Rama 60 (Wistar-Furth), respectively. When growing as tumors in nude mice or syngeneic Wistar-Furth rats, respectively, many of the newly cloned cell lines give rise to spindle and giant, multinucleated cells which stain immunocytochemically with antisera to myoglobin and myosin and contain longitudinal fibrils, some of which contain phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin-staining cross-striations. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates the presence of A-, l-, and H-bands and Z-discs and the hexagonal arrangement of thick and thin filaments characteristic of skeletal muscle. Similar results are obtained with selected cloned cell lines growing on floating collagen gels in vitro. Thus, a developmentally committed mammary epithelial cell can give rise, under suitable conditions, to a well-differentiated mesenchymal lineage, that of skeletal muscle. It is suggested that such cells may be responsible for the generation of the well-differentiated mesenchymal elements seen in the mixed (epithelial and myoepithelial) tumors of glandular origin. PMID:6713401

Rudland, P S; Dunnington, D J; Gusterson, B; Monaghan, P; Hughes, C M



Adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to a human oral cell line.  


Two quantitative, rapid assays were developed to study the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium associated with periodontal disease, to human epithelial cells. The human oral carcinoma cell line KB was grown in microtiter plates, and adherent bacteria were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans serum and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody or [3H]thymidine-labeled bacteria. Adhesion was found to be time dependent and increased linearly with increasing numbers of bacteria added. Variation in the level of adhesion was noted among strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Adhesion was not significantly altered by changes in pH (from pH 5 to 9) but was sensitive to sodium chloride concentrations greater than 0.15 M. Pooled human saliva was inhibitory for adhesion when bacteria were pretreated with saliva before being added to the cells. Pretreatment of the KB cells with saliva did not inhibit adhesion. Protease treatment of A. actinomycetemcomitans reduced adhesion of the bacteria to KB cells. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that a protein(s) is required for bacterial adhesion and that host components may play a role in modulating adhesion to epithelial cells. PMID:8063383

Mintz, K P; Fives-Taylor, P M



Cytotoxicity of cashew flavonoids towards malignant cell lines.  


The leaves of the Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) are used by the folk medicine in South America and West Africa. This plant is rich in flavonoids, which are polyphenolic compounds widespread in plants, and that have diverse physiological effects. In a sub-acute toxicity assay it was found that an ethanolic extract of Cashew leaves elicited lymphopenia in rats. The extract was also found to be cytotoxic and to induce apoptosis in Jurkat (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) cells. The crude ethanolic extract was fractionated and resolved by HPLC. One of the four fractions obtained led to the isolation of the biflavonoid agasthisflavone. [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assays and flow cytometry analysis showed that the isolated compound displayed a high anti-proliferative effect in Jurkat cells with an IC(50) of 2.4 ?g/ml (4.45 ?M). The effect of agathisflavone on the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60, Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells and Hep-2 laryngeal carcinoma cells was also tested. The two latter ones were only mildly affected by agathisflavone. It is also shown that agathisflavone induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells and it this proposed that this is the likely mechanism of agathisflavone specific cytotoxicity. PMID:21106357

Konan, Nzi André; Lincopan, Nilton; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; de Fátima Jacysyn, Jacqueline; Tiba, Mirtes Midori Tanae; Amarante Mendes, João Gustavo Pessini; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne; Spira, Beny



Characterization of a Dopaminergic Stimulatory Factor Derived from Monoclonal Cell Lines of Striatal Origin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lysate of an immortalized monoclonal cell line derived from the striatum (X61) contains two types of chemically distinct factors which are capable of increasing the dopamine content of an immortalized, dopaminergic mouse mesencephalic cell line (MN9D). ...

A. Heller L. Won M. Gross



Verification and Unmasking of Widely Used Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

For decades, hundreds of different human tumor type–specific cell lines have been used in experimental cancer research as models for their respective tumors. The veracity of experimental results for a specific tumor type relies on the correct derivation of the cell line. In a worldwide effort, we verified the authenticity of all available esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines. We proved that the frequently used cell lines SEG-1 and BIC-1 and the SK-GT-5 cell line are in fact cell lines from other tumor types. Experimental results based on these contaminated cell lines have led to ongoing clinical trials recruiting EAC patients, to more than 100 scientific publications, and to at least three National Institutes of Health cancer research grants and 11 US patents, which emphasizes the importance of our findings. Widespread use of contaminated cell lines threatens the development of treatment strategies for EAC.

