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1

The genome landscape of the african green monkey kidney-derived vero cell line.  

PubMed

Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes were identified in the 2.97-Gb genome sequence. A homozygous ?9-Mb deletion on chromosome 12 caused the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in Vero cells. In addition, an ?59-Mb loss of heterozygosity around this deleted region suggested that the homozygosity of the deletion was established by a large-scale conversion. Moreover, a genomic analysis of Vero cells revealed a female Chlorocebus sabaeus origin and proviral variations of the endogenous simian type D retrovirus. These results revealed the genomic basis for the non-tumourigenic permanent Vero cell lineage susceptible to various pathogens and will be useful for generating new sub-lines and developing new tools in the quality control of Vero cells. PMID:25267831

Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

2014-12-01

2

The Genome Landscape of the African Green Monkey Kidney-Derived Vero Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes were identified in the 2.97-Gb genome sequence. A homozygous ?9-Mb deletion on chromosome 12 caused the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in Vero cells. In addition, an ?59-Mb loss of heterozygosity around this deleted region suggested that the homozygosity of the deletion was established by a large-scale conversion. Moreover, a genomic analysis of Vero cells revealed a female Chlorocebus sabaeus origin and proviral variations of the endogenous simian type D retrovirus. These results revealed the genomic basis for the non-tumourigenic permanent Vero cell lineage susceptible to various pathogens and will be useful for generating new sub-lines and developing new tools in the quality control of Vero cells. PMID:25267831

Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

2014-01-01

3

Susceptibility of the VERO line of African green monkey kidney cells to human enteroviruses  

PubMed Central

The relative susceptibility of VERO cells and primary rhesus monkey kidney cells to 47 prototype strains of human enteroviruses is described. Of these strains, types 4, 14, 16, 17, 18, 21, 31 and 34 and Coxsackie virus A 9 failed to cause CPE in the VERO cells whilst only one, echovirus type 34, failed to cause CPE in the monkey kidney cells. A comparison is given of the efficiency of the two cell cultures for enterovirus isolation from clinical material. Results show that VERO cells are as useful as primary monkey kidney for the isolation of Coxsackie B viruses but less satisfactory for isolating echoviruses. They are satisfactory for the isolation of single types of poliovirus and appear to be more satisfactory than primary monkey kidney cells for the isolation of mixtures of polioviruses. The identification of enteroviruses by neutralization tests in VERO cells is successful. PMID:4361500

Davis, Patricia M.; Phillpotts, R. J.

1974-01-01

4

Morphogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in a Green Monkey Kidney Cell Line (Vero)  

PubMed Central

The structure and morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus particles in a green monkey kidney cell line (Vero) were examined. Infected cells contained dense intracytoplasmic inclusions composed of filamentous structures. In places where inclusion material was associated with membranes, structural modifications were induced. There was a thickening of the membrane and an addition of projections 12 to 15 nm in length. The same changes were most frequently observed after association of isolated filamentous structures with the cytoplasmic membrane. The budding-off process was clearly visualized. The diameter of mature virus particles varied between 90 and 130 nm and that of the internal component varied between 11 and 15 nm. The similarities between ultrastructural features of cells infected with RS virus and pneumonia virus of mice are pointed out. It is proposed that these two viruses should be classified together in a third subgroup of myxoviruses. Images PMID:4100527

Norrby, Erling; Marusyk, Halyna; Örvell, Claes

1970-01-01

5

Defectiveness of Interferon Production and of Rubella Virus Interference in a Line of African Green Monkey Kidney Cells (Vero)  

PubMed Central

Vero cells, a line of African green monkey kidney cells, failed to produce interferon when infected with Newcastle disease, Sendai, Sindbis, and rubella viruses, although the cells were sensitive to interferon. Further, infection of Vero cells with rubella virus did not result in interference with the replication of echovirus 11, Newcastle disease virus, or vesicular stomatitis virus, even in cultures where virtually every cell was infected with rubella virus. Under the same conditions, BSC-1 cells and other cells of primate origin produced interferon and showed rubella virus interference. The results indicate that the presence of rubella virus in the cell does not in itself exclude multiplication of other viruses and that rubella virus interference appears to be linked to the capability of the cell to produce interferon. PMID:4302013

Desmyter, Jan; Melnick, Joseph L.; Rawls, William E.

1968-01-01

6

Phorbol Esters Isolated from Jatropha Meal Induced Apoptosis-Mediated Inhibition in Proliferation of Chang and Vero Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The direct feeding of Jatropha meal containing phorbol esters (PEs) indicated mild to severe toxicity symptoms in various organs of different animals. However, limited information is available on cellular and molecular mechanism of toxicity caused by PEs present in Jatropha meal. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic and mode of action of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal using human hepatocyte (Chang) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell lines. The results showed that isolated PEs inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines with the CC50 of 125.9 and 110.3 ?g/mL, respectively. These values were compatible to that of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) values as positive control i.e., 124.5 and 106.3 ?g/mL respectively. Microscopic examination, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation results confirmed cell death due to apoptosis upon treatment with PEs and PMA at CC50 concentration for 24 h in both cell lines. The Western blot analysis revealed the overexpression of PKC-? and activation of caspase-3 proteins which could be involved in the mechanism of action of PEs and PMA. Consequently, the PEs isolated form Jatropha meal caused toxicity and induced apoptosis-mediated proliferation inhibition toward Chang and Vero cell lines involving over-expression of PKC-? and caspase-3 as their mode of actions. PMID:23203036

Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Ahmad, Syahida

2012-01-01

7

Persistent Infection of Vero Cells by Paramyxoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two Vero cell lines persistently infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) or with both CDV and canine parainfluenza (CPI) viruses were investigated. Cells in the CPI-CDV cell line were 90–100% positive for CPI antigen and exhibited 10–80% CPI hemadsorption. Cytoplasmic CDV antigen expressed in both singly and dually infected monolayers varied weekly from 1 to 100%. Numerous cytolytic crises

W. Baumgärtner; S. Krakowka; J. R. Blakeslee

1987-01-01

8

Isolation of measles virus from clinical specimens using B95a and Vero/hSLAM cell-lines.  

PubMed

The clinical presentation of acute measles is normally quite typical, especially in the presence of Koplik's spots, that laboratory test is seldom required to confirm the diagnosis. However, with wide measles vaccination coverage and the extensive use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy, the diagnosis of atypical manifestations of acute measles may require laboratory confirmation. When compared with B95a cell-line, this study shows that the Vero/hSLAM cell-line is sensitive and is recommended for use in the primary isolation of wild-type measles virus from clinical specimens. Throat swab and urine specimens are the clinical specimens of choice and both are recommended for optimal isolation of measles virus from patients suspected of acute measles virus infection. PMID:19852319

Keniscope, C; Juliana, R; Subri, H; Shangari, S R; Wan Nor Azlina, W A; Hamizah, A; Emmi, E E; Nor Azlina, M D; Norizah, I; Chua, K B

2009-03-01

9

Chemical Synthesis, Characterisation, and Biocompatibility of Nanometre Scale Porous Anodic Aluminium Oxide Membranes for Use as a Cell Culture Substrate for the Vero Cell Line: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72?h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. PMID:24579077

Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

2014-01-01

10

Comparison of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) with a green monkey continuous cell line (Vero) and human lung embryonated cells (MRC-5) in the isolation of influenza A virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates by shell vial culture.  

PubMed

We report a comparative study of the MDCK, Vero, and MRC-5 cell lines in the isolation of the influenza A (IA) virus. We studied 746 samples in which 63 IA viruses were isolated. The MDCK line displayed 100% sensitivity, the Vero line displayed 71.4%, and the MRC-5 displayed 57.1%. The MDCK line showed a statistically significant difference with respect to the Vero line (P = 0.001) and the MRC-5 line (P = 0.001). The quantitative sensitivity analysis showed the MDCK line to be superior to the other lines. It seems that the MDCK line is still one of the most recommendable for the isolation of the IA virus from respiratory samples. PMID:9196221

Reina, J; Fernandez-Baca, V; Blanco, I; Munar, M

1997-07-01

11

Comparison of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) with a green monkey continuous cell line (Vero) and human lung embryonated cells (MRC-5) in the isolation of influenza A virus from nasopharyngeal aspirates by shell vial culture.  

PubMed Central

We report a comparative study of the MDCK, Vero, and MRC-5 cell lines in the isolation of the influenza A (IA) virus. We studied 746 samples in which 63 IA viruses were isolated. The MDCK line displayed 100% sensitivity, the Vero line displayed 71.4%, and the MRC-5 displayed 57.1%. The MDCK line showed a statistically significant difference with respect to the Vero line (P = 0.001) and the MRC-5 line (P = 0.001). The quantitative sensitivity analysis showed the MDCK line to be superior to the other lines. It seems that the MDCK line is still one of the most recommendable for the isolation of the IA virus from respiratory samples. PMID:9196221

Reina, J; Fernandez-Baca, V; Blanco, I; Munar, M

1997-01-01

12

Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells.  

PubMed

Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites. PMID:11999015

Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H

2002-04-01

13

Assessing the tumorigenic phenotype of VERO cells in adult and newborn nude mice.  

PubMed

VERO cell lines are important substrates for viral vaccine manufacture. The mechanism by which these cells became neoplastically transformed is unknown. During tissue-culture passage, VERO cells can develop the capacity to form tumors. Although at the passage levels (around p140) currently used for vaccine manufacture, VERO cells are non-tumorigenic, questions have been raised about safety issues that might be associated with this capacity to acquire a tumorigenic phenotype. To begin to address these issues, the tumorigenicity of VERO cell lines, derived at different passage levels under different growth conditions, were evaluated in 365-day assays in adult and newborn nude mice. High passage (p>200) VERO cell lines established by random passaging in tissue culture produced tumors in adult (10 out of 27) mice and newborn (21 out of 30) mice, respectively. In contrast, a high passage (p>250) cell line established by passage at sub-confluence produced tumors only in newborn mice (16 out of 30). Progressively growing tumors began forming at 36 days in newborns and at 69 days in adults. Higher tumor incidences and shorter tumor latencies suggest that newborn nude mice may be more sensitive than adults in detecting the expression of a tumorigenic phenotype by some VERO cell lines. PMID:17933552

Manohar, Manu; Orrison, Brian; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

2008-01-01

14

Ultrastructural study of the life cycle of Rickettsia slovaca , wild and standard type, cultivated in L929 and vero cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural changes induced by Rickettsia slovaca standard type (ST) and wild type (WT) were examined during their life cycle in L929 and Vero cells. R. slovaca invaded the cytoplasm of the host cell by phagocytosis on the 1st d p.i. Rickettsiae adhering to the cytoplasmic membrane\\u000a were engulfed by cellular extensions and occurred in phagocytic vacuoles. Binary fission of rickettsia

V. Boldiš; J. Štrus; E. Kocianová; M. Tušek-Žnidari?; K. Štefanidesová; E. Špitalská

2009-01-01

15

Ultrastructural study of the life cycle of Rickettsia slovaca, wild and standard type, cultivated in L929 and Vero cell lines.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural changes induced by Rickettsia slovaca standard type (ST) and wild type (WT) were examined during their life cycle in L929 and Vero cells. R. slovaca invaded the cytoplasm of the host cell by phagocytosis on the 1st d p.i. Rickettsiae adhering to the cytoplasmic membrane were engulfed by cellular extensions and occurred in phagocytic vacuoles. Binary fission of rickettsia was observed. The nuclear chromatin of eukaryotic cells was rearranged and condensed during 3rd and 6th d p.i. Finally, loss of the plasma membrane integrity, destruction of cytoplasm and nucleus resulted in cell lysis. Degeneration of the host cell caused by WT and ST was observed after 4 and 5 d p.i. in L929 cells and after 3 and 6 d p.i. in Vero cells, respectively. WT type was able to penetrate into the nucleus of the host cell and was responsible for dilatation of the perinuclear space and endoplasmic reticulum, causing more pronounced and different cytopathological changes than the ST. PMID:19418250

Boldis, V; Strus, J; Kocianová, E; Tusek-Znidaric, M; Stefanidesová, K; Spitalská, E

2009-01-01

16

Isolation and propagation of Dengue virus in Vero and BHK-21 cells expressing human DC-SIGN stably.  

PubMed

The "standard" methods of isolating dengue virus (DENV) utilize the mosquito cell line C6/36, monkey kidney LLC-MK2 cells, Vero cells, or baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. However, these cells lines lack a particular DENV receptor, known as dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which is expressed on immature dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages. This may result in less efficient virus isolation and propagation. The present study used a lentivirus vector to establish Vero and BHK-21 cell lines (Vero-DC and BHK-DC) that express human DC-SIGN stably. Five DENV strains, each passaged several times in C6/36 cells, replicated more efficiently in Vero-DC and BHK-DC than in the parental Vero or BHK-21 cells. Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC were used to isolate virus from buffy coats and plasma samples derived from 13 patients infected with DENV. Most of the viruses showed increased production in cell lines expressing DC-SIGN. However, the isolation rate was lower (15.4-46.2%) than that from C6/36 cells (84.6%). Interestingly, when the viruses were isolated in C6/36 cells prior to infecting Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC, the rate of virus production increased markedly, reaching levels higher than those initially achieved in C6/36 cells. These data suggest that Vero-DC and BHK-DC could be useful tools for virus propagation, and that human specimens may contain a factor that interferes with virus growth in mammalian cells. PMID:25205264

Phanthanawiboon, Supranee; A-nuegoonpipat, Atchareeya; Panngarm, Narawan; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Anantapreecha, Surapee; Kurosu, Takeshi

2014-12-01

17

African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells provide an alternative host cell system for influenza A and B viruses.  

PubMed

The preparation of live, attenuated human influenza virus vaccines and of large quantities of inactivated vaccines after the emergence or reemergence of a pandemic influenza virus will require an alternative host cell system, because embryonated chicken eggs will likely be insufficient and suboptimal. Preliminary studies indicated that an African green monkey kidney cell line (Vero) is a suitable system for the primary isolation and cultivation of influenza A viruses (E. A. Govorkova, N. V. Kaverin, L. V. Gubareva, B. Meignier, and R. G. Webster, J. Infect. Dis. 172:250-253, 1995). We now demonstrate for the first time that Vero cells are suitable for isolation and productive replication of influenza B viruses and determine the biological and genetic properties of both influenza A and B viruses in Vero cells; additionally, we characterize the receptors on Vero cells compared with those on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Sequence analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin of Vero cell-derived influenza B viruses was identical to that of MDCK-grown counterparts but differed from that of egg-grown viruses at amino acid positions 196 to 198. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that although Vero cells possess predominantly alpha2,3 galactose-linked sialic acid, they are fully susceptible to infection with either human influenza A or B viruses. Moreover, all virus-specific polypeptides were synthesized in the same proportions in Vero cells as in MDCK cells. Electron microscopic and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that infected Vero cells undergo the same morphological changes as do other polarized epithelia] cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Vero cell lines could serve as an alternative host system for the cultivation of influenza A and B viruses, providing adequate quantities of either virus to meet the vaccine requirements imposed by an emerging pandemic. PMID:8764064

Govorkova, E A; Murti, G; Meignier, B; de Taisne, C; Webster, R G

1996-08-01

18

African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells provide an alternative host cell system for influenza A and B viruses.  

PubMed Central

The preparation of live, attenuated human influenza virus vaccines and of large quantities of inactivated vaccines after the emergence or reemergence of a pandemic influenza virus will require an alternative host cell system, because embryonated chicken eggs will likely be insufficient and suboptimal. Preliminary studies indicated that an African green monkey kidney cell line (Vero) is a suitable system for the primary isolation and cultivation of influenza A viruses (E. A. Govorkova, N. V. Kaverin, L. V. Gubareva, B. Meignier, and R. G. Webster, J. Infect. Dis. 172:250-253, 1995). We now demonstrate for the first time that Vero cells are suitable for isolation and productive replication of influenza B viruses and determine the biological and genetic properties of both influenza A and B viruses in Vero cells; additionally, we characterize the receptors on Vero cells compared with those on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Sequence analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin of Vero cell-derived influenza B viruses was identical to that of MDCK-grown counterparts but differed from that of egg-grown viruses at amino acid positions 196 to 198. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that although Vero cells possess predominantly alpha2,3 galactose-linked sialic acid, they are fully susceptible to infection with either human influenza A or B viruses. Moreover, all virus-specific polypeptides were synthesized in the same proportions in Vero cells as in MDCK cells. Electron microscopic and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that infected Vero cells undergo the same morphological changes as do other polarized epithelia] cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Vero cell lines could serve as an alternative host system for the cultivation of influenza A and B viruses, providing adequate quantities of either virus to meet the vaccine requirements imposed by an emerging pandemic. PMID:8764064

Govorkova, E A; Murti, G; Meignier, B; de Taisne, C; Webster, R G

1996-01-01

19

Interaction of kunjin virus with octyl- d-glucoside extracted Vero cell plasma membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial experiments using whole cells have shown that there were specific and saturable interactions between kunjin (KUN) virus and receptor molecules on the Vero cell surfaces. Solubilisation of Vero cell plasma membranes with octyl-d-glucoside (OG) yielded an extract which also interacted specifically with KUN virus. This was proven using electron microscopy. When the virus-OG-extract complex was exposed onto Vero cell

David Sankaran; Lionel C. L. Lau; Mah Lee Ng

1997-01-01

20

Adaptation and growth kinetics study of an Indian isolate of virulent duck enteritis virus in Vero cells.  

PubMed

Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is a viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of the disease is mainly done by vaccination with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the embryo propagated vaccine virus pose a threat of harboring other infectious agents. Seeing these limitations, the present study reports for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of a virulent Indian isolate of duck enteritis virus in Vero cell line. In this study isolation of an outbreak virus from Kerala state was done in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF). Then adapted the DEV isolate in the Vero cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of Vero cells were observed starting from the 7th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in Vero cells was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA and antigen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immuno fluorescent assay (IIFA), respectively. PCR detection of DEV using self designed primers for US4 (gD) and UL30 (DNA Polymerase) gene has been reported for the in the present study. The kinetics of DEV in Vero cells revealed a maximum infectivity titer of 10(5.6) TCID 50/ml after 48hr of viral infection. Compared to chicken embryo adapted DVE vaccine virus, the Vero cell culture system is free from other infectious agents. So it will be a good candidate for cultivation and propagation of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain. Further research studies are suggested to explore the feasibility of utilizing this Vero cell culture adapted DEV isolate for developing an attenuated vaccine virus against duck virus enteritis. PMID:25450886

Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin M; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

2015-01-01

21

Opposite effects of two different strains of equine herpesvirus 1 infection on cytoskeleton composition in equine dermal ED and African green monkey kidney Vero cell lines: application of scanning cytometry and confocal-microscopy-based image analysis in a quantitative study.  

PubMed

Viruses can reorganize the cytoskeleton and restructure the host cell transport machinery. During infection viruses use different cellular cues and signals to enlist the cytoskeleton for their mission. However, each virus specifically affects the cytoskeleton structure. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the cytoskeletal changes in homologous equine dermal (ED) and heterologous Vero cell lines infected with either equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) strain Rac-H or Jan-E. We found that Rac-H strain disrupted actin fibers and reduced F-actin level in ED cells, whereas the virus did not influence Vero cell cytoskeleton. Conversely, the Jan-E strain induced polymerization of both F-actin and MT in Vero cells, but not in ED cells. Confocal-microscopy analysis revealed that alpha-tubulin colocalized with viral antigen in ED cells infected with either Rac-H or Jan-E viruses. Alterations in F-actin and alpha-tubulin were evaluated by confocal microscopy, Microimage analysis and scanning cytometry. This unique combination allowed precise interpretation of confocal-based images showing the cellular events induced by EHV-1. We conclude that examination of viral-induced pathogenic effects in species specific cell lines is more symptomatic than in heterologous cell lines. PMID:20349252

Turowska, A; Pajak, B; Godlewski, M M; Dzieciatkowski, T; Chmielewska, A; Tucholska, A; Banbura, M

2010-05-01

22

Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal Vero cells  

E-print Network

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields aren't considered as a real carcinogenic agent despite the fact that some studies have showed impairment of the DNA integrity in different cells lines. The aim of this study was evaluation of the late effects of a 100 Hz and 5.6 mT electromagnetic field, applied continuously or discontinuously, on the DNA integrity of Vero cells assessed by alkaline Comet assay and by cell cycle analysis. Normal Vero cells were exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (100 Hz, 5.6 mT) for 45 minutes. The Comet assay and cell cycle analysis were performed 48 hours after the treatment. Exposed samples presented an increase of the number of cells with high damaged DNA as compared with non-exposed cells. Quantitative evaluation of the comet assay showed a significantly ($cells. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase of the frequency of the cells in S phase, proving the occurrence of single strand breaks. The most probable mechanism of induction of the registered effects is the production of different types of reactive oxygen species.

Cosmin Teodor Miha; Gabriela Vochita; Florin Brinza; Pincu Rotinberg

2013-01-23

23

Pathway of rubella virus infectious entry into Vero cells.  

PubMed

The mechanism and the kinetics of rubella virus (RV) penetration into Vero cells were studied. By using pronase or acid treatment to inactivate virus which had adsorbed to cell membrane but had not been internalized, it was found that a period of 7 h was required in order for all of the adsorbed virus to enter the host cells. Lysosomotropic agents (monensin, methylamine, ammonium chloride and chloroquine) were used to study the mechanism by which RV penetrates host cells. Virus replication was inhibited if treatment of cells with these compounds was performed for at least 9 h after infection. However, if extracellular adsorbed virions were eliminated by acid treatment following removal of the lysosomotropic compounds, RV replication was completely inhibited by treatment with these drugs for any time period after adsorption. This indicated that the prolonged period of treatment with these compounds necessary to inhibit virus replication is due to the slow rate of RV internalization. None of the compounds had any effect on infection initiated by transfection of RV RNA, confirming that these drugs were exerting their inhibitory activity at penetration. The inhibition of RV replication by lysosomotropic compounds indicates that RV penetrates host cells by the endosomal pathway. PMID:8627234

Petruzziello, R; Orsi, N; Macchia, S; Rieti, S; Frey, T K; Mastromarino, P

1996-02-01

24

Alternative methods of globotrioside production using Vero cells: a microcarrier system procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glycolipids are one component of cell membranes, and are found most prevalently at the surface of the plasma membrane. Animal cells take in amphipathic glycosides, which are later glycosylated after assimilation in biosynthetic pathways. Gycosylated glycosides are released outside of cells to the surrounding culture medium. This represents an accessible method of obtaining complex glycosides. RESULTS: Vero cells are

Atsushi Miyagawa; Maria CARMELITA Z. Kasuya; Kenichi Hatanaka

2007-01-01

25

Leucine affects the fibroblastic Vero cells stimulating the cell proliferation and modulating the proteolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, exert regulatory influences on protein and carbohydrate metabolism, ribosome\\u000a biogenesis and gene expression. This study investigated the effects of leucine in fibroblastic cells analysing viability,\\u000a proliferation, morphology, proteolysis enzymes activities and protein turnover. After exposure to culture medium enriched\\u000a with 25 or 50 ?M leucine for 24, 48 and 72 h, Vero cells have no alterations on

Estela Maria Gonçalves; Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes

2010-01-01

26

Role of membrane phospholipids and glycolipids in the Vero cell surface receptor for rubella virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane receptors for rubella virus (RV) in Vero cells were studied by means of two different approaches: (i) by enzyme treatment of the whole cell membrane and (ii) by testing the ability of isolated plasma membrane molecules to compete with cells for virus binding. The replication of RV was studied with both indirect immunofluorescence assay and molecular hybridization techniques. Phospholipases

P. Mastromarino; L. Cioè; S. Rieti; N. Orsi

1990-01-01

27

VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt  

PubMed Central

Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Kun, Alejandra

2014-01-01

28

Enhanced growth of influenza vaccine seed viruses in vero cells mediated by broadening the optimal pH range for virus membrane fusion.  

PubMed

Vaccination is one of the most effective preventive measures to combat influenza. Prospectively, cell culture-based influenza vaccines play an important role for robust vaccine production in both normal settings and urgent situations, such as during the 2009 pandemic. African green monkey Vero cells are recommended by the World Health Organization as a safe substrate for influenza vaccine production for human use. However, the growth of influenza vaccine seed viruses is occasionally suboptimal in Vero cells, which places limitations on their usefulness for enhanced vaccine production. Here, we present a strategy for the development of vaccine seed viruses with enhanced growth in Vero cells by changing an amino acid residue in the stem region of the HA2 subunit of the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule. This mutation optimized the pH for HA-mediated membrane fusion in Vero cells and enhanced virus growth 100 to 1,000 times in the cell line, providing a promising strategy for cell culture-based influenza vaccines. PMID:22090129

Murakami, Shin; Horimoto, Taisuke; Ito, Mutsumi; Takano, Ryo; Katsura, Hiroaki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2012-02-01

29

MDCK and Vero cells for influenza virus vaccine production: a one-to-one comparison up to lab-scale bioreactor cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, adherent MDCK (Madin Darby canine kidney) and Vero cells have attracted considerable attention for production\\u000a of cell culture-derived influenza vaccines. While numerous publications deal with the design and the optimization of corresponding\\u000a upstream processes, one-to-one comparisons of these cell lines under comparable cultivation conditions have largely been neglected.\\u000a Therefore, a direct comparison of influenza virus production

Yvonne Genzel; Christian Dietzsch; Erdmann Rapp; Jana Schwarzer; Udo Reichl

2010-01-01

30

Abortive Infection of Vero Cells by an Influenza A Virus (FPV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have discovered a new type of abortive replication in Vero cells infected with fowl plague virus. In these cells there is an enhanced splicing of the colinear mRNAs of segment 7 and presumably also of segment 8, leading to an extreme overproduction of M2 and NS2 proteins. The cleavage of the hemagglutinin (HA) into HA1 and HA2 and the

Sylvia C. Lau; Christoph Scholtissek

1995-01-01

31

Generation of High-Yielding Influenza A Viruses in African Green Monkey Kidney (Vero) Cells by Reverse Genetics  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses are the cause of annual epidemics of human disease with occasional outbreaks of pandemic proportions. The zoonotic nature of the disease and the vast viral reservoirs in the aquatic birds of the world mean that influenza will not easily be eradicated and that vaccines will continue to be needed. Recent technological advances in reverse genetics methods and limitations of the conventional production of vaccines by using eggs have led to a push to develop cell-based strategies to produce influenza vaccine. Although cell-based systems are being developed, barriers remain that need to be overcome if the potential of these systems is to be fully realized. These barriers include, but are not limited to, potentially poor reproducibility of viral rescue with reverse genetics systems and poor growth kinetics and yields. In this study we present a modified A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) influenza virus master strain that has improved viral rescue and growth properties in the African green monkey kidney cell line, Vero. The improved properties were mediated by the substitution of the PR8 NS gene for that of a Vero-adapted reassortant virus. The Vero growth kinetics of viruses with H1N1, H3N2, H6N1, and H9N2 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations rescued on the new master strain were significantly enhanced in comparison to those of viruses with the same combinations rescued on the standard PR8 master strain. These improvements pave the way for the reproducible generation of high-yielding human and animal influenza vaccines by reverse genetics methods. Such a means of production has particular relevance to epidemic and pandemic use. PMID:14747549

Ozaki, Hiroichi; Govorkova, Elena A.; Li, Chenghong; Xiong, Xiaoping; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.

2004-01-01

32

Generation of high-yielding influenza A viruses in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells by reverse genetics.  

PubMed

Influenza A viruses are the cause of annual epidemics of human disease with occasional outbreaks of pandemic proportions. The zoonotic nature of the disease and the vast viral reservoirs in the aquatic birds of the world mean that influenza will not easily be eradicated and that vaccines will continue to be needed. Recent technological advances in reverse genetics methods and limitations of the conventional production of vaccines by using eggs have led to a push to develop cell-based strategies to produce influenza vaccine. Although cell-based systems are being developed, barriers remain that need to be overcome if the potential of these systems is to be fully realized. These barriers include, but are not limited to, potentially poor reproducibility of viral rescue with reverse genetics systems and poor growth kinetics and yields. In this study we present a modified A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) influenza virus master strain that has improved viral rescue and growth properties in the African green monkey kidney cell line, Vero. The improved properties were mediated by the substitution of the PR8 NS gene for that of a Vero-adapted reassortant virus. The Vero growth kinetics of viruses with H1N1, H3N2, H6N1, and H9N2 hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations rescued on the new master strain were significantly enhanced in comparison to those of viruses with the same combinations rescued on the standard PR8 master strain. These improvements pave the way for the reproducible generation of high-yielding human and animal influenza vaccines by reverse genetics methods. Such a means of production has particular relevance to epidemic and pandemic use. PMID:14747549

Ozaki, Hiroichi; Govorkova, Elena A; Li, Chenghong; Xiong, Xiaoping; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J

2004-02-01

33

Lipid rafts are involved in SARS-CoV entry into Vero E6 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid rafts often serve as an entry site for certain viruses. Here, we report that lipid rafts in Vero E6 cells are involved in the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Infectivity assay showed the integrity of lipid rafts was required for productive infection of pseudotyped SARS-CoV. Depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol with M?CD relocalized raft-resident marker caveolin-1

Yanning Lu; Ding Xiang Liu; James P. Tam

2008-01-01

34

African green monkey kidney Vero cells require de novo protein synthesis for efficient herpes simplex virus 1-dependent apoptosis.  

PubMed

During HSV-1 infection, IE gene expression triggers apoptosis, but subsequent synthesis of infected cell proteins blocks apoptotic death from ensuing. This "HSV-1-dependent" apoptosis was identified in HEp-2/HeLa cells infected with wild-type HSV-1 in the presence of an inhibitor of protein synthesis or a virus lacking ICP27 {HSV-1(vBSDelta27)}. Unlike HEp-2/HeLa cells, vBSDelta27-infected Vero cells fail to exhibit dramatic apoptotic morphologies at times prior to 24 hpi. Here, we examined the basis of these different apoptotic responses to HSV-1. We found that infected Vero cells take substantially longer than HEp-2/HeLa cells to display membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, DNA laddering, and PARP cleavage. Vero, but not HEp-2/HeLa, cells required de novo protein synthesis to exhibit efficient HSV-1-dependent apoptosis, which included changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and these factors were produced prior to 3 hpi. Vero cells infected with recombinant viruses devoid of the ICP27 and ICP4 proteins alone or both the ICP27 and ICP22 proteins were apoptotic. These results indicate a requirement for cellular or other viral protein synthesis in Vero cells and provide insight into cell type differences in HSV-1-dependent apoptosis. PMID:15892968

Nguyen, Marie L; Kraft, Rachel M; Blaho, John A

2005-06-01

35

Structure-Function Relationship of the Ion Channel Formed by Diphtheria Toxin in Vero Cell Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Diphtheria toxin (DT) forms cation selective channels at low pH in cell membranes and planar bilayers. The channels formed\\u000a by wild-type full length toxin (DT-AB), wild-type fragment B (DT-B) and mutants of DT-B were studied in the plasma membrane\\u000a of Vero cells using the patch-clamp technique. The mutations concerned certain negatively charged amino acids within the channel-forming\\u000a transmembrane domain

M. Lanzrein; P. Ø. Falnes; O. Sand; S. Olsnes

1997-01-01

36

Detection of Infectious Virus from Field-collected Mosquitoes by Vero Cell Culture Assay  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes transmit a number of distinct viruses including important human pathogens such as West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chickungunya virus. Many of these viruses have intensified in their endemic ranges and expanded to new territories, necessitating effective surveillance and control programs to respond to these threats. One strategy to monitor virus activity involves collecting large numbers of mosquitoes from endemic sites and testing them for viral infection. In this article, we describe how to handle, process, and screen field-collected mosquitoes for infectious virus by Vero cell culture assay. Mosquitoes are sorted by trap location and species, and grouped into pools containing ?50 individuals. Pooled specimens are homogenized in buffered saline using a mixer-mill and the aqueous phase is inoculated onto confluent Vero cell cultures (Clone E6). Cell cultures are monitored for cytopathic effect from days 3-7 post-inoculation and any viruses grown in cell culture are identified by the appropriate diagnostic assays. By utilizing this approach, we have isolated 9 different viruses from mosquitoes collected in Connecticut, USA, and among these, 5 are known to cause human disease. Three of these viruses (West Nile virus, Potosi virus, and La Crosse virus) represent new records for North America or the New England region since 1999. The ability to detect a wide diversity of viruses is critical to monitoring both established and newly emerging viruses in the mosquito population. PMID:21694689

Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Finan, Shannon L.; Shepard, John J.; Thomas, Michael C.

2011-01-01

37

Detection of infectious virus from field-collected mosquitoes by vero cell culture assay.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes transmit a number of distinct viruses including important human pathogens such as West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chickungunya virus. Many of these viruses have intensified in their endemic ranges and expanded to new territories, necessitating effective surveillance and control programs to respond to these threats. One strategy to monitor virus activity involves collecting large numbers of mosquitoes from endemic sites and testing them for viral infection. In this article, we describe how to handle, process, and screen field-collected mosquitoes for infectious virus by Vero cell culture assay. Mosquitoes are sorted by trap location and species, and grouped into pools containing ?50 individuals. Pooled specimens are homogenized in buffered saline using a mixer-mill and the aqueous phase is inoculated onto confluent Vero cell cultures (Clone E6). Cell cultures are monitored for cytopathic effect from days 3-7 post-inoculation and any viruses grown in cell culture are identified by the appropriate diagnostic assays. By utilizing this approach, we have isolated 9 different viruses from mosquitoes collected in Connecticut, USA, and among these, 5 are known to cause human disease. Three of these viruses (West Nile virus, Potosi virus, and La Crosse virus) represent new records for North America or the New England region since 1999. The ability to detect a wide diversity of viruses is critical to monitoring both established and newly emerging viruses in the mosquito population. PMID:21694689

Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Finan, Shannon L; Shepard, John J; Thomas, Michael C

2011-01-01

38

Mathematical model of adherent Vero cell growth and poliovirus production in animal component free medium.  

PubMed

Sabin-IPV (or sIPV, inactivated polio vaccine based on attenuated Sabin strains) is anticipated to replace the oral polio vaccine for the endgame in polio eradication. Optimization of sIPV production will lead to a better economically feasible vaccine. To assist process optimization, we studied Sabin type 1 poliovirus (PV) infection kinetics on Vero cells in controlled bioreactor vessels. The aim of our study was to develop a descriptive mathematical model able to capture the dynamics of adherent Vero cell growth and PV infection kinetics in animal component free medium. The model predicts the cell density, metabolites profiles, and viral yields in time. We found that the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the time of infection (TOI) within the investigated range did not affect maximal PV yields, but they did affect the process time. The latter may be reduced by selecting a low TOI and a high MOI. Additionally, we present a correlation between viral titers and D-antigen, a measure for immunogenicity, of Sabin type 1 PV. The developed model is adequate for further studies of the cell metabolism and infection kinetics and may be used to identify control strategies to increase viral productivity. Increased viral yields reduce costs of polio vaccines with large implications on public health. PMID:25294335

Ursache, Ramona V; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van Eikenhorst, Gerco; Verheijen, Peter J T; Bakker, Wilfried A M

2014-10-01

39

Diphtheria toxin-induced channels in Vero cells selective for monovalent cations  

SciTech Connect

Ion fluxes associated with translocation of diphtheria toxin across the surface membrane of Vero cells were studied. When cells with surface-bound toxin were exposed to low pH to induce toxin entry, the cells became permeable to Na+, K+, H+, choline+, and glucosamine+. There was no increased permeability to Cl-, SO4(-2), glucose, or sucrose, whereas the uptake of /sup 45/Ca2+ was slightly increased. The influx of Ca2+, which appears to be different from that of monovalent cations, was reduced by several inhibitors of anion transport and by verapamil, Mn2+, Co2+, and Ca2+, but not by Mg2+. The toxin-induced fluxes of N+, K+, and protons were inhibited by Cd2+. Cd2+ also protected the cells against intoxication by diphtheria toxin, suggesting that the open cation-selective channel is required for toxin translocation. The involvement of the toxin receptor is discussed.

Sandvig, K.; Olsnes, S.

1988-09-05

40

Characterization of the 3a Protein of SARS-associated Coronavirus in Infected Vero E6 Cells and SARS Patients  

E-print Network

Characterization of the 3a Protein of SARS-associated Coronavirus in Infected Vero E6 Cells Proteomics was used to identify a protein encoded by ORF 3a in a SARS- associated coronavirus (SARS rights reserved. Keywords: SARS; coronavirus; 3a protein; spike protein; proteome*Corresponding authors

Tian, Weidong

41

Nonreplicating Vaccinia Virus Vectors Expressing the H5 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Produced in Modified Vero Cells Induce Robust Protection?  

PubMed Central

The timely development of safe and effective vaccines against avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype will be of the utmost importance in the event of a pandemic. Our aim was first to develop a safe live vaccine which induces both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against human H5N1 influenza viruses and second, since the supply of embryonated eggs for traditional influenza vaccine production may be endangered in a pandemic, an egg-independent production procedure based on a permanent cell line. In the present article, the generation of a complementing Vero cell line suitable for the production of safe poxviral vaccines is described. This cell line was used to produce a replication-deficient vaccinia virus vector H5N1 live vaccine, dVV-HA5, expressing the hemagglutinin of a virulent clade 1 H5N1 strain. This experimental vaccine was compared with a formalin-inactivated whole-virus vaccine based on the same clade and with different replicating poxvirus-vectored vaccines. Mice were immunized to assess protective immunity after high-dose challenge with the highly virulent A/Vietnam/1203/2004(H5N1) strain. A single dose of the defective live vaccine induced complete protection from lethal homologous virus challenge and also full cross-protection against clade 0 and 2 challenge viruses. Neutralizing antibody levels were comparable to those induced by the inactivated vaccine. Unlike the whole-virus vaccine, the dVV-HA5 vaccine induced substantial amounts of gamma interferon-secreting CD8 T cells. Thus, the nonreplicating recombinant vaccinia virus vectors are promising vaccine candidates that induce a broad immune response and can be produced in an egg-independent and adjuvant-independent manner in a proven vector system. PMID:19279103

Mayrhofer, Josef; Coulibaly, Sogue; Hessel, Annett; Holzer, Georg W.; Schwendinger, Michael; Brühl, Peter; Gerencer, Marijan; Crowe, Brian A.; Shuo, Shen; Hong, Wanjing; Tan, Yee Joo; Dietrich, Barbara; Sabarth, Nicolas; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Kistner, Otfried; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

2009-01-01

42

Bicarbonate\\/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of ²²Na\\/sup +\\/ in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of ³⁶Cl⁻. Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na\\/sup +\\/ was much less affected

Sjur Olsnes; Jannikke Ludt; T. I. Tonnessen; Kirsten Sandvig

1987-01-01

43

Lipid rafts are involved in SARS-CoV entry into Vero E6 cells.  

PubMed

Lipid rafts often serve as an entry site for certain viruses. Here, we report that lipid rafts in Vero E6 cells are involved in the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Infectivity assay showed the integrity of lipid rafts was required for productive infection of pseudotyped SARS-CoV. Depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol with MbetaCD relocalized raft-resident marker caveolin-1 as well as SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 to a nonraft environment, but did not significantly change the surface expression of ACE2. MbetaCD-treatment inhibited infectivity of pseudotyped SARS-CoV by 90%. Biochemical fractionation and confocal imaging confirmed that ACE2 colocalized with raft-resident markers. Furthermore, an ectodomain of SARS-CoV S protein (S1188HA) could associate with lipid rafts after binding to its receptor, and colocalize with raft-resident marker ganglioside GM1. The binding of S1188HA was not affected by depleting plasma membrane cholesterol. Taken together, our results support that lipid rafts serve as an entry port for SARS-CoV. PMID:18279660

Lu, Yanning; Liu, Ding Xiang; Tam, James P

2008-05-01

44

Some ultrastructural effects of persistent infections by the rickettsia Coxiella burnetii in mouse L cells and green monkey kidney (Vero) cells.  

PubMed Central

Mouse fibroblasts (L-929) and Vero (green monkey kidney) cells were infected with the rickettsia Coxiella burnetti, and persistent infections developed and were studied over a 6- to 10-month period. Ultrastructural comparisons were made between the two infected cell types, and both were tested cytochemically for the presence of acid phosphatase, a marker enzyme of lysozymes. Rickettsiae were always observed within vacuoles, and some infected L cells showed flattened endoplasmic reticulum as compared with uninfected cells. Rickettsiae in Vero cells were most often seen in vacuoles containing whorls of membranes ("myelin configurations") which were also seen in uninfected cells. Rickettsiae in Vero cells were pleomorphic, with acid phosphatase reaction product in their periplasmic space. This suggests either rickettsial degradation by lysosomal enzymes which penetrated the cell envelope or a penetration after the rickettsiae were dead. Vacuoles of infected Vero cells showed much more reaction product than that in infected L cells, and most rickettsiae in L cells had a normal appearance and showed no reaction product in their periplasmic space. Images PMID:99368

Burton, P R; Stueckemann, J; Welsh, R M; Paretsky, D

1978-01-01

45

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Grown in HEp-2 Cells Causes more Severe Disease in Lambs than Virus Grown in Vero Cells  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children. A small percentage of these individuals develop severe and even fatal disease. To better understand the pathogenesis of severe disease and develop therapies unique to the less-developed infant immune system, a model of infant disease is needed. The neonatal lamb pulmonary development and physiology is similar to that of infants, and sheep are susceptible to ovine, bovine, or human strains of RSV. RSV grown in Vero (African green monkey) cells has a truncated attachment G glycoprotein as compared to that grown in HEp-2 cells. We hypothesized that the virus grown in HEp-2 cells would cause more severe clinical symptoms and cause more severe pathology. To confirm the hypothesis, lambs were inoculated simultaneously by two different delivery methods (intranasal and nebulized inoculation) with either Vero-grown or HEp-2-grown RSV Memphis 37 (M37) strain of virus to compare viral infection and disease symptoms. Lambs infected with HEp-2 cell-derived virus by either intranasal or nebulization inoculation had significantly higher levels of viral RNA in lungs as well as greater clinical disease including both gross and histopathologic lesions compared to lambs similarly inoculated with Vero-grown virus. Thus, our results provide convincing in vivo evidence for differences in viral infectivity that corroborate previous in vitro mechanistic studies demonstrating differences in the G glycoprotein expression by RSV grown in Vero cells. PMID:24284879

Derscheid, Rachel J.; van Geelen, Albert; McGill, Jodi L.; Gallup, Jack M.; Cihlar, Tomas; Sacco, Randy E.; Ackermann, Mark R.