Boonstra, Jurjen J.; van Marion, Ronald; Beer, David G.; Lin, Lin; Chaves, Paula; Ribeiro, Catarina; Pereira, A. Dias; Roque, Lucia; Darnton, S. Jane; Altorki, Nasser K.; Schrump, David S.; Klimstra, David S.; Tang, Laura H.; Eshleman, James R.; Alvarez, Hector; Shimada, Yutaka; van Dekken, Herman; Tilanus, Hugo W.



Raman spectra and discrimination of NPC cell line CNE1 and normal nasopharyngeal cell line NP69  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a non-destructive and non-invasive technique, Raman spectroscopy (RS) plays an important role in the field of biomedical research. Great progress has been made in the research of biological samples from cellular level to macro-tissues. In this letter, advances of RS in tumor cells and some statistic algorithm developed in recent years for cancer differentiation and diagnosis are introduced. Also, Raman spectra of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cell line CNE1 and normal nasopharyngeal cell line NP69 are acquired by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy system. Raman bands are analyzed and compared to investigate the differences and relationship between CNE1 and NP69, Principle Components Analysis (PCA) is used to classify CNE1 and NP69 accurately with an accuracy of 100%. Comparing with CNE1, a blue-shift is observed in NP69 cells at band 936cm-1 and 2935cm-1 which are assigned to C-C stretch and CH3 stretching, respectively. Meanwhile, a red-shift is observed at 1338cm-1 assigned to A, G and C-H deformation vibration of protein. The results show that Raman spectroscopy has its potential and reliability to be one of the diagnostic methods for NPC and at the same time can provide valuable information for cancer early diagnosis.

Chen, Yang; Li, Yong-Zeng; Su, Ying; Lin, Ju-Qiang; Pan, Jian-Ji; Chen, Rong; Zou, Chang-Yan; Lin, Shaojun; Li, Chao



Evaluation of TV cell line viral susceptibility using conventional cell culture techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that a lot of methods have been developed for rapid virus detection, classic cell culture is still “the golden\\u000a standard”. The range of viruses that can be isolated and cultured in cell line systems is often limited by the susceptibility\\u000a of cells to support viral replication. Since the primary cell culture, the best cellular system available to

Coralia Bleotu; Carmen C. Diaconu; Mihaela Chivu; Irina Alexiu; Simona M. Ruta; Costin Cernescu



New cell lines from mouse epiblast share defining features with human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of human embryonic stem (ES) cells in medicine andbiologyhasaninherentrelianceonunderstandingthestarting cellpopulation.HumanEScellsdifferfrommouseEScellsandthe specific embryonic origin of both cell types is unclear. Previous work suggested that mouse ES cells could only be obtained from the embryo before implantation in the uterus1-5. Here we show that cell lines can be derived from the epiblast, a tissue of the post- implantation embryo that

Josh G. Chenoweth; Frances A. Brook; Timothy J. Davies; Edward P. Evans; David L. Mack; Richard L. Gardner; Paul J. Tesar; Ronald D. G. McKay



Stable cell line of T-SV40 immortalized human glomerular visceral epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable cell line of T-SV40 immortalized human glomerular visceral epithelial cells. Human subcultures (third passage) of glomerular visceral epithelial cells (VEC) isolated from one month old kidney were successfully transfected by two recombinant plasmids containing the cloned oncogenes from the simian virus 40 large T antigen and H-ras gene. One postcrisis cell clone (56\\/10 A1) was selected, propagated and characterized.