2013-01-01

46

Enhancement of cytotoxicity against Vero E6 cells persistently infected with SARS-CoV by Mycoplasma fermentans.  

PubMed

We previously reported that cells with persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection were established after apoptotic events. In the present study, we investigated the cytopathic effects of dual infection with SARS-CoV and Mycoplasma fermentans on Vero E6 cells. Dual infection completely killed cells and prevented the establishment of persistent SARS-CoV infection. M. fermentans induced inhibition of cell proliferation, but the cells remained alive. Apoptosis was induced easily in M. fermentans-infected cells, indicating that they were primed for apoptosis. These results indicated that M. fermentans enhances apoptosis in surviving cells that have escaped from SARS-CoV-induced apoptosis. PMID:17277901

Mizutani, T; Fukushi, S; Kenri, T; Sasaki, Y; Ishii, K; Endoh, D; Zamoto, A; Saijo, M; Kurane, I; Morikawa, S

2007-01-01

47

A novel animal-component-free medium for rabies virus production in Vero cells grown on Cytodex 1 microcarriers in a stirred bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vero cells growth and rabies production in IPT-AF medium, a property animal-component-free medium are described in this work.\\u000a Kinetics of cell growth and rabies virus (strain LP 2061) production were first conducted in spinner flasks. Over eight independent\\u000a experiments, Vero cell growth in IPT-AF medium, on 2 g\\/l Cytodex 1 was consistent. An average Cd (cell division number) of\\u000a 3.3?±?0.4 and

Samia Rourou; Arno van der Ark; Samy Majoul; Khaled Trabelsi; Tiny van der Velden; Héla Kallel

2009-01-01

48

Antiviral potency of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album) extracts against human parainfluenza virus type 2 in Vero cells.  

PubMed

Various extracts from the leaves of mistletoe (Viscum album L. ssp. album) were investigated for their antiviral activity on human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV-2) growth in Vero cells. Plant extracts were prepared using distilled water, 50% ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)) of aqueous extract for HPIV-2 replication was 0.53 +/- 0.12 micro g/mL, and the antiviral index (AI), which was based on the ratio of the 50% inhibitory concentration (CD(50)) for host cell viability to the ED(50) for parainfluenza virus replication, was 10.05. The aqueous extract was found to be the most selective inhibitor. Furthermore, the aqueous extract at a concentration of 1 micro g/mL was found to inhibit HPIV-2 replication and the virus production was suppressed to more than 99% without any toxic effect on host cells. The chloroform extract was also found to be moderately active. In an effort to further analyse the mechanism of antiviral activity, the effectiveness of the aqueous extract on different steps of virus replication was examined. The antiviral activity could neither be attributed to the direct inactivation of the HPIV-2 nor to the inhibition of adsorption to Vero cells. The active aqueous extract has shown a dose-dependent antiviral activity on virus replication. PMID:12749000

Karagöz, Ali; Onay, Evren; Arda, Nazli; Kuru, Avni

2003-05-01

49

Preclinical evaluation of Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted Vero cell-derived seasonal split and pandemic whole virus influenza vaccines  

PubMed Central

Increasing the potency and supply of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines remains an important unmet medical need which may be effectively accomplished with adjuvanted egg- or cell culture-derived vaccines. Vaxfectin®, a cationic lipid-based adjuvant with a favorable safety profile in phase 1 plasmid DNA vaccines trials, was tested in combination with seasonal split, trivalent and pandemic whole virus, monovalent influenza vaccines produced in Vero cell cultures. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted to nonadjuvanted vaccinated mice and guinea pigs revealed 3- to 20-fold increases in antibody titers against each of the trivalent influenza virus vaccine strains and 2- to 8-fold increases in antibody titers against the monovalent H5N1 influenza virus vaccine strain. With the vaccine doses tested, comparable antibody responses were induced with formulations that were freshly prepared or refrigerated at conventional 2–8°C storage conditions for up to 6 mo. Comparison of T-cell frequencies measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay between groups revealed increases of between 2- to 10-fold for each of the adjuvanted trivalent strains and up to 22-fold higher with monovalent H5N1 strain. Both trivalent and monovalent vaccines were easy to formulate with Vaxfectin® by simple mixing. These preclinical data support further testing of Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted Vero cell culture vaccines toward clinical studies designed to assess safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans. PMID:23857272

Smith, Larry R.; Wodal, Walter; Crowe, Brian A.; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Bruehl, Peter; Schwendinger, Michael G.; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sullivan, Sean M.; Shlapobersky, Mark; Hartikka, Jukka; Rolland, Alain; Barrett, P. Noel; Kistner, Otfried

2013-01-01

50

Lipid peroxidation induced by bolesatine, a toxin of Boletus satanas: implication in m5dC variation in Vero cells related to inhibition of cell growth.  

PubMed

Bolesatine, a glycoprotein from Boletus satanas Lenz, has previously been shown to be mitogenic in rat and human lymphocytes at very low concentrations, whereas higher concentrations inhibited protein synthesis in vitro and in several in vivo systems. The low concentrations (1-10 ng/ml) of bolesatine were shown to activate protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro (cell-free system) and in Vero cells. In the same time, Vero cells significantly proliferated when incubated with bolesatine concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 ng/ml; the DNA synthesis increased by 27-59% as referred to the control, and InsP3 release increased in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 142%. At higher concentrations, 1-10 micrograms in cell-free systems, bolesatine inhibits protein synthesis by hydrolyzing the nucleoside triphosphates GTP and ATP. In the present work, the implication of other toxic mechanisms, such as lipid peroxidation and active radical production, was investigated in relation to inhibition of cell growth, whereas possible modifications of the ratio m5dC/dC+m5dC were determined in order to correlate with the biphasic action of bolesatine in Vero cells. Low concentrations of bolesatine up to 10 ng/ml do not increase malonaldehyde (MDA) production, while they induce hypomethylation (5.2% as compared to 7.1%). Higher concentrations (above 20 ng/ml) increase MDA production, from 58 ng/mg of cellular proteins to 113 ng/mg at a concentration of 50 ng/ml, for example, and induce hypermethylation in Vero cell DNA. It is concluded that low concentrations of bolesatine that are proliferative induce hypomethylation, which could be one of the pathways whereby bolesatine induces cell proliferation. Higher concentrations which enhance lipid peroxidation also induce hypermethylation. These mechanisms could be at least partly implicated in the pathway whereby bolesatine induces cell death. PMID:8788210

Ennamany, R; Marzetto, S; Saboureau, D; Creppy, E E

1995-12-01

51

[The morphological and karyological characteristics of MDCK and vero (B) cells cultures on plant hydrolyzate-based nutrient media].  

PubMed

MDCK and Vero (B) cell cultures were propagated during 10 passages in the experimental nutrient media containing the soybean powder hydrolyzate prepared using trypsin and bromelain enzymes and the rice powder hydrolysate prepared with trypsin and in the control DMEM and SFM4 MegaVir media. The karyological, morphological, and proliferative characteristics of continuous cultures were examined and compared. The experimental media supplied with 3% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gibco, U.S.A.) showed high growth-enhancing properties and failed to affect their morphology. After propagated during 10 passages in the experimental media preserved a stable karyotype. MDCK cell cultures in the nutrient media based on rice and soybean powder hydrolyzates low (2%) in FBS caused no substantial changes in the proliferation indices and morphological and karyological characteristics of cell cultures. PMID:21545033

Mikhailova, G R; Mazurkova, N A; Podchernyaeva, R Ya; Ryabchikova, E I; Troshkova, G P; Shishkina, L N

2011-01-01

52

Comparison of N-Glycan Pattern of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factors II and IX Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and African Green Monkey (Vero) Cells.  

PubMed

The N-glycan patterns of recombinant human coagulation factors II (rF-II) and IX (rF-IX), derived from both transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and African green monkay (Vero) cells produced at industrial scale, were analyzed by binding to carbohydrate-specific lectins and were compared with the glycan structure of human plasma-derived coagulation factors. Human plasma-derived coagulation factors II (hpF-II) and IX (hpF-IX) exhibited complex-type glycan structures with carbohydrate chains capped with alpha(2-6)-sialic acid. Terminal galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine units were detected in hpF-IX. Both CHO cell-derived rF-II and rF-IX exhibited complex-type glycosylation and contained alpha(2-3)-sialic acid in addition to terminal galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine. Vero cell-derived rF-IX exhibited a complex-type glycan structure similar to that of CHO cell-derived rF-IX. In contrast, rF-II produced by Vero cells exhibited a glycan microheterogeneity composed of hybrid-type glycosylation containing "high-mannose" structures and complex-type glycosylation containing alpha(2-3)-sialic acid. Galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine structures and a low concentration of alpha(2-6)-sialic acid were detected in both microheterogeneity fractions of Vero cell-derived rF-II. Although different in their carbohydrate structures, coagulation factors II and IX obtained recombinantly from both transformed CHO cells and Vero cells exhibited coagulation activities comparable with the plasma-derived proteins. PMID:10608038

Fischer; Mitterer; Dorner; Eibl

1996-01-01

53

Effect of bolesatine on phospholipid/calcium dependent protein kinase in Vero cells and in rat thymus.  

PubMed

Bolesatine, a glycoprotein from Boletus satanas Lenz, has previously been shown to be mitogenic to rat and human lymphocytes at very low concentrations, whereas higher concentrations inhibit protein synthesis in vitro and in several in vivo systems. The mechanism whereby this mitogenic activity occurs was previously unknown. To elucidate this mechanism, the effects of bolesatine have been studied in a cell-free system, VERO cells, and in vivo in rat thymus. In a cell-free system, bolesatine appears to be a direct effector of PKC. The activation is concentration dependent for 1-10 ng/ml. At the same time, VERO cells significantly proliferate when incubated with the bolesatine (3, 5 and 10 ng/ml), since the DNA synthesis increases by 27, 48, and 59%, for respectively, 3, 5 and 10 ng/ml compared with control. Moreover, Bolesatine (5 and 10 ng/ml) induces InsP3 release in a concentration-dependent manner (114 and 142%) as compared to control. In vivo, 24 h after oral administration of bolesatine to rates (20, 100 and 200 microg/kg), PKC activity is significantly increased in thymus. THe most effective doses (100 and 200 microg/kg) give 590-620% increase in cytosolic PKC activity and 85-91% increase in total PKC activity as compared to control. This PKC activation by bolesatine in rat thymus is directly linked to the mitogenic activity observed in vivo. Bolesatine is thus capable of activating the PKC directly and/or indirectly (via InsP3 release) during its mitogenic processes. PMID:8660140

Ennamany, R; Kretz, O; Creppy, E E

1995-01-01

54

A microcarrier cell culture process for propagating rabies virus in Vero cells grown in a stirred bioreactor under fully animal component free conditions.  

PubMed

Rabies virus strain production in Vero cells grown on Cytodex 1 in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor and in a medium free of components of human or animal origin (VP-SFM) is described. Cell banking procedure in VP-SFM supplemented with an animal components free mixture (10%DMSO+0.1%methylcellulose) was reported and cell growth after revitalization was assessed. Vero cells exhibited growth performances (specific growth rate and cell division number) similar to that obtained in serum containing medium. To design a scalable process that is totally free of animal-derived substances, two proteases: TrypLE Select and Accutase, were assessed as an alternative to trypsin which is routinely used for cell passage. Growth performance of Vero cells grown in VP-SFM and MEM+10% fetal calf serum (FCS) over four passages and subcultivated with either TrypLE Select or Accutase was evaluated. TrypLE Select showed the best performance in terms of specific growth rate and cell division number. Kinetics of cell growth and rabies virus production (LP2061/Vero strain) were investigated in spinner flask and in a 2 L bioreactor. In spinner flask, a maximal cell density level of 1.85x10(6) cells/mL was achieved when the cells were grown in VP-SFM on 2 g/L Cytodex 1. Cell infection experiments conducted at an MOI of 0.3 and without the medium exchange step, typically needed for serum containing rabies virus production, resulted in a maximal virus titer equal to 2x10(7) (Fluorescent Focus Unit) FFU/mL. In stirred tank bioreactor, Vero cell growth in VP-SFM on 3 g/L Cytodex 1 was shown to be sensitive to the aeration mode. Sparging the culture was detrimental for cell growth, whereas cell density level was greatly enhanced when only headspace aeration was used. A cell density level of 2.6x10(6) cells/mL was obtained when the cells were grown on 3g/L Cytodex 1 and in batch culture mode. Cell infection at an MOI of 0.1 without any medium exchange, yielded a maximal rabies virus titer of 2.4x10(7) FFU/mL. Furthermore, Vero cell growth in a 2 L bioreactor using recirculation culture mode during cell proliferation step and perfusion for virus multiplication phase was investigated. In comparison to batch culture, a higher cell density level that was equal to 5x10(6) cells/mL was reached. Cell infection under conditions similar to batch culture, resulted in a maximal virus titer equal to 1.38x10(8) FFU/mL. The potency of the pooled inactivated virus harvests showed an activity of 2.58 IU/mL which was comparable to that obtained in serum supplemented medium. PMID:17307281

Rourou, Samia; van der Ark, Arno; van der Velden, Tiny; Kallel, Héla

2007-05-10

55

Formation of very large conductance channels by Bacillus cereus Nhe in Vero and GH(4) cells identifies NheA + B as the inherent pore-forming structure.  

PubMed

The nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) produced by Bacillus cereus is a pore-forming toxin consisting of three components, NheA, -B and -C. We have studied effects of Nhe on primate epithelial cells (Vero) and rodent pituitary cells (GH(4)) by measuring release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), K(+) efflux and the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Plasma membrane channel events were monitored by patch-clamp recordings. Using strains of B. cereus lacking either NheA or -C, we examined the functional role of the various components. In both cell types, NheA + B + C induced release of LDH and K(+) as well as Ca(2+) influx. A specific monoclonal antibody against NheB abolished LDH release and elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). Exposure to NheA + B caused a similar K(+) efflux and elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) as NheA + B + C in GH(4) cells, whereas in Vero cells the rate of K(+) efflux was reduced by 50% and [Ca(2+)](i) was unaffected. NheB + C had no effect on either cell type. Exposure to NheA + B + C induced large-conductance steps in both cell types, and similar channel insertions were observed in GH(4) cells exposed to NheA + B. In Vero cells, NheA + B induced channels of much smaller conductance. NheB + C failed to insert membrane channels. The conductance of the large channels in GH(4) cells was about 10 nS. This is the largest channel conductance reported in cell membranes under quasi-physiological conditions. In conclusion, NheA and NheB are necessary and sufficient for formation of large-conductance channels in GH(4) cells, whereas in Vero cells such large-conductance channels are in addition dependent on NheC. PMID:20821199

Haug, Trude M; Sand, Sverre L; Sand, Olav; Phung, Danh; Granum, Per E; Hardy, Simon P

2010-09-01

56

Formation of Very Large Conductance Channels by Bacillus cereus Nhe in Vero and GH 4 Cells Identifies NheA + B as the Inherent PoreForming Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) produced by Bacillus cereus is a pore-forming toxin consisting of three components, NheA, -B and -C. We have studied effects of Nhe on primate epithelial\\u000a cells (Vero) and rodent pituitary cells (GH4) by measuring release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), K+ efflux and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Plasma membrane channel events were monitored by patch-clamp recordings.

Trude M. Haug; Sverre L. Sand; Olav Sand; Danh Phung; Per E. Granum; Simon P. Hardy

2010-01-01

57

Apoptosis induction in BEFV-infected Vero and MDBK cells through Src-dependent JNK activation regulates caspase-3 and mitochondria pathways.  

PubMed

Our previous report demonstrated that bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)-infected cultured cells could induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. This study aims to further elucidate how BEFV activates the caspase cascade in bovine cells. BEFV replicated and induced apoptosis in Vero and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, and a kinetic study showed a higher efficiency of replication and a greater apoptosis induction ability of BEFV in Vero cells. Src and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or p38 inhibitor, alleviated BEFV-mediated cytopathic effect and apoptosis. In BEFV-infected Vero and MDBK cells, BEFV directly induced Src tyrosine-418 phosphorylation and JNK phosphorylation and kinase activity, which was inhibited specifically by SU6656 and SP600125, respectively. The caspase cascade and its downstream effectors, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DFF45, were also activated simultaneously upon BEFV infection. In addition, cytochrome c, but not Smac/DIABLO, was released gradually from mitochondria after BEFV infection. SU6656 suppressed Src, JNK, and caspase-3 and -9 activation, as well as PARP and DFF45 cleavage; SP600125 reduced JNK and caspase-3 and -9 activation, as well as PARP and DFF45 cleavage. Taken together, these results strongly support the hypothesis that a Src-dependent JNK signaling pathway plays a key role in BEFV-induced apoptosis. The molecular mechanism identified in our study may provide useful information for the treatment of BEFV. PMID:19846041

Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Chin-Yang; Liu, Hung-Jen; Liao, Ming-Huei; Chang, Chi-I; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Shih, Wen-Ling

2010-01-01

58

Innate and adaptive cellular immunity in flavivirus-naïve human recipients of a live-attenuated dengue serotype 3 vaccine produced in Vero cells (VDV3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

VDV3, a clonal derivative of the Mahidol live-attenuated dengue 3 vaccine was prepared in Vero cells. Despite satisfactory preclinical evaluation, VDV3 was reactogenic in humans. We explored whether immunological mechanisms contributed to this outcome by monitoring innate and adaptive cellular immune responses for 28 days after vaccination. While no variations were seen in serum IL12 or TNF? levels, a high

Violette Sanchez; Sophie Gimenez; Brian Tomlinson; Paul K. S. Chan; G. Neil Thomas; Remi Forrat; Laurent Chambonneau; Florence Deauvieau; Jean Lang; Bruno Guy

2006-01-01

59

Transport of an external Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) protein from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum: studies with cholera toxin in Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The A2 chain of cholera toxin (CTX) contains a COOH-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) se- quence. We have, therefore, analyzed by immunofluo- rescence and by subcellular fractionation in Vero cells whether CTX can be used to demonstrate a retrograde transport of KDEL proteins from the Golgi to the ER. Immunofluorescen ce studies reveal that after a pulse treatment with CTX, the CTX-A

Irina V. Majoul; Philippe I. H. Bastiaens; Hans-Dieter SSling

1996-01-01

60

Susceptibilities of 14 cell lines to bluetongue virus infection.  

PubMed Central

The effect of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection was investigated in 14 cell lines. The cell lines included the following vertebrate cells: baby hamster kidney, African green monkey kidney (Vero), rabbit kidney, bovine kidney, canine kidney, bovine turbinate, bovine endothelium (CPAE), bighorn sheep tongue, equine dermis, gekko lung, rainbow trout gonad, and mouse fibroblast (L929); they also included the following invertebrate lines: mosquito and biting midge. Comparisons between the cell lines were made on the basis of time to observed cytopathic effects, titer in 50% tissue culture infectious doses, and titer in plaque-forming units. The CPAE cell line produced the highest BTV 50% tissue culture infectious dose of all cell lines tested. The Vero and L929 cells gave the most discrete plaques in plaque assays. Of the 14 cell lines tested, the CPAE cells were the most susceptible to both cell culture-adapted and animal source BTV. Bovine endothelial cells demonstrate significant potential as a cell culture system for BTV investigations. PMID:2853175

Wechsler, S J; McHolland, L E

1988-01-01

61

Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH  

SciTech Connect

The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/. Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na/sup +/ was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na/sup +/. At a constant external concentration of HCO/sub 3/-, the amount of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO/sub 3/- decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO/sub 3/- is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ both in the absence and presence of Na/sup +/. At alkaline internal pH, HCO/sub 3/- stimulated the efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na/sup +/ and HCO/sub 3/- were required to induce /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.

Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.

1987-08-01

62

Development of an in situ detachment protocol of Vero cells grown on Cytodex1 microcarriers under animal component-free conditions in stirred bioreactor.  

PubMed

Subcultivation of Vero cells grown in a proprietary animal component-free medium named IPT-AFM, on microcarriers, was studied. TrypLE Select, a non-animal-derived protease, was used as an alternative to trypsin for cell passaging. We first studied the effect of increasing concentrations of TrypLE Select toward cell growth and then studied the inactivation of the protease using either soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) or the soy hydrolysate Hypep 1510, in six-well plates. Data showed that cell growth was impaired by residual level of TrypLE Select; STI was identified as an efficient agent to neutralize this effect. To restore cell growth and inactivate TrypLE Select, STI should be added to the medium at least at 0.2 g L(-1). Cells were also grown in spinner flask on 2 g L(-1) Cytodex1 in IPT-AFM. In these conditions, the cell detachment yield was equal to 78?±?8 %. Furthermore, cells exhibited a typical growth profile when using the dislodged cells to seed a new culture. A cell detachment yield of 70?±?19 % was also achieved when the cells were grown in a 2-L stirred bioreactor in IPT-AFM, on 3 g L(-1) Cytodex1. This protocol can be of great interest to scale-up the process of Vero cells cultivation in IPT-AFM on Cytodex1 from one stirred bioreactor culture to another. PMID:23737305

Rourou, Samia; Riahi, Nesrine; Majoul, Samy; Trabelsi, Khaled; Kallel, Héla

2013-08-01

63

A novel animal-component-free medium for rabies virus production in Vero cells grown on Cytodex 1 microcarriers in a stirred bioreactor.  

PubMed

Vero cells growth and rabies production in IPT-AF medium, a property animal-component-free medium are described in this work. Kinetics of cell growth and rabies virus (strain LP 2061) production were first conducted in spinner flasks. Over eight independent experiments, Vero cell growth in IPT-AF medium, on 2 g/l Cytodex 1 was consistent. An average Cd (cell division number) of 3.3+/-0.4 and a specific growth rate micro of 0.017+/-0.006 h(-1) were achieved. Such performances were comparable to those obtained in serum-containing medium (MEM+10% FCS). Rabies virus production on Vero cells in IPT-AF medium was also optimised in spinner flasks. The effects of multiplicity of infection (MOI), regulation of glucose level at 1 g/l and cell washing step, were investigated. The highest virus titer was achieved when the cells were infected at an MOI of 0.1; this level was equal to 10(7) FFU/ml. The step of medium exchange before cell infection can be omitted; nevertheless in this case glucose level should be maintained at 1 g/l to avoid a decrease of specific virus productivity. Process optimisation in a 2-l stirred bioreactor pointed out that the aeration mode was the prominent parameter that affected cell growth in IPT-AF medium and on Cytodex 1 microcarriers. An acceptable level of cell density (cell density level of 1.5x10(6) cells/ml) was achieved when cells were grown in batch mode and using headspace aeration. Nevertheless, this aeration mode is not optimal for large-scale culture. The addition of Pluronic F68 at 0.1% at 24 h post inoculation as well as the switch from surface aeration mode to the sparged mode, 2 days after the start of the culture, had markedly improved cell growth performance. A cell density level of 5.5x10(6) cells/ml was reached when cells were grown in a 2-l bioreactor, on 3 g/l Cytodex 1 in IPT-AF medium and using the recirculation culture mode. Cell infection at an MOI of 0.1 and using perfused culture, resulted in a maximal virus titer of 3.5x10(7) FFU/ml. The activity of the pooled inactivated rabies virus harvests showed a protective activity that meets WHO requirements. PMID:19521697

Rourou, Samia; van der Ark, Arno; Majoul, Samy; Trabelsi, Khaled; van der Velden, Tiny; Kallel, Héla

2009-11-01

64

Transcriptional profiling of Vero E6 cells over-expressing SARS-CoV S2 subunit: Insights on viral regulation of apoptosis and proliferation  

SciTech Connect

We have previously demonstrated that over-expression of spike protein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or its C-terminal subunit (S2) is sufficient to induce apoptosis in vitro. To further investigate the possible roles of S2 in SARS-CoV-induced apoptosis and pathogenesis of SARS, we characterized the host expression profiles induced upon S2 over-expression in Vero E6 cells by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Possible activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in S2 expressing cells was suggested, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cytochrome c and down-regulation of the Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic members. Inhibition of Bcl-2-related anti-apoptotic pathway was further supported by the diminution of S2-induced apoptosis in Vero E6 cells over-expressing Bcl-xL. In addition, modulation of CCN E2 and CDKN 1A implied the possible control of cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase. This study is expected to extend our understanding on the pathogenesis of SARS at a molecular level.

Yeung, Y.-S. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: ysyeung@graduate.hku.hk; Yip, C.-W. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h0024004@hkusua.hku.hk; Hon, C.-C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h9826299@hkusua.hku.hk; Chow, Ken Y.C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: chow@pasteur.fr; Ma, Iris C.M. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h0105962@hkusua.hku.hk; Zeng Fanya [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: fzeng@hkucc.hku.hk; Leung, Frederick C.C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: fcleung@hkucc.hku.hk

2008-02-05

65

Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins produced by Vero cells, human oviductal cells and human endometrial cells, and the role of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in mouse embryo co-culture systems.  

PubMed

Co-culturing embryos on helper cells can mimic the in-vivo environment, thereby enhancing embryo development in vitro. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and their binding proteins (IGFBP) also enhance embryo development. To investigate the kinds of IGFBP produced by various cell monolayers and the effects of IGFBP-3 on mouse embryo co-culture systems, 2-cell ICR mouse embryos were cultured in either human tubal fluid medium alone or in the presence of Vero cells, human oviductal cells or endometrial cells. The helper cells were analysed immunohistochemically to investigate the types of IGFBP produced by various cell monolayers. The concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in media obtained from the culture of embryos alone, cells alone or cells plus embryos were determined by radioimmunoassays. On day 7, more blastocysts hatched in the co-culture groups (73% in the Vero cell group, 76% in the endometrial cell group and 74% in the oviductal cell group) than in the control group (43%) (P < 0.0001). The results of immunohistochemistry revealed that (i) all three cell groups produced a lot of IGFBP-1, -2 and -3, but only a little of IGFBP-4 and -5; and (ii) IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 were present in blastocysts in either the presence or absence of helper cells. The IGF-I secreted by cell monolayers or embryos was undetectable (detection limit 0.83 microg/l). The IGFBP-3 concentrations in media obtained from co-cultured embryos and cells were significantly higher than in media without embryos (median values in oviductal cell culture medium, 165 versus 127 microg/l, P = 0.04; median values in endometrial cell culture medium, 277.5 versus 183.5 microg/1, P = 0. 0002; median values in Vero cell culture medium, 219 versus 120 microg/l, P = 0.011). Although IGFBP-3 concentration in the medium that contained embryos alone was undetectable by radioimmunoassay (detection limit 1.1 microg/l), immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of IGFBP-3 in the embryos. Co-culture in systems in which there was an increased production of IGFBP-3 led to an improved development of mouse embryos. IGFBP can improve the binding of IGF to cell surface receptors of target tissue, and thus enhance the effect of limited IGF concentrations in promoting embryo development in a co-culture system. We conclude that Vero cells, human endometrial cells and oviductal cells produce IGFBP-1, -2, -3, -4 and -5. IGFBP-3 may play a role in embryotrophic potential by either regulating the action of IGF or directly enhancing embryo development. PMID:8671440

Lai, Y M; Wang, H S; Lee, C L; Lee, J D; Huang, H Y; Chang, F H; Lee, J F; Soong, Y K

1996-06-01

66

Alternative cell line for virus isolation.  

PubMed Central

A human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) was compared with various other cell lines to determine susceptibility to viral growth. In the first phase of the study, A549 cells were compared with human embryonic kidney (HEK) and cynomolgus monkey kidney (CMK) cells for isolation of upper-respiratory disease viruses by using 1,248 throat swab specimens from basic-combat trainees. Of the 552 virus isolates, 507 were adenoviruses, 41 were polioviruses, and 4 were herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Of the isolates, 518 (93.8%) were isolated in A549 cells, 480 (87.0%) were isolated in HEK cells, and 262 (47.5%) were isolated in CMK cells (P less than 0.001). In the second phase of the study, A549 cells were compared with a human diploid fibroblast cell strain (MRC-5) and Vero monkey kidney (VMK) cells for the isolation of HSV from 1,157 specimens submitted for culture. Of the 227 HSV isolates, 210 (92.5%) were isolated in A549 cells, 202 (89.0%) were isolated in VMK cells (P greater than 0.1 for A549 versus VMK cells), and 167 (73.6%) were isolated in MRC-5 cells (P less than 0.001 for A549 versus MRC-5 cells). These results suggest that A549 cells are more susceptible to adenovirus infection and at least as susceptible to HSV infection compared with the other cell cultures evaluated. Detracting factors for the use of A549 cells were a slight loss of sensitivity to adenovirus at passage 120 and a concurrent change in the morphology of the cells. The A549 cell line proved to be an efficient, practical, and economical alternative cell system for the isolation of adenovirus and HSV in particular. Initial indications are that other clinically significant viruses may be grown in A549 cells; however, additional studies need to be performed. PMID:3018038

Smith, C D; Craft, D W; Shiromoto, R S; Yan, P O

1986-01-01

67

In vitro cytotoxic activity of seed oil of fenugreek against various cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

In the present study, investigations were carried out to screen the anticancer activities of fenugreek seed oil against cancer cell lines (HEp-2, MCF-7, WISH cells), and a normal cell line (Vero cells). Cytotoxicity was assessed with MTT and NRU assays, and cellular morphological alterations were studied using phase contrast light microscopy. All cells were exposed toi 10-1000 ?g/ml of fenugreek seed oil for 24 h. The results show that fenugreek seed oil significantly reduced the cell viability, and altered the cellular morphology in a dose dependent manner. Among the cell lines, HEp-2 cells showed the highest decrease in cell viability, followed by MCF-7, WISH, and Vero cells by MTT and NRU assays. Cell viability at 1000 ?g/ml was recorded as 55% in HEp-2 cells, 67% in MCF-7 cells, 75% in WISH cells, and 86% in Vero cells. The present study provides preliminary screening data for fenugreek seed oil pointing to potent cytotoxicity against cancer cells. PMID:23679282

Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

2013-01-01

68

Genetic and Phenotypic Properties of Vero Cell-Adapted Japanese Encephalitis Virus SA14-14-2 Vaccine Strain Variants and a Recombinant Clone, Which Demonstrates Attenuation and Immunogenicity in Mice.  

PubMed

The live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) SA14-14-2 vaccine, produced in primary hamster kidney cells, is safe and effective. Past attempts to adapt this virus to replicate in cells that are more favorable for vaccine production resulted in mutations that significantly reduced immunogenicity. In this study, 10 genetically distinct Vero cell-adapted JEV SA14-14-2 variants were isolated and a recombinant wild-type JEV clone, modified to contain the JEV SA14-14-2 polyprotein amino acid sequence, was recovered in Vero cells. A single capsid protein mutation (S66L) was important for Vero cell-adaptation. Mutations were also identified that modulated virus sensitivity to type I interferon-stimulation in Vero cells. A subset of JEV SA14-14-2 variants and the recombinant clone were evaluated in vivo and exhibited levels of attenuation that varied significantly in suckling mice, but were avirulent and highly immunogenic in weanling mice and are promising candidates for the development of a second-generation, recombinant vaccine. PMID:25311701

Gromowski, Gregory D; Firestone, Cai-Yen; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Whitehead, Stephen S

2015-01-01

69

Preparation and characterization of an anti-inflammatory agent based on a zinc-layered hydroxide-salicylate nanohybrid and its effect on viability of Vero-3 cells  

PubMed Central

A new organic-inorganic nanohybrid based on zinc-layered hydroxide intercalated with an anti-inflammatory agent was synthesized through direct reaction of salicylic acid at various concentrations with commercially available zinc oxide. The basal spacing of the pure phase nanohybrid was 15.73 Å, with the salicylate anions arranged in a monolayer form and an angle of 57 degrees between the zinc-layered hydroxide interlayers. Fourier transform infrared study further confirmed intercalation of salicylate into the interlayers of zinc-layered hydroxide. The loading of salicylate in the nanohybrid was estimated to be around 29.66%, and the nanohybrid exhibited the properties of a mesoporous-type material, with greatly enhanced thermal stability of the salicylate compared with its free counterpart. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that free salicylic acid, pure zinc oxide, and the nanohybrid have a mild effect on viability of African green monkey kidney (Vero-3) cells. PMID:23345976

Ramli, Munirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Yusoff, Khatijah

2013-01-01

70

In vitro assessment of the cytotoxicity of nisin, pediocin, and selected colicins on simian virus 40-transfected human colon and Vero monkey kidney cells with trypan blue staining viability assays.  

PubMed

Gram-positive bacterial bacteriocins (nisin and pediocin) and gram-negative bacterial bacteriocins (colicins [Col] E1, E3, E6, E7, and K) were evaluated for cytotoxicity against cultured simian virus 40-transfected human colon (SV40-HC) and Vero monkey kidney (Vero) cells. Bacteriocin-treated cells were assessed for viability by trypan blue staining. Monolayers of SV40-HC and Vero cells were cultured in tissue culture plates (35 degrees C, 10% CO2 in humidified air) with the use of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% (vol/vol) calf serum. Actively growing cells in the log phase (ca. 10(4) cells per ml) were treated with individual partially purified bacteriocin preparations at 170, 350, and 700 activity units per ml. Duplicate culture plates for each bacteriocin treatment and untreated controls were withdrawn after 16, 32, and 48 h of incubation. Cells were dissociated with trypsin and treated with trypan blue and were then counted in a hemocytometer with the use of a phase-contrast microscope. Viability assays indicated dose-dependent toxicity for some bacteriocins. Nisin, pediocin, and Col E6 were the most cytotoxic bacteriocins; SV40-HC cells demonstrated greater sensitivity than Vero cells did. Some bacteriocins can be toxic to mammalian cells; therefore, bacteriocins intended for use as biopreservatives must be evaluated for toxicity to mammalian cells and for other toxicities. Col E1, Col E3, Col E7, and Col K demonstrated little toxicity at the activities tested, indicating that they are safe and thus have potential for use as food biopreservatives. PMID:12747695

Murinda, S E; Rashid, K A; Roberts, R F

2003-05-01

71

Diphtheria toxin at low pH depolarizes the membrane, increases the membrane conductance and induces a new type of ion channel in Vero cells.  

PubMed Central

Receptor-dependent translocation of diphtheria toxin across the surface membrane of Vero cells was studied using patch clamp techniques. Translocation was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH. Whole cell current and voltage clamp recordings showed that toxin translocation was associated with membrane depolarization and increased membrane conductance. The conductance increase was voltage independent, with a reversal potential of approximately 15 mV. This value was unaffected by changing the Cl- gradient across the membrane and microfluorometric measurements showed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration was only marginally elevated by the translocation. The conductance increase is thus mainly due to monovalent cations. Exposing outside-out and cell-attached patches with bound toxin to low pH induced a new type of ion channel in the membrane. The channel current was inward at negative membrane potentials and the single channel conductance was approximately 30 pS. This value is about three times larger than for receptor-independent channels induced by diphtheria toxin or toxin fragments in artificial lipid membranes. PMID:7523112

Eriksen, S; Olsnes, S; Sandvig, K; Sand, O

1994-01-01

72

Protective effect of methanol extract from citrus press cakes prepared by far-infrared radiation drying on H2O2-mediated oxidative damage in Vero cells  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a suitable drying method was developed for citrus press cakes (CPCs), which are produced as a by-product in citrus juice plants, and the protective effect of methanol extract of CPCs prepared by far-infrared radiation (FIR) drying against H2O2-induced DNA damage was evaluated versus that of freeze-dried CPCs. Methanol extract of FIR-dried CPCs exhibited comparatively good ROS scavenging activity versus the freeze-dried CPCs at the concentration of 100 µg/mL. The extract strongly enhanced the cell viability against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in Vero cells. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity of the extract from FIR-dried CPCs was comparable to that of the extract from freeze-dried CPCs. This sample also exhibited good protective effects against H2O2-mediated cell apoptosis as demonstrated by decreased apoptotic body formation in the nuclear staining with Hoechst 33342. In the comet assay, the CPC extracts exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this study demonstrated that FIR drying effectively preserves CPC as a functionally important natural antioxidant source and the FIR drying can be adapted for drying CPCs and is more economical for massive production than freeze drying. PMID:22125675

Wijesinghe, W.A.J.P.; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Oh, Myung-Cheol

2011-01-01

73

Cell culture (Vero) derived whole virus (H5N1) vaccine based on wild-type virus strain induces cross-protective immune responses  

PubMed Central

The rapid spread and the transmission to humans of avian influenza virus (H5N1) has induced world-wide fears of a new pandemic and raised concerns over the ability of standard influenza vaccine production methods to rapidly supply sufficient amounts of an effective vaccine. We report here on a robust and flexible strategy which uses wild-type virus grown in a continuous cell culture (Vero) system to produce an inactivated whole virus vaccine. Candidate vaccines based on clade 1 and clade 2 influenza H5N1 strains were developed and demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in animal models. The vaccines induce cross-neutralising antibodies, highly cross-reactive T-cell responses and are protective in a mouse challenge model not only against the homologous virus but against other H5N1 strains, including those from another clade. These data indicate that cell culture-grown, whole virus vaccines, based on the wild-type virus, allow the rapid high yield production of a candidate pandemic vaccine. PMID:17614165

Kistner, Otfried; Howard, Keith; Spruth, Martin; Wodal, Walter; Brühl, Peter; Gerencer, Marijan; Crowe, Brian A.; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Livey, Ian; Reiter, Manfred; Mayerhofer, Ines; Tauer, Christa; Grillberger, Leopold; Mundt, Wolfgang; Falkner, Falko G.; Barrett, P. Noel

2007-01-01

74

Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir protects vero cells from cytotoxicity by type-II shiga toxin from Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

PubMed

Kefir is a fermented-milk beverage originating and widely consumed in the Caucasus as well as in Eastern Europe and is a source of bacteria with potential probiotic properties. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxin is commonly associated with food-transmitted diseases; the most prevalent serotype causing epidemics is Esch. coli O157:H7. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antagonism of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir against the action on Vero cells of supernatants of the Esch. coli O157:H7 strain 69160 expressing the type-II Shiga toxin (Stx2) and to study the role of the Lactobacillus cell wall in that inhibition. Spent culture supernatants of Esch. coli O157:H7 strain 69160 led to cytotoxic effects on cultured eukaryotic cells as evidenced by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide-cleavage assay or by lactate-dehyrogenase release. Lb. plantarum CIDCA 83114 reduced the cytotoxic activity of Stx present in strain-69160 supernatants, and this protection was markedly higher than those of Lactobacillus kefir CIDCA 83113 and 8348 and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CIDCA 333. This antagonism of cytotoxicity was mimicked by Lb. plantarum cell walls but was reduced after heating or protease treatments, thus indicating a protein or peptide as being involved in the protection mechanism. The cell surface of the lactobacilli bound the subunit B of Stx thereby decreasing the cytotoxicity. These interactions could constitute the first step in preventing the damage induced by Esch. coli O157:H7 supernatants, thus representing a valuable means of potentially mitigating the noxious effects of this food pathogen. PMID:23186804

Kakisu, Emiliano; Abraham, Analía G; Farinati, Carla Tironi; Ibarra, Cristina; De Antoni, Graciela L

2013-02-01

75

Akabane Virus Utilizes Alternative Endocytic Pathways to Entry into Mammalian Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The entry mechanisms of Akabane virus (AKAV), Bunyaviridae family, have not yet been determined. In this study, chemical inhibitors were used to analyze endocytic mechanisms during AKAV infection of mammalian cell lines. The analyses using drug treatments followed by quantitative measurement of viral RNA and N protein revealed that AKAV enters non-bovine-derived cell lines (Vero, HmLu-1 and BHK cells) in a manner indicative of clathrin endocytosis. By contrast, AKAV infection in bovine-derived cell lines (LB9.K and MDBK cells) is independent of this pathway. Further analyses indicated that AKAV entry into bovine cell lines involves a non-clathrin, non-caveolae endocytic pathway that is dependent on dynamin. We conclude that although both cell types require a low pH for AKAV penetration, AKAV utilizes alternative entry pathways into mammalian cell lines. PMID:25056673

BANGPHOOMI, Norasuthi; TAKENAKA-UEMA, Akiko; SUGI, Tatsuki; KATO, Kentaro; AKASHI, Hiroomi; HORIMOTO, Taisuke

2014-01-01

76

Bovine Milk Inhibits Both Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Sulfatide and Helicobacter pylori-Induced Vacuolation of Vero Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastricmucosal cells is an initial important step incolonization and infection. To study adhesion, weinvestigated whether milk inhibits the adhesion ofHelicobacter pylori to sulfatide, an acidicglycosphingolipid that exists in human gastric mucosaand to which Helicobacter pylori adheres. As a measureof functional significance, we also studied whether milkinhibits Helicobacter pylori-induced vacuolation of Verocells. We used sulfatide-coated polystyrene

Yoshiyuki Hata; Toru Kita; Motonobu Murakami

1999-01-01

77

Nonreplicating Vaccinia Virus Vectors Expressing the H5 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Produced in Modified Vero Cells Induce Robust Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The timely development of safe and effective vaccines against avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype will be of the utmost importance in the event of a pandemic. Our aim was first to develop a safe live vaccine which induces both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against human H5N1 influenza viruses and second, since the supply of embryonated eggs for

Josef Mayrhofer; Sogue Coulibaly; Annett Hessel; Georg W. Holzer; Michael Schwendinger; Peter Bruhl; Marijan Gerencer; Brian A. Crowe; Shen Shuo; Wanjing Hong; Yee Joo Tan; Barbara Dietrich; Nicolas Sabarth; Helga Savidis-Dacho; Otfried Kistner; P. Noel Barrett; Falko G. Falkner

2009-01-01

78

Comparative study on the cytotoxicity of different Myrtaceae essential oils on cultured vero and RC-37 cells.  