Françoise Delarue; Angela Virone; Jacqueline Hagege; Roger Lacave; Marie-Nëlle Peraldi; Colette Adida; Eric Rondeau; Jean Feunteun; Jean-Daniel Sraer



Selenium retention and inhibition of cell growth in mouse mammary epithelial cell lines in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady state levels of growth inhibitory doses of inorganic selenium were examined in five different mammary epithelial\\u000a cell lines: MOD, COMMA-D, COMMA-F, COMMA-T, and YN-4. The retention of selenium was monitored using a radioactive isotope,75Se. Growth inhibition correlated with high levels of selenium in the cell. Generally, the retention of intracellular selenium\\u000a was not dependent upon cell density, cell

Daniel Medina; David Morrison; Carol J. Oborn



Reference Maps of Human ES and iPS Cell Variation Enable High-Throughput Characterization of Pluripotent Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The developmental potential of human pluripotent stem cells suggests that they can produce disease-relevant cell types for biomedical research. However, substantial variation has been reported among pluripotent cell lines, which could affect their utility and clinical safety. Such cell-line-specific differences must be better understood before one can confidently use embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in translational research. Toward this goal we have established genome-wide reference maps of DNA methylation and gene expression for 20 previously derived human ES lines and 12 human iPS cell lines, and we have measured the in vitro differentiation propensity of these cell lines. This resource enabled us to assess the epigenetic and transcriptional similarity of ES and iPS cells and to predict the differentiation efficiency of individual cell lines. The combination of assays yields a scorecard for quick and comprehensive characterization of pluripotent cell lines.

Bock, Christoph; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Verstappen, Griet; Gu, Hongcang; Boulting, Gabriella; Smith, Zachary D.; Ziller, Michael; Croft, Gist F.; Amoroso, Mackenzie W.; Oakley, Derek H.; Gnirke, Andreas; Eggan, Kevin; Meissner, Alexander



Establishment and characterisation of cell lines from patients with lung cancer (predominantly small cell carcinoma).  

PubMed Central

Tissue samples from 59 patients with lung cancer have been used to establish cell lines in culture. The primary diagnosis was small cell carcinoma in all except four. Most of the samples were of bone marrow but pleural effusions, lymph node biopsies and skin metastases were also included. The samples were usually split between HITES serum-free medium and HITES plus 2.5% foetal calf serum. A total of 19 cell lines were established and characterised. One line is large cell anaplastic lung carcinoma, four are B-lymphoblastoid and fourteen are small cell lung cancer. Considerable heterogeneity in gross morphology, neuroendocrine differentiation (by electron microscopy) and content of the enzyme L-dopa decarboxylase was seen. The use of HITES plus 2.5% foetal calf serum resulted in better establishment of cultures than did serum-free HITES.

Baillie-Johnson, H.; Twentyman, P. R.; Fox, N. E.; Walls, G. A.; Workman, P.; Watson, J. V.; Johnson, N.; Reeve, J. G.; Bleehen, N. M.



Comprehensive Housing Market Analysis: Sebastian-Vero Beach, Floria As of April 1, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sebastian-Vero Beach, Florida Housing Market Area (HMA) consists of Indian River County on the Atlantic coast of Florida. The HMA is located approximately 125 miles north of Miami- Fort Lauderdale and 75 miles south of Cape Canaveral. Major industries...



Establishment and maintenance of three Chinese human embryonic stem cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a potential resource for cell therapy and a developmental model for human diseases, we had isolated three Chinese\\u000a human embryonic stem cell lines from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts in 2002. All the three cell lines were grown\\u000a on mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder cells; one of these cell lines, chHES-3, has maintained its normal karyotype

Di Zhou; Ge Lin; Chang-Qing Xie; Bo Xiong; Xiao-Ying Zhou; Xiao-Bing Qian; Yi Liao; Guang-Xiu Lu



Retinal ganglion cell line apoptosis induced by hydrostatic pressure.  


Cellular responses to changes in pressure are implicated in numerous disease processes. In glaucoma apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is associated with elevated intra-ocular pressure, however, the exact cellular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously shown that pressure can induce apoptosis in B35 and PC12 neuronal cell lines, using an in vitro model for pressure elevation. A novel RGC line allows us to study the effects of pressure on retinal neurons. 'RGC-5' cultures were subjected to elevated ambient hydrostatic pressure conditions in our model. Experimental pressure conditions were 100 mm Hg and 30 mm Hg, representing acute (high) and chronic (lower-pressure) glaucoma, and 15 mm Hg for normal intra-ocular pressure, set above atmospheric pressure for 2 h. Negative controls were treated identically except for the application of pressure, while positive controls were generated by treatment with a known apoptotic stimulus. Apoptosis was determined by a combination of cell morphology and specific TUNEL and Annexin V fluorescent markers. These were assessed simultaneously by laser scanning cytometry (LSC), which also enabled quantitative marker analysis. RGC-5 neurons showed a significantly increased proportion of apoptotic cells compared with controls; maximal at 100 mm Hg, moderate at 30 mm Hg and not statistically significant at 15 mm Hg. This graded response, proportionate to the level of pressure elevation, is representative of the severity of analogous clinical settings (acute, chronic glaucoma and normal). These results complement earlier findings of pressure-induced apoptosis in other neuronal cultures. They suggest the possibility of novel mechanisms of pressure-related mechanotransduction and cell death, relevant to the pathogenesis of diseases such as glaucoma. PMID:16638612

Agar, Ashish; Li, Shaojuan; Agarwal, Neeraj; Coroneo, Minas T; Hill, Mark A



Multidrug resistance in tumour cells: characterization of the multidrug resistant cell line K562-Lucena 1.  


Multidrug resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle in the treatment of cancer patients. The best characterised mechanism responsible for multidrug resistance involves the expression of the MDR-1 gene product, P-glycoprotein. However, the resistance process is multifactorial. Studies of multidrug resistance mechanisms have relied on the analysis of cancer cell lines that have been selected and present cross-reactivity to a broad range of anticancer agents. This work characterises a multidrug resistant cell line, originally selected for resistance to the Vinca alkaloid vincristine and derived from the human erythroleukaemia cell K562. This cell line, named Lucena 1, overexpresses P-glycoprotein and have its resistance reversed by the chemosensitisers verapamil, trifluoperazine and cyclosporins A, D and G. Furthermore, we demonstrated that methylene blue was capable of partially reversing the resistance in this cell line. On the contrary, the use of 5-fluorouracil increased the resistance of Lucena 1. In addition to chemotherapics, Lucena 1 cells were resistant to ultraviolet A radiation and hydrogen peroxide and failed to mobilise intracellular calcium when thapsigargin was used. Changes in the cytoskeleton of this cell line were also observed. PMID:11246270

Rumjanek, V M; Trindade, G S; Wagner-Souza, K; de-Oliveira, M C; Marques-Santos, L F; Maia, R C; Capella, M A



Establishment of Immortalized Human Erythroid Progenitor Cell Lines Able to Produce Enucleated Red Blood Cells  

PubMed Central

Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

Kurita, Ryo; Suda, Noriko; Sudo, Kazuhiro; Miharada, Kenichi; Hiroyama, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Kenzaburo; Nakamura, Yukio



Selection of cell lines with enhanced invasive phenotype from xenografts of the human prostate cancer cell line WPE1-NB26.  


Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer in American men and metastasis the main cause of death. To better understand the disease and accelerate development of new therapies, in vivo models that reflect different disease stages are needed. A family of cell lines that mimics multiple steps in cancer development and tumor progression has been developed in our laboratory from the parent, non-tumorigenic, RWPE-1 cell line by transformation with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). The MNU cell lines mimic multiple steps in tumor progression where WPE1-NB26 is the most malignant cell line. WPE1-NB26 cells form metastases in the lungs of athymic, male, nude mice after intravenous injection. Two new cell lines, WPE1-NB26-64 and WPE1-NB26-65, showing more malignant characteristics than the parent WPE1-NB26 cell line, were derived from tumors after subcutaneous injection of WPE1-NB26 cells into nude mice. The WPE1-NB26-64 and WPE1-NB26-65 cell lines show an increase in anchorage-dependent growth and invasive ability as compared to the parent WPE1-NB26 cells. While the parent WPE1-NB26 cells express barely detectable levels, the new cell lines produce high levels of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and detectable levels of MMP-9. By immunostaining, all three cell lines were positive for cytokeratins CK18 and CK5/14. These cell lines, having the same lineage, represent additional steps in the multi-step process of tumor progression and provide novel and useful cell models for studies on tumor progression and for drug development for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:16471037

Rivette, Amanda S; Tokar, Erik J; Williams, Daniel E; Mackenzie, Charles D; Ablin, Richard J; Webber, Mukta M