PubMed

Medicinally and commercially important essential oils from the family Myrtaceae, i.e. cajuput, clove, kanuka and manuka were phytochemically analysed by GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of these essential oils was evaluated in a standard neutral red assay. Maximum noncytotoxic concentrations for cajuput oil and clove oil were determined at 0.006%, kanuka oil and manuka oil were more cytotoxic with a maximum noncytotoxic concentration of 0.001%. The compounds alpha-pinene, eugenol and leptospermone demonstrated maximum noncytotoxic concentrations at dilutions of 0.001%, 0.003% and 0.001%, respectively. However, the terpene 1,8-cineole was about 100 times less toxic to cultured cells with a maximum noncytotoxic concentration of 0.1% and a TC50 value of 0.44%. Manuka essential oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 as well against drug-resistant HSV-1 isolates in viral suspension tests. Determination of cytotoxicity of natural products is an important prerequisite for application in cosmetic and health care products and in antiviral tests. PMID:19069246

Schnitzler, P; Wiesenhofer, K; Reichling, J

2008-11-01

79

The specific activities of Shiga-like toxin type II (SLT-II) and SLT-II-related toxins of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli differ when measured by Vero cell cytotoxicity but not by mouse lethality.  

PubMed Central

Characteristically, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains produce Shiga-like toxin type I (SLT-I), SLT-II, or both of these immunologically distinct cytotoxins. No antigenic or receptor-binding variants of SLT-I have been identified, but a number of SLT-II-related toxins have been described. Because EHEC O91:H21 strain B2F1, which produces two SLT-II-related toxins, is exquisitely virulent in an orally infected, streptomycin-treated mouse model (oral 50% lethal dose [LD50], < 10 organisms), we asked whether the pathogenicity of strain B2F1 was a consequence of SLT-II-related toxin production. For this purpose, we compared the lethality of orally administered E. coli DH5 alpha (Strr) strains that produced different cytotoxic levels of SLT-II, SLT-IIvha (cloned from B2F1), SLT-IIvhb (also cloned from B2F1), or SLT-IIc (cloned from EHEC O157:H7 strain E32511) on Vero cells. We also calculated the specific activities of purified SLT-IIvhb and SLT-II in intraperitoneally injected mice and on Vero cells. The two purified toxins were equally toxic for mice, but SLT-IIvhb was approximately 100-fold less active than SLT-II on Vero cells and bound to the glycolipid receptor Gb3 with lower affinity than did SLT-II. In addition, characterization of SLT-II-related toxin-binding (B) subunit mutants generated in this study revealed that the reduced in vitro cytotoxic levels of the SLT-II-related toxins were due to Asn-16 in the B subunit. Taken together, these findings do not support the idea that B2F1 is uniquely virulent because of the in vivo toxicity of SLT-II-related toxins but do demonstrate differences in in vitro cytotoxic activity among the SLT-II group produced by human EHEC isolates. Images PMID:8300218

Lindgren, S W; Samuel, J E; Schmitt, C K; O'Brien, A D

1994-01-01

80

Comparison of initial feasibility of host cell lines for viral vaccine production.  

PubMed

In order to reduce the time required for the development and production of viral vaccines, host cell lines should be available as expression systems for production of viral vaccines against groups of viral pathogens. A selection of cell lines was compared for their initial feasibility as expression system for the replication of polioviruses, influenza A viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (wild type strain A2). Six adherent cell lines (Vero, HEK-293, MRC-5, CHO-K1, BHK-21 c13, MDCK) and six single cell suspension cell lines (CAP, AGE1.CR.HS, sCHO-K1, BHK-21 c13 2p, MDCK SFS) were studied for their ability to propagate viruses. First, maximum cell densities were determined. Second, virus receptor expression and polarization of the cell lines regarding receptor distribution of eight different viruses were monitored using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Organization of the actin cytoskeleton was studied by transfection of the cells with Lifeact™, a construct coding for actin-EGFP. Finally, the ability to produce virus progeny of the viruses studied was assayed for each cell line. The results suggest that single cell suspension cell lines grown on serum free medium are the best candidates to serve as host cell lines for virus replication. PMID:23684847

Vlecken, Danielle H W; Pelgrim, Ralf P M; Ruminski, Slawomir; Bakker, Wilfried A M; van der Pol, Leo A

2013-10-01

81

Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research. PMID:25211508

Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

2015-02-01

82

Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons  

SciTech Connect

Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)] [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

2012-07-20

83

Biology of SNU Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

SNU (Seoul National University) cell lines have been established from Korean cancer patients since 1982. Of these 109 cell lines have been characterized and reported, i.e., 17 colorectal carcinoma, 12 hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 gastric carcinoma, 12 uterine cervical carcinoma, 17 B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from cancer patients, 5 ovarian carcinoma, 3 malignant mixed Mllerian tumor, 6 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 7 renal cell carcinoma, 9 brain tumor, 6 biliary tract, and 4 pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. These SNU cell lines have been distributed to biomedical researchers domestic and worldwide through the KCLB (Korean Cell Line Bank), and have proven to be of value in various scientific research fields. The characteristics of these cell lines have been reported in over 180 international journals by our laboratory and by many other researchers from 1987. In this paper, the cellular and molecular characteristics of SNU human cancer cell lines are summarized according to their genetic and epigenetic alterations and functional analysis. PMID:19956504

Ku, Ja-Lok

2005-01-01

84

Quantitative Proteomics Using Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture Reveals Changes in the Cytoplasmic, Nuclear, and Nucleolar Proteomes in Vero Cells Infected with the Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus*  

PubMed Central

Virus-host interactions involve complex interplay between viral and host factors, rendering them an ideal target for proteomic analysis. Here we detail a high throughput quantitative proteomics analysis of Vero cells infected with the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a positive strand RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used in conjunction with LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify 1830 cellular and two viral proteins from IBV-infected cells. Fractionation of cells into cytoplasmic, nuclear, and nucleolar extracts was used to reduce sample complexity and provide information on the trafficking of proteins between the different compartments. Each fraction showed a proportion of proteins exhibiting ?2-fold changes in abundance. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that proteins that changed in response to infection could be grouped into different functional categories. These included proteins regulated by NF-?B- and AP-1-dependent pathways and proteins involved in the cytoskeleton and molecular motors. A luciferase-based reporter gene assay was used to validate the up-regulation of AP-1- and NF-?B-dependent transcription in IBV-infected cells and confirmed using immunofluorescence. Immunofluorescence was used to validate changes in the subcellular localization of vimentin and myosin VI in IBV-infected cells. The proteomics analysis also confirmed the presence of the viral nucleocapsid protein as localizing in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and nucleolus and the viral membrane protein in the cytoplasmic fraction. This research is the first application of SILAC to study total host cell proteome changes in response to positive sense RNA virus infection and illustrates the versatility of this technique as applied to infectious disease research. PMID:20467043

Emmott, Edward; Rodgers, Mark A.; Macdonald, Andrew; McCrory, Sarah; Ajuh, Paul; Hiscox, Julian A.

2010-01-01

85

Cytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator ash wastes toward mammalian kidney cell lines.  

PubMed

In this study, three municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash wastes-bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash-were extracted using a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractant. These so-called final TCLP extracts were applied to African green monkey kidney cells (Vero), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21), and pig kidney cells (PK-15), multi-well absorption reader analysis was performed to test how the cytotoxicity of the incineration ashes would affect the digestive systems of animals. Ion-coupled plasma analyses indicated that the baghouse ash extract possessed the highest pH and heavy metal concentration, its cytotoxicity was also the highest. In contrast, the bottom ash and the scrubber residue exhibited very low cytotoxicities. The cytotoxicities of mixtures of baghouse ash and scrubber residue toward the three tested cell lines increased as the relative ratio of the baghouse ash increased, especially for the Vero cells. The slight cytotoxicity of the scrubber residue arose mainly from the presence of Cr species, whereas the high cytotoxicity of the baghouse ash resulted from its high content of heavy metals and alkali ions. In addition, it appears that the dissolved total organic carbon content of these ash wastes can reduce the cytotoxicity of ash wastes that collect in animal cells. PMID:18329068

Huang, Wu-Jang; Tsai, Jia-Lin; Liao, Ming-Huei

2008-05-01

86

Scientists settle cell line dispute.  

PubMed

An agreement on patent rights to a new cell line, a hybridoma antibody of potential use in cancer therapy, has been signed between Ivor Royston, an oncologist at the University of California at San Diego, and Hideaki Hagiwara, a visiting Japanese researcher who took part of the cell line back to Japan without permission and later injected some of the cells into himself, his parents, and other volunteers. The question of ownership was complicated by the fact that cells from Hagiwara's mother, a cancer patient, had been used to produce the hybridoma. PMID:6836281

Sun, M

1983-04-22

87

Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.  

PubMed

Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

1991-12-01

88

Performance characteristics of qualified cell lines for isolation and propagation of influenza viruses for vaccine manufacturing.  

PubMed

Cell culture is now available as a method for the production of influenza vaccines in addition to eggs. In accordance with currently accepted practice, viruses recommended as candidates for vaccine manufacture are isolated and propagated exclusively in hens' eggs prior to distribution to manufacturers. Candidate vaccine viruses isolated in cell culture are not available to support vaccine manufacturing in mammalian cell bioreactors so egg-derived viruses have to be used. Recently influenza A (H3N2) viruses have been difficult to isolate directly in eggs. As mitigation against this difficulty, and the possibility of no suitable egg-isolated candidate viruses being available, it is proposed to consider using mammalian cell lines for primary isolation of influenza viruses as candidates for vaccine production in egg and cell platforms. To investigate this possibility, we tested the antigenic stability of viruses isolated and propagated in cell lines qualified for influenza vaccine manufacture and subsequently investigated antigen yields of such viruses in these cell lines at pilot-scale. Twenty influenza A and B-positive, original clinical specimens were inoculated in three MDCK cell lines. The antigenicity of recovered viruses was tested by hemagglutination inhibition using ferret sera against contemporary vaccine viruses and the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were determined. MDCK cell lines proved to be highly sensitive for virus isolation. Compared to the virus sequenced from the original specimen, viruses passaged three times in the MDCK lines showed up to 2 amino acid changes in the hemagglutinin. Antigenic stability was also established by hemagglutination inhibition titers comparable to those of the corresponding reference virus. Viruses isolated in any of the three MDCK lines grew reasonably well but variably in three MDCK cells and in VERO cells at pilot-scale. These results indicate that influenza viruses isolated in vaccine certified cell lines may well qualify for use in vaccine production. PMID:24975811

Donis, Ruben O

2014-11-12

89

IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF AGAVE AMERICANA, STRYCHNOS NUXVOMICA AND ARECA CATECHU EXTRACTS USING MCF-7 CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 ?g/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic. PMID:22247852

Anajwala, Chetan C.; Patel, Rajesh M.; Dakhara, Sanjay L.; Jariwala, Jitesh K.

2010-01-01

90

A Three-Dimensional Comparison of Tick-Borne Flavivirus Infection in Mammalian and Tick Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) are sustained in nature through cycling between mammalian and tick hosts. In this study, we used African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) and Ixodes scapularis tick cells (ISE6) to compare virus-induced changes in mammalian and arthropod cells. Using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET), we examined viral protein distribution and the ultrastructural changes that occur during TBFV infection. Within host cells, flaviviruses cause complex rearrangement of cellular membranes for the purpose of virus replication. Virus infection was accompanied by a marked expansion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) staining and markers for TBFV replication were localized mainly to the ER in both cell lines. TEM of Vero cells showed membrane-bound vesicles enclosed in a network of dilated, anastomosing ER cisternae. Virions were seen within the ER and were sometimes in paracrystalline arrays. Tubular structures or elongated vesicles were occasionally noted. In acutely and persistently infected ISE6 cells, membrane proliferation and vesicles were also noted; however, the extent of membrane expansion and the abundance of vesicles were lower and no viral particles were observed. Tubular profiles were far more prevalent in persistently infected ISE6 cells than in acutely infected cells. By ET, tubular profiles, in persistently infected tick cells, had a cross-sectional diameter of 60–100 nm, reached up to 800 nm in length, were closed at the ends, and were often arranged in fascicle-like bundles, shrouded with ER membrane. Our experiments provide analysis of viral protein localization within the context of both mammalian and arthropod cell lines as well as both acute and persistent arthropod cell infection. Additionally, we show for the first time 3D flavivirus infection in a vector cell line and the first ET of persistent flavivirus infection. PMID:23112871

Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Dorward, David W.; Hansen, Bryan T.; Bloom, Marshall E.

2012-01-01

91

A three-dimensional comparison of tick-borne flavivirus infection in mammalian and tick cell lines.  

PubMed

Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) are sustained in nature through cycling between mammalian and tick hosts. In this study, we used African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) and Ixodes scapularis tick cells (ISE6) to compare virus-induced changes in mammalian and arthropod cells. Using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET), we examined viral protein distribution and the ultrastructural changes that occur during TBFV infection. Within host cells, flaviviruses cause complex rearrangement of cellular membranes for the purpose of virus replication. Virus infection was accompanied by a marked expansion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) staining and markers for TBFV replication were localized mainly to the ER in both cell lines. TEM of Vero cells showed membrane-bound vesicles enclosed in a network of dilated, anastomosing ER cisternae. Virions were seen within the ER and were sometimes in paracrystalline arrays. Tubular structures or elongated vesicles were occasionally noted. In acutely and persistently infected ISE6 cells, membrane proliferation and vesicles were also noted; however, the extent of membrane expansion and the abundance of vesicles were lower and no viral particles were observed. Tubular profiles were far more prevalent in persistently infected ISE6 cells than in acutely infected cells. By ET, tubular profiles, in persistently infected tick cells, had a cross-sectional diameter of 60-100 nm, reached up to 800 nm in length, were closed at the ends, and were often arranged in fascicle-like bundles, shrouded with ER membrane. Our experiments provide analysis of viral protein localization within the context of both mammalian and arthropod cell lines as well as both acute and persistent arthropod cell infection. Additionally, we show for the first time 3D flavivirus infection in a vector cell line and the first ET of persistent flavivirus infection. PMID:23112871

Offerdahl, Danielle K; Dorward, David W; Hansen, Bryan T; Bloom, Marshall E

2012-01-01

92

Review article Immortal porcine lymphoblastoid cell lines  

E-print Network

Review article Immortal porcine lymphoblastoid cell lines: interest for veterinary and medical (Received 18 January 1994; accepted 22 April 1994) Summary ― Immortal lymphoblastoid cell lines of B lines. Nevertheless, immortal cell lines have many advantages over finite ones, owing to their ease

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Antiviral susceptibility testing with a cell line which expresses beta-galactosidase after infection with herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing concern about drug-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV), antiviral susceptibility testing is not routinely performed by most clinical virology laboratories. This omission is in large part because the most widely accepted method, the plaque reduction assay (PRA), is cumbersome to perform and results are rarely available in time to influence treatment. We report here the development of a sensitivity test for HSV which utilizes a cell line (VeroICP6LacZ#7) that expresses beta-galactosidase activity after infection with HSV such that infected cells can be detected by histochemical staining. We designed an assay in which 10-fold dilutions of virus stocks with undetermined titers were inoculated onto VeroICP6LacZ#7 cells in a 24-well tissue culture dish. Forty-eight hours after infection, the cell monolayers were histochemically stained. Plaques appear blue against a clear background and are thus easily visualized at 48 h. As with the standard PRA, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was reported as the concentration of an antiviral drug that reduces the number of plaques by 50%. Evaluation of 10 well-characterized laboratory strains and 12 clinical HSV isolates showed that the IC50 determined by this method correlated in all instances with the IC50 determined by the PRA. This method is easy to use and eliminates the need to determine the titer of the virus, and results are available within 48 h of the detection of the virus. VeroICP6Lac#7 cells are a useful tool for performing HSV antiviral susceptibility testing and could be used in a number of different formats to facilitate the identification of drug-resistant isolates of HSV. PMID:7574517

Tebas, P; Stabell, E C; Olivo, P D

1995-01-01

94

Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines  

PubMed Central

In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

2013-01-01

95

Biology of Mutant KRAS Cell Lines  

Cancer.gov

Posted: September 22, 2014 Posted: September 22, 2014 Biology of Mutant KRAS Cell Lines Target Biology Group Many dozens of cell lines derived from human cancers contain mutant RAS genes, and these cell lines are a good proxy  to study cancer processes.

96

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Vero Cell Culture-Derived Whole-Virus H5N1 Influenza Vaccine in Chronically Ill and Immunocompromised Patients  

PubMed Central

The development of vaccines against H5N1 influenza A viruses is a cornerstone of pandemic preparedness. Clinical trials of H5N1 vaccines have been undertaken in healthy subjects, but studies in risk groups have been lacking. In this study, the immunogenicity and safety of a nonadjuvanted cell culture-derived whole-virus H5N1 vaccine were assessed in chronically ill and immunocompromised adults. Subjects received two priming immunizations with a clade 1 A/Vietnam H5N1 influenza vaccine, and a subset also received a booster immunization with a clade 2.1 A/Indonesia H5N1 vaccine 12 to 24 months later. The antibody responses in the two populations were assessed by virus neutralization and single radial hemolysis assays. The T-cell responses in a subset of immunocompromised patients were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT). The priming and the booster vaccinations were safe and well tolerated in the two risk populations, and adverse reactions were predominantly mild and transient. The priming immunizations induced neutralizing antibody titers of ?1:20 against the A/Vietnam strain in 64.2% of the chronically ill and 41.5% of the immunocompromised subjects. After the booster vaccination, neutralizing antibody titers of ?1:20 against the A/Vietnam and A/Indonesia strains were achieved in 77.5% and 70.8%, respectively, of chronically ill subjects and in 71.6% and 67.5%, respectively, of immunocompromised subjects. The T-cell responses against the two H5N1 strains increased significantly over the baseline values. Substantial heterosubtypic T-cell responses were elicited against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus and seasonal A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B subtypes. There was a significant correlation between T-cell responses and neutralizing antibody titers. These data indicate that nonadjuvanted whole-virus cell culture-derived H5N1 influenza vaccines are suitable for immunizing chronically ill and immunocompromised populations. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00711295.) PMID:24739978

van der Velden, Maikel V. W.; Geisberger, Alexander; Dvorak, Thomas; Portsmouth, Daniel; Fritz, Richard; Crowe, Brian A.; Herr, Wolfgang; Distler, Eva; Wagner, Eva M.; Zeitlinger, Markus; Sauermann, Robert; Stephan, Christoph; Ehrlich, Hartmut J.; Barrett, P. Noel

2014-01-01

97

Generating Mammalian Stable Cell Lines by Electroporation  

PubMed Central

Expression of functional, recombinant mammalian proteins often requires expression in mammalian cells (see Single Cell Cloning of a Stable Mammalian Cell Line). If the expressed protein needs to be made frequently, it can be best to generate a stable cell line instead of performing repeated transient transfections into mammalian cells. Here, we describe a method to generate stable cell lines via electroporation followed by selection steps. This protocol will be limited to the CHO dhfr– Urlaub et al. (1983) and LEC1 cell lines, which in our experience perform the best with this method. PMID:24011048

Longo, Patti A.; Kavran, Jennifer M.; Kim, Min-Sung; Leahy, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

98

Involvement of caspase and reactive oxygen species in cyanobacterial toxin anatoxin-a-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in rat thymocytes and Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The hepatotoxins and neurotoxins produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria have been the cause of human and animal health hazards and even death. The most common cyanobacterial neurotoxin is anatoxin-a, and intoxications by these toxins can be fatal through muscular paralysis causing respiratory arrest. We report here anatoxin-a-induced apoptosis in two non-neuronal cells, viz. cultured rat thymocytes and African green monkey

P. V. Lakshmana Rao; R. Bhattacharya; Nidhi Gupta; M. M. Parida; A. S. B. Bhaskar; Rupa Dubey

2002-01-01

99

Cell culture (Vero) derived whole virus (H5N1) vaccine based on wild-type virus strain induces cross-protective immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid spread and the transmission to humans of avian influenza virus (H5N1) have induced world-wide fears of a new pandemic and raised concerns over the ability of standard influenza vaccine production methods to rapidly supply sufficient amounts of an effective vaccine. We report here on a robust and flexible strategy which uses wild-type virus grown in a continuous cell

Otfried Kistner; M. Keith Howard; Martin Spruth; Walter Wodal; Peter Brühl; Marijan Gerencer; Brian A. Crowe; Helga Savidis-Dacho; Ian Livey; Manfred Reiter; Ines Mayerhofer; Christa Tauer; Leopold Grillberger; Wolfgang Mundt; Falko G. Falkner; P. Noel Barrett

2007-01-01

100

How Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are Made  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. This animation presents the basics on how stem cell lines are established. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents how embryonic stem cell lines are made through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

101

Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3?-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

2012-01-01

102

Transduction of cell lines by retroviral vectors.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTIONThis protocol is suitable for transduction of many adherent cell lines. The number of target cells transduced can be varied as needed by maintaining the ratio of surface area to volume and using plates/flasks of various sizes. The protocol can also easily be adapted for non-adherent cells using similar vector-to-cell ratios. PMID:21356805

Cornetta, Kenneth; Pollok, Karen E; Miller, A Dusty

2008-01-01

103

Characterization of a novel embryonic stem cell line from an ICSI-derived blastocyst in the African green monkey.  

PubMed

Several cell types from the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), such as red blood cells, primary culture cells from kidney, and the Vero cell line, are valuable sources for biomedical research and testing. Embryonic stem (ES) cells that are established from blastocysts have pluripotency to differentiate into these and other types of cells. We examined an in vitro culture system of zygotes produced by ICSI in African green monkeys and attempted to establish ES cells. Culturing with and without a mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell monolayer resulted in the development of ICSI-derived zygotes to the blastocyst stage, while culturing with a buffalo rat liver cell monolayer yielded no development (3/14, 21.4% and 6/31, 19.4% vs 0/23, 0% respectively; P<0.05). One of the nine blastocysts, which had been one of the zygotes co-cultured with MEF cells, formed flat colonies consisting of cells with large nuclei, similar to other primate ES cell lines. The African green monkey ES (AgMES) cells expressed pluripotency markers, formed teratomas consisting of three embryonic germ layer tissues, and had a normal chromosome number. Furthermore, expression of the germ cell markers CD9 and DPPA3 (STELLA) was detected in the embryoid bodies, suggesting that AgMES cells might have the potential ability to differentiate into germ cells. The results suggested that MEF cells greatly affected the quality of the inner cell mass of the blastocysts. In addition, AgMES cells would be a precious resource for biomedical research such as other primate ES cell lines. PMID:19955206

Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Ichiro; Hatori, Masanori; Sankai, Tadashi

2010-03-01

104

Cryopreservation of plant cell lines.  

PubMed

Plant cell cultures may consist of dedifferentiated cells as well as of cells showing embryogenic potential. They can be used for very different purposes in research and biotechnology as well as for plant propagation. For such cell cultures, cryopreservation is the only means for long-term preservation. Most of the different cryopreservation approaches, which are generally used for plant tissues, have also been applied to plant cell cultures; they include slow freezing, vitrification, and encapsulation/dehydration approaches. The controlled-rate slow freezing approach which is described here, however, remains to be the gold standard for cell cultures. In this chapter, a standard cryopreservation procedure is presented for plant cell cultures. PMID:25428021

Schumacher, Heinz Martin; Westphal, Martina; Heine-Dobbernack, Elke

2015-01-01

105

Cell-host, LINE and environment  

PubMed Central

Long interspersed nuclear elements -1 (LINEs, L1s) are retroelements occupying almost 17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition can cause deleterious effects on the host-cell and it is generally inhibited by suppressive mechanisms, but it can occur in some specific cells during early development as well as in some tumor cells and in the presence of several environmental factors. In a recent publication we reported that extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field can affect L1 retrotransposition in neuroblastoma cells. In this commentary we discuss the interaction between environment and L1 activity in the light of the new emerging paradigm of host-LINE relationship. PMID:23734298

Del Re, Brunella; Giorgi, Gianfranco

2013-01-01

106

Feasibility of using the Vero SBRT system for intracranial SRS.  

PubMed

The Vero SBRT system was benchmarked in a planning study against the Novalis SRS system for quality of delivered dose distributions to intracranial lesions and assessing the Vero system's capacity for SRS. A total of 27 patients with one brain lesion treated on the Novalis system, with 3 mm leaf width MLC and C-arm gantry, were replanned for Vero, with a 5 mm leaf width MLC mounted on an O-ring gantry allowing rotations around both the horizontal and vertical axis. The Novalis dynamic conformal arc (DCA) planning included vertex arcs, using 90° couch rotation. These vertex arcs cannot be reproduced with Vero due to the mechanical limitations of the O-ring gantry. Alternative class solutions were investigated for the Vero. Additionally, to distinguish between the effect of MLC leaf width and different beam arrangements on dose distributions, the Vero class solutions were also applied for Novalis. In addition, the added value of noncoplanar IMRT was investigated in this study. Quality of the achieved dose distributions was expressed in the conformity index (CI) and gradient index (GI), and compared using a paired Student's t-test with statistical significance for p-values ? 0.05. For lesions larger than 5 cm3, no statistical significant difference in conformity was observed between Vero and Novalis, but for smaller lesions, the dose distributions showed a significantly better conformity for the Novalis (?CI = 13.74%, p = 0.0002) mainly due to the smaller MLC leaf width. Using IMRT on Vero reduces this conformity difference to nonsignificant levels. The cutoff for achieving a GI around 3, characterizing a sharp dose falloff outside the target volume was 4 cm3 for Novalis and 7 cm3 for Vero using DCA technique. Using noncoplanar IMRT, this threshold was reduced to 3 cm3 for the Vero system. The smaller MLC and the presence of the vertex fields allow the Novalis system to better conform the dose around the lesion and to obtain steeper dose falloff outside the lesion. Comparable dosimetric characteristics can be achieved with Vero for lesions larger than 3 cm3 and using IMRT. PMID:24423838

Burghelea, Manuela; Verellen, Dirk; Gevaert, Thierry; Depuydt, Tom; Poels, Kenneth; Simon, Viorica; De Ridder, Mark

2014-01-01

107

77 FR 5489 - Identification of Human Cell Lines Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...120104006-2006-01] Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute...repeat (STR) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and...

2012-02-03

108

Differential SELEX in Human Glioma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The hope of success of therapeutic interventions largely relies on the possibility to distinguish between even close tumor types with high accuracy. Indeed, in the last ten years a major challenge to predict the responsiveness to a given therapeutic plan has been the identification of tumor specific signatures, with the aim to reduce the frequency of unwanted side effects on oncologic patients not responding to therapy. Here, we developed an in vitro evolution-based approach, named differential whole cell SELEX, to generate a panel of high affinity nucleic acid ligands for cell surface epitopes. The ligands, named aptamers, were obtained through the iterative evolution of a random pool of sequences using as target human U87MG glioma cells. The selection was designed so as to distinguish U87MG from the less malignant cell line T98G. We isolated molecules that generate unique binding patterns sufficient to unequivocally identify any of the tested human glioma cell lines analyzed and to distinguish high from low or non-tumorigenic cell lines. Five of such aptamers act as inhibitors of specific intracellular pathways thus indicating that the putative target might be important surface signaling molecules. Differential whole cell SELEX reveals an exciting strategy widely applicable to cancer cells that permits generation of highly specific ligands for cancer biomarkers. PMID:19956692

Cerchia, Laura; Esposito, Carla Lucia; Jacobs, Andreas H.; Tavitian, Bertrand; de Franciscis, Vittorio

2009-01-01

109

Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany) [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

2011-04-01

110

Isolation and identification of a novel chlorophenol from a cell suspension culture of Helichrysum aureonitens.  

PubMed

A novel chlorophenol, 4-chloro-2-(hepta-1,3,5-triyn-1-yl)-phenol (1), was isolated as the major phenolic compound from the cells of Helichrysum aureonitens suspension cultures. Compound 1 has been proposed to be an intermediate in the acetylene biosynthetic pathway of other acetylenic compounds in Helichrysum spp. The ethanol extract of cell suspension cultures and compound 1 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against monkey kidney Vero (Vero cells) and human prostate epithelial carcinoma (DU145) cell lines, also, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were determined as well. PMID:19881282

Ziaratnia, Seyed Mahdi; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Hussein, Ahmed Abdel-Fattah; Muranaka, Toshiya; Lall, Namrita; Kunert, Karl Josef; Meyer, Jacobus Johannes Marion

2009-11-01

111

Refractory lining for electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Cook, Glenn M. (Naperville, IL)

1987-01-01

112

Radiation sensitivity of merkel cell carcinoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a

J. Helen Leonard; Jonathan R. Ramsay; John H. Kearsley; Geoff W. Birrell

1995-01-01

113

Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia)] [and others] [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia); and others

1995-07-30

114

TRANSFECTION OF INSECT CELL LINES USING POLYETHYLENIMINE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect cell lines have been widely used in recombinant baculovirus expression systems and transient gene expression studies. Critical to these applications have been the transfection of foreign DNA. This has been widely done using labor intensive and cytotoxic liposome-based transfection reagents....

115

Serum response heterogeneity among nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the morphology, in vitro growth, and two genetic responses to serum stimulation in the nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines SK-Lu-1, SK-MES-1, A427, and A549. Morphologically, all four were NSCLC: SK-Lu-1 was undifferentiated, the remainder were adenocarcinoma variants. SK-Lu-1 and SK-MES-1 were slow growing with low-anchorage independent growth capacity; the A427 and A549 lines were fast growing with high-anchorage independent growth capacity. All of the lines expressed basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a dominant 7.1 kb transcript at amounts significantly lower than in control human lung fibroblasts. bFGF expression could be upregulated by serum exposure in several nontransformed human cell lines, but only the SK-Lu-1 NSCLC cells increased bFGF after serum exposure (482%) compared with a peak increase of 1222% in the fibroblast controls. All of the NSCLC cell lines increased c-fos in response to the same serum stimulations. These results show that growth-factor gene expression can be modulated in NSCLC, and that significant differences exist among NSCLC cell lines commonly used as laboratory correlates of human disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:1718163

Goldsmith, K. T.; Listinsky, C. M.; Garver, R. I.

1991-01-01

116

Robust cell line development using meganucleases.  

PubMed

Cell line development for protein production or for the screening of drug targets requires the reproducible and stable expression of transgenes. Such cell lines can be engineered with meganucleases, sequence-specific endonucleases that recognize large DNA target sites. These proteins are powerful tools for genome engineering because they can increase homologous gene targeting by several orders of magnitude in the vicinity of their cleavage site. Here, we describe in details the use of meganucleases for gene targeting in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells, with a special emphasis on a gene insertion procedure using a promoter-less marker gene for selection. We have also monitored the expression of genes inserted by meganucleases-induced recombination, and show that expression is reproducible among different targeted clones, and stable over a 4 mo period. These experiments were conducted with the natural yeast I-SceI meganuclease, but the general design and process can also be applied to engineered meganucleases. PMID:18370066

Cabaniols, Jean-Pierre; Pâques, Frédéric

2008-01-01

117

Avipoxvirus multiplication in a mammalian cell line.  

PubMed

Avipoxviruses have many advantages and are being increasingly employed as recombinant vaccine vectors. One attractive feature is that while inserted transgenes are expressed in immunologically favourable ways, avipoxvirus infections of mammalian cells are believed to be abortive. The experimental evidence supporting this belief is, however, based on a limited number of mammalian cell-types and a few avipoxvirus species. We evaluated two avian and eight mammalian cell lines for permissivity to three avipoxvirus strains, one reference fowlpoxvirus and two newly isolated strains from sparrow and pigeon, respectively. Both avian cell lines were, as expected, permissive for all three avipoxvirus strains. However, by multiplication assays, we found to our surprise that Syrian baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells were equally permissive to all virus strains. Results from electron microscopy of infected BHK-21 cells revealed viral morphogenesis proceeding to various forms of infectious viruses. These results were supported by the demonstration of avipoxvirus specific late gene expression and avipoxvirus specific DNA restriction pattern in BHK-21 infected cells. PMID:15826911

Weli, Simon Chioma; Nilssen, Oivind; Traavik, Terje

2005-04-01

118

Recombinant glycoprotein production in human cell lines.  

PubMed

The most important properties of a protein are determined by its primary structure, its amino acid sequence. However, protein features can be also modified by a large number of posttranslational modifications. These modifications can occur during or after the synthesis process, and glycosylation appears as the most common posttranslational modification. It is estimated that 50 % of human proteins have some kind of glycosylation, which has a key role in maintaining the structure, stability, and function of the protein. Besides, glycostructures can also influence the pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of the protein. Although the glycosylation process is a conserved mechanism that occurs in yeast, plants, and animals, several studies have demonstrated significant differences in the glycosylation pattern in recombinant proteins expressed in mammalian, yeast, and insect cells. Thus, currently, important efforts are being done to improve the systems for the expression of recombinant glycosylated proteins. Among the different mammalian cell lines used for the production of recombinant proteins, a significant difference in the glycosylation pattern that can alter the production and/or activity of the protein exists. In this context, human cell lines have emerged as a new alternative for the production of human therapeutic proteins, since they are able to produce recombinant proteins with posttranslational modifications similar to its natural counterpart and reduce potential immunogenic reactions against nonhuman epitopes. This chapter describes the steps necessary to produce a recombinant glycoprotein in a human cell line in small scale and also in bioreactors. PMID:25447867

Swiech, Kamilla; de Freitas, Marcela Cristina Corrêa; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia

2015-01-01

119

Chromosomal variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines  

PubMed Central

Tens of thousands of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have been established by the research community, providing nearly unlimited source material from samples of interest. LCLs are used to address questions in population genomics, mechanisms of disease, and pharmacogenomics. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to define the extent of chromosomal variation in LCLs. We measured variation in genotype and copy number in multiple LCLs derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of single individuals as well as two comparison groups: (1) three types of differentiated cell lines (DCLs) and (2) triplicate HapMap samples. We then validated and extended our findings using data from a large study consisting of samples from blood or LCLs. We observed high concordances between genotypes and copy number estimates within all sample groups. While the genotypes of LCLs tended to faithfully reflect the genotypes of PBMCs, 13.7% (4 of 29) of immortalized cell lines harbored mosaic regions greater than 20 megabases which were not present in PBMCs, DCLs, or HapMap replicate samples. We created a list of putative LCL-specific changes (affecting regions such as immunoglobulin loci) that is available as a community resource. PMID:22374857

Shirley, Matthew D.; Baugher, Joseph D.; Stevens, Eric L.; Tang, Zhenya; Gerry, Norman; Beiswanger, Christine M.; Berlin, Dorit S.; Pevsner, Jonathan

2012-01-01

120

Lactoferrin binding by leukemia cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Monocytes and macrophages have receptors for the iron-binding protein lactoferrin. Lactoferrin acts as a potent inhibitor of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor production when it binds to these cells. Using a rosette assay and immunofluorescence, we have shown that cultured leukemia cells, including the human erythroid leukemia cell line K562, also have lactoferrin binding sites. The number of binding sites on K562 cells was estimated using soluble /sup 59/Fe-lactoferrin. Inhibition studies demonstrate that lactoferrin binding sites are distinct and unrelated to receptors for transferrin or the Fc portion of IgG, which are present on K562 cells. However, electrostatic forces may be important for lactoferrin binding, since other polycationic proteins (eg, protamine) inhibit lactoferrin binding. Prior treatment of K562 cells with trypsin nearly abolishes lactoferrin binding. However, these cells recover their ability to bind lactoferrin when trypsin is removed. Unlike transferrin receptors, the expression of lactoferrin binding sites is not regulated by cellular iron status. Cytosine arabinoside arrests the proliferation of K562 cells and simultaneously leads to a reduction in lactoferrin surface binding, suggesting that lactoferrin binding may be dependent on cell proliferation.

Yamada, Y.; Amagasaki, T.; Jacobsen, D.W.; Green, R.

1987-07-01

121

A human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

A cell strain (FU-GBC-1) was established from cancerous ascites of a 68-year-old male patient with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. By light and electron microscopy, the cultured cells showed the morphologic features of adenocarcinoma characterized by gland-like structures, intracellular microcystic spaces, and mucous production. Immunoperoxidase stains showed that FU-GBC-1 cells expressed several epithelial tumor antigens including CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The cell strain has been in continuous culture up to passage 44 for 1 1/2 years, with the population doubling time of 120 hours. The cytogenetic analysis by a G-band technique showed a constant loss of chromosome Y in FU-GBC-1 cells. The modal chromosome number at passage 12 was 82 with a range of 77 to 85. Flow cytometry with an ethidium bromide technique additionally confirmed aneuploid DNA content (4C) in the cultured cells at passage 12 and 35. Inoculation of FU-GBC-1 cells into the dermis of BALB/c nude mice produced transplantable adenocarcinoma identical to the original tumor. Because no continuous cell lines of the well-differentiated type of gallbladder adenocarcinoma have been reported in the literature currently, the newly established cell strain we report may yield a useful system for studying the morphologic and biologic characteristics of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. PMID:2680052

Johzaki, H; Iwasaki, H; Nishida, T; Isayama, T; Kikuchi, M

1989-12-01

122

In vitro anticancer effect of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus against a panel of human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

In Cuba the endemic species of scorpion Rhopalurus junceus has been used in traditional medicine for cancer treatment. However, there is little scientific evidence about its potential in cancer therapy. The effect of a range of scorpion venom concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1mg/ml) against a panel of human tumor cell lines from epithelial (Hela, SiHa, Hep-2, NCI-H292, A549, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, HT-29), hematopoietic origins (U937, K562, Raji) and normal cells (MRC-5, MDCK, Vero) was determined by the MTT assay. Additionally, the effect of venom on tumor cell death was assayed by Fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR and western blot. Only the epithelial cancer cells showed significant cell viability reduction, with medium cytotoxic concentration (IC50) ranging from 0.6-1mg/ml, in a concentration-dependent manner. There was no effect on either normal or hematopoietic tumor cells. Scorpion venom demonstrated to induce apoptosis in less sensitive tumor cells (Hela) as evidenced by chromatin condensation, over expression of p53 and bax mRNA, down expression of bcl-2 mRNA and increase of activated caspases 3, 8, 9. In most sensitive tumor cells (A549), scorpion venom induced necrosis evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent dyes and down-expression of apoptosis-related genes. We concluded the scorpion venom from R. junceus possessed a selective and differential toxicity against epithelial cancer cells. This is the first report related to biological effect of R. junceus venom against a panel of tumor cells lines. All these results make R. junceus venom as a promise natural product for cancer treatment. PMID:23946884

Díaz-García, Alexis; Morier-Díaz, Luis; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Caballero-Lorenzo, Yamira; Mendoza-Llanes, Dianeya; Riquenes-Garlobo, Yanelis; Fraga-Castro, José A

2013-01-01

123

Original article Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines  

E-print Network

Original article Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines replicate CAEV at high level Laila epithelial cells were isolated from CAEV-uninfected goats and three cell lines designated TIGMEC-1, TIGMEC-2 and TIGMEC-3 were established. The three cell lines retained their morphological characteristics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Pancreastatin producing cell line from human pancreatic islet cell tumor.  

PubMed

It has been characterized that cell line QGP-1 derived from human non-functioning pancreatic islet cell tumor produces human pancreastatin. Exponentially growing cultures produced 5.7 fmol of pancreastatin/10(6) cells/hr. Human pancreastatin immunoreactivities in plasma and tumor after xenografting with QGP-1 into nude mouse were 92.7 fmol/ml and 160.2 pmol/g wet weight, respectively. Immunocytochemical study revealed both chromogranin A and pancreastatin immunoreactive cells in the tumor. Gel filtrations of culture medium and tumor extract identified heterogenous molecular forms of PST-LI which eluted as large and smaller molecular species. These results suggest that plasma pancreastatin levels may be useful as a tumor marker of endocrine tumor of the pancreas, and the pancreastatin producing cell line may be useful for studies of the mechanism of secretions and processing of chromogranin A and pancreastatin. PMID:2159299

Funakoshi, A; Tateishi, K; Tsuru, M; Jimi, A; Wakasugi, H; Ikeda, Y; Kono, A

1990-04-30

125

A comparison of avian and mammalian cell cultures for the propagation of avian reovirus WVU 2937.  