Erythropoietin modulates intracellular calcium in a human neuroblastoma cell line  

PubMed Central

Recent investigations have shown that the glycoprotein erythropoietin (Epo) and its specific receptor (EpoR) are present in the mammalian brain including human, monkey and mouse. These findings suggest a local action of Epo in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to elucidate a possible functional interaction of Epo with neuronal cells. To examine the influence of externally applied Epo on Ca2+ homeostasis the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC was chosen as a suitable in vitro model for undifferentiated neuronal cells. Expression of the EpoR in SK-N-MC cells was detected by reverse transcription-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Patch-clamp studies of SK-N-MC cells confirmed the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels, whose peak macroscopic current was increased by the addition of recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) to the bathing medium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of SK-N-MC cells confirmed a transient increase in intracellular free [Ca2+] in response to externally applied rhEpo. The transient response to Epo was dependent on external Ca2+ and remained even after depletion of internal Ca2+ stores by caffeine or thapsigargin. However, after depletion the response to Epo was absent when cells were superfused with the T-type Ca2+ channel blocker flunarizine. This study demonstrates that Epo can interact with neuronal cells by affecting Ca2+ homeostasis through an increase in Ca2+ influx via plasma membrane T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels.

Assandri, Roberta; Egger, Marcel; Gassmann, Max; Niggli, Ernst; Bauer, Christian; Forster, Ian; Gorlach, Agnes



Differential induction of numerical chromosome changes by sodium butyrate in two transformed cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformed cell lines generally exhibit similar response to a given chemical. However, when two transformed cell lines, the Chinese hamster (CHO 9) and mouse (L929) were treated with sodium butyrate (SB) to investigate its effect on chromosome distribution, the two lines behaved differently from each other. At concentrations as low as 10?7 M, the CHO 9 cells exhibited polyploidy as

Patricia Gomez-Vargas; Baldev K Vig



Inhibition of NF-?B Activity Enhances TRAIL Mediated Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most breast cancer cell lines are resistant to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) induced apoptosis. In sensitive breast cancer cell lines TRAIL rapidly induces the cleavage and activation of caspases leading to the subsequent cleavage of downstream caspase substrates. In contrast, there is no caspase activation in the resistant cell lines. The transcription factor NF-?B can inhibit apoptosis induced by

Maccon M. Keane; Yaffa Rubinstein; Mauricio Cuello; Seth A. Ettenberg; Priya Banerjee; Marion M. Nau; Stan Lipkowitz



Establishment and Characterization of Seven Continuous Cell Lines from Freshwater Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven continuous cell lines were established from salmonid and nonsalmonid fishes. Salmonid cell lines derived from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and chum salmon O. keta were designated RTE and RTE-2 (rainbow trout embryo), RTT (rainbow trout tail), and SEH (“sake” or chum salmon embryo head). Nonsalmonid cell lines derived from pond smelt Hypomesus olidus, chevron snakehead Channa striata, and goldfish

R. D. Fernandez; M. Yoshimizu; T. Kimura; Y. Ezura



Chemical Data Mining of the NCI Human Tumor Cell Line Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NCI Developmental Therapeutics Program Human Tumor cell line Dataset is a publicly available database that contains cellular assay screening data for over 40,000 compounds tested in sixty human tumor cell lines. The database also contains microarray assay gene expression data for the cell lines, and so it provides an excellent information resource particularly for testing data mining methods that

Huijun Wang; Jonathan Klinginsmith; Xiao Dong; Adam C. Lee; Rajarshi Guha; Yuqing Wu; Gordon M. Crippen; David J. Wild



Identification of cancer stem cells from hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and their related microRNAs.  