PubMed

Two avian and seven mammalian cell lines were evaluated for their application in propagating avian reovirus WVU 2937. Cultures were compared for monolayer-formation time, support of viral replication, passages and postinfection time required for expression of cytopathic effect (CPE), type of CPE, and virus yield. CPE was observed on the first passage with infected egg yolk in primary chicken embryo kidney cells, primary through tertiary chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells, and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells; on the third blind passage of infected supernatant in Georgia bovine kidney cells, Crandall feline kidney cells, and baby hamster cells; on the fifth blind passage in rabbit kidney cells; and on the tenth blind passage in porcine kidney cells. CPE was not observed after 10 viral passages in rabbit bone-marrow cells. Monolayer formation time and postinfection time for CPE expression occurred sooner, and virus yield was greater, with CEL and VERO cells than with other cell lines. PMID:6721794

Barta, V; Springer, W T; Millar, D L

1984-01-01

126

Caveolin-1 is incorporated into mature respiratory syncytial virus particles during virus assembly on the surface of virus-infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed immunofluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to examine the assembly and maturation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the Vero cell line C1008. RSV matures at the apical cell surface in a filamentous form that extends from the plasma membrane. We observed that inclusion bodies containing viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) cores predominantly appeared immediately below the plasma membrane,

Gaie Brown; James Aitken; Richard J. Sugrue

127

On the Ontology Based Representation of Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Cell lines are frequently used as highly standardized and reproducible in vitro models for biomedical analyses and assays. Cell lines are distributed by cell banks that operate databases describing their products. However, the description of the cell lines' properties are not standardized across different cell banks. Existing cell line-related ontologies mostly focus on the description of the cell lines' names, but do not cover aspects like the origin or optimal growth conditions. The objective of this work is to develop an ontology that allows for a more comprehensive description of cell lines and their metadata, which should cover the data elements provided by cell banks. This will provide the basis for the standardized annotation of cell lines and corresponding assays in biomedical research. In addition, the ontology will be the foundation for automated evaluation of such assays and their respective protocols in the future. To accomplish this, a broad range of cell bank databases as well as existing ontologies were analyzed in a comprehensive manner. We identified existing ontologies capable of covering different aspects of the cell line domain. However, not all data fields derived from the cell banks' databases could be mapped to existing ontologies. As a result, we created a new ontology called cell culture ontology (CCONT) integrating existing ontologies where possible. CCONT provides classes from the areas of cell line identification, origin, cell line properties, propagation and tests performed. PMID:23144907

Ganzinger, Matthias; He, Shan; Breuhahn, Kai; Knaup, Petra

2012-01-01

128

[Reproduction of the metapneumovirus in different cell lines].  

PubMed

The reproduction of the metapneumovirus was comparatively studied in 19 human and animal cell lines. The most sensitive transplanted cell lines were found to be human Chang Conjunctiva (clone 1-5C4) and animal cell lines of feline kidney CRFK. PMID:23012979

Isaeva, E I; Kozulina, I S; Podcherniaeva, R Ia; Grinkevich, O M

2012-01-01

129

Effect of black tea extract on herpes simplex virus-1 infection of cultured cells  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this investigation was to determine if black tea extract (BTE), consisting primarily of flavanol compounds called theaflavins, could inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection in cultured A549 (human epithelial) and Vero cells. Methods The effect of BTE both on A549 and Vero cultured cells and on HSV-1 was assessed by using phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy, and cell viability and proliferation assays. After establishing the maximum non-cytotoxic concentration of BTE, A549 and Vero cells and HSV-1 virions were treated with varying concentrations of BTE, respectively. A549 and Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) insert at the UL46 gene. The effect of infectivity was determined by viral DNA extraction followed by PCR, plaque assays, adsorption assays, and electrophoresis of PCR products. Results BTE was not cytotoxic to A549 and Vero cells, as confirmed by cell viability and proliferation assays, in which BTE treated groups paralleled the positive control group. For both cell lines, plaque assays and fluorescent microscopy indicated an inverse relationship between BTE concentration (from 0.14 ?M – 1.4 mM) and HSV-1 infectivity. Specifically, PCR and electrophoresis showed a reduction in the viral genome following treatment with BTE. In addition, there was a noticeable decrease in the amount of viral plaques for BTE treated samples in the adsorption assays. Conclusions BTE consisting primarily of theaflavins is not cytotoxic and can reduce or block the production of infectious HSV-1 virions in cultured A549 and Vero cells, thus inhibiting the infectivity of the virus by interfering in the attachment, penetration and viral DNA replication of HSV-1 particles. These findings indicate that BTE enriched with theaflavins has the potential to be developed as a safe, therapeutic antiviral agent to prevent the spread of HSV-1. PMID:23777309

2013-01-01

130

EXAFS studies of prostate cancer cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphur plays a vital role in every human organism. It is known, that sulphur-bearing compounds, such as for example cysteine and glutathione, play critical roles in development and progression of many diseases. Any alteration in sulphur's biochemistry could become a precursor of serious pathological conditions. One of such condition is prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The purpose of presented studies was to examine what changes occur in the nearest chemical environment of sulphur in prostate cancer cell lines in comparison to healthy cells. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used, followed by theoretical calculations. The results of preliminary analysis is presented.

Czapla, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Kisiel, A.; Steininger, R.; Goettlicher, J.

2013-04-01

131

Detection algorithm for the validation of human cell lines.  

PubMed

Cell lines are an important tool in understanding all aspects of cancer growth, development, metastasis and tumor cell death. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of cell lines and diversity of the cancers they represent; however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines can lead to erroneous conclusions. One method that has gained favor for authenticating cell lines is the use of short tandem repeats (STR) to generate a unique DNA profile. The challenge in validating cell lines is the requirement to compare the large number of existing STR profiles against cell lines of interest, particularly when considering that the profiles of many cell lines have drifted over time and original samples are not available. We report here methods that analyze the variations and the proportional changes extracted from tetra-nucleotide repeat regions in the STR analysis. This technique allows a paired match between a target cell line and a reference database of cell lines to find cell lines that match within a user designated percentage cut-off quality matrix. Our method accounts for DNA instability and can suggest whether the target cell lines are misidentified or unstable. PMID:22419365

Eltonsy, Névine; Gabisi, Vivian; Li, Xuesong; Russe, K Blair; Mills, Gordon B; Stemke-Hale, Katherine

2012-09-15

132

Virus-specific cell receptors are necessary, but not sufficient, to confer cell susceptibility to African swine fever virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The entry of African swine fever (ASF) virus into Vero cells and swine macrophages is mediated by saturable binding sites\\u000a located in the plasma membrane, which have been related, as in other virus-cell systems, to the sensitivity of the cell to\\u000a the virus. In order to define this correlation, we have analyzed up to 16 cell lines derived from different

A. L. Carrascosa; M. J. Bustos; I. Galindo; E. Viñuela

1999-01-01

133

Epigenetic and genetic features of 24 colon cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Cell lines are invaluable biomedical research tools, and recent literature has emphasized the importance of genotype authentication and characterization. In the present study, 24 out of 27 cell line identities were confirmed by short tandem repeat profiling. The molecular phenotypes of the 24 colon cancer cell lines were examined, and microsatellite instability (MSI) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) were determined, using the Bethesda panel mononucleotide repeat loci and two epimarker panels, respectively. Furthermore, the BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA oncogenes were analyzed for mutations in known hotspots, while the entire coding sequences of the PTEN and TP53 tumor suppressors were investigated. Nine cell lines showed MSI. Thirteen and nine cell lines were found to be CIMP positive, using the Issa panel and the Weisenberger et al. panel, respectively. The latter was found to be superior for CIMP classification of colon cancer cell lines. Seventeen cell lines harbored disrupting TP53 mutations. Altogether, 20/24 cell lines had the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activating mutually exclusive KRAS or BRAF mutations. PIK3CA and PTEN mutations leading to hyperactivation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway were observed in 13/24 cell lines. Interestingly, in four cell lines there were no mutations in neither BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA nor in PTEN. In conclusion, this study presents molecular features of a large number of colon cancer cell lines to aid the selection of suitable in vitro models for descriptive and functional research. PMID:24042735

Ahmed, D; Eide, P W; Eilertsen, I A; Danielsen, S A; Eknæs, M; Hektoen, M; Lind, G E; Lothe, R A

2013-01-01

134

Commissioning and initial stereotactic ablative radiotherapy experience with Vero.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to describe the comprehensive commissioning process and initial clinical performance of the Vero linear accelerator, a new radiotherapy device recently installed at UT Southwestern Medical Center specifically developed for delivery of image-guided stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). The Vero system utilizes a ring gantry to integrate a beam delivery platform with image guidance systems. The ring is capable of rotating ± 60° about the vertical axis to facilitate noncoplanar beam arrangements ideal for SABR delivery. The beam delivery platform consists of a 6 MV C-band linac with a 60 leaf MLC projecting a maximum field size of 15 × 15 cm² at isocenter. The Vero planning and delivery systems support a range of treatment techniques, including fixed beam conformal, dynamic conformal arcs, fixed gantry IMRT in either SMLC (step-and-shoot) or DMLC (dynamic) delivery, and hybrid arcs, which combines dynamic conformal arcs and fixed beam IMRT delivery. The accelerator and treatment head are mounted on a gimbal mechanism that allows the linac and MLC to pivot in two dimensions for tumor tracking. Two orthogonal kV imaging subsystems built into the ring facilitate both stereoscopic and volumetric (CBCT) image guidance. The system is also equipped with an always-active electronic portal imaging device (EPID). We present our commissioning process and initial clinical experience focusing on SABR applications with the Vero, including: (1) beam data acquisition; (2) dosimetric commissioning of the treatment planning system, including evaluation of a Monte Carlo algorithm in a specially-designed anthropomorphic thorax phantom; (3) validation using the Radiological Physics Center thorax, head and neck (IMRT), and spine credentialing phantoms; (4) end-to-end evaluation of IGRT localization accuracy; (5) ongoing system performance, including isocenter stability; and (6) clinical SABR applications. PMID:24710458

Solberg, Timothy D; Medin, Paul M; Ramirez, Ezequiel; Ding, Chuxiong; Foster, Ryan D; Yordy, John

2014-01-01

135

Derivation of three new human embryonic stem cell lines.  

PubMed

Human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells capable of extensive self-renewal and differentiation to all cells of the embryo proper. Here, we describe the derivation and characterization of three Sydney IVF human embryonic stem cell lines not already reported elsewhere, designated SIVF001, SIVF002, and SIVF014. The cell lines display typical compact colony morphology of embryonic stem cells, have stable growth rates over more than 40 passages and are cytogenetically normal. Furthermore, the cell lines express pluripotency markers including Nanog, Oct4, SSEA3 and Tra-1-81, and are capable of generating teratoma cells derived from each of the three germ layers in immunodeficient mice. These experiments show that the cell lines constitute pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:20198447

Bradley, Cara K; Chami, Omar; Peura, Teija T; Bosman, Alexis; Dumevska, Biljana; Schmidt, Uli; Stojanov, Tomas

2010-04-01

136

Translational research on esophageal adenocarcinoma: from cell line to clinic.  

PubMed

Human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines have made a substantial contribution to elucidating mechanisms of carcinogenesis and drug discovery. Model research on EAC relies almost entirely on a relatively small set of established tumor cell lines because appropriate animal models are lacking. Nowadays, more than 20% of all fundamental translational research studies regarding EAC are partially or entirely based on these cell lines. The ready availability of these cell lines to investigators worldwide have resulted in more than 250 publications, including many examples of important biomedical discoveries. The high genomic similarities (but certainly not completely identical) between the EAC cell lines and their original tumors provide rational for their use. Recently, in a collaborative effort all available EAC cell lines have been verified resulting in the establishment of a reliable panel of 10 EAC cell lines. It could be expected that the value of these cell lines increases as unlimited source of tumor material because new biomedical techniques require more tumor cells and the supply of viable tumor cells is diminishing because of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy of patients with EAC. Here, we review the history of the EAC cell lines and their utility in translational research and biomedical discovery. PMID:23795680

Boonstra, J J; Tilanus, H W; Dinjens, W N M

2015-01-01

137

Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated from Adult Somatic Cells by Nuclear Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are fully pluripotent in that they can differentiate into all cell types, including gametes. We have derived 35 ES cell lines via nuclear transfer (ntES cell lines) from adult mouse somatic cells of inbred, hybrid, and mutant strains. ntES cells contributed to an extensive variety of cell types, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in vitro and

Teruhiko Wakayama; Viviane Tabar; Ivan Rodriguez; Anthony C. F. Perry; Lorenz Studer; Peter Mombaerts

2001-01-01

138

Differential signaling of the GnRH receptor in pituitary gonadotrope cell lines and prostate cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

The GnRH receptor (GnRHR) mediates the pituitary functions of GnRH, as well as its anti-proliferative effects in sex hormone-dependent cancer cells. Here we compare the signaling of GnRHR in pituitary gonadotrope cell lines vs. prostate cancer cell lines. We first noticed that the expression level of PKC?, PKC?II and PKC? is much higher in ?T3-1 and L?T2 gonadotrope cell lines vs. LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines, while the opposite is seen for PKC?. Activation of PKC?, PKC?II and PKC? by GnRH is relatively transient in ?T3-1 and L?T2 gonadotrope cell lines and more prolonged in LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines. On the otherhand, the activation and re-distribution of the above PKCs by PMA was similar for both gonadotrope cell lines and prostate cancer cell lines. Activation of ERK1/2 by GnRH and PMA was robust in the gonadotrope cell lines, with a smaller effect observed in the prostate cancer cell lines. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 stimulated ERK1/2 in gonadotrope cell lines but not in prostate cancer cell lines. GnRH, PMA and A23187 stimulated JNK activity in gonadotrope cell lines, with a more sustained effect in prostate cancer cell lines. Sustained activation of p38 was observed for PMA and A23187 in Du-145 cells, while p38 activation by GnRH, PMA and A23187 in L?T2 cells was transient. Thus, differential expression and re-distribution of PKCs by GnRH and the transient vs. the more sustained nature of the activation of the PKC-MAPK cascade by GnRH in gonadotrope cell lines vs. prostate cancer cell lines respectively, may provide the mechanistic basis for the cell context-dependent differential biological responses observed in GnRH interaction with pituitary gonadotropes vs. prostate cancer cells. PMID:23380421

Sviridonov, Ludmila; Dobkin-Bekman, Masha; Shterntal, Boris; Przedecki, Fiorenza; Formishell, Linor; Kravchook, Shani; Navi, Liat Rahamim-Ben; Bar-Lev, Tali Hana; Kazanietz, Marcelo G.; Yao, Zhong; Seger, Rony; Naor, Zvi

2014-01-01

139

Characteristics of cell lines established from human gastric carcinoma.  

PubMed

We report the establishment and characterization of four continuous cell lines derived from human primary and metastatic gastric carcinomas, and we compare their properties with a panel of colorectal carcinoma cell lines previously established and reported by us. Our success rate in culturing gastric carcinomas was relatively low, especially from primary tumors, compared to colorectal carcinoma. These observations may reflect the relatively modest number of gastric carcinoma cell lines established (mainly from Japan), compared to the abundance of colorectal carcinoma lines established worldwide. All four gastric lines expressed the surface glycoproteins carcinoembryonic antigen and TAG-72 and three lines expressed CA 19-9. Two of the lines expressed aromatic amino acid decarboxylase but lacked other markers for neuroendocrine differentiation. All four lines were positive for vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors but lacked gastrin receptors. In addition, two lines expressed receptors for muscarinic/cholinergic receptors but not beta-adrenergic receptors. Cytogenetic evidence for gene amplification was present in the cell lines. All four lines contained varying numbers of double-minute chromosomes. One line, SNU-16, was amplified for the c-myc proto-oncogene and contained four homogeneously staining regions. While c-myc and c-erb-B-2 RNA were expressed by all lines, there was no evidence of amplification or overexpression of several other proto-oncogenes and growth factors. The multiple properties we have described in our gastric carcinoma cell lines are remarkably similar to those found in the panel of colorectal carcinoma cell lines. These properties include morphology, growth characteristics, expression of surface glycoproteins, partial expression of neuroendocrine cell markers, frequent chromosomal evidence of gene amplification, and occasional amplification of the c-myc proto-oncogene. Our four well characterized cell lines should provide useful additions to the modest number currently available for in vitro studies of gastric carcinoma. PMID:2158397

Park, J G; Frucht, H; LaRocca, R V; Bliss, D P; Kurita, Y; Chen, T R; Henslee, J G; Trepel, J B; Jensen, R T; Johnson, B E

1990-05-01

140

The pursuit of ES cell lines of domesticated ungulates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In contrast to differentiated cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC) maintain an undifferentiated state, have the ability to self-renew, and exhibit pluripotency, i.e., they can give rise to most if not all somatic cell types and to the germ cells, egg and sperm. These characteristics make ES cell lines...

141

Discrimination between human melanoma cell lines by fluorescence anisotropy.  

PubMed

The fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene (TMA-DPH) was measured when these markers were imbedded in cells of the human melanoma cell lines IGR37, IGR39, IGR3 and IGR4, as well as in cells of the mouse melanoma cell lines B16F1 and B16 F10. These measurements were performed on cell cultures which were grown on quartz plates as well as on cell suspensions. Considerable differences are found between the polarization values of the human cell lines that are related to their different origins. Differences for the plated cells are considerably greater than those for the suspensions. No differences in the polarization values were found for the two mouse melanoma lines. It is concluded that differences in lipid structural order can be found between cell types endowed with different metastasizing capabilities. PMID:6539703

Weinreb, A; Travo, P

1984-05-01

142

Continuous human cell lines and method of making same  

DOEpatents

Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors.

Stampfer, Martha R. (Oakland, CA)

1989-01-01

143

Continuous human cell lines and method of making same  

DOEpatents

Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo(a)pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors. 2 tabs.

Stampfer, M.R.

1985-07-01

144

Establishment and characterization of unique human gallbladder cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Gallbladder cancer has a dismal prognosis. Understanding the disease at the biological, genetic, molecular, cellular, and clinical level is essential for effective diagnostics and therapeutics. However, the currently established gallbladder cell lines are insufficient for better understanding and further research. The aim of our present study was to establish and characterize human gallbladder cancer cell lines. We established 5 cell lines from resected specimens of gallbladder cancers. These cell lines revealed typical tumor histopathological characteristics. We examined growth characteristics and the colony-forming ability of established cell lines in terms of their cell cycle parameters, expression of tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen; CEA, carbohydrated antigen 19-9; CA19-9, MUC-1 and c-kit) and the oncogene c-erbB2 by flow cytometer. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis with specific gene probes was performed to detect changes in the gene copy numbers. Human origin of cell lines was confirmed by chromosomal analysis. Cells maintained differentiation characteristics of the original tumors. The doubling time of different cell lines varied from 30 to 96 h. All 5 cell lines formed colonies in the colony forming assays and expressed CEA, CA19-9, MUC-1 and the oncogene c-erbB2 and showed chromosomal aneuploidy. CGH analysis demonstrated gain of chromosomal region bearing SRC, RAB1, and PAP in all cell lines and hTERT in 4 cell lines. These newly established cell lines might serve as a useful model for studying the molecular pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer. Furthermore, they may serve as a model for testing new therapeutics against gallbladder cancer. These chromosomal aberrations and imbalances provide a starting point for molecular analyses of genomic regions and genes in gallbladder carcinogenesis. PMID:15067341

Ghosh, Mila; Koike, Naoto; Yanagimoto, Go; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Kaul, Sunil; Hirano, Takashi; Emura, Fabian; Kashiwagi, Hironobu; Kawamoto, Toru; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Saijo, Kaoru; Ohno, Tadao; Miwa, Masanao; Todoroki, Takeshi

2004-05-01

145

Investigation of Radiosensitivity Gene Signatures in Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic radiosensitivity is an important factor underlying radiotherapy response, but there is no method for its routine assessment in human tumours. Gene signatures are currently being derived and some were previously generated by expression profiling the NCI-60 cell line panel. It was hypothesised that focusing on more homogeneous tumour types would be a better approach. Two cell line cohorts were used derived from cervix [n?=?16] and head and neck [n?=?11] cancers. Radiosensitivity was measured as surviving fraction following irradiation with 2 Gy (SF2) by clonogenic assay. Differential gene expression between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell lines (SF2 median) was investigated using Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0ST (cervix) or U133A Plus2 (head and neck) arrays. There were differences within cell line cohorts relating to tissue of origin reflected by expression of the stratified epithelial marker p63. Of 138 genes identified as being associated with SF2, only 2 (1.4%) were congruent between the cervix and head and neck carcinoma cell lines (MGST1 and TFPI), and these did not partition the published NCI-60 cell lines based on SF2. There was variable success in applying three published radiosensitivity signatures to our cohorts. One gene signature, originally trained on the NCI-60 cell lines, did partially separate sensitive and resistant cell lines in all three cell line datasets. The findings do not confirm our hypothesis but suggest that a common transcriptional signature can reflect the radiosensitivity of tumours of heterogeneous origins. PMID:24466029

Hall, John S.; Iype, Rohan; Senra, Joana; Taylor, Janet; Armenoult, Lucile; Oguejiofor, Kenneth; Li, Yaoyong; Stratford, Ian; Stern, Peter L.; O’Connor, Mark J.; Miller, Crispin J.; West, Catharine M. L.

2014-01-01

146

Re-characterization of established human retinoblastoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common malignant intraocular childhood tumor. Forty years after their first description, in the present study, we re-characterized seven established retinoblastoma cell lines with regard to their RB1 mutation status, morphology, growth pattern, endogenous apoptosis levels, colony formation efficiency in soft agar and invasiveness and dissemination capacity in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. All RB cell lines predominantly resemble small epithelioid cells with little cytoplasm and large nucleus, which mainly grow in cell clusters, but sometimes form chain-like structures with incident loops or three-dimensional aggregates. We observed different growth rates for the different retinoblastoma cells investigated. RBL-30, RBL-13 and RBL 383 cells grew very slowly, whereas Y-79 cells grew fastest under our culture conditions. Apoptosis rates likewise differed with highest cell death levels in RB 383 and RB 355 and lowest in WERI-Rb1 and RBL-15. Contradicting former reports, six of the seven RB cell lines analyzed were able to form colonies in soft agarose after single cell seeding within 3 weeks of incubation. Upon inoculation of four out of seven RB cell lines on the dorsal CAM, GFP-positive cells were detectable in the ventral CAM and two RB cell lines caused tumor development, indicating their intravasation and dissemination potential. All RB cell lines exhibited the potential to extravasate from the capillary system after intravenous CAM injection. Our study provides valuable new details for future therapy-related retinoblastoma basic research in vitro. PMID:25326674

Busch, Maike; Philippeit, Claudia; Weise, Andreas; Dünker, Nicole

2015-03-01

147

NCI series of cell lines: an historical perspective.  

PubMed

The NCI series of cell lines represent a unique collection of permanent human tumor cell lines established by one laboratory over a period of approximately 16 years. More than 300 cell lines were established, mainly from human lung cancers (both small cell and non-small cell types). In addition, smaller numbers of lines were established from rare and unusual tumors such as cutaneous T cell lymphomas, myelomas and adrenal cortical carcinoma. The T cell lines played a pivotal role in the isolation of human retroviruses including HTLV-1 and HIV. The establishment of such a large panel of lines was aided by the development of defined media for culturing specific cell types. The lines are well characterized, and full clinical data are available for most of them. Many of the lines have been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD, where they are readily available for a modest handling fee. The lines have been widely distributed to investigators, and have had a major impact on biomedical research. PMID:8806089

Gazdar, A F; Minna, J D

1996-01-01

148

Development of alkylating agent-resistant human tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival curves and dose escalation studies of four representative human tumor cell lines exposed to the various alkylating agents are presented. With HN2, at a level of one log of cell kill there was a fivefold range in drug concentration required to achieve this degree of cell kill among the cell lines, from 4.5 µM for the SL6 lung adenocarcinoma

Beverly A. Teicher; Emil Frei

1988-01-01

149

Establishment and characterization of human gastric carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

We report 8 newly established gastric-carcinoma cell lines (SNU-216, 484, 520, 601, 620, 638, 668, 719) from Korean patients. Morphologic study was carried out using light and electron microscopes. CEA, alpha FP, and CA 19-9 and TPA in supernatant and in cell lysate were measured by radioimmunoassay. p53 and c-Ki-ras gene mutations were screened and confirmed by sequencing. The cell lines, derived from tumors with moderate differentiation, grew as a diffuse monolayer, and those from tumors with poor differentiation and minimal desmoplasia grew exclusively as non-adherent. Out of the 8 gastric-cancer cell lines, 5 had detectable levels of CEA both in supernatant and in cell lysate; there was no expression or secretion of alpha FP in these cells; 4 cell lines showed high levels of CA 19-9 in cell pellets. All cell lines except SNU-484 had high concentrations of TPA both in cell lysate and in supernatants. p53 mutation was found in 6 cell lines (75%): 2 (SNU-216 and SNU-668) had mutations in exon 6, and other 3 in exon 8. The c-Ki-ras mutation was found in 2 cell lines (25%), SNU-601 and SNU-668. The former showed GGT-to-GAT transition mutation at codon 12, while the latter showed CAA-to-AAA transversion mutation at codon 61. DNA profiles using restriction endonuclease HinfI and polymorphic DNA probes ChdTC-15 and ChdTC-114 showed different unique patterns; which suggests that these cell lines are unique and not cross-contaminated. We believe that the newly characterized gastric-cancer cell lines presented in this paper will provide a useful in vitro model for studies related to human gastric cancer. PMID:9033653

Park, J G; Yang, H K; Kim, W H; Chung, J K; Kang, M S; Lee, J H; Oh, J H; Park, H S; Yeo, K S; Kang, S H; Song, S Y; Kang, Y K; Bang, Y J; Kim, Y H; Kim, J P

1997-02-01

150

Proteomics of cancer cell lines resistant to microtubule stabilizing agents  

PubMed Central

In spite of the clinical success of microtubule interacting agents (MIAs), a significant challenge for oncologists is the inability to predict the response of individual cancer patients to these drugs. In the present study, six cell lines were compared by 2D DIGE proteomics to investigate cellular resistance to the class of MIAs known as microtubule stabilizing agents (MSAs). The human lung cancer cell line A549 was compared to two drug-resistant daughter cell lines, a Taxol resistant cell line (AT12) and an epothilone B (EpoB) resistant cell line (EpoB40). The ovarian cancer cell line Hey was compared to two drug-resistant daughter cell lines, an EpoB resistant cell line (EpoB8) and an ixabepilone resistant cell line (Ixab80). All 2D DIGE results were validated by Western blot analyses. A variety of cytoskeletal and cytoskeleton-associated proteins were differentially expressed in drug resistant cells. Differential abundance of 14-3-3?, galectin-1 and phosphorylation of stathmin are worthy of further studies as candidate predictive biomarkers for MSAs. This is especially true for galectin-1, a ?-galactose-binding lectin that mediates tumor invasion and metastasis. Galectin-1 was greatly increased in EpoB- and ixabepilone-resistant cells and its suppression caused an increase in drug sensitivity in both drug-sensitive and -resistant Hey cells. Furthermore, the growth medium from resistant Hey cells contained higher levels of galectin-1, suggesting that galectin-1 could play a role in resistance to microtubule stabilizing agents. PMID:24252851

Albrethsen, Jakob; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Horwitz, Susan Band; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang

2013-01-01

151

Development and characterization of 5 canine B-cell lymphoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Canine and human lymphoma share similar characteristics in disease development and response to therapy. Translational research can be furthered using tools such as canine cell lines to model therapeutic compounds and strategies. We developed 5 B-cell lymphoma cell lines from dogs with confirmed large B-cell lymphoma. These cell lines were CD3, CD18, CD20, and CD90 positive with variable CD79a, CD1c and CD34 expression. All cell lines were tumorigenic in Nu/nu mice and were wild type for p53. Canine lymphoma cell lines serve as an important resource for translational lymphoma research. PMID:22136758

Zwingenberger, Allison L; Vernau, William; Shi, Changying; Yan, Wensheng; Chen, Xinbin; Gordon, Ira K; Kent, Michael S

2012-05-01

152

The transcriptional diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Drosophila melanogaster cell lines are important resources for cell biologists. Here, we catalog the expression of exons, genes, and unannotated transcriptional signals for 25 lines. Unannotated transcription is substantial (typically 19% of euchromatic signal). Conservatively, we identify 1405 novel transcribed regions; 684 of these appear to be new exons of neighboring, often distant, genes. Sixty-four percent of genes are expressed detectably in at least one line, but only 21% are detected in all lines. Each cell line expresses, on average, 5885 genes, including a common set of 3109. Expression levels vary over several orders of magnitude. Major signaling pathways are well represented: most differentiation pathways are ‘‘off’’ and survival/growth pathways ‘‘on.’’ Roughly 50% of the genes expressed by each line are not part of the common set, and these show considerable individuality. Thirty-one percent are expressed at a higher level in at least one cell line than in any single developmental stage, suggesting that each line is enriched for genes characteristic of small sets of cells. Most remarkable is that imaginal discderived lines can generally be assigned, on the basis of expression, to small territories within developing discs. These mappings reveal unexpected stability of even fine-grained spatial determination. No two cell lines show identical transcription factor expression. We conclude that each line has retained features of an individual founder cell superimposed on a common ‘‘cell line‘‘ gene expression pattern. Wereport the transcriptional profiles of 25 Drosophila melanogaster cell lines, principally by whole-genome tiling microarray analysis of total RNA, carried out as part of the modENCODE project. The data produced in this study add to our knowledge of the cell lines and of the Drosophila transcriptome in several ways. We summarize the expression of previously annotated genes in each of the 25 lines with emphasis on what those patterns reveal about the origins of the lines and the stability of spatial expression patterns. We also offer an initial analysis of previously unannotated transcripts in the cell lines.

Cherbas, Lucy; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Dayu; Yang, Li; Zou, Yi; Eads, Brian D.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Landolin, Jane M.; Kapranov, Philipp; Dumais, Jacqueline; Samsonova, Anastasia; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Roberts, Johnny; Davis, Carrie A.; Tang, Haixu; van Baren, Marijke J.; Ghosh, Srinka; Dobin, Alexander; Bell, Kim; Lin, Wei; Langton, Laura; Duff, Michael O.; Tenney, Aaron E.; Zaleski, Chris; Brent, Michael R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Andrews, Justen; Graveley, Brenton R.; Perrimon, Norbert; Celniker, Susan E.; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Cherbas, Peter

2010-11-15

153

Immunoglobulin G Locus Events in Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found to be expressed by cells other than B lymphocytes, including various human carcinoma cells. Sarcomas are derived from mesenchyme, and the knowledge about the occurrence of Ig production in sarcoma cells is very limited. Here we investigated the phenomenon of immunoglobulin G (IgG) expression and its molecular basis in 3 sarcoma cell lines. The

Zhengshan Chen; Jing Li; Yanna Xiao; Junjun Zhang; Yingying Zhao; Yuxuan Liu; Changchun Ma; Yamei Qiu; Jin Luo; Guowei Huang; Christine Korteweg; Jiang Gu; Joanna Mary Bridger

2011-01-01

154

Expressional patterns of chaperones in ten human tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chaperones (CH) play an important role in tumor biology but no systematic work on expressional patterns has been reported so far. The aim of the study was therefore to present an analytical method for the concomitant determination of several CH in human tumor cell lines, to generate expressional patterns in the individual cell lines and to search for tumor

Jae-Kyung Myung; Leila Afjehi-Sadat; Maureen Felizardo-Cabatic; Irene Slavc; Gert Lubec

2004-01-01

155

Lovastatin-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines.  

PubMed

The cholesterol-lowering medications, statins, inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in an array of cancer cell lines, including melanoma. We investigated the apoptotic mechanism of lovastatin on human melanoma cell lines in vitro. The cytotoxicity of statins on multiple cell lines was examined by Cell Titer 96 Aqueous One solution cell proliferation assay (MTS assay). Apoptosis was assayed by ethidium bromide and acridine orange morphologic assays, an Annexin V apoptosis detection kit and active caspase 3 assays. Farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate add-back experiments were performed to better define the molecular mechanisms mediating lovastatin cytotoxicity. Lovastatin caused cytotoxicity in human and murine melanoma cells, but did not induce toxicity in an epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. For human melanoma cells, lovastatin precipitated cell rounding, increased the percentage of apoptotic cells detected by ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining and by the Annexin V apoptosis detection kit, and resulted in a 50-fold increase in active caspase 3, corroborating that lovastatin induced apoptosis. Adding back geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not farnesyl pyrophosphate, reversed the effects of lovastatin in A375 cells. Of the five statins tested, pravastatin was least effective in killing melanoma cells. Lovastatin induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in multiple melanoma cell lines via a geranylation-specific mechanism. This study supports a possible role of lovastatin as a therapeutic, adjuvant or chemopreventive agent for melanoma. PMID:15846140

Shellman, Yiqun G; Ribble, Deborah; Miller, Leslie; Gendall, John; Vanbuskirk, Kayleen; Kelly, Desiree; Norris, David A; Dellavalle, Robert P

2005-04-01

156

CACO-2 CELL LINES IN DRUG DISCOVERY- AN UPDATED PERSPECTIVE  

PubMed Central

Cell lines are the invitro models used for the drug permeability studies in the preclinical and clinical phases of the drug discovery. Cell line models are simple and quick to use and avoids the usage of animal models for pharmacological and toxicological studies and hence cost effective, produce reliable and reproducible results for understanding and evaluating the permeability characteristics of the potential lead drug candidates. Different cell line models used in the drug permeability studies, their characteristics has been summarized emphasizing on CACO-2. By virtue of its merits, CACO-2 cell line development, transport experiments, automated assays, optimization of experimental conditions and mechanistic uses of CACO-2 cell lines dealt comprehensively in the following context. PMID:24825967

Kumar, Kalyan K.V; Karnati, Swathi; Reddy, Mamatha B; Chandramouli, R

2010-01-01

157

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2013-07-01

158

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2011-07-01

159

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2012-07-01

160

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2014-07-01

161

FRABEL's REIMAGINED at McKEE BOTANICAL GARDEN 350 US FEDERAL HIGHWAY, VERO BEACH  

E-print Network

FRABEL's REIMAGINED at McKEE BOTANICAL GARDEN 350 US FEDERAL HIGHWAY, VERO BEACH TUESDAY, MARCH 12:45 Arrive at McKee Botanical Garden. I will gather all reciprocal garden passes prior to entering) east to US 1. Go North on US 1 to Vero Beach. McKee Botanical Garden is located at 350 US Highway 1

Hill, Jeffrey E.

162

Deriving Cell Lines from Zebrafish Embryos and Tumors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Over the last two decades the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism in science. The experimental accessibility, the broad range of zebrafish mutants, and the highly conserved genetic and biochemical pathways between zebrafish and mammals lifted zebrafish to become one of the most attractive vertebrate models to study gene function and to model human diseases. Zebrafish cell lines are highly attractive to investigate cell biology and zebrafish cell lines complement the experimental tools that are available already. We established a straightforward method to culture cells from a single zebrafish embryo or a single tumor. Here we describe the generation of fibroblast-like cell lines from wild-type and ptenb?/? embryos and an endothelial-like cell line from a tumor of an adult ptena+/?ptenb?/? zebrafish. This protocol can easily be adapted to establish stable cell lines from any mutant or transgenic zebrafish line and the average time to obtain a pro-stable cell line is 3–5 months. PMID:23672287

Choorapoikayil, Suma; Overvoorde, John

2013-01-01

163

Development of NK cell expansion methods using feeder cells from human myelogenous leukemia cell line  

PubMed Central

Background Natural killer (NK) cells constantly survey surrounding tissues and remove newly generated cancer cells, independent of cancer antigen recognition. Although there have been a number of attempts to apply NK cells for cancer therapy, clinical application has been somewhat limited because of the difficulty in preparing a sufficient number of NK cells. Therefore, ex vivo NK cell expansion is one of the important steps for developing NK cell therapeutics. Methods CD3+ depleted lymphocytes were cocultured with IL-2 and with feeder cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs], K562, and Jurkat) for 15 days. Expanded NK cells were tested for cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. Results We compared feeder activities of three different cells-PBMC, K562, and Jurkat. K562 expanded NK cells by almost 20 fold and also showed powerful cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. K562-NK cells remarkably expressed the NK cell activation receptors, NKG2D, and DNAM-1. K562-NK cells exhibited more than two-fold production of cytotoxic granules compared with Jurkat-NK cells, producing more perforin and granzyme B than naïve NK cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest that K562 are more efficient feeder cells than Jurkat or PBMCs. K562 feeder cells expanded NK cells by almost 20 fold and showed powerful cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. We herein propose an intriguing approach for a design of NK cell expansion. PMID:25325034

Bae, Duk Seong

2014-01-01

164

Expression of mucins and cytokeratins in ovarian cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression pattern of the epithelial cell markers MUC1 (CA15-3, EMA), CA125 (OC125), human epithelial antigen HEA (Ber-EP4) and cytokeratins (Ck7, Ck8, Ck7\\/8, Ck8\\/18\\/19) was studied in seven human ovarian cancer cell lines. We analyzed the cell lines by immunofluorescence to determine the surface as well as cytoplasmic expression. Furthermore, we evaluated the mRNA expression of MUC1, Ck18 and Ck19

Margit Stimpfl; Bernd C. Schmid; Ingrid Schiebel; Dan Tong; Sepp Leodolter; Andreas Obermair; Robert Zeillinger

1999-01-01

165

Phase III Clinical Trials Comparing the Immunogenicity and Safety of the Vero Cell-Derived Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Encevac with Those of Mouse Brain-Derived Vaccine by Using the Beijing-1 Strain  

PubMed Central

The immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis vaccine (CC-JEV) were compared with those of an inactivated mouse brain-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (MB-JEV) in phase III clinical multicenter trials conducted in children. The vaccines contain the same Japanese encephalitis virus strain, the Beijing-1 strain. Two independent clinical trials (trials 1 and 2) were conducted. Trial 1 was conducted in 468 healthy children. Each subject was injected with 17 ?g per dose of either CC-JEV or MB-JEV, and the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccines were investigated. Trial 1 showed that CC-JEV was more immunogenic and reactive than MB-JEV at the same dose. Therefore, to adjust the immunogenicity of CC-JEV to that of MB-JEV, a vaccine that has had a good track record regarding its efficacy for a long time, trial 2 was conducted in 484 healthy children. To improve the stability, CC-JEV was converted from a liquid type to a freeze-dried type of vaccine. Each subject was injected subcutaneously with either 4 ?g per dose of CC-JEV, 8 ?g per dose of CC-JEV, or 17 ?g per dose of MB-JEV twice, at an interval of 2 to 4 weeks, followed by an additional booster immunization 1 to 15 months after the primary immunization. Based on the results of trial 2, 4 ?g per dose of the freeze-dried CC-JEV (under the label Encevac) was selected as a substitute for the MB-JEV. Encevac was approved and launched in 2011 and has since been in use as a 2nd-generation Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Japan. (These studies have been registered at the JapicCTI under registration no. JapicCTI-132063 and JapicCTI-080586 for trials 1 and 2, respectively.) PMID:24334689

Miyazaki, Chiaki; Okada, Kenji; Ozaki, Takao; Hirose, Mizuo; Iribe, Kaneshige; Ishikawa, Yuji; Togashi, Takehiro; Ueda, Kohji

2014-01-01

166

Antineoplastic activity of rinvanil and phenylacetylrinvanil in leukaemia cell lines  

PubMed Central

In the search for novel chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment, capsaicin has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cell line, including leukaemia cell lines. The capsaicin analogues, rinvanil and phenylacetylrinvanil (PhAR), share a binding affinity for vanilloid receptors and may have biological activities similar to capsaicin; however, their anticancer potential has not yet been reported. This study analyses the antineoplastic activities of rinvanil and PhAR in leukaemia versus normal cells. P388, J774 and WEHI-3 leukaemia cell lines, as well as mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells, were cultured with varying concentrations of rinvanil and PhAR. Following this, proliferation and apoptosis were determined by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and DNA ladder. Cultured leukaemia cell lines and mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation, while non-diseased cells were less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of capsaicin, rinvanil and PhAR. Rinvanil and PhAR also induced apoptosis in leukaemia cell lines but not in bone marrow. Given the lower IC50 values for apoptosis induction in leukaemia cells compared with that of normal cells, PhAR is a promising selective anticancer agent. PMID:24765194

LUVIANO, AXEL; AGUIÑIGA-SÁNCHEZ, ITZEN; DEMARE, PATRICIA; TIBURCIO, REYNALDO; LEDESMA-MARTÍNEZ, EDGAR; SANTIAGO-OSORIO, EDELMIRO; REGLA, IGNACIO

2014-01-01

167

Characterization of four new gastric cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Four well differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines from German patients have been established from primary tumors (St 23132, St 3051) and lymph node metastases (St 2474, St 2957). The tumor cells were isolated by enzymatic or mechanical treatment. All four lines grew as solid tumors in nude mice and formed colonies in soft agar. The doubling time of the cells in culture was 25-32 h. Further characteristics of the lines were a considerable chromosomal aneuploidy, (the chromosomal numbers varying from 30-109 with many numerical and structural abnormalities), a stable keratin expression (Ck 8, 18, 19), the expression and secretion of CEA and CA-19-9 and the overexpression of c-myc. The four stomach cancer cell lines described here are not only a useful addition to the small number of existing lines, but also represent ideal tools for studying tumorigenicity of human stomach cancers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:8100658

Vollmers, H P; Stulle, K; Dämmrich, J; Pfaff, M; Papadopoulos, T; Betz, C; Saal, K; Müller-Hermelink, H K

1993-01-01

168

Characterization of three new serous epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Cell lines constitute a powerful model to study cancer, and here we describe three new epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines derived from poorly differentiated serous solid tumors (TOV-1946, and TOV-2223G), as well as the matched ascites for one case (OV-1946). Methods In addition to growth parameters, the cell lines were characterized for anchorage independent growth, migration and invasion potential, ability to form spheroids and xenografts in SCID mice. Results While all cell lines were capable of anchorage independent growth, only the TOV-1946 and OV-1946 cell lines were able to form spheroid and produce tumors. Profiling of keratins, p53 and Her2 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses. Somatic TP53 mutations were found in all cell lines, with TOV-1946 and OV-1946 harboring the same mutation, and none harbored the commonly observed somatic mutations in BRAF, KRAS or germline BRCA1/2 mutations found to recur in the French Canadian population. Conventional cytogenetics and spectral karyotype (SKY) analyses revealed complex karyotypes often observed in ovarian disease. Conclusion This is the first report of the establishment of matched EOC cell lines derived from both solid tumor and ascites of the same patient. PMID:18507860

Ouellet, Véronique; Zietarska, Magdalena; Portelance, Lise; Lafontaine, Julie; Madore, Jason; Puiffe, Marie-Line; Arcand, Suzanna L; Shen, Zhen; Hébert, Josée; Tonin, Patricia N; Provencher, Diane M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie

2008-01-01

169

Curcumin Glucuronides: Assessing the Proliferative Activity against Human Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

A gram scale synthesis of the glucuronide metabolites of curcumin were completed in four steps. The newly synthesized curcumin glucuronide compounds 2 and 3 along with curcumin 1 were tested and their anti-proliferative effects against KBM-5, Jurkat cell, U266, and A549 cell lines were reported. Biological data revealed that as much as 1 ?M curcumin 1 exhibited anticancer activity and almost 100% cell kill was noted at 10 ?M on two out of four cell lines; while curcumin mono-glucuronide 2 as well as diglucuronide 3 displayed no suppression of cell proliferation. PMID:24280069

Pal, Ashutosh; Sung, Bokyung; Prasad, Basvoju A. Bhanu; Schuber, Paul T.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Bornmann, William G.

2014-01-01

170

Absence of OCT4 expression in somatic tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

The POU-domain transcription factor OCT4 is associated with the pluripotent state of cells comprising the inner cell mass of pre-implantation embryos and has been known to play a critical role in the maintenance of pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Reactivation of OCT4 expression is postulated to occur in differentiated cells that have undergone carcinogenesis, or tumor formation. In contrast to earlier studies, recent reports describe OCT4 expression in several human tumor cell lines. To resolve the apparent discrepancy in OCT4 expression between earlier and recent studies, we determined OCT4 expression in the cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa and the breast cancer cell line MCF7 in comparison with the human teratoma cell line nTera by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and RT-PCR analyses. We were unable to detect staining of the OCT4 transcription factor in the nucleus of HeLa and MCF7 cells by immunofluorescence using two different monoclonal antibodies. Faint cytoplasmic staining in HeLa and MCF7 cells was observed; however, no OCT4 signal could be detected by Western blot analysis. In addition, we were unable to detect significant levels of OCT4 mRNA in HeLa and in MCF7 cells by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the OCT4 promoter region is highly methylated in HeLa and MCF7 cells. We argue that recent reports of OCT4 expression in these and other cancer cell lines could actually be attributed to OCT4 pseudogene expression or misinterpretation of background signals in immunofluorescence experiments. In conclusion, we emphasize the need for adequate controls in investigations of OCT4 expression in somatic cell lines by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. PMID:18032701

Cantz, Tobias; Key, Göran; Bleidissel, Martina; Gentile, Luca; Han, Dong Wook; Brenne, Alexandra; Schöler, Hans R

2008-03-01

171

Effects of tannins on Chinese hamster cell line B14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins, naturally occurring plant phenols, have been recognized as antioxidants, but toxic effects have also been observed. In the current investigation, the interaction of this type of compounds with Chinese hamster cells (cell line B14) has been examined. This study reports on the results of experiments in which B14 cells were exposed to tannins: tannic, ellagic and gallic acids in

Magdalena Labieniec; Teresa Gabryelak

2003-01-01

172

Development and characterization of a largemouth bass cell line.  

PubMed

Abstract The development and characterization of a new cell line, derived from the ovary of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, is described. Gonad tissue was collected from Largemouth Bass that were electrofished from Oneida Lake, New York. The tissue was processed and grown in culture flasks at approximately 22°C for more than 118 passages during an 8-year period from 2004 to 2011. The identity of these cells as Largemouth Bass origin was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b gene. Growth rate at three different temperatures was documented. The cell line was susceptible to Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) and its replication was compared with that of Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus fry (BF-2), one of the cell lines recommended for LMBV isolation by the American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section Blue Book. Quantitative PCR results from the replication trial showed the BF-2 cell line produced approximately 10-fold more LMBV copies per cell than the new Largemouth Bass cell line after 6 d, while the titration assay showed similar quantities in each cell line after 1 week. Received February 18, 2014; accepted April 16, 2014. PMID:25229492

Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Cornwell, Emily R; Schumacher, Vanessa L; Glasner, Lindsay I; Baker, Barry J; Frattini, Stephen A; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

2014-09-01

173

Formation of germ-line chimaeras from embryo-derived teratocarcinoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent availability in culture of embryo-derived pluripotential cells which exhibit both a normal karyotype and a high differentiative ability1-3 has encouraged us to assess the potential of these cells to form functional germ cells following their incorporation into chimaeric mice. We report here the results of blastocyst injection studies using three independently isolated XY embryo-derived cell lines (EK.CP1, EK.CC1.1

Allan Bradley; Martin Evans; Matthew H. Kaufman; Elizabeth Robertson

1984-01-01

174

DEVELOPMENT OF A BRAIN METASTATIC CANINE PROSTATE CANCER CELL LINE  

PubMed Central

Background Prostate cancer in men has a high mortality and morbidity due to metastatic disease. The pathobiology of prostate cancer metastasis is not well understood and cell lines and animal models that recapitulate the complex nature of the disease are needed. Therefore, the goal of the study was to establish and characterize a new prostate cancer line derived from a dog with spontaneous prostate cancer. Methods A new cell line (Leo) was derived from a dog with spontaneous prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry and PCR were used to characterize the primary prostate cancer and xenografts in nude mice. Subcutaneous tumor growth and metastases in nude mice were evaluated by bioluminescent imaging, radiography and histopathology. In vitro chemosensitivity of Leo cells to therapeutic agents was measured. Results Leo cells expressed the secretory epithelial cytokeratins (CK) 8, 18 and ductal cell marker, CK7. The cell line grew in vitro (over 75 passages) and was tumorigenic in the subcutis of nude mice. Following intracardiac injection, Leo cells metastasized to the brain, spinal cord, bone, and adrenal gland. The incidence of metastases was greatest to the central nervous system (80%) with a lower incidence to bone (20%) and the adrenal glands (16%). In vitro chemosensitivity assays demonstrated that Leo cells were sensitive to velcade and an HDAC-42 inhibitor with IC50 concentrations of 1.9 nM and 0.95 ?M respectively. Conclusion The new prostate cancer cell line (Leo) will be a valuable model to investigate the mechanisms of the brain and bone metastases. PMID:21321976

Thudi, Nanda K.; Shu, Sherry T.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Nadella, Murali V.P.; Van Bokhoven, Adrie; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Simmons, Jessica K.; Murahari, Sridhar; Kisseberth, William C.; Breen, Matthew; Williams, Christina; Chen, Ching-Shih; McCauley, Laurie K.; Keller, Evan T.; Rosol, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

175

MORPHOMETRIC SUBTYPING FOR A PANEL OF BREAST CANCER CELL LINES  

SciTech Connect

A panel of cell lines of diverse molecular background offers an improved model system for high-content screening, comparative analysis, and cell systems biology. A computational pipeline has been developed to collect images from cell-based assays, segment individual cells and colonies, represent segmented objects in a multidimensional space, and cluster them for identifying distinct subpopulations. While each segmentation strategy can vary for different imaging assays, representation and subpopulation analysis share a common thread. Application of this pipeline to a library of 41 breast cancer cell lines is demonstrated. These cell lines are grown in 2D and imaged through immunofluorescence microscopy. Subpopulations in this panel are identified and shown to correlate with previous subtyping literature that was derived from transcript data.

Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Wang, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joe W.; Parvin, Bahram

2009-05-08

176

Expression quantitative trait loci detected in cell lines are often present in primary tissues  

E-print Network

in the HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines, and examined the association of these eQTLs with gene expression conducted in lympho- blastoid cell lines (LCLs), rather than primary tissues, mostly by using the HapMap cell lines (2­6). Cell lines offer convenience and replicability, and the HapMap cell lines

Coop, Graham

177

Characteristics of cell lines established from human colorectal carcinoma.  

PubMed

We have characterized 14 human colorectal carcinoma cell lines established from primary and metastatic sites by us during the years 1982 to 1985. Five lines were established in fully defined ACL-4 medium and 9 in serum supplemented R10 medium. However, after establishment, cultures could be grown interchangeably in either medium. The lines grew as floating cell aggregates in ACL-4 medium, while most demonstrated substrate adherence in R10 medium. The lines had relatively long doubling times and low cloning efficiencies. Twelve were tumorigenic in athymic nude mice when injected s.c., and two grew i.p. as well. Based on culture, xenograft, and ultrastructural morphologies, the 14 lines could be subtyped as follows: 4 were well differentiated; 5 were moderately differentiated; 4 were poorly differentiated; and 1 was a mucinous carcinoma. Membrane associated antigens characteristic for gastrointestinal cells (carcinoembryonic antigen, CA 19-9, and TAG-72 antigens) were expressed by 50-71% of the lines. Lines expressing carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 actively secreted these antigens into the supernatant fluids while TAG-72 antigen was not secreted. Surprisingly, 5 of 7 of the original tumor samples tested and 13 of 14 cultured lines expressed L-dopa decarboxylase activity, which is a characteristic enzyme marker of neuroendocrine cells and tumors. In addition, one poorly differentiated cell line contained dense core granules, characteristic of endocrine secretion. Preliminary cytogenetic analyses indicated that 9 of 11 lines examined contained double minute chromosomes. In addition, 3 of the 9 lines with double minutes also had homogeneously staining regions. These findings indicate a high incidence of amplification of one or more as yet unidentified genes. PMID:3479249

Park, J G; Oie, H K; Sugarbaker, P H; Henslee, J G; Chen, T R; Johnson, B E; Gazdar, A

1987-12-15

178

Tamoxifen resistance and epigenetic modifications in breast cancer cell lines  

E-print Network

1 Tamoxifen resistance and epigenetic modifications in breast cancer cell lines Eric BADIA1;2 ABSTRACT Epigenetic mechanisms play crucial roles in many processes, including neoplasia, genomic DNA methylation or histone acetylation. Epigenetic effects were also recently highlighted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

METHYLATION OF ARSENITE BY SOME MAMMALIAN CELL LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

THIS ABSTRACT WAS SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY;. SPACE CONSTRAINTS WERE SEVERE) Methylation of Arsenite by Some Mammalian Cell Lines. Methylation of arsenite is thought to play an important role in the carcinogenicity of arsenic. Aim 1: Determine if there is diffe...

180

Mechanisms of lead transport in two intestinal epithelial cell lines  

E-print Network

through the intestinal epithelium. Using two established intestinal epithelial cell lines, IEC-6 and Caco-2, we studied the effects of temperature, metabolic inhibitors, sulfhydryl group modifiers, blocking of integrins with the tripeptide Arginine...

Dekaney, Christopher Matthew

1996-01-01

181

Antibodies to major histocompatibility antigens produced by hybrid cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

FUSION between myeloma cells and spleen cells from immunised donors has been shown to be a successful method of deriving homogeneous anti-SRBC (anti-sheep red blood cell) and anti-TNP antibodies1,2. One of the most powerful features of this approach is that, by cloning, one may easily derive cell lines synthesising monoclonal antibodies despite using non-purified immunogens. The multiple components of a

G. Galfre; S. C. Howe; C. Milstein; G. W. BUTCHER; J. C. HOWARD

1977-01-01

182

Off-line programming of flexible welding manufacturing cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of robotized welding to achieve better quality has demanded research of new technologies to integrate and test the systems. The complete control of a flexible manufacturing cell involves perfect task synchronisation among all of its robots and equipment. Off-line programming provides an essential link between CAD and CAM. The development of off-line programming systems should result in greater

G. C Carvalho; M. L Siqueira; S. C Absi-Alfaro

1998-01-01

183

Rubber lining for electrolysis of chlorine in mercury cells  

SciTech Connect

Protection of equipment used in Electrolysis of Chlorine and Caustic in Mercury cells is a very severe field for corrosion resistant linings. Different linings, both Soft and Hard Rubber, have been used with success for many years. This experience, together with the latest developments of the field, is covered in the paper.

Mauri, A.; Tamburn, A.; Sri, C.

1998-12-31

184

Calmodulin modulates Akt activity in human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth factor-induced activation of Akt occurs in the majority of human breast cancer cell lines resulting in a variety of\\u000a cellular outcomes, including suppression of apoptosis and enhanced survival. We demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-initiated\\u000a activation of Akt is mediated by the ubiquitous calcium sensing molecule, calmodulin, in the majority of human breast cancer\\u000a cell lines. Specifically, in estrogen

Christine M. Coticchia; Chetana M. Revankar; Tushar B. Deb; Robert B. Dickson; Michael D. Johnson

2009-01-01

185

Species identity of insect cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Three mosquito cell cultures designated as Suitor's clone ofAedes aegypti, Culiseta inornata andAedes vexans were shown to be moth by immunological, karyological, and isozyme analyses. The cells reacted with rabbit antimoth serum\\u000a but not rabbit antimosquito serum. Chromosome analyses indicated Lepidopteran rather than Dipteran morphology, and three isozyme\\u000a systems were confirmative. Any one of these assays would be sufficient to

Arthur E. Greene; Jesse Charney; Warren W. Nichols; Lewis L. Coriell

1972-01-01

186

Species identity of insect cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Three mosquito cell cultures designated as Suitor's clone ofAedes aegypti, Culiseta inornata, andAedes vexans were shown to be moth by immunological, karyological, and isozyme analyses. The cells reacted with rabbit antimoth serum\\u000a but not rabbit antimosquito serum. Chromosome analyses indicated Lepidopteran rather than Dipteran morphology, and three isozyme\\u000a systems were confirmative. Any one of these assays would be sufficient to

Arthur E. Greene; Jesse Charney; Warren W. Nichols; Lewis L. Coriell

1972-01-01

187

Production and characterization of spontaneous rat heart endothelial cell lines.  

PubMed

Endothelial cells (EC) are important regulatory cells in physiology and pathology. in vitro studies with rat EC from heart tissue are hampered by laborious isolation and purification procedures, low yield, and limited lifespan of the cells. Therefore, it is essential to obtain long-term heart EC lines that offer a more adequate in vitro system for studying rat heart EC. An ex vivo perfusion model was used to isolate EC from rat heart. Isolation and culture conditions were modified to allow spontaneous development of immortalized rat heart EC (RHEC) lines. Produced cell lines were tested for endothelial nature using a panel of markers. The selected RHEC lines were subsequently tested for a series of phenotypic and functional properties representative of EC in the context of physiologic and inflammatory functions in vivo. A series of three spontaneous RHEC lines was produced from 13 isolations from Lewis rat hearts: RHEC-3, RHEC-10, and RHEC-11. These lines were stable for more than 30 passages (RHEC-3 for more than 100). The cell lines were tumorigenic and developed hemangiomas on in vivo injection. All three lines expressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I but no MHC class II. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was only expressed by RHEC-3. Cytokine stimulation induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in RHEC-3 and RHEC-11 as well as MHC class II in all three lines in different quantities. The phenotypic characteristics of the different RHEC lines resembled the myocardial microvascular endothelium in situ. The three lines expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme, and they responded to histamine and ATP but not to thrombin and bradykinin. They constitutively produced small amounts of endothelin and high levels of tissue plasminogen activator; they produced little (after stimulation with phorbol-ester PMA) or no von Willebrand factor. The RHEC lines produced thromboxane A2 but no prostacyclin; on stimulation with arachidonic acid and A23187, they produced prostaglandin E2. Therefore, we conclude the following. 1) The described isolation and culture technique is successful for production of spontaneous stable EC lines from rat heart. 2) RHEC-3, -10, and -11 can be considered a series of different lines representative of the heterogeneity of heart microvascular endothelium in vivo. 3) The RHEC lines offer a series of valuable tools to study various heart EC functions and mechanisms in physiology and pathology. PMID:8780162

Derhaag, J G; Duijvestijn, A M; Emeis, J J; Engels, W; van Breda Vriesman, P J

1996-02-01

188

Transcription profiles of non-immortalized breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Searches for differentially expressed genes in tumours have made extensive use of array technology. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Here we compare cultures of non-immortalized breast cancer cells, normal non-immortalized breast cells and immortalized normal and breast cancer cells to identify which elements of a defined set of well-known cancer-related genes are differentially expressed. Methods Cultures of cells from pleural effusions or ascitic fluids from breast cancer patients (MSSMs) were used in addition to commercially-available normal breast epithelial cells (HMECs), established breast cancer cell lines (T-est) and established normal breast cells (N-est). The Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 cDNA expression array was employed. The data obtained were analysed using widely-available statistical and clustering software and further validated through real-time PCR. Results According to Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) and AtlasImage software, 48 genes differed at least 2-fold in adjusted intensities between HMECs and MSSMs (p < 0.01). Some of these genes have already been directly linked with breast cancer, metastasis and malignant progression, whilst others encode receptors linked to signal transduction pathways or are otherwise related to cell proliferation. Fifty genes showed at least a 2.5-fold difference between MSSMs and T-est cells according to AtlasImage, 2-fold according to SAM. Most of these classified as genes related to metabolism and cell communication. Conclusion The expression profiles of 1176 genes were determined in finite life-span cultures of metastatic breast cancer cells and of normal breast cells. Significant differences were detected between the finite life-span breast cancer cell cultures and the established breast cancer cell lines. These data suggest caution in extrapolating information from established lines for application to clinical cancer research. PMID:16626496

Fernandez-Cobo, Mariana; Holland, James F; Pogo, Beatriz GT

2006-01-01

189

Stable expression of nephrin and localization to cell-cell contacts in novel murine podocyte cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable expression of nephrin and localization to cell-cell contacts in novel murine podocyte cell lines.Background. Cell culture of podocytes has become an indispensable tool in the study of podocyte biology. To date, however, podocyte cell lines with stable expression of the crucial slit diaphragm protein nephrin and localization of nephrin to cell-cell contacts are not available.MethodsConditionally immortalized cells were grown

DANIEL SCHIWEK; NICOLE ENDLICH; LAWRENCE HOLZMAN; HARRY HOLTHöFER; WILHELM KRIZ; KARLHANS ENDLICH

2004-01-01

190

Rabeprazole exhibits antiproliferative effects on human gastric cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H+/K+-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the ?- and ?-subunits of H+/K+-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent. PMID:25202402

GU, MENGLI; ZHANG, YAN; ZHOU, XINXIN; MA, HAN; YAO, HANGPING; JI, FENG

2014-01-01

191

Rabeprazole exhibits antiproliferative effects on human gastric cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)/K(+)-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the ?- and ?-subunits of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent. PMID:25202402

Gu, Mengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xinxin; Ma, Han; Yao, Hangping; Ji, Feng

2014-10-01

192

76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute...repeat (STR) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and...

2011-03-24

193

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal

Junying Yu; Maxim A. Vodyanik; Kim Smuga-Otto; Jessica Antosiewicz-Bourget; Jennifer L. Frane; Shulan Tian; Jeff Nie; Gudrun A. Jonsdottir; Victor Ruotti; Ron Stewart; Igor I. Slukvin; James A. Thomson

2007-01-01

194

CHAPTER 6. AVAILABLE LEPIDOPTERAN INSECT CELL LINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early in the history of insect cell culturing, researchers in the field began meeting at three to four year intervals at International Conferences on Invertebrate Tissue Culture. The first of these was held in Montpellier, France in 1962, which, perhaps not coincidentally, was the year that the fir...

195

MOLECULAR AND CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LUNG TUMOR CELL LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

We have measured the levels of amplification of oncogenes and tumor marker genes or other genes of interest in nine human lung tumor cell lines in comparison to normal human bronchial epithelial cells or normal blood lymphocytes to test the hypothesis that aberrant amplification ...

196

Stable, near-haploid mammalian cell line (Dipodomys ordii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An established SV40-transformed cell line of Dipodomys ordii was cloned for selective loss of chromosomal material. A clone is described which has a modal chromosome number of 50 (in the normal diploid 2n = 72), and has about 66% of the DNA content of normal diploid cells. Karyotype anlysis shows that, although some chromosome rearrangement has taken place, 23 chromosomes

C. J. Bostock; S. Christie; F. T. Hatch; J. A. Mazrimas

1977-01-01

197

?-Aminolevulinic acid cytotoxic effects on human hepatocarcinoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Acute Intermittent Porphyria is a genetic disorder of heme metabolism, characterized by increased levels of porphyrin precursors, ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG). ALA has been reported to generate reactive oxygen species and to cause oxidative damage to proteins, subcellular structures and DNA. It is known that oxidative stress can induce apoptosis. The aim of this work was to study the cytotoxic effect of ALA on two hepatocarcinoma cell lines. Results We have determined the impact of ALA on HEP G2 and HEP 3B hepatocarcinoma cell lines survival as measured by the MTT assay. ALA proved to be cytotoxic in both cell lines however; HEP G2 was more sensitive to ALA than HEP 3B. Addition of hemin or glucose diminished ALA cytotoxicity in HEP G2 cells; instead it was enhanced in HEP 3B cells. Because apoptosis is usually associated with DNA fragmentation, the DNA of ALA treated and untreated cells were analyzed. The characteristic pattern of DNA fragmentation ladders was observed in ALA treated cells. To elucidate the mechanisms of ALA induced apoptosis, we examined its effect on p53 expression. No changes in p53 mRNA levels were observed after exposure of both cell lines to ALA for 24 h. CDK2 and CDK4 protein levels were reduced after ALA treatment at physiological concentrations. PMID:11914144

De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba S; Rezaval, Carolina; Rossetti, María V; del Batlle, Alcira M

2002-01-01

198

Taurine chloramine induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Although combination of surgery with chemotherapy has noticeably improved the survival rate of osteosarcoma patients, the application of anticancer drugs is still associated with significant adverse reactions, for instance acquisition of drug-resistant phenotypes, necessitating the development of new chemotherapeutical agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to research, if taurine chloramine (NCT) induces apoptosis in the osteosarcoma cell lines HOS, MG-63, and SAOS-2. Proliferation of osteosarcoma cells was detected with the "EZ4U Cell Proliferation and Cyotoxicity Assay" showing a time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of NCT on these cell lines. After 3 h of incubation all cell lines showed significantly less cells at 5.5 mM NCT solutions, after 6 h at concentrations of 1.1 and 2.2 mM. Acridine-orange fluorescence nuclear staining showed characteristic features of apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was detected via ELISA, showing significant results for HOS and MG-63 after 6 h at an NCT concentration of 3.3 mM. Results of JC-1 mitochondrial FACS analysis presented a significant increase in apoptotic cells after 6 h at 3.3 mM for the tested cell lines. Summarized, the results of this study indicate that NCT is a promising agent in osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:22674504

Pilz, Magdalena; Holinka, Johannes; Vavken, Patrick; Marian, Brigitte; Krepler, Petra

2012-12-01

199

Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified

Adam Ertel; Arun Verghese; Stephen W Byers; Michael Ochs; Aydin Tozeren

2006-01-01

200

Three-dimensional cultured glioma cell lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional glioma spheroids were produced in vitro with size and histological differentiation previously unattained. The spheroids were grown in liquid media suspension in a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Rotating Wall Bioreactor without using support matrices such as microcarrier beads. Spheroid volumes of greater than 3.5 cu mm and diameters of 2.5 mm were achieved with a viable external layer or rim of proliferating cells, a transitional layer beneath the external layer with histological differentiation, and a degenerative central region with a hypoxic necrotic core. Cell debris was evident in the degenerative central region. The necrotics centers of some of the spheroids had hyaline droplets. Granular bodies were detected predominantly in the necrotic center.

Gonda, Steve R. (inventor); Marley, Garry M. (inventor)

1991-01-01

201

Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research.  

PubMed

Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise. PMID:25117809

Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

2014-09-01

202

The polyGeVero® software for fast and easy computation of 3D radiotherapy dosimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polyGeVero® software package was elaborated for calculations of 3D dosimetry data such as the polymer gel dosimetry. It comprises four workspaces designed for: i) calculating calibrations, ii) storing calibrations in a database, iii) calculating dose distribution 3D cubes, iv) comparing two datasets e.g. a measured one with a 3D dosimetry with a calculated one with the aid of a treatment planning system. To accomplish calculations the software was equipped with a number of tools such as the brachytherapy isotopes database, brachytherapy dose versus distance calculation based on the line approximation approach, automatic spatial alignment of two 3D dose cubes for comparison purposes, 3D gamma index, 3D gamma angle, 3D dose difference, Pearson's coefficient, histograms calculations, isodoses superimposition for two datasets, and profiles calculations in any desired direction. This communication is to briefly present the main functions of the software and report on the speed of calculations performed by polyGeVero®.

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr

2015-01-01

203

A better cell line for making hybridomas secreting specific antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

FUSION of myeloma cells which grow in tissue culture with spleen cells from an immunised mouse provides a general method for obtaining cell lines (hybridomas) which make antibody of the desired specificity1-3. Hybrids derived from these myelomas make the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chains of the myeloma parent as well as the antigen-specific heavy and light chains of the

Marc Shulman; C. D. Wilde; Georges Köhler

1978-01-01

204

Antiproliferative effect of Tualang honey on oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and human osteosarcoma (HOS) includes surgery and/or radiotherapy which often lead to reduced quality of life. This study was aimed to study the antiproliferative activity of local honey (Tualang) on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Methods Several concentrations of Tualang honey (1% - 20%) were applied on OSCC and HOS cell lines for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological characteristics were observed under light and fluorescent microscope. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the optical density for absorbance values in each experiment was measured at 570 nm by an ELISA reader. Detection of cellular apoptosis was done using the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. Results Morphological appearance showed apoptotic cellular changes like becoming rounded, reduction in cell number, blebbed membrane and apoptotic nuclear changes like nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmented nucleus on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Cell viability assay showed a time and dose-dependent inhibitory effect of honey on both cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OSCC and HOS cell lines was found to be 4% and 3.5% respectively. The maximum inhibition of cell growth of ?80% was obtained at 15% for both cell lines. Early apoptosis was evident by flow cytometry where percentage of early apoptotic cells increased in dose and time dependent manner. Conclusion Tualang honey showed antiproliferative effect on OSCC and HOS cell lines by inducing early apoptosis. PMID:20840769

2010-01-01

205

Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

1989-06-01

206

Nestin expression in the cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme  

PubMed Central

Background Nestin is a protein belonging to class VI of intermediate filaments that is produced in stem/progenitor cells in the mammalian CNS during development and is consecutively replaced by other intermediate filament proteins (neurofilaments, GFAP). Down-regulated nestin may be re-expressed in the adult organism under certain pathological conditions (brain injury, ischemia, inflammation, neoplastic transformation). Our work focused on a detailed study of the nestin cytoskeleton in cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme, because re-expression of nestin together with down-regulation of GFAP has been previously reported in this type of brain tumor. Methods Two cell lines were derived from the tumor tissue of patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme. Nestin and other cytoskeletal proteins were visualized using imunocytochemical methods: indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold-labelling. Results Using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy, we described the morphology of nestin-positive intermediate filaments in glioblastoma cells of both primary cultures and the derived cell lines, as well as the reorganization of nestin during mitosis. Our most important result came through transmission electron microscopy and provided clear evidence that nestin is present in the cell nucleus. Conclusion Detailed information concerning the pattern of the nestin cytoskeleton in glioblastoma cell lines and especially the demonstration of nestin in the nucleus represent an important background for further studies of nestin re-expression in relationship to tumor malignancy and invasive potential. PMID:16457706

Veselska, Renata; Kuglik, Petr; Cejpek, Pavel; Svachova, Hana; Neradil, Jakub; Loja, Tomas; Relichova, Jirina

2006-01-01

207

Comparative Metabolic Flux Profiling of Melanoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Metabolic rewiring is an established hallmark of cancer, but the details of this rewiring at a systems level are not well characterized. Here we acquire this insight in a melanoma cell line panel by tracking metabolic flux using isotopically labeled nutrients. Metabolic profiling and flux balance analysis were used to compare normal melanocytes to melanoma cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. All melanoma cells exhibited the Warburg phenomenon; they used more glucose and produced more lactate than melanocytes. Other changes were observed in melanoma cells that are not described by the Warburg phenomenon. Hypoxic conditions increased fermentation of glucose to lactate in both melanocytes and melanoma cells (the Pasteur effect). However, metabolism was not strictly glycolytic, as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was functional in all melanoma lines, even under hypoxia. Furthermore, glutamine was also a key nutrient providing a substantial anaplerotic contribution to the TCA cycle. In the WM35 melanoma line glutamine was metabolized in the “reverse” (reductive) direction in the TCA cycle, particularly under hypoxia. This reverse flux allowed the melanoma cells to synthesize fatty acids from glutamine while glucose was primarily converted to lactate. Altogether, this study, which is the first comprehensive comparative analysis of metabolism in melanoma cells, provides a foundation for targeting metabolism for therapeutic benefit in melanoma. PMID:21998308

Scott, David A.; Richardson, Adam D.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Knutzen, Christine A.; Chiang, Gary G.; Ronai, Ze'ev A.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

2011-01-01

208

Characterization of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line: UCI 101.  

PubMed

A new epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell line (UCI 101) has been established from the ascitic fluids and solid tumor of a patient with progressive papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary shown previously to be refractory to combination chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, and cisplatin as well as single-agent chemotherapy of taxol and high-dose cisplatin. The UCI 101 cell line grows well with an in vitro doubling time of 24 hr. The cell line expresses the B 72.3 (Tag 72), CA125, MH99 (ESA), and E29 (EMA) cell surface antigens and AE1/AE3 cytokeratins. This cell line overexpresses (as determined by immunocytochemistry) both p-glycoprotein and the epidermal growth factor receptor. The in vitro drug response to single agents including Adriamycin, cisplatin, dequalinium chloride, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, taxol, and tumor necrosis factor was examined. Intraperitoneal transplantation of the cells into athymic mice resulted in foci of tumor on all peritoneal surfaces including the viscera and diaphragm ultimately leading to solid bulky disease with massive production of ascites. High levels of CA125 (> 500 units/ml) were detected in the serum of tumor-bearing mice. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured cells shows several marker chromosomes containing deletions, duplications, and translocations. Cytologic and histologic evaluation of the xenograft revealed morphological characteristics identical to those of the original tumor. PMID:8428692

Fuchtner, C; Emma, D A; Manetta, A; Gamboa, G; Bernstein, R; Liao, S Y

1993-02-01

209

Asymmetry between Sister Cells in a Cancer Cell Line Revealed by Chemical Cytometry  

E-print Network

valuable in quantitative studies of cells with complex proliferation kinetics (e.g., stem cells). Asymmetry for embryogenesis and tissue regeneration.1-2 Asymmetric development of sister cells is governed by the differencesAsymmetry between Sister Cells in a Cancer Cell Line Revealed by Chemical Cytometry Kang Hu

Krylov, Sergey

210

Female Sex Bias in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The factors limiting the rather inefficient derivation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the sex ratio in our 42 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-HESC lines, in an attempt to verify its affect on the establishment of HESC lines. The ratio between male and female PGD-derived cell lines was compared. We found a significant increase in female cell lines (76%). This finding was further confirmed by a meta-analysis for combining the results of all PGD-derived HESC lines published to date (148) and all normal karyotyped HESC lines derived from spare in vitro fertilization embryos worldwide (397). Further, gender determination of embryos demonstrated that this difference originates from the actual derivation process rather than from unequal representation of male and female embryos. It can therefore be concluded that the clear-cut tendency for female preponderance is attributed to suboptimal culture conditions rather than from a true gender imbalance in embryos used for derivation of HESC lines. We propose a mechanism in which aberrant X chromosome inactivation and/or overexpression of critical metabolic X-linked genes might explain this sex dimorphism. PMID:21585244

Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Amit, Ami; Malcov, Mira; Frumkin, Tsvia; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Eldar, Ido; Mey-Raz, Nava; Azem, Foad; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Beeri, Rachel; Varshaver, Irit; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat

2012-01-01

211

Definitive Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of 15 Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

In defining the genetic profiles in cancer, cytogenetically aberrant cell lines derived from primary tumors are important tools for the study of carcinogenesis. We here present the results of a comprehensive investigation of 15 established colorectal cancer cell lines utilizing spectral karyotyping (SKY), fluorescence in situ hybridization, and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Detailed karyotypic analysis by SKY on five of the lines (P53HCT116, T84, NCI-H508, NCI-H716, and SK-CO-1) are described here for the first time. The five lines with karyotypes in the diploid range and that are characterized by defects in DNA mismatch repair had a mean of 4.8 chromosomal abnormalities per line, whereas the 10 aneuploid lines exhibited complex karyotypes and a mean of 30 chromosomal abnormalities. Of the 150 clonal translocations, only eight were balanced and none were recurrent among the lines. We also reviewed the karyotypes of 345 cases of adenocarcinoma of the large intestine listed in the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer. The types of abnormalities observed in the cell lines reflected those seen in primary tumors: there were no recurrent translocations in either tumors or cell lines, isochromosomes were the most common recurrent abnormalities, and breakpoints occurred most frequently at the centromeric/pericentromeric and telomere regions. Of the genomic imbalances detected by array CGH, 87% correlated with chromosome aberrations observed in the SKY studies. The fact that chromosome abnormalities result predominantly in copy number changes rather than specific chromosome or gene fusions, suggests this may be the major mechanism leading to carcinogenesis in colorectal cancer. PMID:19927377

Knutsen, Turid; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; Wangsa, Danny; Barenboim-Stapleton, Linda; Camps, Jordi; McNeil, Nicole; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ried, Thomas

2009-01-01

212

Establishment of a lymphoid cell line from leukemic cells of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Two lymphoid cell lines were established from a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia by infecting blood cells with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Studies of morphology, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, immunoglobulin, and chromosomes of the two lines indicated that one of them originated from leukemic cells while the other arose from residual normal blood cells. The morphology and capacity for immunoglobulin secretion in the line that arose from leukemic cells were similar to those found in EVB-carrying lymphoblastoid cell lines grown from patients without neoplasia and differed from those seen in fresh chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. These observations suggest that the introduction of EBV into the leukemic cells may have caused them to differentiate in a fashion similar to that noted in normal B cells after exposure to EBV. PMID:6263808

Karande, A; Fialkow, P J; Nilsson, K; Povey, S; Klein, G; Najfeld, V; Penfold, G

1980-11-15

213

Generation of islet-like cell aggregates from human non-pancreatic cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

To explore a novel source for the derivation of islets, we examined the differentiation potential of human non-pancreatic cancer cell lines, HeLa (cervical carcinoma cell line) and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line). These cells were subjected to a serum-free, three-step sequential differentiation protocol which gave two distinct cell populations: single cells and cellular aggregates. Subsequent analysis confirmed their identity as pancreatic acinar cells and islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs), as evidenced by amylase secretion and diphenylthiocarbazone staining respectively. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunocytochemistry assessment of the ICAs revealed the expression of pancreatic specific markers Ngn-3, Glut-2, Pax-6 and Isl-1. These ICAs secreted insulin in response to glucose challenge, confirming their functionality. We propose that ICAs generated from HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines could form a promising in vitro platform of human islet equivalents (hIEQs) for diabetes research. PMID:25257585

Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Sureshbabu, Shalini Kashipathi; Shahani, Pradnya; Bhawna, Chandravanshi; Warrier, Sudha R; Bhonde, Ramesh

2015-01-01

214

Identification and evaluation of putative tumour-initiating cells in canine malignant melanoma cell lines(†)  

PubMed

Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) have been identified in many solid human tumours, including malignant melanoma. In this study, an enriched TIC population was identified in two canine malignant melanoma cell lines (CML1 and CML6M) using cell surface markers and functional assays, including the sphere forming assay, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and ?H2AX staining for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)break identification and repair. The CD34(-) population of cells in both cell lines expressed stem cell genes, such as Oct4, Nanog and Ptch1, were more efficient at making spheres in adherence-free media conditions and were able to repair dsDNA breaks faster than the CD34(+) population. A subpopulation of cells with high expression of ALDH was identified in both cell lines by flow cytometry. The findings indicate the presence of TICs in two canine malignant melanoma cell lines. PMID:23410087

Wilson-Robles, H M; Daly, M; Pfent, C; Sheppard, S

2013-02-15

215

Challenges and Opportunities for Cell Line Secretomes in Cancer Proteomics.  

PubMed

Cancer cell lines are the most widely used experimental models in cancer research. Their advantages of easy growth and manipulation are unfortunately paralleled by their limitations derived from long-term growth in isolation from the rest of the tumor, and hence, lack of tumor microenvironment. We are however currently witnessing novel and transformative advances that are making cell lines more reflective of the human biology and therefore, better experimental models for cancer research. Beyond the experimental model used, the choice of cellular proteome is key in proteomics-based biomarker discovery. Over the last decade, cell line secretomes have been proposed as an alternative for tumor biomarker discovery due to the difficulties posed by plasma in terms of complexity and low abundance of tumor-specific biomarkers. Cell line secretomes are enriched with proteins already linked to tumorigenesis that also have a good chance of being present in biological fluids. In this review, we will provide an overview of the main technical and biological issues related to cell line secretome analysis, and briefly discuss both the challenges and opportunities in its use for tumor biomarker discovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25418557

Méndez, Olga; Villanueva, Josep

2014-11-24

216

Cell lines used for microbeam and track segment studies at RARAF Experiments conducted at RARAF have used a host of adherent cell lines for various experiments. While  

E-print Network

Cell lines used for microbeam and track segment studies at RARAF Experiments conducted at RARAF have used a host of adherent cell lines for various experiments. While the primary method of attachment to discuss their favorite cell line. Listed below are cells used for experiments at RARAF. Selected

217

Expression of the somatostatin gene in human astrocytoma cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Somatostatin (somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone; SRIH) has been demonstrated in neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in endocrine cells of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract and can suppress various immune functions including lymphocyte proliferation, immunoglobulin synthesis, and cytokine production. Since astrocytes possess antigen-presenting activity and can secrete a wide array of immunoregulatory and inflammatory cytokines, we studied SRIH gene expression in both astrocyte cell lines and mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from healthy donors. We now report by means of a complementary DNA-based reverse transcription PCR that differential levels of SRIH mRNA were expressed in 9 of 11 human astrocytoma cell lines tested but were undetectable in activated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes as well as in a variety of human lymphocyte and monocyte cell lines. The synthesis and secretion of SRIH protein by astrocytoma cells that expressed SRIH transcripts were confirmed by specific radioimmunoassay of cell culture fluids. These findings support the notion that SRIH gene expression occurs in human astrocytoma cells but not in mature lymphoid cells of the immune system. PMID:8991628

Mercure, L; Tannenbaum, G S; Schipper, H M; Phaneuf, D; Wainberg, M A

1996-01-01

218

VR09 Cell Line: An EBV-Positive Lymphoblastoid Cell Line with In Vivo Characteristics of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Activated B-Cell Type  

PubMed Central

Background small B-cell neoplasms can show plasmacytic differentiation and may potentially progress to aggressive lymphoma (DLBCL). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may cause the transformation of malignant cells in vitro. Design and Method we established VR09 cell line with plasmacytic differentiation, obtained from a case of atypical, non-CLL B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disease with plasmacytic features. We used flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, cytogenetic analysis and florescence in situ hybridization in the attempt at thoroughly characterizing the cell line. We showed VR09 tumorigenic potential in vivo, leading to the development of activated DLBCL with plasmacytic features. Results VR09 cells displayed plasmacytic appearance and grew as spherical tumors when inoculated subcutaneously into immunodeficient Rag2?/? ?-chain?/? mice. VR09 cell line and tumors displayed the phenotype of activated stage of B cell maturation, with secretory differentiation (CD19+ CD20+ CD79a+ CD79b+/? CD138+ cyclin D1- Ki67 80% IgM+ IgD+ MUM1+ MNDA+ CD10- CD22+ CD23+ CD43+ K+, ?- Bcl2+ Bcl6-) and they presented episomal EBV genome, chromosome 12 trisomy, lack of c-MYC rearrangement and Myd88 gene mutation, presence of somatic hypermutation in the VH region, and wild-type p53. Conclusion This new EBV-positive cell line may be useful to further characterize in vivo activated DLBCL with plasmacytic features. PMID:23285191

Nichele, Ilaria; Zamò, Alberto; Bertolaso, Anna; Bifari, Francesco; Tinelli, Martina; Franchini, Marta; Stradoni, Roberta; Aprili, Fiorenza; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Krampera, Mauro

2012-01-01

219

[Molecular mechanism of Doxorubicin resistance in multiple myeloma cell line].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of doxorubicin resistance in multiple myeloma cell line and certify the effect of Notch signal over-expression on drug resistance of myeloma cells. The doxorubicin RPMI 8226 cell line (RPMI8226/DOX) was established by culturing 8226 cells with continuous low concentration and intermittent gradually-increasing-concentration of doxorubicin in vitro, the mRNA expression of Notch2,Jagged1, Jagged2, HES1 were measured by RT-PCR and the P-170 protein expression was detected by Western blot in RPMI 8226 cell line; the changes of IL-6 and VEGF were tested by ELISA. The results showed that the Notch mRNA expression (Notch2, Jagged1, Jagged2 increased gradually along with the increase of chemotherapeutic drug resistance, but the expression of HESI mRNA gradually decreased along with the increase of drug resistance. The expression level of P-170 protein was upregulated gradually along with the increase of drug resistance. The level of VEGF and IL-6 in culture supernatants of RPMI8226/DOX was higher than that in RPMI 8226. It is concluded that the establishment of RPMI 8226/DOX cell line is a useful model to analyze the mechanism of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in multiple myeloma, Notch activation is closely correlated with the drug resistance of multiple myeloma and Notch signaling may to be used as a new target for multiple myeloma treatment. PMID:25338584

Lu, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Cui-Rong; Chen, Hua-Ying; Huang, Xiao; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Lu, Quan-Yi

2014-10-01

220

Cyclopentenyl cytosine and neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cell line cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC) on human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C cell line cells. CPEC had an ic50 value of 100 nM for non-synchronised SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. These cells were arrested in g0G1-phase or early S-phase of the cell cycle upon treatment with CPEC. After treatment of synchronised S-phase cells with 1 ?M CPEC, the number of cells present after

R. J. Slingerland; A. H. Van Gennip; J. M. Bodlaender; P. A. Vo?te; A. B. P. Van Kuilenburg

1995-01-01

221

Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields aren’t considered as a real carcinogenic agent despite the fact that some studies have showed impairment of the DNA integrity in different cells lines. The aim of this study was evaluation of the late effects of a 100 Hz and 5.6 mT electromagnetic field, applied continuously or discontinuously, on the DNA integrity of Vero cells assessed by alkaline Comet assay and by cell cycle analysis. Normal Vero cells were exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (100 Hz, 5.6 mT) for 45 minutes. The Comet assay and cell cycle analysis were performed 48 hours after the treatment. Results Exposed samples presented an increase of the number of cells with high damaged DNA as compared with non-exposed cells. Quantitative evaluation of the comet assay showed a significantly (<0.001) increase of the tail lengths, of the quantity of DNA in tail and of Olive tail moments, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase of the frequency of the cells in S phase, proving the occurrence of single strand breaks. The most probable mechanism of induction of the registered effects is the production of different types of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The analysis of the registered comet indices and of cell cycle showed that extremely low frequency electromagnetic field of 100 Hz and 5.6 mT had a genotoxic impact on Vero cells. PMID:24401758

2014-01-01

222

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of 11 new breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

We describe a survey of genetic changes by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 11 human breast cancer cell lines recently established in our laboratory. The most common gains took place at 8q (73%), 1q (64%), 7q (64%), 3q (45%) and 7p (45%), whereas losses were most frequent at Xp (54%), 8p (45%), 18q (45%) and Xq (45%). Many of the cell lines displayed prominent, localized DNA amplifications by CGH. One-third of these loci affected breast cancer oncogenes, whose amplifications were validated with specific probes: 17q12 (two cell lines with ERBB2 amplifications), 11q13 (two with cyclin-D1), 8p11–p12 (two with FGFR1) and 10q25 (one with FGFR2). Gains and amplifications affecting 8q were the most common genetic alterations in these cell lines with the minimal, common region of involvement at 8q22–q23. No high-level MYC (at 8q24) amplifications were found in any of the cell lines. Two-thirds of the amplification sites took place at loci not associated with established oncogenes, such as 1q41–q43, 7q21–q22, 7q31, 8q23, 9p21–p23, 11p12–p14, 15q12–q14, 16q13–q21, 17q23, 20p11–p12 and 20q13. Several of these locations have not been previously reported and may harbour important genes whose amplification is selected for during cancer development. In summary, this set of breast cancer cell lines displaying prominent DNA amplifications should facilitate discovery and functional analysis of genes and signal transduction pathways contributing to breast cancer development. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10604729

Forozan, F; Veldman, R; Ammerman, C A; Parsa, N Z; Kallioniemi, A; Kallioniemi, O-P; Ethier, S P

1999-01-01

223

Validating classical line profile analyses using microbeam diffraction from individual dislocation cell walls and cell interiors  

SciTech Connect

Dislocation structures in deformed metals produce broad asymmetric diffraction line profiles. During analysis, these profiles are generally separated into two nearly symmetric subprofiles corresponding to diffraction by dislocation cell walls and cell interiors. These subprofiles are then interpreted using complex models of dislocation-based line broadening. Until now, it has not been possible to test the many assumptions that are made in such an analysis. Here, depth-resolved microbeam diffraction was used to measure diffraction line profiles from numerous individual dislocation cell walls and cell interiors in a heavily deformed Cu single crystal. Summing these profiles directly constructed the cell-interior and cell-wall subprofiles that have been approximated in the line profile analysis literature for the past 30 years. Direct comparison between the reconstructed subprofiles and the macroscopic asymmetric line profile from the same sample allows the first direct tests of many of the assumptions that have been used for interpreting these X-ray measurements.