The aim of this study was to identify cancer stem cells (CSC) from three hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and to screen for specific microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating CSCs. Side population (SP) phenotype analysis was used. Four factors in the staining process, the incubation time, shaking interval, culture time and Hoechst 33342 concentration were explored, respectively, to define the SP subtype. CSC characteristics of SP cells were verified by sphere-forming assay and tumorigenic ability in NOD/SCID mice. QPCR assay for 370 miRNAs was performed to identify the differential miRNA expression between SP and Non-SP (NSP) cells in the PLC/PRF/5 cell line. The selected miRNAs were tested again in SP and NSP cells from Huh-7 and Hep-3B cell lines by qPCR assay. All four factors influenced SP percentage, when the other three conditions were fixed, the optimal Hoechst 33342 concentrations determined were 11 µg/ml for PLC/PRF/5 cells, 4 µg/ml for Huh-7 and 5 µg/ml for Hep-3B cells. The resultant SP percentage was 0.73±0.12%, 0.49±0.04% and 0.63±0.08%, respectively. The purity of sorted SP cells was >85%. Floating spheres were formed by SP cells from all three cell lines, while NSP cells did not form a single floating sphere. Mice injected with SP cells on the right side formed more tumor masses compared to their counterpart NSP at the same injection dosage; qPCR profiling identified 27 differentially expressed miRNAs in PLC/PRF/5 cells. Subsequent qPCR assay showed that miR-9* and miR-194 were also downregulated in SP cells from Huh-7 and Hep-3B. The present study identified CSCs via SP and sphere-forming assay from three liver cancer cell lines. Altogether, 27 CSC-specific miRNAs were determined in PLC/PRF/5; miR-9* and miR-194 were identified as the common CSC-specific miRNAs across the three HCC cell lines. PMID:24002436

Xu, Yangmei; Xie, Yunqing; Wang, Xiangru; Chen, Xuefang; Liu, Qingyin; Ying, Mingang; Zheng, Qiuhong



Two new protocols to enhance the production and isolation of human induced pluripotent stem cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two critical stages in the retroviral reprogramming of somatic cells to produce human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines. One is the production of high titer virus required to reprogram somatic cells; the other is identification of true hiPSC colonies from heterogeneous cell populations, and their isolation and expansion to generate a sustainable, pluripotent stem cell line. Here

Emily Dick; Elena Matsa; Jayson Bispham; Mojgan Reza; Michela Guglieri; Andrew Staniforth; Sue Watson; Rajendra Kumari; Hanns Lochmüller; Lorraine Young; David Darling; Chris Denning



Oxidative stress induces hypomethylation of LINE-1 and hypermethylation of the RUNX3 promoter in a bladder cancer cell line.  


Increased oxidative stress and changes in DNA methylation are frequently detected in bladder cancer patients. We previously demonstrated a relationship between increased oxidative stress and hypomethylation of the transposable long-interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1). Promoter hypermethylation of a tumor suppressor gene, runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), may also be associated with bladder cancer genesis. In this study, we investigated changes of DNA methylation in LINE-1 and RUNX3 promoter in a bladder cancer cell (UM-UC-3) under oxidative stress conditions, stimulated by challenge with H2O2 for 72 h. Cells were pretreated with an antioxidant, tocopheryl acetate for 1 h to attenuate oxidative stress. Methylation levels of LINE-1 and RUNX3 promoter were measured by combined bisulfite restriction analysis PCR and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Levels of LINE-1 methylation were significantly decreased in H2O2-treated cells, and reestablished after pretreated with tocopheryl acetate. Methylation of RUNX3 promoter was significantly increased in cells exposed to H2O2. In tocopheryl acetate pretreated cells, it was markedly decreased. In conclusion, hypomethylation of LINE-1 and hypermethylation of RUNX3 promoter in bladder cancer cell line was experimentally induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress promotes urothelial cell carcinogenesis through modulation of DNA methylation. Our data also imply that mechanistic pathways of ROS-induced alteration of DNA methylation in a repetitive DNA element and a gene promoter might differ. PMID:23886181

Wongpaiboonwattana, Wikrom; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana; Dissayabutra, Thasinas; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Boonla, Chanchai



Doxycycline Alters Metabolism and Proliferation of Human Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The tetracycline antibiotics are widely used in biomedical research as mediators of inducible gene expression systems. Despite many known effects of tetracyclines on mammalian cells–including inhibition of the mitochondrial ribosome–there have been few reports on potential off-target effects at concentrations commonly used in inducible systems. Here, we report that in human cell lines, commonly used concentrations of doxycycline change gene expression patterns and concomitantly shift metabolism towards a more glycolytic phenotype, evidenced by increased lactate secretion and reduced oxygen consumption. We also show