Levine, Lyle E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Geantil, P. [University of Southern California; Larson, Ben C [ORNL; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary [ORNL; Kassner, Michael E. [University of Southern California; Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2012-01-01

224

Establishment and Characterization of Human B-Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines Using B-Cell Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL-B) have been diffi- cult to establish in long-term cell culture using standard techniques. We report the establishment of five represen- tative cell lines from high grade NHL-B using B-cell growth factor (BCGF). The five NHL-B cell lines display the morpho- logic, immunophenotypic, genotypic, and biologic character- istics of the lymphoma cells present in the original diagnos-

Richard J. Ford; Angela Goodacre; Irma Ramirez; Shashikant R. Mehta; Fernando Cabanillas

1990-01-01

225

Rubella Virus Maturation and Production in Two Host Cell Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary When inoculated at the same MOI, Vero cells released a larger amount of infectious rubella virus into the culture medium than did BHK21 cells. However, BHK21 cells (in monolayer or in suspension) produced more intracellular infectious virus than Vero cells when tested 24 h after infection. Maturation of the virus in BHK21 cells occurred at the plasma membrane and,

Gilbert Bardeletti; Jacques Tektoff; Danièle Gautheron

1979-01-01

226

Generation of BAC reporter cell lines for drug discovery.  

PubMed

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) reporter cell lines are generated through stable transfection of a BAC reporter construct wherein the gene of interest is tagged with a reporter gene such as eGFP. The large capacity of BACs (up to 350 kb of genomic sequence) enables the inclusion of all regulatory elements that ensure appropriate regulation of the gene of interest. Furthermore, the reporter gene allows the expression of the gene of interest to be readily detected by flow cytometry. Cell lines can also be easily cultured for extended periods with minimal cost. These features of BAC reporter cell lines make them highly amenable for use in high-throughput screening of large drug libraries for compounds that induce the expression of the gene of interest. This chapter describes a method for generation of BAC reporter cell lines that are suitable as cellular assay systems in high-throughput screening. Briefly, this method involves (A) generation of cell clones stably transfected with a BAC reporter construct, (B) selection of "candidate" cell clones based on the responsiveness to known inducers, (C) confirmation of the integrity of the BAC reporter construct integrated within the candidate clones, and (D) assessment of the developmental regulation of the BAC reporter construct. As an example, we describe the generation of a BAC reporter cell line containing the human ?-globin locus modified to express ?-globin as eGFP for use as a cellular reporter assay for screening of drugs that can reactivate expression of developmentally silenced ?-globin for the treatment of ?-hemoglobin disorders. PMID:25239756

Kao, Betty R; McColl, Bradley; Vadolas, Jim

2015-01-01

227

Pharmacological characterization of receptor guanylyl cyclase reporter cell lines.  

PubMed

Receptor guanylyl cyclases are implicated in a growing number of pathophysiologies and, therefore, represent an important target class for drug development. We report here the generation and pharmacological characterization of three particulate guanylyl cyclase (pGC) reporter cell lines. Plasmid constructs encoding the natriuretic peptide receptors GC-A and GC-B, and the heat-stable enterotoxin receptor GC-C, were stably transfected in a parental reporter cell line expressing a cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channel, acting as the biosensor for intracellular cGMP. In our reporter cell lines pGC activity can be monitored in living cells in real-time . By using different natural as well as synthetic receptor ligands of the natriuretic and guanylin peptide families, we show that our reporter assay monitors pGC activity with very high sensitivity. In contrast to previous findings, we could detect significant stimulation of GC-A and GC-B by each of the natriuretic peptides ANP, BNP and CNP. In addition, the clearance receptor ligand Cys-ANF(4-18) and the ANP receptor antagonist Arg-ANF(6-18) were characterized as partial GC-A agonists. The results imply that our novel pGC reporter cell lines are well suited for the characterization of receptor pharmacology and may be used for natural ligand characterization of guanylyl cyclase orphan receptors. PMID:23178524

Wunder, Frank; Woermann, Annette; Geerts, Andreas; Milde, Markus

2013-01-01

228

Mutations to Ku reveal differences in human somatic cell lines.  

PubMed

NHEJ (non-homologous end joining) is the predominant mechanism for repairing DNA double-stranded breaks in human cells. One essential NHEJ factor is the Ku heterodimer, which is composed of Ku70 and Ku86. Here we have generated heterozygous loss-of-function mutations for each of these genes in two different human somatic cell lines, HCT116 and NALM-6, using gene targeting. Previous work had suggested that phenotypic differences might exist between the genes and/or between the cell lines. By providing a side-by-each comparison of the four cell lines, we demonstrate that there are indeed subtle differences between loss-of-function mutations for Ku70 versus Ku86, which is accentuated by whether the mutations were derived in the HCT116 or NALM-6 genetic background. Overall, however, the phenotypes of the four lines are quite similar and they provide a compelling argument for the hypothesis that Ku loss-of-function mutations in human somatic cells result in demonstrable haploinsufficiencies. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the importance of proper biallelic expression of these genes for NHEJ and telomere maintenance and they provide insights into why these genes are uniquely essential for primates. PMID:18387344

Fattah, Kazi R; Ruis, Brian L; Hendrickson, Eric A

2008-05-01

229

Mutations to Ku Reveal Differences in Human Somatic Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

NHEJ (non-homologous end joining) is the predominant mechanism for repairing DNA double-stranded breaks in human cells. One essential NHEJ factor is the Ku heterodimer, which is composed of Ku70 and Ku86. Here we have generated heterozygous loss-of-function mutations for each of these genes in two different human somatic cell lines, HCT116 and NALM-6 using gene targeting. Previous work had suggested that phenotypic differences might exist between the genes and/or between the cell lines. By providing a side-by-each comparison of the four cell lines, we demonstrate that there are indeed subtle differences between loss-of-function mutations for Ku70 versus Ku86, which is accentuated by whether the mutations were derived in the HCT116 or NALM-6 genetic background. Overall, however, the phenotypes of the four lines are quite similar and they provide a compelling argument for the hypothesis that Ku loss-of-function mutations in human somatic cells result in demonstrable haploinsufficiencies. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the importance of proper biallelic expression of these genes for NHEJ and telomere maintenance and they provide insights into why these genes are uniquely essential for primates. PMID:18387344

Fattah, Kazi R.; Ruis, Brian L.; Hendrickson, Eric A.

2008-01-01

230

Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Summary The recent identification of frequent activating mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 in uveal melanoma provides an opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of this melanoma subtype, and to develop rational therapeutics to target the cellular effects mediated by these mutations. Cell lines from uveal melanoma tumors are an essential tool for these types of analyses. We report the mutation status of relevant melanoma genes, expression levels of proteins of interest and DNA fingerprinting of a panel of uveal melanoma cell lines used in the research community. Significance This study represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of uveal melanoma cell lines performed to date. The data confirms the mutually exclusive nature of GNAQ and GNA11 mutations in vitro. The lack of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, PI3K, and AKT mutations reveal GNAQ and GNA11 uveal melanoma cells to be distinct among melanoma types. The data provided is intended as a reference for investigators to select appropriate model systems and assist with authentication of uveal melanoma cell lines. PMID:22236444

Griewank, Klaus G.; Yu, Xiaoxing; Khalili, Jahan; Sozen, M. Mert; Stempke-Hale, Katherine; Bernatchez, Chantale; Wardell, Seth; Bastian, Boris C.; Woodman, Scott E.

2012-01-01

231

Differential expression of Ia antigens by rheumatoid synovial lining cells.  

PubMed Central

The differential expression of Ia antigens was studied in freshly isolated rheumatoid nonlymphoid synovial lining cells (SLC) and rheumatoid synovial fibroblast cell lines cultured in the presence of Interferon-gamma, using a large panel of anti-Ia reagents with monomorphic or polymorphic specificities. All the HLA-DR or -DQ specificities detectable on the corresponding peripheral blood B cells were also expressed in freshly isolated SLC. However, in all instances, the number of DR-positive SLC exceeded the percentage of cells expressing DQ antigens. In addition, the epitope expression of Ia antigens varied within the DR or DQ populations of Ia molecules as revealed by polymorphic reagents. Double-label experiments or using the ingestion of Latex particles as a marker demonstrated that the synovial macrophages (type I SLC) primarily bear the DR+DQ+ phenotype, while there is an additional population of nonphagocytic SLC (previously termed type II SLC) that has a DR+ and monocyte marker negative phenotype but did not have detectable levels of DQ antigens as analyzed by both fluorescence microscopy and cell sorter analysis. This latter population frequently had a morphology showing dendritic processes and rapidly lost the expression of Ia antigens upon culture. Cells with a similar, primarily DR+ phenotype were readily obtained in synovial fibroblast cultures after treatment with Interferon-gamma. These data suggest that there are two populations of Ia+ synovial lining cells: the synovial macrophages (type I cells) with the DR+DQ+ phenotype, and cells probably related to fibroblasts with a DR+ phenotype without detectable DQ antigens (type II cells). The fact that the latter phenotype could be induced by Interferon-gamma treatment of cultured synovial fibroblasts suggests that this mediator may have a similar role in vivo in the activation of certain synovial cell populations. Images PMID:2442194

Burmester, G R; Jahn, B; Rohwer, P; Zacher, J; Winchester, R J; Kalden, J R

1987-01-01

232

Assessment of Cell Line Models of Primary Human Cells by Raman Spectral Phenotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have previously questioned the suitability of cell lines as models for primary cells. In this study, we used Raman microspectroscopy to characterize live A549 cells from a unique molecular biochemical perspective to shed light on their suitability as a model for primary human pulmonary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. We also investigated a recently developed transduced type I (TT1)

Robin J. Swain; Sarah J. Kemp; Peter Goldstraw; Teresa D. Tetley; Molly M. Stevens

2010-01-01

233

Antioxidant enzymes in the differentiated Caco-2 cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Injury to the gastrointestinal tract by oxygen dependent processes is important in ischemia, inflammatory bowel disease, and\\u000a necrotizing enterocolitis. The Caco-2 cell line is an important tool in assessing various gastrointestinal functions and offers\\u000a a unique opportunity to assess gastrointestinal oxidant metabolism on a cellular level. However, some Caco-2 cell functions\\u000a change with time after confluence. To determine if antioxidant

Susan S. Baker; Robert D. Baker

1992-01-01

234

Radiation-induced adaptive response in fish cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest at present in low-dose radiation effects in non-human species. In this study gamma radiation-induced adaptive response, a low-dose radiation effect, was examined in three fish cell lines, (CHSE-214 (Chinook salmon), RTG-2 (rainbow trout) and ZEB-2J (zebrafish)). Cell survival after exposure to direct radiation with or without a 0.1Gy priming dose, was determined using the colony forming

Lorna A. Ryan; Colin B. Seymour; Alicia O'Neill-Mehlenbacher; Carmel E. Mothersill

2008-01-01

235

DNA methylation and sensitivity to antimetabolites in cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The prediction of the cellular direction of metabolic pathways toward either DNA synthesis or DNA methylation is crucial for determining the susceptibility of cancers to anti-metabolites such as fluorouracil (5-FU). We genotyped the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in NCI-60 cancer cell lines, and identified the methylation status of 24 tumor suppressor genes using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The susceptibility of the cancer cell lines to seven antimetabolites was then determined. Cells homozygous for CC at MTHFR-A1298C were significantly more sensitive to cyclocytidine, cytarabine (AraC) and floxuridine than those with AA or AC (p=0.0215, p=0.0166, and p=0.0323, respectively), and carried more methylated tumor suppressor genes (p=0.0313). Among the 12 tumor suppressor genes which were methylated in >25% of cancer cell lines, the methylation status of TIMP3, APC and IGSF4 significantly correlated with sensitivity to pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors. In particular, cells with methylated TIMP3 had reduced mRNA levels and were significantly more sensitive to aphidicolin-glycinate, AraC and 5-FU than cells with unmethylated TIMP3. We speculate that MTHFR-A1298C homozygous CC might direct the methylation rather than the synthesis of DNA, and result in the methylation of several tumor suppressor genes such as TIMP3. These genes could be useful biological markers for predicting the efficacy of antimetabolites. PMID:18202788

Sasaki, Shin; Kobunai, Takashi; Kitayama, Joji; Nagawa, Hirokazu

2008-02-01

236

Differential effect of artemisinin against cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The present study aims at defining the differential cytotoxicity effect of artemisinin toward P815 (murin mastocytoma) and BSR (kidney adenocarcinoma of hamster) cell lines. Cytotoxicity was measured by the growth inhibition using MTT assay. These in vitro cytotoxicity studies were complemented by the determination of apoptotic DNA fragmentation and Annexin V- streptavidin-FITC assay. Furthermore, we examined the in vitro synergism between artemisinin and the chemotherapeutic drug, vincristin. The in vivo study was investigated using the DBA2/P815 (H2d) mouse model. While artemisinin acted on both tumor cell lines, P815 was much more sensitive to this drug than BSR cells, as revealed by the respective IC50 values (12 µM for P815 and 52 µM for BSR cells). On another hand, and interestingly, apoptosis was induced in P815 but not induced in BSR. These data, reveal an interesting differential cytotoxic effect, suggesting the existence of different molecular interactions between artemisinin and the studied cell lines. In vivo, our results clearly showed that the oral administration of artemisinin inhibited solid tumor development. Our study demonstrates that artemisinin caused differential cytotoxic effects depending not only on the concentration and time of exposure but also on the target cells. PMID:24955301

Tilaoui, Mounir; Mouse, Hassan Ait; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

2014-06-01

237

Glycosylation potential of human prostate cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Altered glycosylation is a universal feature of cancer cells and altered glycans can help cancer cells escape immune surveillance, facilitate tumor invasion, and increase malignancy. The goal of this study was to identify specific glycoenzymes, which could distinguish prostate cancer cells from normal prostatic cells. We investigated enzymatic activities and gene expression levels of key glycosyl- and sulfotransferases responsible for the assembly of O- and N-glycans in several prostatic cells. These cells included immortalized RWPE-1 cells derived from normal prostatic tissues, and prostate cancer cells derived from metastasis in bone (PC-3), brain (DU145), lymph node (LNCaP), and vertebra (VCaP). We found that all cells were capable of synthesizing complex N-glycans and O-glycans with the core 1 structure, and each cell line had characteristic bio-synthetic pathways to modify these structures. The in vitro measured activities corresponded well to the mRNA levels of glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases. Lectin and antibody binding to whole cells supported these results, which form the basis for the development of tumor cell-specific targeting strategies. PMID:22843320

Gao, Yin; Chachadi, Vishwanath B.; Cheng, Pi-Wan

2014-01-01

238

Effect of Matrigel on adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line differentiation  

PubMed Central

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a frequent malignant salivary gland neoplasm presenting different growth patterns described as tubular, cribriform and solid, which represent distinct differentiation stages. Cell lines originated from ACCs grown inside three-dimensional environments have not been capable to reproduce all in vivo ACC growth patterns. As ACC cells in vivo present replicated basement membrane, to mimic this situation in vitro ACC cells (CAC2 cells) were grown on the top of a reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel). Phenotype differences were assessed by light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The cultures grown on the top of Matrigel presented three-dimensional arrangement of cells intercepted by cellular cords. At these, cell nests pseudocyst formations were observed. This morphological structure entirely reproduced the cribriform growth pattern of ACC. We suggest that the cribriform differentiation of ACC in culture is dependent of proteins and growth factors associated in a bi-dimensional structure. PMID:17222208

Marques, Márcia M; Martins, Manoela D; França, Cristiane M

2006-01-01

239

Glucocorticoid inhibition of cellular proliferation in rat hepatoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Glucocorticoids were shown to inhibit the growth rate of Fu5 rat hepatoma cells cultured in the presence or absence of serum and thus, induced a more stringent dependence on serum for growth in this cell line. Fu5 cells, made quiescent at low cell density by continuous exposure to glucocorticoid in the absence of serum, were induced with serum and insulin, which subsequently caused a rapid reinitiation of cellular proliferation. Analysis of total RNA isolated from hormone treated Fu5 cells undergoing serum/insulin induction of DNA synthesis revealed a sequential expression of cellular proto-oncogene products in the absence of any immediate changes in intracellular Ca{sup ++} levels. Introduction of functional glucocorticoid receptor genes into both classes of dexamethasone resistant variants restored glucocorticoid responsiveness and suppression of cell growth. The BDS1 rat hepatoma cell line, an Fu5 derived subclone hypersensitive to the antiprofliferation effects of glucocorticoid, was observed to externalize a glucocorticoid suppressible mitogen (GSM) activity capable of mimicking EGF and insulin induced stimulation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into serum starved, competant Balb/c 3T3 cells.

Cook, P.W.

1987-01-01

240

Telomere stability genes are not mutated in osteosarcoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary bone tumor in adolescents and young adults, is characterized by a high degree of chromosomal abnormalities. Because telomeres are important for maintaining chromosomal integrity, it is plausible that germ-line or somatic mutations in the genes responsible for stabilizing the telomere complex could contribute to OS. We performed bi-directional sequence analysis in five OS cell

Sharon A. Savage; Brian J. Stewart; Jason S. Liao; Lee J. Helman; Stephen J. Chanock

2005-01-01

241

Alkylating agent resistance: in vitro studies with human cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Development of in vitro resistance to HN2 (also called mustargen or mechlorethamine hydrochloride), N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU), and cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] was achieved in two human cell lines, the Raji/Burkitt lymphoma and a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. A 10- to 20-fold increase in resistance relative to the parental line was achieved in 3-4 months of continuous selection pressure. At this time, further increase in selection pressure resulted in cell death, while removal of drug led to rapid loss of resistance. However, by holding selection pressure constant over 8-12 months, semistable clones ranging in resistance up to 8- to 12-fold were obtained. The half-life for resistance loss upon removal of drug was 2-3 months. In the presence of intermittent low concentrations of the alkylating agent, resistance has been maintained in excess of 9 months. With one exception, the growth kinetics of the resistant clones were slightly slower than those of the parental lines. Cross-resistance studies were performed against HN2, BCNU, cisplatin, phenylalanine mustard, and hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. There was, in general, a lack of cross-resistance. We conclude that stable resistance to alkylating agents is produced with difficulty. We propose that these semistable cloned human tumor lines represent clinically relevant models for the study of alkylating agent resistance and that the cross-resistance patterns among these cells have important therapeutic and mechanistic implications. PMID:3856890

Frei, E; Cucchi, C A; Rosowsky, A; Tantravahi, R; Bernal, S; Ervin, T J; Ruprecht, R M; Haseltine, W A

1985-01-01

242

USING NEUROBLASTOMA CELL LINES TO EXAMINE ORGANOPHOSPHATE NEUROTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The need to deploy IN VITRO models to test neurotoxic scribes the use of by industry and government regulatory agencies. his research describes the neuroblastoma cell lines to address the relationship between esterase inhibition and neurotoxic outcome following exposure to organo...

243

DIVERSITY OF ARSENIC METABOLISM IN CULTURED HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Diversity of arsenic metabolism in cultured human cancer cell lines. Arsenic has been known to cause a variety of malignancies in human. Pentavalent As (As 5+) is reduced to trivalent As (As3+) which is further methylated by arsenic methyltransferase(s) to monomethylarson...

244

Differential Sensitivity in the Survival of Oligodendrocyte Cell Lines to  

E-print Network

Differential Sensitivity in the Survival of Oligodendrocyte Cell Lines to Overexpression of Myelin in oligodendrocyte survival by overexpression studies in vitro and in vivo. The classic and sr proteolipids are targeted to different cellular com- partments in the oligodendrocyte, suggesting different cellular

Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

245

Effects of hypoxia on human cancer cell line chemosensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background Environment inside even a small tumor is characterized by total (anoxia) or partial oxygen deprivation, (hypoxia). It has been shown that radiotherapy and some conventional chemotherapies may be less effective in hypoxia, and therefore it is important to investigate how different drugs act in different microenvironments. In this study we perform a large screening of the effects of 19 clinically used or experimental chemotherapeutic drugs on five different cell lines in conditions of normoxia, hypoxia and anoxia. Methods A panel of 19 commercially available drugs: 5-fluorouracil, acriflavine, bortezomib, cisplatin, digitoxin, digoxin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, irinotecan, melphalan, mitomycin c, rapamycin, sorafenib, thalidomide, tirapazamine, topotecan and vincristine were tested for cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell lines A2780 (ovarian), ACHN (renal), MCF-7 (breast), H69 (SCLC) and U-937 (lymphoma). Parallel aliquots of the cells were grown at different oxygen pressures and after 72 hours of drug exposure viability was measured with the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Results Sorafenib, irinotecan and docetaxel were in general more effective in an oxygenated environment, while cisplatin, mitomycin c and tirapazamine were more effective in a low oxygen environment. Surprisingly, hypoxia in H69 and MCF-7 cells mostly rendered higher drug sensitivity. In contrast ACHN appeared more sensitive to hypoxia, giving slower proliferating cells, and consequently, was more resistant to most drugs. Conclusions A panel of standard cytotoxic agents was tested against five different human cancer cell lines cultivated at normoxic, hypoxic and anoxic conditions. Results show that impaired chemosensitivity is not universal, in contrast different cell lines behave different and some drugs appear even less effective in normoxia than hypoxia. PMID:23829203

2013-01-01

246

Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 ?g/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p?cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the anticancer potential of açaí may help in the development of chemopreventive drugs and may have therapeutic effects in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24886139

2014-01-01

247

Establishment of cell lines derived from the genus Macaca through controlled expression of cell cycle regulators.  

PubMed

Nonhuman primates are useful animal models for the study of human diseases. However, the number of established cell lines from nonhuman primates is quite limited compared with the number established from other experimental animals. The establishment of nonhuman primate cell lines would allow drug testing on those cell lines before moving experiments into primates. In this study, we established nonhuman primate primary cell lines by introducing the genes for CDK4R24C, cyclin D1, and hTERT. These cell lines proliferated more rapidly than primary cells and bypassed cellular senescence. Karyotype analysis showed that the chromosome patterns were intact in the immortalized cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that the expression of introduced genes could be precisely controlled through the Tet-Off system with the addition of doxycycline. The present study shows that introduction of the CDK4R24C, cyclin D1, and hTERT genes are effective methods of establishing nonhuman primate cell lines. PMID:25187009

Kuroda, Kengo; Kiyono, Tohru; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Isogai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Koichi; Donai, Kenichiro; Isogai, Emiko; Fukuda, Tomokazu

2015-02-01

248

Feeder-independent continuous culture of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line is a bipotent cell line, i.e., capable of forming either bile ductules or hepatocyte monolayers in vitro, that was derived from the primary culture of pig embryonic stem cells. The cell line has been strictly feeder-dependent in that cell replication morphology,...

249

Relationship of SR2508 sensitizer enhancement ratio to cellular glutathione levels in human tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently demonstrated that intracellular elevation of glutathione (GSH) by oxothiazolidine 4-carboxylate lessens SR-2508 hypoxic cell radiosensitization in Chinese hamster cells. This observation, coupled with the fact that GSH depletion potentiates SR-2508 hypoxic radiosensitization, prompted a study of human tumor cell lines whose inherent GSH levels are high compared to normal human cell lines or rodent cell lines. Sensitizer

James B. Mitchell; Theodore L. Phillips; William Degraff; James Carmichael; Rajesh K. Rajpal; Angelo Russo

1986-01-01

250

Characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines by the International Stem Cell Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and SSEA4, the keratan sulfate antigens TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, GCTM2 and GCT343, and the

Oluseun Adewumi; Behrouz Aflatoonian; Lars Ahrlund-Richter; Michal Amit; Gemma Beighton; Paul A Bello; Nissim Benvenisty; Lorraine S Berry; Simon Bevan; Barak Blum; Justin Brooking; Kevin G Chen; Andre B H Choo; Gary A Churchill; Marie Corbel; Ivan Damjanov; Jon S Draper; Petr Dvorak; Katarina Emanuelsson; Roland A Fleck; Angela Ford; Karin Gertow; Marina Gertsenstein; Paul J Gokhale; Rebecca S Hamilton; Ales Hampl; Lyn E Healy; Outi Hovatta; Johan Hyllner; Marta P Imreh; Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor; Jamie Jackson; Jacqueline L Johnson; Mark Jones; Kehkooi Kee; Benjamin L King; Barbara B Knowles; Majlinda Lako; Franck Lebrin; Barbara S Mallon; Daisy Manning; Yoav Mayshar; Ronald D G Mckay; Anna E Michalska; Milla Mikkola; Masha Mileikovsky; Stephen L Minger; Harry D Moore; Christine L Mummery; Andras Nagy; Norio Nakatsuji; Carmel M O'Brien; Steve K W Oh; Cia Olsson; Timo Otonkoski; Kye-Yoon Park; Robert Passier; Hema Patel; Minal Patel; Roger Pedersen; Martin F Pera; Marian S Piekarczyk; Renee A Reijo Pera; Benjamin E Reubinoff; Allan J Robins; Janet Rossant; Peter Rugg-Gunn; Thomas C Schulz; Henrik Semb; Eric S Sherrer; Henrike Siemen; Glyn N Stacey; Miodrag Stojkovic; Hirofumi Suemori; Jin Szatkiewicz; Tikva Turetsky; Timo Tuuri; Steineke van den Brink; Kristina Vintersten; Sanna Vuoristo; Dorien Ward; Thomas A Weaver; Lesley A Young; Weidong Zhang; Peter W Andrews

2007-01-01

251

Androglobin knockdown inhibits growth of glioma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Globin family was famous for oxygen supply function of its members such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. With the progress of research, several members of this protein family have been proven to play roles in tumors including glioma. Androglobin (ADGB) is a recently identified member of globin family with very few studies about its function. In the present study, we show that ADGB plays an oncogene role in glioma. Lentiviral vector mediated ADGB knockdown inhibited the proliferation of glioma cell lines determined by MTT assay and colony formation assay. ADGB knockdown also increased the apoptosis of glioma cell line U251 assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, western blot showed that ADGB knockdown altered levels of several proteins related to proliferation, survival or apoptosis in U251 cells. These findings suggest ADGB is involved in the progression of glioma in vitro. PMID:24966926

Huang, Bo; Lu, Yi-Sheng; Li, Xia; Zhu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Kui; Liu, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Ze-Lan

2014-01-01

252

Over-expression of secreted proteins from mammalian cell lines  

PubMed Central

Secreted mammalian proteins require the development of robust protein over-expression systems for crystallographic and biophysical studies of protein function. Due to complex disulfide bonds and distinct glycosylation patterns preventing folding and expression in prokaryotic expression hosts, many secreted proteins necessitate production in more complex eukaryotic expression systems. Here, we elaborate on the methods used to obtain high yields of purified secreted proteins from transiently or stably transfected mammalian cell lines. Among the issues discussed are the selection of appropriate expression vectors, choice of signal sequences for protein secretion, availability of fusion tags for enhancing protein stability and purification, choice of cell line, and the large-scale growth of cells in a variety of formats. PMID:24510886

Dalton, Annamarie C; Barton, William A

2014-01-01

253

Transgenic cell lines for detection of animal viruses.  

PubMed Central

Rapid diagnostic assays based on direct detection of viral antigen or nucleic acid are being used with increasing frequency in clinical virology laboratories. Virus culture, however, remains the only way to detect infectious virus and to analyze clinically relevant viral phenotypes, such as drug resistance. Growth of viruses in cell culture is labor intensive and time-consuming and requires the use of many different cell lines. Transgenic technology, together with increasing knowledge of the molecular pathways of virus replication, offers the possibility of using genetically modified cell lines to improve virus growth in cell culture and to facilitate detection of virus-infected cells. Genetically modifying cells so that they express a reporter gene only after infection with a specific virus can allow the detection of infectious virus by rapid and simple enzyme assays such as beta-galactosidase assays without the need for antibodies. Although transgenic cells have recently been successfully used for herpes simplex virus detection, much more work needs to be done to adapt this technology to other human viral pathogens such as cytomegalovirus and respiratory viruses. This review offers some strategies for applying this technology to a wide spectrum of animal viruses. PMID:8809463

Olivo, P D

1996-01-01

254

The secretome signature of colon cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The definition of the secretome signature of a cancer cell line can be considered a potential tool to investigate tumor aggressiveness and a preclinical exploratory study required to optimize the search of cancer biomarkers. Dealing with a cell-specific secretome limits the contamination by the major components of the human serum and reduces the range of dynamic concentrations among the secreted proteins, thus favouring under-represented tissue-specific species. The aim of the present study is to characterize the secretome of two human colon carcinoma cell lines, CaCo-2 and HCT-GEO, in order to evaluate differences and similarities of two colorectal cancer model systems. In this study, we identified more than 170 protein species, 64 more expressed in the secretome of CaCo-2 cells and 54 more expressed in the secretome of HCT-GEO cells; 58 proteins were shared by the two systems. Among them, more than 50% were deemed to be secretory according to their Gene Ontology annotation and/or to their SignalP or SecretomeP scores. Such a characterization allowed corroborating the potential of a cell culture-based model in order to describe the cell-specific invasive properties and to provide a list of putative cancer biomarkers. PMID:23744648

Imperlini, Esther; Colavita, Irene; Caterino, Marianna; Mirabelli, Peppino; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Di Noto, Rosa; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Orrù, Stefania

2013-11-01

255

Coxsackievirus B3 entry into the host cell interferes with G-protein-mediated transmembrane signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we used various cell lines in order to study the possible effect of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) entry on the adenylyl cyclase transmembrane signalling system. A significant decrease (by about 10–20%) was found in forskolin-augmented as well as in AlF4-- and GTP?S-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity in plasma membranes isolated from HeLa, HEp-2, Vero and green monkey kidney

Jiri Novotny; Petr Kvapil; Jeronimo Cello; Lennart A. Ransnäs

1994-01-01

256

Host cell reactivation of gamma-irradiated adenovirus 5 in human cell lines of varying radiosensitivity.  

PubMed Central

DNA repair processes play an important role in the determination of radiation response in both normal and tumour cells. We have investigated one aspect of DNA repair in a number of human cell lines of varying radiosensitivity using the adenovirus 5 host cell reactivation assay (HCR). In this technique, gamma-irradiated virions are used to infect cells and the ability of the cellular repair systems to process this damage is assayed by a convenient immunoperoxidase method recognising viral structural antigen expression on the cell membrane 48 h after infection. Reduced HCR was exhibited by radioresistant HeLa cells and by a radiosensitive neuroblastoma cell line, HX142. In contrast, an ataxia telangiectasia cell line, AT5 BIVA, did not show reduced HCR. On the basis of these results we can make no general conclusions about the relevance of HCR to cellular radiosensitivity. We have extended these studies to determine whether our cell lines exhibited enhanced viral reactivation (ER) following a small priming dose of gamma-radiation given to the cells before viral infection. No evidence for this phenomenon was found either in normal or tumour cell lines. PMID:1637659

Eady, J. J.; Peacock, J. H.; McMillan, T. J.

1992-01-01

257

Restoration of WNT4 inhibits cell growth in leukemia-derived cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background WNT signaling pathways are significantly altered during cancer development. Vertebrates possess two classes of WNT signaling pathways: the “canonical” WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway, and the “non-canonical” pathways including WNT/Ca2+ and WNT/Planar cell polarity [PCP] signaling. WNT4 influences hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion and survival; however, WNT4 function in cancer development and the resulting implications for oncogenesis are poorly understood. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to determine the expression of WNT4 in mature peripheral blood cells and diverse leukemia-derived cells including cell lines from hematopoietic neoplasms and cells from patients with leukemia; second, to identify the effect of this ligand on the proliferation and apoptosis of the blast-derived cell lines BJAB, Jurkat, CEM, K562, and HL60. Methods We determined WNT4 expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T- and B-lymphocytes from healthy individuals, as well as from five leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. To analyze the effect of WNT4 on cell proliferation, PBMCs and cell lines were exposed to a commercially available WNT4 recombinant human protein. Furthermore, WNT4 expression was restored in BJAB cells using an inducible lentiviral expression system. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by the addition of WST-1 to cell cultures and counting cells; in addition, the progression of the cell cycle and the amount of apoptosis were analyzed in the absence or presence of WNT4. Finally, the expression of WNT-pathway target genes was measured by qRT-PCR. Results WNT4 expression was severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. The exposure of cell lines to WNT4 recombinant protein significantly inhibited cell proliferation; inducing WNT4 expression in BJAB cells corroborated this observation. Interestingly, restoration of WNT4 expression in BJAB cells increased the accumulation of cells in G1 phase, and did not induce activation of canonical WNT/?-catenin target genes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the WNT4 ligand plays a role in regulating the cell growth of leukemia-derived cells by arresting cells in the G1 cell cycle phase in an FZD6-independent manner, possibly through antagonizing the canonical WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:24274766

2013-01-01

258

Bioenergetic analysis of ovarian cancer cell lines: profiling of histological subtypes and identification of a mitochondria-defective cell line.  

PubMed

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal of all gynecological cancers, and encompasses distinct histological subtypes that have specific genetic and tissues-of-origin differences. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) represents approximately 10% of cases and has been termed a stress responsive cancer. OCCC is characterized by increased expression of oxidative stress and glycolysis-related genes. In the present study, we hypothesized that bioenergetic profiling might uniquely distinguish OCCC from other EOC histological subtypes. Using an extracellular flux analyzer, OCCC lines (ES-2, TOV-21-G) were shown to be highly metabolically active, with high oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and high extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), indicative of enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic rate, respectively. A high bioenergetics profile was associated with the cell lines' ability to form anchorage independent spheroids. Given their high glycolytic and mitochondrial activity, OCCC cells displayed strong sensitivity to 2-deoxy-D-glucose and Rotenone growth inhibition, although this chemosensitivity profile was not specific to only OCCC cells. Bioenergetic profiling also identified a non-OCCC cell line, OVCA420, to have severely compromised mitochondrial function, based on low OCR and a lack of stimulation of maximal respiration following application of the uncoupler FCCP. This was accompanied by mitochondrial morphology changes indicative of enhanced fission, increased expression of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and dependence on glycolysis. Importantly, this loss of mitochondrial function was accompanied by the inability of OVCA420 cells to cope with hypoxic stress, and a compromised ability to stabilize HIF-1? in response to 1% O2 hypoxia. This knowledge may be imperative for researchers planning to utilize this cell line for further studies of metabolism and hypoxia, and suggests that altered mitochondrial fission dynamics represents a phenotype of a subpopulation of EOCs. PMID:24858344

Dier, Usawadee; Shin, Dong-Hui; Hemachandra, L P Madhubhani P; Uusitalo, Larissa M; Hempel, Nadine

2014-01-01

259

Bioenergetic Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines: Profiling of Histological Subtypes and Identification of a Mitochondria-Defective Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal of all gynecological cancers, and encompasses distinct histological subtypes that have specific genetic and tissues-of-origin differences. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) represents approximately 10% of cases and has been termed a stress responsive cancer. OCCC is characterized by increased expression of oxidative stress and glycolysis-related genes. In the present study, we hypothesized that bioenergetic profiling might uniquely distinguish OCCC from other EOC histological subtypes. Using an extracellular flux analyzer, OCCC lines (ES-2, TOV-21-G) were shown to be highly metabolically active, with high oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and high extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), indicative of enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic rate, respectively. A high bioenergetics profile was associated with the cell lines' ability to form anchorage independent spheroids. Given their high glycolytic and mitochondrial activity, OCCC cells displayed strong sensitivity to 2-deoxy-D-glucose and Rotenone growth inhibition, although this chemosensitivity profile was not specific to only OCCC cells. Bioenergetic profiling also identified a non-OCCC cell line, OVCA420, to have severely compromised mitochondrial function, based on low OCR and a lack of stimulation of maximal respiration following application of the uncoupler FCCP. This was accompanied by mitochondrial morphology changes indicative of enhanced fission, increased expression of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and dependence on glycolysis. Importantly, this loss of mitochondrial function was accompanied by the inability of OVCA420 cells to cope with hypoxic stress, and a compromised ability to stabilize HIF-1? in response to 1% O2 hypoxia. This knowledge may be imperative for researchers planning to utilize this cell line for further studies of metabolism and hypoxia, and suggests that altered mitochondrial fission dynamics represents a phenotype of a subpopulation of EOCs. PMID:24858344

Dier, Usawadee; Shin, Dong-Hui; Hemachandra, L. P. Madhubhani P.; Uusitalo, Larissa M.; Hempel, Nadine

2014-01-01

260

Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal cancers and is associated with limited diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Currently, gemcitabine is the only effective drug and represents the preferred first-line treatment for chemotherapy. However, a high level of intrinsic or acquired resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine can contribute to the failure of gemcitabine treatment. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer, we performed label-free quantification of protein expression in intrinsic gemcitabine-resistant and - sensitive human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines using our improved proteomic strategy, combined with filter-aided sample preparation, single-shot liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, enhanced spectral counting, and a statistical method based on a power law global error model. We identified 1931 proteins and quantified 787 differentially expressed proteins in the BxPC3, PANC-1, and HPDE cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis identified 15 epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and 13 EMT-related proteins that were closely associated with drug resistance were differentially expressed. Interestingly, 8 of these proteins were involved in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism. These results suggest that proteins related to the EMT and glutathione metabolism play important roles in the development of intrinsic gemcitabine resistance by pancreatic cancer cell lines. PMID:25518923

Kim, Yikwon; Han, Dohyun; Min, Hophil; Jin, Jonghwa; Yi, Eugene C.; Kim, Youngsoo

2014-01-01

261

Comparative proteomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal cancers and is associated with limited diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Currently, gemcitabine is the only effective drug and represents the preferred first-line treatment for chemotherapy. However, a high level of intrinsic or acquired resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine can contribute to the failure of gemcitabine treatment. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer, we performed label-free quantification of protein expression in intrinsic gemcitabine-resistant and - sensitive human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines using our improved proteomic strategy, combined with filter-aided sample preparation, single-shot liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, enhanced spectral counting, and a statistical method based on a power law global error model. We identified 1931 proteins and quantified 787 differentially expressed proteins in the BxPC3, PANC-1, and HPDE cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis identified 15 epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and 13 EMT-related proteins that were closely associated with drug resistance were differentially expressed. Interestingly, 8 of these proteins were involved in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism. These results suggest that proteins related to the EMT and glutathione metabolism play important roles in the development of intrinsic gemcitabine resistance by pancreatic cancer cell lines. PMID:25518923

Kim, Yikwon; Han, Dohyun; Min, Hophil; Jin, Jonghwa; Yi, Eugene C; Kim, Youngsoo

2014-12-31

262

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Identifies Cells with Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties in a Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cells (CSC) or cancer stem cell-like cells (CSC-LCs) have been identified in many malignant tumors. CSCs are proposed to be related with drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis and are considered as a new target for cancer treatment; however, there are only a few reports on CSCs or CSC-LCs in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Different approaches have been reported for CSC identification, but there are no universal markers for CSC. We used two different approaches, the traditional side population (SP) approach, and the enzymatic (aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)) approach to identify CSC-LC population in two RCC cell lines, ACHN and KRC/Y. We found that ACHN and KRC/Y contain 1.4% and 1.7% SP cells, respectively. ACHN SP cells showed a higher sphere forming ability, drug resistance, and a slightly higher tumorigenic ability in NOD/SCID mice than Non-SP (NSP) cells, suggesting that cells with CSC-LC properties are included in ACHN SP cells. KRC/Y SP and NSP cells showed no difference in such properties. ALDH1 activity analysis revealed that ACHN SP cells expressed a higher level of activity than NSP cells (SP vs. NSP: 32.7% vs 14.6%). Analysis of ALDH1-positive ACHN cells revealed that they have a higher sphere forming ability, self-renewal ability, tumorigenicity and express higher mRNA levels of CSC-LC property-related genes (e.g., ABC transporter genes, self-replication genes, anti-apoptosis genes, and so forth) than ALDH1-negative cells. Drug treatment or exposure to hypoxic condition induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in number of ALDH1-positive cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that the ALDH1-positive cell population rather than SP cells show CSC-LC properties in a RCC cell line, ACHN. PMID:24116047

Ueda, Kosuke; Ogasawara, Sachiko; Akiba, Jun; Nakayama, Masamichi; Todoroki, Keita; Ueda, Keiko; Sanada, Sakiko; Suekane, Shigetaka; Noguchi, Masanori; Matsuoka, Kei; Yano, Hirohisa

2013-01-01

263

Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

2015-01-01

264

Serial analysis of gene expression in a microglial cell line.  

PubMed

We used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method to systematically analyze transcripts present in a microglial cell line. Over 10,000 SAGE tags were sequenced, and shown to represent 6,013 unique transcripts. Among the diverse transcripts that had not been previously detected in microglia were those for cytokines such as endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide I (EMAP I), and for cell surface antigens, including adhesion molecules such as CD9, CD53, CD107a, CD147, CD162 and mast cell high affinity IgE receptor. In addition, we detected transcripts that were characteristic of hematopoietic cells or mesodermal structures, such as E3 protein, A1, EN-7, B94, and ufo. Furthermore, the profile contained a transcript, Hn1, that is important in hematopoietic cells and neurological development (Tang et al. Mamm Genome 8:695-696, 1997), suggesting the probable neural differentiation of microglia from the hematopoietic system in development. Messenger RNA expression of these genes was confirmed by RT-PCR in primary cultures of microglia. Significantly, this is the first systematic profiling of the genes expressed in a microglial cell line. The identification and further characterization of the genes described here should provide potential new targets for the study of microglial biology. PMID:10559785

Inoue, H; Sawada, M; Ryo, A; Tanahashi, H; Wakatsuki, T; Hada, A; Kondoh, N; Nakagaki, K; Takahashi, K; Suzumura, A; Yamamoto, M; Tabira, T

1999-12-01

265

Stem Cells. Author manuscript Derivation and cloning of a novel rhesus embryonic stem cell line stably  

E-print Network

Stem Cells. Author manuscript Page /1 13 Derivation and cloning of a novel rhesus embryonic stem,FR * Correspondence should be adressed to: Colette Dehay Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ESC Line ; Embryonic Stem Cells ; cytology ; enzymology ; physiology ; virology ; Genes, Reporter ; Green

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Establishment and Characterization of New Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines.  

PubMed

The establishment of two new breast cancer cell lines, MXT(+) and MXT(-), derived from the murine breast cancer models MXT-M-3, 2 MC (hormone-sensitive) and MXT-M-3, 2 (ovex) MC (hormone-insensitive), is described. Characterization of the cell lines was performed by investigation of morphology, steroid hormone receptor state, growth kinetics, and drug response as well as by cytogenetic analysis. MXT(+) contains estrogen receptors (ER; 6.9 fmol/mg protein) as well as progesterone receptors (PgR; 9.2 fmol/mg protein) and therefore is inhibited by tamoxifen (Tam). MXT(-) proved to be ER(-) but PgR(+) (23.4 fmol/mg protein) and, as expected, resistant against Tam.The sensitivity of MXT(+) and MXT(-) against a pattern of therapeutically established anti-breast cancer drugs (cDDP, cisplatin; JM-8, carboplatin; DX, adriamycin; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; MTX, methotrexate; VLB vinblastine) was studied by use of a computerized, kinetic chemosensitivity assay based on quantification of biomass by staining cells with crystal violet. For each compound the inhibition profile reflecting cytostatic, transient cytotoxic, or cytocidal drug effects as well as development of resistance was evaluated. The following order of activity was found: MTX >, VLB >/= DX > cDDP >/= 5-FU > JM-8. The test data of 5-FU, VLB, cDDP, and Tam on MXT(+) as well as on MXT(-) were compared with those from studies on ER(+) and ER(-) human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T-47-D, and MDA-MB-231, respectively). They revealed comparable inhibition profiles and sensitivities of human and murine breast cancer cell lines, an indication that the results achieved in combined in vitro-/in vivo tests by use of the murine test models MXT(+), MXT(-), MXT-M-3, 2 MC, and MXT-M-3, 2(ovex) MC are relevant for therapy in humans. PMID:12007108

Bernhardt, Günther; Beckenlehner, Karin; Spruss, Thilo; Schlemmer, Richard; Reile, Herta; Schönenberger, Helmut

2002-05-01

267

Establishment and characterization of new murine breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The establishment of two new breast cancer cell lines, MXT+ and MXT-, derived from the murine breast cancer models MXT-M-3,2 MC (hormone-sensitive) and MXT-M-3,2 (ovex) MC (hormone-insensitive), is described. Characterization of the cell lines was performed by investigation of morphology, steroid hormone receptor state, growth kinetics, and drug response as well as by cytogenetic analysis. MXT+ contains estrogen receptors (ER; 6.9 fmol/mg protein) as well as progesterone receptors (PgR; 9.2 fmol/mg protein) and therefore is inhibited by tamoxifen (Tam). MXT- proved to be ER- but PgR+ (23.4 fmol/mg protein) and, as expected, resistant against Tam. The sensitivity of MXT+ and MXT- against a pattern of therapeutically established anti-breast cancer drugs (cDDP, cisplatin; JM-8, carboplatin; DX, adriamycin; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; MTX, methotrexate; VLB vinblastine) was studied by use of a computerized, kinetic chemosensitivity assay based on quantification of biomass by staining cells with crystal violet. For each compound the inhibition profile reflecting cytostatic, transient cytotoxic, or cytocidal drug effects as well as development of resistance was evaluated. The following order of activity was found: MTX > VLB > or = DX > cDDP > or = 5-FU > JM-8. The test data of 5-FU, VLB, cDDP, and Tam on MXT+ as well as on MXT- were compared with those from studies on ER+ and ER- human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T-47-D, and MDA-MB-231, respectively). They revealed comparable inhibition profiles and sensitivities of human and murine breast cancer cell lines, an indication that the results achieved in combined in vitro-/in vivo tests by use of the murine test models MXT+, MXT-, MXT-M-3,2 MC, and MXT-M-3,2(ovex) MC are relevant for therapy in humans. PMID:12043456

Bernhardt, Günther; Beckenlehner, Karin; Spruss, Thilo; Schlemmer, Richard; Reile, Herta; Schönenberger, Helmut

2002-03-01

268

STAT1 signaling is associated with acquired crossresistance to doxorubicin and radiation in myeloma cell lines  

E-print Network

cell lines M °arten Fryknas1 , Sumeer Dhar2 , Fredrik Oberg1 , Linda Rickardson2 , Maria Ryd °aker2 and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, Sweden The myeloma cell line RPMI 8226/S and its doxorubicin the 8226/Dox40 cell line to its parental line was performed to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms

269

Isolation, immortalization, and characterization of a human breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties  

PubMed Central

The epithelial compartment of the human breast comprises two distinct lineages: the luminal epithelial and the myoepithelial lineage. We have shown previously that a subset of the luminal epithelial cells could convert to myoepithelial cells in culture signifying the possible existence of a progenitor cell. We therefore set out to identify and isolate the putative precursor in the luminal epithelial compartment. Using cell surface markers and immunomagnetic sorting, we isolated two luminal epithelial cell populations from primary cultures of reduction mammoplasties. The major population coexpresses sialomucin (MUC+) and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA+) whereas the minor population has a suprabasal position and expresses epithelial specific antigen but no sialomucin (MUC?/ESA+). Two cell lines were further established by transduction of the E6/E7 genes from human papilloma virus type 16. Both cell lines maintained a luminal epithelial phenotype as evidenced by expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-1 and occludin, and by generation of a high transepithelial electrical resistance on semipermeable filters. Whereas in clonal cultures, the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line was luminal epithelial restricted in its differentiation repertoire, the suprabasal-derived MUC?/ESA+ epithelial cell line was able to generate itself as well as MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cells and Thy-1+/?-smooth muscle actin+ (ASMA+) myoepithelial cells. The MUC?/ESA+ epithelial cell line further differed from the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line by the expression of keratin K19, a feature of a subpopulation of epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units in vivo. Within a reconstituted basement membrane, the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line formed acinus-like spheres. In contrast, the MUC?/ESA+ epithelial cell line formed elaborate branching structures resembling uncultured terminal duct lobular units both by morphology and marker expression. Similar structures were obtained by inoculating the extracellular matrix-embedded cells subcutaneously in nude mice. Thus, MUC?/ESA+ epithelial cells within the luminal epithelial lineage may function as precursor cells of terminal duct lobular units in the human breast. PMID:11914275

Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

2002-01-01

270

Regulation of cell shape in the Cloudman melanoma cell line.  

PubMed Central

We show that Cloudman melanoma cells undergo rapid arborization in response to [Nle4,D-Phe7]alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, a potent analogue of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). The arbors were established by extension of processes and resembled dendrites. We used this system to study the regulation of cell shape. alpha-MSH is known to induce increases in cAMP levels, and agents such as forskolin and isobutylmethylxanthine that led to increased cAMP also caused arborization. However, equally dramatic arbors were formed after incubation with the protein kinase C inhibitor H-7 [1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-alpha-methyl-piperazine]. Phorbol diesters that activate protein kinase C led to cell rounding and antagonized alpha-MSH. The actions of protein kinase C cannot be rationalized in terms of indirect effects on cAMP: neither H-7 nor phorbol diesters alone altered cAMP levels, nor did they affect the increase in cAMP induced by MSH. We show also that MSH produced longer-term effects that cannot be mimicked by cAMP. Specifically, even in the continued presence of alpha-MSH, arborization was followed by morphological reversal to the unstimulated flattened configuration within 2 hr. (This did not occur with other agents that increase cAMP or with H-7.) Most importantly, whereas MSH-induced arborization occurred in the presence of cycloheximide, actinomycin D, or in enucleated cells, the reversal of arborization did not. Thus, MSH induced a program of rapid shape change that was dependent on new protein synthesis and gene transcription. Images PMID:3037540

Preston, S F; Volpi, M; Pearson, C M; Berlin, R D

1987-01-01

271

Assessment of Cell Line Models of Primary Human Cells by Raman Spectral Phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Abstract Researchers have previously questioned the suitability of cell lines as models for primary cells. In this study, we used Raman microspectroscopy to characterize live A549 cells from a unique molecular biochemical perspective to shed light on their suitability as a model for primary human pulmonary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. We also investigated a recently developed transduced type I (TT1) cell line as a model for alveolar type I (ATI) cells. Single-cell Raman spectra provide unique biomolecular fingerprints that can be used to characterize cellular phenotypes. A multivariate statistical analysis of Raman spectra indicated that the spectra of A549 and TT1 cells are characterized by significantly lower phospholipid content compared to ATII and ATI spectra because their cytoplasm contains fewer surfactant lamellar bodies. Furthermore, we found that A549 spectra are statistically more similar to ATI spectra than to ATII spectra. The spectral variation permitted phenotypic classification of cells based on Raman spectral signatures with >99% accuracy. These results suggest that A549 cells are not a good model for ATII cells, but TT1 cells do provide a reasonable model for ATI cells. The findings have far-reaching implications for the assessment of cell lines as suitable primary cellular models in live cultures. PMID:20409492

Swain, Robin J.; Kemp, Sarah J.; Goldstraw, Peter; Tetley, Teresa D.; Stevens, Molly M.

2010-01-01

272

Establishment and Characterization of a Novel Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Line USC-HN1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive and lethal malignancy. Publically available cell lines are mostly of lingual origin, or have not been carefully characterized. Detailed characterization of novel HNSCC cell lines is needed in order to provide researchers a concrete keystone on which to build their investigations. METHODS: The USC-HN1 cell line was established from

Daniel J Liebertz; Melissa G Lechner; Rizwan Masood; Uttam K Sinha; Jing Han; Raj K Puri; Adrian J Correa; Alan L Epstein

2010-01-01

273

Primed pluripotent cell lines derived from various embryonic origins and somatic cells in pig.  

PubMed

Since pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines were first derived from the mouse, tremendous efforts have been made to establish ESC lines in several domestic species including the pig; however, authentic porcine ESCs have not yet been established. It has proven difficult to maintain an ESC-like state in pluripotent porcine cell lines due to the frequent occurrence of spontaneous differentiation into an epiblast stem cell (EpiSC)-like state during culture. We have been able to derive EpiSC-like porcine ESC (pESC) lines from blastocyst stage porcine embryos of various origins, including in vitro fertilized (IVF), in vivo derived, IVF aggregated, and parthenogenetic embryos. In addition, we have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) via plasmid transfection of reprogramming factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) into porcine fibroblast cells. In this study, we analyzed characteristics such as marker expression, pluripotency and the X chromosome inactivation status in female of our EpiSC-like pESC lines along with our piPSC line. Our results show that these cell lines demonstrate the expression of genes associated with the Activin/Nodal and FGF2 pathways along with the expression of pluripotent markers Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, SSEA4, TRA 1-60 and TRA 1-81. Furthermore all of these cell lines showed in vitro differentiation potential, the X chromosome inactivation in female and a normal karyotype. Here we suggest that the porcine species undergoes reprogramming into a primed state during the establishment of pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:23326334

Park, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hye-Sun; Uh, Kyung-Jun; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Kim, Hyeong-Min; Lee, Taeheon; Yang, Byung-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jong; Ka, Hak-Hyun; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Chang-Kyu

2013-01-01

274

Destabilization of Akt Promotes the Death of Myeloma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Constitutive activation of Akt is believed to be an oncogenic signal in multiple myeloma and is associated with poor patient prognosis and resistance to available treatment. The stability of Akt proteins is regulated by phosphorylating the highly conserved turn motif (TM) of these proteins and the chaperone protein HSP90. In this study we investigate the antitumor effects of inhibiting mTORC2 plus HSP90 in myeloma cell lines. We show that chronic exposure of cells to rapamycin can inhibit mTORC2 pathway, and AKT will be destabilized by administration of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG). Finally, we show that the rapamycin synergizes with 17-AAG and inhibits myeloma cells growth and promotes cell death to a greater extent than either drug alone. Our studies provide a clinical rationale of use mTOR inhibitors and chaperone protein inhibitors in combination regimens for the treatment of human blood cancers. PMID:25243120

Zhang, Yanan; Fu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01

275

Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pancreatic cancer remains the most devastating disease with worst prognosis. There is a pressing need to accelerate the drug discovery process to identify new effective drug candidates against pancreatic cancer. We have developed QSAR models for predicting promiscuous inhibitors using the pharmacological data. Our models achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86, when evaluated on 10-fold cross-validation. Our models have also successfully validated the drug-to-oncogene relationship and further we used these models to screen FDA approved drugs and tested them in vitro. We have integrated these models in a webserver named as DiPCell, which will be useful for screening and designing novel promiscuous drug molecules. We have also identified the most and least effective drugs for pancreatic cancer cell lines. On the other side, we have identified resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines, which need investigative scanner on them to put light on resistant mechanism in pancreatic cancer.

Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Singla, Deepak; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

2014-04-01

276

RON and cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

RON (recepteur d'origine nantais) tyrosine kinase receptor has revealed its tumorigenic potential in recent studies. RON was reported to be overexpressed in 55% of primary ovarian carcinoma samples and furthermore its activation increases cell motility and invasiveness. In this study, we investigated the correlation between RON expression and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cells. In A2780 cells, a model featured by high chemosensitivity to cisplatin, stable overexpression of RON was able to reduce sensitivity to this agent, while incubation with a blocking anti-RON antibody (ID1) increased the cisplatin-induced growth inhibition effect. Moreover, we observed an increased RON expression both at the mRNA and protein level in A2780 cells made resistant to doxorubicin and paclitaxel (A2780ADR and TC 1, respectively), two cell lines exhibiting a collateral resistance to cisplatin. OVCAR-3 cells, showing high levels of RON expression, also displayed inherent cisplatin resistance. The morphology observed in these resistant cells is consistent with a scattering phenotype and a RON-activated state. RON expression levels were monitored upon hypoxia. A 2.5-fold increase of RON expression was noticed in response to hypoxia in OVCAR-3 cells, in parallel with a decrease of E-cadherin mRNA. Altogether these results suggest an involvement of RON in the acquisition of cisplatin resistance and highlight the importance of this factor as a promising target for combination with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. PMID:21141737

Prislei, Silvia; Mariani, Marisa; Raspaglio, Giuseppina; Mozzetti, Simona; Filippetti, Flavia; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Scambia, Giovanni; Ferlini, Cristiano

2010-01-01

277

[Antitumor effect of docetaxel against human endometrial tumor cell lines].  

PubMed

The antitumor effect of docetaxel against human endometrial tumor cell lines was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study,docetaxel showed concentration-dependent inhibition of the growth of 4 tumor cell lines having different degrees of differentiation (AN3 CA, KLE, HEC-1-A and HEC-1-B), with IC(50) values ranging from 2.48 to 82.40 ng/ml. These values represent ca. 1/900-1/30 of the mean maximum plasma concentration of 2.27 microg/ml attained when the recommended dose of 70 mg/m(2) for patients with endometrial cancer was administered to patients with various types of cancer in phase I trial. In addition, the activity was nearly equal to paclitaxel, and much more potent than fluorouracil, cisplatin and doxorubicin. Docetaxel also showed strong antitumor activity against xenografts of the AN3 CA human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line in nude mice. In the docetaxel treated group at its MTD (33 mg/kg/dose, q 6 d x 3, iv), all of the animals were tumor-free survivors on Day 62 after xenografting. The antitumor effect in the MTD-administered group was the strongest of all of the tested anticancer drug groups (cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, fluorouracil, cisplatin, doxorubicin). Even at two docetaxel dosages below its MTD (20.5 and 12.5 mg/kg/day), the drug showed a marked cytotoxic activity. These results demonstrated that docetaxel shows potent antitumor efficacy against human endometrial tumor cell lines, leading to the expectation that it will be useful as a therapeutic agent for endometrial cancer. PMID:16227744

Shakuto, Shuji; Noguchi, Keiko; Bissery, Marie-Christine

2005-10-01

278

Baculovirus replication in a mosquito (dipteran) cell line.  

PubMed Central

The baculovirus from the lepidopteran host Autographa californica (alfalfa looper) was shown to replicate in a dipteran cell line without the production of characteristic polyhedral inclusion bodies. The low level of replication could not be detected by 50% tissue culture infective dose titrations, but was apparent by [3H]thymidine labeling of the viral genome. Immunoprecipitation of the radioactive product confirmed baculovirus production. PMID:500203

Sherman, K E; McIntosh, A H

1979-01-01

279

Cell-cycle synchronization reverses Taxol resistance of human ovarian cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Taxol is a powerful chemotherapy agent leading to mitotic arrest and cell death; however, its clinical efficacy has been hampered due to the development of drug resistance. Taxol specifically targets the cell cycle. Progress through mitosis (M stage) is an absolute requirement for drug-induced death because cell death is markedly reduced in cells blocked at the G1-S transition. The measured doubling time for ovarian cancer cells is about 27 h. As such, during treatment with Taxol most of the cells are not in the M stage of the cell cycle. Thus, the effect of cell-cycle synchronization was investigated in regard to reversing Taxol resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Methods Giemsa-Wright staining was used for assessing the morphology of the cells. The doubling time of the cells was calculated using formula as follows: Td?=?In2/slope. The resistant index and cell cycle were measured via MTT assays and flow cytometry. Thymidine was used to induce cell-cycle synchronization, and cell apoptosis rates following exposure to Taxol were measured using a flow cytometer. Results The growth doubling time of two Taxol-resistant cell lines were longer than that of Taxol-sensitive cells. Apoptotic rates in Taxol-sensitive and -resistant cell lines after synchronization and exposure to Taxol were all higher compared to unsynchronized controls (p <0.05). Conclusions Synchronization of the cell-cycle resulted in an increased effectiveness of Taxol toward ovarian cancer cell lines. We speculated that formation of drug resistance toward Taxol in ovarian cancer could be partly attributed to the longer doubling time of these cells. PMID:23899403

2013-01-01

280

Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to mouse epidermal cells, hu- man skin keratinocytes are rather resistant to transfor- mation in vitro. Immortalization has been achieved by SV40 but has resulted in cell lines with altered differentiation. We have established a spontaneously transformed human epithelial cell line from adult skin, which maintains full epidermal differentiation capacity. This HaCaT cell line is obviously immortal (>140

Petra Boukamp; T. Petrussevska; Dirk Breitkreutz; Jiirgen Hornung; Alex Markham; Norbert E. Fusenig

1988-01-01

281

Creation and characterization of a cell-death reporter cell line for hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

The present study describes the creation and characterization of a hepatoma cell line, n4mBid, that supports all stages of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle and strongly reports HCV infection by a cell-death phenotype. The n4mBid cell line is derived from the highly HCV-permissive Huh-7.5 hepatoma cell line and contains a modified Bid protein (mBid) that is cleaved and activated by the HCV serine protease NS3-4A. N4mBid exhibited a 10–20 fold difference in cell viability between the HCV-infected and mock-infected states, while the parental Huh-7.5 cells showed <2 fold difference under the same conditions. The pronounced difference in n4mBid cell viability between the HCV- and mock-infected states in a 96-well plate format points to its usefulness in cell survival-based high-throughput screens for anti-HCV molecules. The degree of cell death was found to be proportional to the intracellular load of HCV. HCV-low n4mBid cells, expressing an anti-HCV short hairpin RNA, showed a significant growth advantage over naïve cells and could be rapidly enriched after HCV infection, suggesting the possibility of using n4mBid cells for the cell survival-based selection of genetic anti-HCV factors. PMID:20188762

Chen, Zhilei; Simeon, Rudo; Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Rice, Charles M.

2010-01-01

282

Investigation of native fluorescence spectral difference among prostate cancer cell lines with different risk levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alteration of native fluorophores among different types of cancer cell lines was investigated by the fluorescence spectroscopy. Different types of cancer cell lines with different risk levels, such as moderate metastatic (DU-145) and advanced metastatic (PC-3) cell lines as well as normal cell line (Fibroblast), were excited by the selective excitation wavelength of 300 nm to explore changes of the relative contents of tryptophan and NADH using principal component analysis (PCA). The higher relative content of tryptophan was observed in the advanced metastatic cancer cell lines in comparison with the moderate metastatic and non aggressive cell lines.

Pu, Yang; Xue, Jianpeng; Xu, Baogang; Wang, Wubao; Gu, Yueqing; Tang, Rui; Achilefu, S.; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Koutcher, Jason A.; Alfano, R. R.

2013-03-01

283

Persistent infection of human lymphoid and myeloid cell lines with herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 replicated and persisted in human T, B, and myeloid cell lines with different patterns of viral replication and various effects on cell growth. T cell line CEM supported the replication of HSV for over 400 days without detectable differences in cell growth as compared with uninfected cells. HSV persisted in B cell line NC37 and myeloid cell line K562 for up to 222 and 374 days, respectively, but led to a significant decrease in the number of viable cells by 7 weeks of infection. The average number of cells producing infectious virus was very low in these cell lines (range, 0.5 to 2.7+) compared with a larger proportion of cells exhibiting HSV antigens by immunofluorescence (range, 24 to 58%). In contrast, null cell line LAZ 221 failed to replicate HSV even though the viral infection led to a cessation of cell growth. PMID:226478

Rinaldo, C R; Richter, B S; Black, P H; Hirsch, M S

1979-01-01

284

Characterization of butyrate uptake by nontransformed intestinal epithelial cell lines.  

PubMed

Butyrate (BT) is one of the main end products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the human colon. Among its recognized effects, BT inhibits colon carcinogenesis. Our aim was to characterize uptake of BT by two nontransformed intestinal epithelial cell lines: rat small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) and fetal human colonic epithelial (FHC) cells. Uptake of ¹?C-BT by IEC-6 cells was (1) time- and concentration-dependent; (2) pH-dependent; (3) Na+-, Cl?- and energy-dependent; (4) inhibited by BT structural analogues; (5) sensitive to monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitors; and (6) insensitive to DIDS and amiloride. IEC-6 cells express both MCT1 and Na+-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1) mRNA. We conclude that ¹?C-BT uptake by IEC-6 cells mainly involves MCT1, with a small contribution of SMCT1. Acute exposure to ethanol, acetaldehyde, indomethacin, resveratrol and quercetin reduced ¹?C-BT uptake. Chronic exposure to resveratrol and quercetin reduced ¹?C-BT uptake but had no effect on either MCT1 or SMCT1 mRNA levels. Uptake of ¹?C-BT by FHC cells was time- and concentration-dependent but pH-, Na+-, Cl?- and energy-independent and insensitive to BT structural analogues and MCT1 inhibitors. Although MCT1 (but not SMCT1) mRNA expression was found in FHC cells, the characteristics of ¹?C-BT uptake by FHC cells did not support either MCT1 or SMCT1 involvement. In conclusion, uptake characteristics of ¹?C-BT differ between IEC-6 and FHC cells. IEC-6 cells demonstrate MCT1- and SMCT1-mediated transport, while FHC cells do not. PMID:21286694

Gonçalves, Pedro; Araújo, João R; Martel, Fátima

2011-03-01

285

Improving the efficiency of CHO cell line generation using glutamine synthetase gene knockout cells.  

PubMed

Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with their unique characteristics, have become a major workhorse for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins, one of the major challenges in CHO cell line generation (CLG) is how to efficiently identify those rare, high-producing clones among a large population of low- and non-productive clones. It is not unusual that several hundred individual clones need to be screened for the identification of a commercial clonal cell line with acceptable productivity and growth profile making the cell line appropriate for commercial application. This inefficiency makes the process of CLG both time consuming and laborious. Currently, there are two main CHO expression systems, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-based methotrexate (MTX) selection and glutamine synthetase (GS)-based methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, that have been in wide industrial use. Since selection of recombinant cell lines in the GS-CHO system is based on the balance between the expression of the GS gene introduced by the expression plasmid and the addition of the GS inhibitor, L-MSX, the expression of GS from the endogenous GS gene in parental CHOK1SV cells will likely interfere with the selection process. To study endogenous GS expression's potential impact on selection efficiency, GS-knockout CHOK1SV cell lines were generated using the zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology designed to specifically target the endogenous CHO GS gene. The high efficiency (?2%) of bi-allelic modification on the CHO GS gene supports the unique advantages of the ZFN technology, especially in CHO cells. GS enzyme function disruption was confirmed by the observation of glutamine-dependent growth of all GS-knockout cell lines. Full evaluation of the GS-knockout cell lines in a standard industrial cell culture process was performed. Bulk culture productivity improved two- to three-fold through the use of GS-knockout cells as parent cells. The selection stringency was significantly increased, as indicated by the large reduction of non-producing and low-producing cells after 25?µM L-MSX selection, and resulted in a six-fold efficiency improvement in identifying similar numbers of high-productive cell lines for a given recombinant monoclonal antibody. The potential impact of GS-knockout cells on recombinant protein quality is also discussed. PMID:22068567

Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Hatfield, Christopher C; Shaw, Margaret M; Frye, Christopher C

2012-04-01

286

New cell lines from mouse epiblast share defining features with human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of human embryonic stem (ES) cells in medicine andbiologyhasaninherentrelianceonunderstandingthestarting cellpopulation.HumanEScellsdifferfrommouseEScellsandthe specific embryonic origin of both cell types is unclear. Previous work suggested that mouse ES cells could only be obtained from the embryo before implantation in the uterus1-5. Here we show that cell lines can be derived from the epiblast, a tissue of the post- implantation embryo that

Josh G. Chenoweth; Frances A. Brook; Timothy J. Davies; Edward P. Evans; David L. Mack; Richard L. Gardner; Paul J. Tesar; Ronald D. G. McKay

2007-01-01

287

Hypotonic cell swelling stimulates permeability to cAMP in a rat colonic cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterized the membrane permeability to cAMP in a cell line derived from the rat colon (CC531 mdr+) by comparison of fluxes of 3H-cAMP, 3H-8-bromo-cAMP, 3H-taurine, 3H-adenosine and 3H-5'AMP under various experimental conditions including cell membrane depolarization and hypotonic cell swelling. Cell volume was modified by changing the osmolality and composition of the extracellular medium. Incubation in iso- and

P. E. Golstein; A. Daifi; R. Crutzen; A. Boom; W. Van Driessche; R. Beauwens

2004-01-01

288

Cytotoxic Activity of New Acetoxycoumarin Derivatives in Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Background Coumarin and their derivatives are important and useful compounds with diverse pharmacological properties. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activity of new acetoxycoumarin derivatives: 4-(7-methoxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (1), 4-(1-methyl-3-oxo-3H-benzo[f]chromen-2-yl)phenyl acetate (2), 4-(6-propionamido-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (3), 4-(7-acetoxy-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (4), 4-(2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (5), 4-(6-bromo-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (6), 4-(7-(diethylamino)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (7), 4-(6,8-dibromo-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (8) against A549 human lung cancer, CRL 1548 rat liver cancer and CRL 1439 normal rat liver cells. Materials and Methods The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by crystal violet dye-binding assay. The effect of compounds 5 and 7 on different phases of the cell cycle was determined using flow cytometry. Results In the A549 lung cancer cell line, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values for compounds 1–4, 6 and 8 were found to be >100 ?M while those for 5 and 7 were 89.3 and 48.1 ?M, respectively after 48 h treatment. In the CRL 1548 liver cancer cell line, only compound 7 showed toxicity, with an LD50 of 45.1 ?M. Compounds 5 and 7 caused different cell phase arrest in lung and liver cancer cell lines. Conclusion The results indicate that 4-(7-(diethylamino)-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (7) had the highest cytotoxic activity in all of the examined cell lines. PMID:21737617

Musa, Musiliyu A.; Badisa, Veera L. D.; Latinwo, Lekan M.; Cooperwood, John; Sinclair, Andre; Abdullah, Ahkinyala

2012-01-01

289

New Model for Gastroenteropancreatic Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Establishment of Two Clinically Relevant Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Recently, a novel WHO-classification has been introduced that divided gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) according to their proliferation index into G1- or G2-neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and poorly differentiated small-cell or large-cell G3-neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). Our knowledge on primary NECs of the GEP-system is limited due to the rarity of these tumors and chemotherapeutic concepts of highly aggressive NEC do not provide convincing results. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable cell line model for NEC that could be helpful in identifying novel druggable molecular targets. Cell lines were established from liver (NEC-DUE1) or lymph node metastases (NEC-DUE2) from large cell NECs of the gastroesophageal junction and the large intestine, respectively. Morphological characteristics and expression of neuroendocrine markers were extensively analyzed. Chromosomal aberrations were mapped by array comparative genomic hybridization and DNA profiling was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated and the sensitivity against chemotherapeutic agents assessed. Both cell lines exhibited typical morphological and molecular features of large cell NEC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that both cell lines retained their malignant properties. Whereas NEC-DUE1 and -DUE2 were resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and oxaliplatin, a high sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was observed for the NEC-DUE1 cell line. Taken together, we established and characterized the first GEP large-cell NEC cell lines that might serve as a helpful tool not only to understand the biology of these tumors, but also to establish novel targeted therapies in a preclinical setup. PMID:24551139

Krieg, Andreas; Mersch, Sabrina; Boeck, Inga; Dizdar, Levent; Weihe, Eberhard; Hilal, Zena; Krausch, Markus; Möhlendick, Birte; Topp, Stefan A.; Piekorz, Roland P.; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Anlauf, Martin; Knoefel, Wolfram T.

2014-01-01

290

Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

Itoigawa, Yoshiaki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan) [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuo [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

2010-09-03

291

A Comparative Analysis of Extra-Embryonic Endoderm Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Prior to gastrulation in the mouse, all endodermal cells arise from the primitive endoderm of the blastocyst stage embryo. Primitive endoderm and its derivatives are generally referred to as extra-embryonic endoderm (ExEn) because the majority of these cells contribute to extra-embryonic lineages encompassing the visceral endoderm (VE) and the parietal endoderm (PE). During gastrulation, the definitive endoderm (DE) forms by ingression of cells from the epiblast. The DE comprises most of the cells of the gut and its accessory organs. Despite their different origins and fates, there is a surprising amount of overlap in marker expression between the ExEn and DE, making it difficult to distinguish between these cell types by marker analysis. This is significant for two main reasons. First, because endodermal organs, such as the liver and pancreas, play important physiological roles in adult animals, much experimental effort has been directed in recent years toward the establishment of protocols for the efficient derivation of endodermal cell types in vitro. Conversely, factors secreted by the VE play pivotal roles that cannot be attributed to the DE in early axis formation, heart formation and the patterning of the anterior nervous system. Thus, efforts in both of these areas have been hampered by a lack of markers that clearly distinguish between ExEn and DE. To further understand the ExEn we have undertaken a comparative analysis of three ExEn-like cell lines (END2, PYS2 and XEN). PYS2 cells are derived from embryonal carcinomas (EC) of 129 strain mice and have been characterized as parietal endoderm-like [1], END2 cells are derived from P19 ECs and described as visceral endoderm-like, while XEN cells are derived from blastocyst stage embryos and are described as primitive endoderm-like. Our analysis suggests that none of these cell lines represent a bona fide single in vivo lineage. Both PYS2 and XEN cells represent mixed populations expressing markers for several ExEn lineages. Conversely END2 cells, which were previously characterized as VE-like, fail to express many markers that are widely expressed in the VE, but instead express markers for only a subset of the VE, the anterior visceral endoderm. In addition END2 cells also express markers for the PE. We extended these observations with microarray analysis which was used to probe and refine previously published data sets of genes proposed to distinguish between DE and VE. Finally, genome-wide pathway analysis revealed that SMAD-independent TGFbeta signaling through a TAK1/p38/JNK or TAK1/NLK pathway may represent one mode of intracellular signaling shared by all three of these lines, and suggests that factors downstream of these pathways may mediate some functions of the ExEn. These studies represent the first step in the development of XEN cells as a powerful molecular genetic tool to study the endodermal signals that mediate the important developmental functions of the extra-embryonic endoderm. Our data refine our current knowledge of markers that distinguish various subtypes of endoderm. In addition, pathway analysis suggests that the ExEn may mediate some of its functions through a non-classical MAP Kinase signaling pathway downstream of TAK1. PMID:20711519

Brown, Kemar; Legros, Stephanie; Artus, Jérôme; Doss, Michael Xavier; Khanin, Raya; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Foley, Ann

2010-01-01

292

SOLD1 is expressed in bovine trophoblast cell lines and regulates cell invasiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Secreted protein of Ly-6 domain 1 (SOLD1), a secretory-type member of the Ly-6 superfamily, is expressed in both fetal and maternal tissues throughout gestation. SOLD1 mRNA is expressed in the endometrium and in trophoblast mononucleate and binucleate cells, suggesting it plays an important role not only in placental architecture at early gestation, but also in remodeling the endometrium at late gestation. Here, we investigate the expression of SOLD1 mRNA and protein in trophoblast cell lines. In addition, we examine the effect of SOLD1 on the invasive ability of trophoblast cells. Methods We measured SOLD1 gene expression in thirteen bovine trophoblast (BT) cell lines by using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). SOLD1 protein levels were examined in two cell lines, BT-C and BT-K, by using Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. In addition, we measured the invasive activity of BT cells in the presence or absence of anti-bovine SOLD1 antibodies. Results At variable levels, SOLD1 was expressed in all thirteen cell lines; however, expression remained below that of proximal fetal membrane tissue. SOLD1 protein, which was approximately 28 kDa in size, was detected in perinuclear area of the cytoplasm in BT cells. Treatment with anti-bovine SOLD1 antibody had a dose-dependent suppressive effect on the invasiveness of BT-K cell lines. Conclusions The present study is the first to investigate SOLD1 expression in vitro, in trophoblastic cell lines. Our data suggested that SOLD1 is involved in the regulation of the trophoblast invasiveness. Therefore, SOLD1 may play an active and crucial role in mediating communication at the fetomaternal interface. PMID:24950590

2014-01-01

293

The quantitative proteome of a human cell line.  

PubMed

The generation of mathematical models of biological processes, the simulation of these processes under different conditions, and the comparison and integration of multiple data sets are explicit goals of systems biology that require the knowledge of the absolute quantity of the system's components. To date, systematic estimates of cellular protein concentrations have been exceptionally scarce. Here, we provide a quantitative description of the proteome of a commonly used human cell line in two functional states, interphase and mitosis. We show that these human cultured cells express at least -10 000 proteins and that the quantified proteins span a concentration range of seven orders of magnitude up to 20 000 000 copies per cell. We discuss how protein abundance is linked to function and evolution. PMID:22068332

Beck, Martin; Schmidt, Alexander; Malmstroem, Johan; Claassen, Manfred; Ori, Alessandro; Szymborska, Anna; Herzog, Franz; Rinner, Oliver; Ellenberg, Jan; Aebersold, Ruedi

2011-01-01

294

Halofuginone enhances the radiation sensitivity of human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is implicated in radiation-induced fibrosis of normal tissues in patients receiving radiotherapy. Inhibiting the TGF-beta signaling pathway by various means has been shown to reduce radiation-induced fibrosis in pre-clinical studies. The present study evaluated the effects of interfering with the TGF-beta signaling pathway on the radiosensitivity of selected human tumor cell lines using the plant-derived alkaloid, halofuginone. Halofuginone treatment inhibited cell growth, halted cell cycle progression, decreased radiation-induced DNA damage repair, and decreased TGF-beta receptor II protein levels, leading to increased cellular radiosensitization. These data further support the goal of manipulating the TGF-beta pathway to achieve a positive increase in the therapeutic gain in clinical radiotherapy. PMID:19713035

Cook, John A; Choudhuri, Rajani; Degraff, William; Gamson, Janet; Mitchell, James B

2010-03-01

295

Effects and mechanisms of silibinin on human hepatoma cell lines  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate in vitro effects and mechanisms of silibinin on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth. METHODS: Human HCC cell lines were treated with different doses of silibinin. The effects of silibinin on HCC cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, histone acetylation, and other related signal transductions were systematically examined. RESULTS: We demonstrated that silibinin significantly reduced the growth of HuH7, HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5 human hepatoma cells. Silibinin-reduced HuH7 cell growth was associated with significantly up-regulated p21/CDK4 and p27/CDK4 complexes, down-regulated Rb-phosphorylation and E2F1/DP1 complex. Silibinin promoted apoptosis of HuH7 cells that was associated with down-regulated survivin and up-regulated activated caspase-3 and -9. Silibinin's anti-angiogenic effects were indicated by down-regulated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and CD34. We found that silibinin-reduced growth of HuH7 cells was associated with increased activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and decreased p-Akt production, indicating the role of PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway in silibinin-mediated anti-HCC effects. We also demonstrated that silibinin increased acetylation of histone H3 and H4 (AC-H3 and AC-H4), indicating a possible role of altered histone acetylation in silibinin-reduced HCC cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our results defined silibinin's in vitro anti-HCC effects and possible mechanisms, and provided a rationale to further test silibinin for HCC chemoprevention. PMID:17879397

Lah, John J; Cui, Wei; Hu, Ke-Qin

2007-01-01

296

Recombinant human stem cell factor does exert minor stimulation of growth in small cell lung cancer and melanoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported on the stimulation of clonal growth of a glioblastoma cell line by rhSCF (Berdel et al., Cancer Res 1992, 52, 3498–3502). Within an extensive screening programme of haematopoietic growth factor activity on malignant cells, the effects of rhSCF were further tested on the growth of 29 different human cell lines derived from a wide range of

C. A. Papadimitriou; M. S. Topp; H. Serve; E. Oelmann; M. Koenigsmann; J. Maurer; D. Oberberg; B. Reufi; E. Thiel; W. E. Berdel

1995-01-01

297

Establishment of an ASPL-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma cell line (S-TFE).  

PubMed

Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma is a rare disease diagnosed in children and adolescents in the advanced stage with an aggressive clinical course. Various gene fusions including the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene located on chromosome X cause the tumor. We established an Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma cell line from a renal tumor in a 18-y-old Japanese female and named it "S-TFE." The cell line and its xenograft demonstrated definite gene fusion including TFE3. They showed strong nuclear staining for TFE3 in immunohistochemistry, TFE3 gene rearrangement in dual-color, break-apart FISH analysis and ASPL-TFE3 type 1 fusion transcripts detected by RT-PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Although many renal cell carcinoma cell lines have been established and investigated, only a few cell lines are recognized as Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma. S-TFE will be useful to examine the characteristics and drug susceptibility of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma. PMID:23760492

Hirobe, Megumi; Masumori, Naoya; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

2013-06-01

298

Establishment of an ASPL-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma cell line (S-TFE)  

PubMed Central

Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma is a rare disease diagnosed in children and adolescents in the advanced stage with an aggressive clinical course. Various gene fusions including the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene located on chromosome X cause the tumor. We established an Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma cell line from a renal tumor in a 18-y-old Japanese female and named it “S-TFE.” The cell line and its xenograft demonstrated definite gene fusion including TFE3. They showed strong nuclear staining for TFE3 in immunohistochemistry, TFE3 gene rearrangement in dual-color, break-apart FISH analysis and ASPL-TFE3 type 1 fusion transcripts detected by RT-PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Although many renal cell carcinoma cell lines have been established and investigated, only a few cell lines are recognized as Xp11.2 translocation carcinoma. S-TFE will be useful to examine the characteristics and drug susceptibility of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma. PMID:23760492

Hirobe, Megumi; Masumori, Naoya; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

2013-01-01

299

Establishment and Characterization of Two New Rectal Neuroendocrine Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human colorectal neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (NEC) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. The biological behavior of NEC remains poorly understood. Materials and Methods: We established two new NEC cell lines from a patient with rectal neuroendocrine carcinoma, NECS-P and NECS-L from the primary tumor and a liver metastasis, respectively. We investigated the biological differences between the two

Yoshiyuki Takahashi; Masahiko Onda; Noritake Tanaka; Tomoko Seya

2000-01-01

300

Pharmacological profiling of disulfiram using human tumor cell lines and human tumor cells from patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thiocarbamate drug disulfiram has been used for decades in the treatment of alcohol abuse. Disulfiram induces apoptosis in a number of tumor cell lines and was recently by us proposed to act as a 26S proteasome inhibitor. In this work we characterized disulfiram in vitro with regard to tumor-type specificity, possible mechanisms of action and drug resistance and cell

Malin Wickström; Katarina Danielsson; Linda Rickardson; Joachim Gullbo; Peter Nygren; Anders Isaksson; Rolf Larsson; Henrik Lövborg

2007-01-01

301

Expression of Germ Cell Nuclear Factor (GCNF) by Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer (neoplasm) among women and the third most common gynecological cancer behind endometrial and cervical cancer (1). Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents ~90% of all ovarian cancers. Recently, we have observed the novel expression of the nuclear receptor, the germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF) in several ovarian cancer cell lines. This is noteworthy

Sowmya Srikanthan; Jeffrey V. May

302

Cytotoxic effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a complex disease with several etiologic factors and different molecular changes that may trigger certain events; it is also globally one of the most common malignancies in this topography. Extracts from Viscum album L. (VA) (mistletoe) have been used as adjuvant therapies with promising results in several types of cancer, mainly in European countries. In vitro studies have demonstrated that various types of VA may have cytotoxicity in carcinoma cells, activating the apoptotic cascade or leading cells to necrosis. This study aimed to verify the effects of three types of VA extracts (Iscador Qu Spezial, Iscador P and Iscador M) in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue cell lines SCC9 and SCC25, not previously studied. A concentration of 0.3 mg/ml (IC50) of the drugs induced apoptosis, affecting gene expression and protein levels of AKT, PTEN and CYCLIN D1. It was concluded that VA extracts have a cytotoxic effect on SCC9 and SCC25 cell lines, but while SCC9 cell line was more resistant to the action of the drugs, Iscador Qu Spezial and Iscador M have higher cytotoxic potential in both cell lines compared to Iscador P. PMID:24026291

Klingbeil, Ma Fátima G; Xavier, Flávia C A; Sardinha, Luiz R; Severino, Patricia; Mathor, Monica B; Rodrigues, Rodrigo V; Pinto, Décio S

2013-11-01

303

Fluorescence Assay 2. http://www.tgrbio.com/cancer-cell-lines-primary-cell-  

E-print Network

Fluorescence Assay References 1. 2. http://www.tgrbio.com/cancer-cell-lines-primary-cell- cultures). It is the principle target receptor for the relief of nausea and vomiting caused by chemo- and radio-therapies in cancer patients. This makes the study of both agonist and antagonist ligands important as the knowledge

Collins, Gary S.

304

3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H. [Oncology Institute, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)] [Oncology Institute, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center (United States); Nickoloff, B.J., E-mail: bnickol@lumc.edu [Oncology Institute, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

2010-05-28

305

Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells from human blastocysts. Two diploid ES cell lines have been cultivated in vitro for extended periods while maintaining expression of markers characteristic of pluripotent primate cells. Human ES cells express the transcription factor Oct-4, essential for development of pluripotential cells in the mouse. When grafted into SCID mice, both lines

Benjamin E. Reubinoff; Chui-Yee Fong; Alan Trounson; Ariff Bongso; Martin F. Pera

2000-01-01

306

Proteome Analysis of Lens Epithelia, Fibers, and the HLE B3 Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The purpose of this study is to compare the protein composition of the B-3 line of transformed human lens epithe- lial (HLE) cells to that of freshly dissected HLE cells. This provides baseline data on lens cell proteins from fresh lens cells and from the B-3 cell line, which is often used as a model system for the lens.

Shuh-Tuan Wang-Su; Ashley L. McCormack; Shaojun Yang; Matthew R. Hosler; April Mixon; Michael A. Riviere; Phillip A. Wilmarth; Usha P. Andley; Donita Garland; Hong Li; Larry L. David; B. J. Wagner

2003-01-01

307

Response of a mouse hybridoma cell line to heat shock, agitation, and sparging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mouse hybridoma cell line is used as a model system for studying the effect of environmental stress on attachment-independent mammalian cells. The full time course of recovery for a mouse hybridoma cell line from both a mild and intermediate heat shock is examined. The pattern of intracellular synthesis is compared for actively growing, log phase cells and nondividing, stationary phase cells.

Passini, Cheryl A.; Goochee, Charles F.

1989-01-01

308

Proteomic patterns of cervical cancer cell lines, a network perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is a major mortality factor in the female population. This neoplastic is an excellent model for studying the mechanisms involved in cancer maintenance, because the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the etiology factor in most cases. With the purpose of characterizing the effects of malignant transformation in cellular activity, proteomic studies constitute a reliable way to monitor the biological alterations induced by this disease. In this contextual scheme, a systemic description that enables the identification of the common events between cell lines of different origins, is required to distinguish the essence of carcinogenesis. Results With this study, we sought to achieve a systemic perspective of the common proteomic profile of six cervical cancer cell lines, both positive and negative for HPV, and which differ from the profile corresponding to the non-tumourgenic cell line, HaCaT. Our objectives were to identify common cellular events participating in cancer maintenance, as well as the establishment of a pipeline to work with proteomic-derived results. We analyzed by means of 2D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the protein extracts of six cervical cancer cell lines, from which we identified a consensus of 66 proteins. We call this group of proteins, the "central core of cervical cancer". Starting from this core set of proteins, we acquired a PPI network that pointed, through topological analysis, to some proteins that may well be playing a central role in the neoplastic process, such as 14-3-3?. In silico overrepresentation analysis of transcription factors pointed to the overexpression of c-Myc, Max and E2F1 as key transcription factors involved in orchestrating the neoplastic phenotype. Conclusions Our findings show that there is a "central core of cervical cancer" protein expression pattern, and suggest that 14-3-3? is key to determine if the cell proliferates or dies. In addition, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that the neoplastic phenotype is governed by a non-canonical regulatory pathway. PMID:21696634

2011-01-01

309

A tumor cell line producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and an immune suppressive factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a patient, both a cell line incapable of secreting granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (TC873) and a cell line capable of secreting G-CSF (TCM902) were established. The effector cells induced, with TC873 cells showed a high lytic capacity against two types of tumor cells. The effector cells induced by TCM902 cells did not show such capacity. Furthermore, the TCM902 cells

Mamoru Tsukuda; Taro Nagahara; Yasukazu Mikami; Tadayuki Yago; Hideki Matsuda; Shunsuke Yanoma

1993-01-01

310

Neuroblastoma Cell Lines Contain Pluripotent Tumor Initiating Cells That Are Susceptible to a Targeted Oncolytic Virus  

PubMed Central

Background Although disease remission can frequently be achieved for patients with neuroblastoma, relapse is common. The cancer stem cell theory suggests that rare tumorigenic cells, resistant to conventional therapy, are responsible for relapse. If true for neuroblastoma, improved cure rates may only be achieved via identification and therapeutic targeting of the neuroblastoma tumor initiating cell. Based on cues from normal stem cells, evidence for tumor populating progenitor cells has been found in a variety of cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings Four of eight human neuroblastoma cell lines formed tumorspheres in neural stem cell media, and all contained some cells that expressed neurogenic stem cell markers including CD133, ABCG2, and nestin. Three lines tested could be induced into multi-lineage differentiation. LA-N-5 spheres were further studied and showed a verapamil-sensitive side population, relative resistance to doxorubicin, and CD133+ cells showed increased sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Oncolytic viruses, engineered to be clinically safe by genetic mutation, are emerging as next generation anticancer therapeutics. Because oncolytic viruses circumvent typical drug-resistance mechanisms, they may represent an effective therapy for chemotherapy-resistant tumor initiating cells. A Nestin-targeted oncolytic herpes simplex virus efficiently replicated within and killed neuroblastoma tumor initiating cells preventing their ability to form tumors in athymic nude mice. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that human neuroblastoma contains tumor initiating cells that may be effectively targeted by an oncolytic virus. PMID:19156211

Mahller, Yonatan Y.; Williams, Jon P.; Baird, William H.; Mitton, Bryan; Grossheim, Jonathan; Saeki, Yoshinaga; Cancelas, Jose A.; Ratner, Nancy; Cripe, Timothy P.

2009-01-01

311

The MDCK epithelial cell line expresses a cell surface antigen of the kidney distal tubule.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line to identify epithelial cell surface macromolecules involved in renal function. Lymphocyte hybrids were generated by fusing P3U-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a C3H mouse immunized with MDCK cells. Hybridomas secreting anti-MDCK antibodies were obtained and clonal lines isolated in soft agarose. We are reporting on one hybridoma line that secretes a monoclonal antibody that binds to MDCK cells at levels 20-fold greater than background binding. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was utilized to study the distribution of antibody binding on MDCK cells and on frozen sections of dog kidney and several nonrenal tissues. In the kidney the fluorescence staining pattern demonstrates that the antibody recognizes an antigenic determinant that is expressed only on the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loops and the distal convoluted tubule and appears to be localized on the basolateral plasma membrane. This antigen also has a unique distribution in non-renal tissues and can only be detected on cells known to be active in transepithelial ion movements. These results indicate the probable distal tubule origin of MDCK and suggest that the monoclonal antibody recognizes a cell surface antigen involved in physiological functions unique to the kidney distal tubule and transporting epithelia of nonrenal tissues. PMID:6178742

Herzlinger, D A; Easton, T G; Ojakian, G K

1982-05-01

312

The MDCK epithelial cell line expresses a cell surface antigen of the kidney distal tubule  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line to identify epithelial cell surface macromolecules involved in renal function. Lymphocyte hybrids were generated by fusing P3U-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a C3H mouse immunized with MDCK cells. Hybridomas secreting anti-MDCK antibodies were obtained and clonal lines isolated in soft agarose. We are reporting on one hybridoma line that secretes a monoclonal antibody that binds to MDCK cells at levels 20-fold greater than background binding. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was utilized to study the distribution of antibody binding on MDCK cells and on frozen sections of dog kidney and several nonrenal tissues. In the kidney the fluorescence staining pattern demonstrates that the antibody recognizes an antigenic determinant that is expressed only on the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loops and the distal convoluted tubule and appears to be localized on the basolateral plasma membrane. This antigen also has a unique distribution in non-renal tissues and can only be detected on cells known to be active in transepithelial ion movements. These results indicate the probable distal tubule origin of MDCK and suggest that the monoclonal antibody recognizes a cell surface antigen involved in physiological functions unique to the kidney distal tubule and transporting epithelia of nonrenal tissues. PMID:6178742

1982-01-01

313

75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...10-ASO-33] Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: This action amends Class E surface airspace, and airspace extending...feet above the surface, and removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to...

2010-12-20

314

75 FR 65581 - Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E surface airspace, and airspace extending...feet above the surface, and remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to...

2010-10-26

315

Investigation of Freeze-Linings in Aluminum Production Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molten cryolite bath creates chemically a very aggressive environment in the Hall-Héroult cell, and thus, the formation of a protective solid layer (freeze-lining) on the cell wall is essential for the operation of the present cell designs. To provide further information on the formation of the freeze-lining deposit in this system, laboratory-based studies were undertaken using an air-cooled probe technique The effects of process conditions, i.e., time, bath agitation, and superheat on the microstructures, morphologies of the phases, and the phase assemblages adjacent to the deposit/bath interface were investigated. A detailed microstructural analysis of the steady-state deposits shows that a dense sealing primary-phase layer of cryolite solid solution was formed at the interface of the bath deposit for the process conditions examined. The formation of sealing primary-phase layer at the bath/deposit interface explicitly indicates that the deposit/liquid bath interface temperature is equal to that of the liquidus of the bulk bath. The experimentally investigated liquidus temperature and subliquidus equilibria differ significantly from those previously reported.

Fallah-Mehrjardi, Ata; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

2014-08-01

316

Resistance to paraquat in a mammalian cell line  

SciTech Connect

Paraquat-resistant variants were isolated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by stepwise increases in paraquat concentrations. Three series of selective experiments gave variants which appeared to be using one or several different mechanisms of resistance. In all variants tested (PQ-1, PQ-2, PQ-3, PQ-2X and PQ-3X of series 1), radioactively labeled paraquat was taken up by the cells. These variants exhibited no unusual resistance to either oxygen or radiation, nor were increases found in the activities of free-radical scavenging enzymes. They had extra DNA (3-12%) and an unusual acrocentric marker chromosome which was common to all of the variants but never observed in the parental cells. Double minutes were observed in 29% of metaphases of the PQ-3 variant. One of the resistant lines exhibited evidence of an intrinsic chromosomal instability, a phenotype that could conceivably facilitate gene amplification. Selection series 2 and 3 were designed to further evaluate gene amplification as a mechanism of resistance. These variants exhibited high frequencies (40-100%) of tetraploidy or hypotetraploidy with loss of chromosomes and varying frequencies of double minutes (10-75% of metaphases). In two of the variants the same marker chromosome which was observed in the series 1 variants was seen. Two other lines exhibited a variant of this marker, incorporating it into a metacentric chromosome. It may be that gene amplification facilitates resistance to paraquat and that both stable and unstable methods of amplifying genes are used.

Starr, J.; Sela, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Rabinovitch, P.S.; Ogburn, C.E.; Smith, A.C.; Martin, G.M.

1986-03-01

317

Characterization of a new continuous cell line from the flood water mosquito, Aedes vexans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cell line, UM-AVE1, was established from embryos of the mosquito Aedes vexans. Banding patterns for the isozymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), and esterases were compared with those of larval Aedes vexans tissues as well as those of four other mosquito cell lines and one moth cell line. Karyotype analyses confirmed

C. A. Mazzacano; U. G. Munderloh; T. J. Kurtti

1991-01-01

318

9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...or in a filed Outline of Production each cell line used to prepare a biological...

2010-01-01

319

9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...or in a filed Outline of Production each cell line used to prepare a biological...

2012-01-01

320

9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...or in a filed Outline of Production each cell line used to prepare a biological...

2013-01-01

321

9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...or in a filed Outline of Production each cell line used to prepare a biological...

2011-01-01

322

9 CFR 113.52 - Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...Requirements § 113.52 Requirements for cell lines used for production of biologics...or in a filed Outline of Production each cell line used to prepare a biological...

2014-01-01

323

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11003 The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive  

E-print Network

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11003 The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia enables predictive modelling and pharmacological annotation is available1 . Here we describe the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE cancer cell lines. When coupled with pharmacological profiles for 24 anticancer drugs across 479of

Kaski, Samuel

324

Quantitative videomicoscopic analysis of the sociologic behavior of non-invasive and invasive tumor cell lines  

E-print Network

cell lines Zahm JM , Hazgui S, Matos M, Ben Seddik A, Nawrocky Raby B, Polette M, Birembaut P, Bonnet N the spatial distribution of tumor cell lines with different invasive properties, we used time- lapse, videomicroscopy, cellular automaton, migration, Running title: Sociologic behavior of cell lines 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Katrin E. Schmitt Optical neuronal guiding on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line GT1  

E-print Network

Copyright by Katrin E. Schmitt 2003 #12;Optical neuronal guiding on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN August 2003 #12;Optical neuronal guiding on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line GT1;Optical neuronal guiding on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line GT1 Katrin Schmitt, M.A. The University

Raizen, Mark G.

326

CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELL LINES OF DOMESTICATED UNGULATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cell lines of domesticated ungulates, e.g., the pig, sheep, goat, cow or horse, is of interest for similar reasons to those of mouse and primate ES cell lines. Several applied research initiatives await the establishment of ungulates ES cell lines. These inc...

327

Two Neuronal Cell Lines Expressing the Myelin Basic Protein Gene Display  

E-print Network

Two Neuronal Cell Lines Expressing the Myelin Basic Protein Gene Display Differences conditionally immortalized neuronal cell lines from primary cultures of embry- onic day 13 (E13) and postmitotic. Two clonal cell lines (CN1.4 from E13 cultures and SJ3.6 from P0 cultures) were isolated and stable

Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

328

Curcumin downregulates cell survival mechanisms in human prostate cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the role of nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in cell proliferation, and of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the suppression of apoptosis are known, their role in survival of prostate cancer cells is not well understood. We investigated the role of NF-?B and AP-1 in the survival of human androgen-independent (DU145) and -dependent (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell lines. Our

Asok Mukhopadhyay; Carlos Bueso-Ramos; Devasis Chatterjee; Panayotis Pantazis; Bharat B Aggarwal

2001-01-01

329

A mathematical model of the cell cycle of a hybridoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional age-based population balance model of the cell cycle is proposed for a mouse–mouse hybridoma cell line (mm321) producing immunoglobulin G antibody to paraquat. It includes the four conventional cell cycle phases, however, G1 is divided into two parts (G1a and G1b). Two additional phases have been added, a non-cycling state G1?, and a pre-death phase D. The duration

D. B. F. Faraday; P. Hayter; N. F. Kirkby

2001-01-01

330

Side Population in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines and Tumors Is Enriched with Stemlike Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have been isolated by their ability to efflux Hoechst 33342 dye and are referred to as the ''side population'' (SP). In this study, we used flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 dye efflux assay to isolate and characterize SP cells from six human lung cancer cell lines (H460, H23, HTB-58, A549, H441, and H2170). Nonobese diabetic\\/severe combined immunodeficiency xeno-

Maria M. Ho; Alvin V. Ng; Stephen Lam; Jaclyn Y. Hung

331

Characterization of proteoglycans synthesized by a rat parathyroid cell line  

SciTech Connect

The structure, biosynthesis, and distribution of cell-associated proteoglycans in a clonal line of parathyroid cells, which exhibit differentiated characteristics such as calcium-regulated hormone secretion and cell growth, were studied by metabolic labeling with (3H) glucosamine and (35S)sulfate as precursors. Proteoglycans were isolated by two consecutive ion exchange chromatography steps and then analyzed by gel filtration, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and specific enzyme and chemical reactions. The cells synthesize almost exclusively (greater than 95%) heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans with a glycosaminoglycan synthesis rate of approximately 0.5 micrograms/10(6) cells/24 h. Two major HS proteoglycan species were identified. HS proteoglycan-I has a mass of approximately kDa with a single HS chain (approximately 12 kDa) and a core protein of approximately 150 kDa including oligosaccharides. HS proteoglycan-II has a mass of approximately 170 kDa with 3-4 HS chains (approximately 30 kDa) and a core protein of 70-80 kDa including oligosaccharides. In the medium with low ionized calcium (0.05 mM), HS proteoglycan-I is synthesized at approximately 1.6 times the rate and HS proteoglycan-II at a similar rate as for cells cultured in the medium with high ionized calcium (2.1 mM). The distribution of proteoglycans, examined by the accessibility of the molecules to trypsin, was dramatically influenced by environmental calcium concentration; at low calcium levels 70-80% of the HS proteoglycans are trypsin-accessible while only 20-30% are accessible at high calcium levels. This suggests that the proteoglycans are primarily on the cell surface in low calcium and in trypsin-inaccessible compartments in high calcium conditions.

Yanagishita, M.; Brandi, M.L.; Sakaguchi, K. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-09-15

332

Isolation and Enrichment of Mouse Female Germ Line Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective The existence of female germ-line stem cells (FGSCs) has been the subject of a wide range of recent studies. Successful isolation and culture of FGSCs could facilitate studies on regenerative medicine and infertility treatments in the near future. Our aim in the present study was evaluation of the most commonly used techniques in enrichment of FGSCs and in establishment of the best procedure. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, after digesting neonate ovary from C57Bl/6 mice, we performed 2 different isolation experiments: magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and pre-plating. MACS was applied using two different antibodies against mouse vasa homolog (MVH) and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA1) markers. After the cells were passaged and proliferated in vitro, colony-forming cells were characterized using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (for analysis of expression of Oct4, Nanog, C-kit, Fragilis, Mvh, Dazl, Scp3 and Zp3), alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity test and immunocytochemistry. Results Data showed that colonies can be seen more frequently in pre-plating technique than that in MACS. Using the SSEA1 antibody with MACS, 1.98 ± 0.49% (Mean ± SDV) positive cells were yield as compared to the total cells sorted. The colonies formed after pre-plating expressed pluripotency and germ stem cell markers (Oct4, Nanog, C-kit, Fragilis, Mvh and Dazl) whereas did not express Zp3 and Scp3 at the mRNA level. Immunocytochemistry in these colonies further confirmed the presence of OCT4 and MVH proteins, and AP activity measured by AP-kit showed positive reaction. Conclusion We established a simple and an efficient pre-plating technique to culture and to enrich FGSCs from neonatal mouse ovaries.

Khosravi-Farsani, Somayeh; Amidi, Fardin; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Sobhani, Aligholi

2015-01-01

333

Identification of a mitotic death signature in cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

This study examined the molecular mechanism of action of anti-mitotic drugs. The hypothesis was tested that death in mitosis occurs through sustained mitotic arrest with robust Cdk1 signaling causing complete phosphorylation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, and conversely, that mitotic slippage is associated with incomplete phosphorylation of Mcl-1/Bcl-xL. The results, obtained from studying six different cancer cell lines, strongly support the hypothesis and identify for the first time a unique molecular signature for mitotic death. The findings represent an important advance in understanding anti-mitotic drug action and provide insight into cancer cell susceptibility to such drugs which has important clinical implications. PMID:24099917

Sakurikar, Nandini; Eichhorn, Joshua M; Alford, Sarah E; Chambers, Timothy C

2014-02-28

334

Doxycycline Alters Metabolism and Proliferation of Human Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The tetracycline antibiotics are widely used in biomedical research as mediators of inducible gene expression systems. Despite many known effects of tetracyclines on mammalian cells–including inhibition of the mitochondrial ribosome–there have been few reports on potential off-target effects at concentrations commonly used in inducible systems. Here, we report that in human cell lines, commonly used concentrations of doxycycline change gene expression patterns and concomitantly shift metabolism towards a more glycolytic phenotype, evidenced by increased lactate secretion and reduced oxygen consumption. We also show that these concentrations are sufficient to slow proliferation. These findings suggest that researchers using doxycycline in inducible expression systems should design appropriate controls to account for potential confounding effects of the drug on cellular metabolism. PMID:23741339

Cass, Ashley; Braas, Daniel; York, Autumn G.; Bensinger, Steven J.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Christofk, Heather R.

2013-01-01

335

Development of nuclear receptor transfected Caco-2 cell lines  

E-print Network

B6 Transfection with human PXR Caco/hPXR CYP2B6, MDR1, CYP3A4, CYP2C9, MRP2 Transfection with murine CAR Caco/mCAR Wild type cellsCaco/WT Some target genesModificationCell line Initial characterisation: T. Korjamo, P. Honkakoski, M. R. Toppinen... in transcription: qRT-PCR R = hPXR activator rifampicin, T = mCAR activator TCPOBOP, A = mCAR inhibitor androstenol CYP3A4 CYP2B6 MDR1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Vehicle 14 7 3 Caco/hPXR F o l d C a c o / W T Rifampicin (days) 0 1 2 3 4 Vehicle 14 7 3 14 7 3 Caco/mCAR F...

Korjamo, Timo

2006-10-27

336

Development and characterization of two cell lines PDF and PDH from Puntius denisonii (Day 1865).  

PubMed

The Puntius denisonii colloquially and more popularly referred to as Miss Kerala is a subtropical fish belonging to the genus Puntius (Barb) and family Cyprinidae. Two cell lines PDF and PDH were developed from the caudal fin and heart of P. denisonii, respectively. The cell lines were optimally maintained at 26°C in Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. A diploid count of 50 chromosomes at passage 50 was observed in both the cell lines. The high growth potential of the cell lines was reflected from the cell doubling time of 28 and 30 h of PDF and PDH cell lines, respectively. The viability of the PDF and PDH cell lines was 70% and 76%, respectively, after 4 mo of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 653 bp fragments of cytochrome oxidase subunit I of mitochondrial DNA genes. PMID:21136193

Lakra, Wazir S; Goswami, M; Yadav, Kamalendra; Gopalakrishnan, A; Patiyal, R S; Singh, M

2011-02-01

337

[Neuronal differentiation of human small cell lung cancer cell line PC-6 by Solcoseryl].  

PubMed

Solcoseryl is composed of extracts from calf blood, and is a drug known to activate tissue respiration. In the present study, I demonstrated the cell biological effects of Solcoseryl on a human small cell lung cancer cell line, PC-6, by analyzing cell morphology, cell growth, expression of neuronal differentiation markers, and the ras proto-oncogene product(ras p21). Exposure of PC-6 cells to Solcoseryl at the concentration of 200 microliters/ml induced (1) cell morphological changes, including neurodendrite-like projections from the cell surface, and (2) complete inhibition of cell growth, that was shown by the loss of Ki-67 expression. Solcoseryl also induced the expression of neurofilament protein and acetylcholinesterase, both of which are markers of neuronal differentiation. Moreover, it upregulated the expression of the ras proto-oncogene product, ras p21. Taken together, these data suggest that Solcoseryl is composed of component(s) which can induce neuronal differentiation of the human small cell lung cancer cell line, PC-6. PMID:9465315

Shimizu, T

1997-11-01

338

Auxin Transport Synchronizes the Pattern of Cell Division in a Tobacco Cell Line1  

PubMed Central

The open morphogenesis of plants requires coordination of patterning by intercellular signals. The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Virginia Bright Italia) cell line VBI-0 provides a simple model system to study the role of intercellular communication in patterning. In this cell line, singular cells divide axially to produce linear cell files of distinct polarity. The trigger for this axial division is exogenous auxin. When frequency distributions of files are constructed over the number of cells per file during the exponential phase of the culture, even numbers are found to be frequent, whereas files consisting of uneven numbers of cells are rare. We can simulate these distributions with a mathematical model derived from nonlinear dynamics, which describes a chain of cell-division oscillators where elementary oscillators are coupled unidirectionally and where the number of oscillators is not conserved. The model predicts several nonintuitive properties of our experimental system. For instance, files consisting of six cells are more frequent than expected from a strictly binary division system. More centrally, the model predicts a polar transport of the coordinating signal. We therefore tested the patterns obtained after treatment with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux carriers. Using low concentrations of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid that leave cell division and axiality of division unaltered, we observe that the frequencies of files with even and uneven cell numbers are equalized. Our findings are discussed in the context of auxin transport as synchronizing signal in cell patterning. PMID:14612587

Campanoni, Prisca; Blasius, Bernd; Nick, Peter

2003-01-01

339

Extracellular vesicles from a muscle cell line (C2C12) enhance cell survival and neurite outgrowth of a motor neuron cell line (NSC-34)  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is renewed interest in extracellular vesicles over the past decade or 2 after initially being thought of as simple cellular garbage cans to rid cells of unwanted components. Although there has been intense research into the role of extracellular vesicles in the fields of tumour and stem cell biology, the possible role of extracellular vesicles in nerve regeneration is just in its infancy. Background When a peripheral nerve is damaged, the communication between spinal cord motor neurons and their target muscles is disrupted and the result can be the loss of coordinated muscle movement. Despite state-of-the-art surgical procedures only approximately 10% of adults will recover full function after peripheral nerve repair. To improve upon such results will require a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that influence axon outgrowth and the interplay between the parent motor neuron and the distal end organ of muscle. It has previously been shown that extracellular vesicles are immunologically tolerated, display targeting ligands on their surface, and can be delivered in vivo to selected cell populations. All of these characteristics suggest that extracellular vesicles could play a significant role in nerve regeneration. Methods We have carried out studies using 2 very well characterized cell lines, the C2C12 muscle cell line and the motor neuron cell line NSC-34 to ask the question: Do extracellular vesicles from muscle influence cell survival and/or neurite outgrowth of motor neurons? Conclusion Our results show striking effects of extracellular vesicles derived from the muscle cell line on the motor neuron cell line in terms of neurite outgrowth and survival. PMID:24563732

Madison, Roger D.; McGee, Christopher; Rawson, Renee; Robinson, Grant A.

2014-01-01

340

Characterization of Expression and Modulation of Cell Adhesion Molecules on an Immortalized Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell Line (HMEC-1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently reported the creation of the first immortalized cell line derived from human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). In preliminary studies this line was found to closely resemble microvascular endothelial cells in regard to many phenotypic characteristics. Because two key functional features of endothelial cells are their ability to bind to peripheral blood leukocytes and extracellular matrix proteins

Yuelin Xu; Robert A. Swerlick; Norbert Sepp; Diane Bosse; Edwin W. Ades; Thomas J. Lawley

1994-01-01

341

Tualang honey promotes apoptotic cell death induced by tamoxifen in breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Tualang honey (TH) is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids and has significant anticancer activity against breast cancer cells comparable to the effect of tamoxifen (TAM), in vitro. The current study evaluated the effects of TH when used in combination with TAM on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. We observed that TH promoted the anticancer activity of TAM in both the estrogen receptor-(ER-)responsive and ER-nonresponsive human breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometric analyses indicated accelerated apoptosis especially in MDA-MB-231 cells and with the involvement of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activation as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane was also increased in both cell lines when TH was used in combination with TAM compared to TAM treatment alone. TH may therefore be a potential adjuvant to be used with TAM for reducing the dose of TAM, hence, reducing TAM-induced adverse effects. PMID:23476711

Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Nengsih, Agustine; Norazmi, Mohd Nor

2013-01-01

342

Tualang Honey Promotes Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Tamoxifen in Breast Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Tualang honey (TH) is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids and has significant anticancer activity against breast cancer cells comparable to the effect of tamoxifen (TAM), in vitro. The current study evaluated the effects of TH when used in combination with TAM on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. We observed that TH promoted the anticancer activity of TAM in both the estrogen receptor-(ER-)responsive and ER-nonresponsive human breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometric analyses indicated accelerated apoptosis especially in MDA-MB-231 cells and with the involvement of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activation as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane was also increased in both cell lines when TH was used in combination with TAM compared to TAM treatment alone. TH may therefore be a potential adjuvant to be used with TAM for reducing the dose of TAM, hence, reducing TAM-induced adverse effects. PMID:23476711

Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Nengsih, Agustine; Norazmi, Mohd. Nor

2013-01-01

343

78 FR 25091 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...NIH-Funded Research SUMMARY: Under...Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be...NIH-Funded Research, 0925-0601...human embryonic stem cell lines be approved...NIH-funded research....

2013-04-29

344

Cell line cross-contamination: How aware are mammalian cell culturists of the problem and how to monitor it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  HeLa was the first human cell line established (1952) and became one of the most frequently used lines because of its hardiness\\u000a and rapid growth rate. During the next two decades, the development of other human cell lines mushroomed. One reason for this\\u000a became apparent during the 1970s, when it was demonstrated that many of these cell lines had been

Gertrude Case Buehring; Elizabeth A. Eby; Michael J. Eby

2004-01-01

345

Ultra low temperature cryopreservation of somatic embryogenic cell line of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv].  

PubMed

Ultra low temperature cryopreservation is one of the methods for preservation of biological material. Until now, a major problem of protoplast culture of Gramineae is the instability of state of the somatic embryogenic cell line. In our experiments, elements affecting the ultra low temperature cryopreservation of somatic embryogenic cell line were studied: components of cryopreserve solution, somatic embryogenic cell line of different subculture time, growth recovery of cryopreserved cell line, and their protoplast cultures. Results demonstrated that the ultra low temperature cryopreservation did not change the properties of protoplast culture, and by using the cryopreserve method, plating efficiency of protoplast culture of cryopreserved cell line was maintained or enhanced. PMID:9187495

Dong, J; Xia, Z

1996-01-01

346

Cell cycle analysis and cytotoxic potential of Ruta graveolens against human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

There are reports on the presence of various compounds exerting different biological activities in Ruta graveolens, a plant of Rutaceae family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the total extract of R. graveolens against tumor cell lines of different origin. Aerial parts of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol by sonication method and cytotoxic activity was examined on RAJI, RAMOS, RPMI8866, U937, Jurkat, MDA-MB-453, MCF-7, LNCap-FGC-10, 5637, HeLa, SK-OV-3, A549, Mehr-80 and also peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by the use of WST-1 assay. Results were expressed as IC(50) values. R. graveolens extract showed high cytotoxic activity against RAJI and RAMOS, two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, with an IC(50) equal to 24.3 microg/ml and 35.2 microg/ml respectively and LNCap-FGC-10, a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line with an IC(50) equal to 27.6 microg/ml as well as Mehr-80, a newly established Large Cell Lung Carcinoma (IC(50)=46.2 microg/ml). No significant anti-proliferative activity was observed on other cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, HeLa, 5637, JURKAT and RPMI8866. Adverse cytotoxic effect of R. graveolens was investigated against PBMCs and a significantly lower effect of this extract (IC(50)=104 microg/ml) was seen on normal cells compared with RAJI and RAMOS, two haematopoietic cell lines. PMID:19728756

Varamini, P; Soltani, M; Ghaderi, A

2009-01-01

347

Insect cell culture: Improved media and methods for initiating attached cell lines from the lepidoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Several cell lines from the pupae of the noctuid moth speciesSpodoptera frugiperda, Heliothis zea, andTrichoplusia ni were isolated on a synthetic medium containing insect hemolymph and turkey serum. These lines were progressively adapted\\u000a to improved media free of insect hemolymph but containing one or more of the following sera: turkey, chicken, and fetal calf.\\u000a Primary culture tissue disruption was improved

Ronald H. Goodwin

1975-01-01

348

Protein Plays Different Roles in Growth of Normal and Cancerous Mouse Cell Lines  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have found that inhibition of the same protein produces different effects in mouse cell lines depending on whether those cell lines express normal or cancerous forms of Kit, a cell surface receptor critical for the development of some kinds of blood cells.

349

Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...

350

Immortalized dendritic cell line fully competent in antigen presentation initiates primary T cell responses in vivo  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DC) can provide all the known costimulatory signals required for activation of unprimed T cells and are the most efficient and perhaps the critical antigen presenting cells in the induction of primary T cell-mediated immune responses. It is now shown that mouse cell lines with many of the features of DC can be generated using the MIB phi 2-N11 retroviral vector transducing a novel envAKR-mycMH2 fusion gene. The immortalized dendritic cell line (CB1) displays most of the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and functional attributes of DC, including constitutive expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, costimulatory molecules B7/BB1, heat stable antigen, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and efficient antigen- presenting ability. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) proved to be effective in increasing MHC class II molecule expression and in enhancing presentation of native protein antigens. In comparison with macrophages, CB1 dendritic cells did not exhibit phagocytic and chemotactic activity in response to various stimuli and lipopolysaccharide activation was ineffective in inducing tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin 1 beta production. CB1 cells, pulsed with haptens in vitro and injected into naive mice were able to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, further increased with pretreatment with GM-CSF, indicating that these cells may represent an immature, rather than a mature DC. The ability of CB1 to prime T cells in vivo could provide a tool to design novel immunization strategies. PMID:8245771

1993-01-01

351

Gene expression pattern of insect fat body cells from in vitro challenge to cell line establishment.  

PubMed

The cell lines provided excellent tools to understand the mechanism of biological phenomenon at the cellular and molecular levels. The continuous development of new cell culture technology is both of interest for use in biochemical, immunology, and virological studies. The transformation of cells of the primary culture is a key procedure for insect cell line establishment but little is known about the molecular basis of these changes. Here, we found that the cell cycle progression of the cells of the primary culture was delayed or arrested in G2/M by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. In this study, two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed to screen for immortal-related genes of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Gene ontology and pathway analysis indicated that members of the oxidative phosphorylation, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway are involved in processes leading toward cell immortalization merit further investigation. Our findings suggest that tumor-related genes or target genes of these pathways may contribute to the transformation of primary cell through regulation of G2/M cell cycle progression. PMID:25213689

Zhang, Huan; Meng, Qian; Tang, Ping; Li, Xuan; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Guiling; Shu, Ruihao; Zhang, Jihong; Qin, Qilian

2014-12-01

352

Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines  

SciTech Connect

High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

1997-07-01

353

Properties of four human embryonic stem cell lines maintained in a feeder-free culture system.  

PubMed

Several laboratories have begun evaluating human ES (hES) cell lines; however, direct comparisons between different hES cell lines have not been performed. We have characterized the properties of four human cell lines maintained in feeder-free culture conditions. Quantitative assessment of surface markers, microarray analysis of gene expression patterns, expression of SOX-2, UTF-1, Rex-1, OCT3/4, CRIPTO, and telomerase activity demonstrated similar patterns in all hES cell lines examined. Undifferentiated hES cells do not respond to neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid. In addition, the undifferentiated hES cells possess gap junctions. Although similarities in marker expression were observed, allotyping showed that all four lines have a distinct HLA profile, predicting differences in transplantation responses. These data provide the first detailed comparison of different hES cell lines and demonstrate remarkable similarities among lines maintained in identical culture conditions. PMID:14745950

Carpenter, Melissa K; Rosler, Elen S; Fisk, Gregory J; Brandenberger, Ralph; Ares, Ximena; Miura, Takumi; Lucero, Mary; Rao, Mahendra S

2004-02-01

354

Use of human cell lines The use of human cell lines and tissues in the laboratory presents potential hazards. These potential  

E-print Network

Use of human cell lines The use of human cell lines and tissues in the laboratory presents, HPV and CMV, as well as agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may be present in human lung present potential hazards to laboratory personnel. The Office of Biosafety is requiring that human

Arnold, Jonathan

355

Human renal cell carcinoma: Establishment and characterization of a new cell line (OS-RC-2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A cell line, designated as OS-RC-2, has been established from a renal cell carcinoma in a 52-yr-old Japanese male patient\\u000a and maintained for 23 mo. through 60 in vitro passages. The OS-RC-2 formed monolayers of polygonal epithelial cells and lacked\\u000a contact inhibition. Doubling time of cells was about 60 h at the 30th passage. Electron microscopic findings indicated numerous\\u000a long

Toshiaki Kinouchi; Toshihiko Kotake; Yoichi Mori; Tatsuo Abe

1985-01-01

356

Cytotoxic Effects of Fascaplysin against Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose)-Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS. PMID:24608973

Hamilton, Gerhard

2014-01-01

357

Cytotoxic effects of fascaplysin against small cell lung cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose)-Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS. PMID:24608973

Hamilton, Gerhard

2014-03-01

358

Lineage Infidelity of MDA-MB-435 Cells: Expression of Melanocyte Proteins in a Breast Cancer Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of cell lines is critical in defining cell type-specific biological functions. Several reports (D. T. Ross et al., Nat Genet 2000;24:227-35; G. Ellison et al., J Clin Pathol Mol Pathol 2002;55:294 -9) suggested that the MDA-MB-435 cell line, a cell line extensively used for studying breast cancer biology, has a gene expression pattern most compatible with mel- anocyte

Shankar Sellappan; Rebecca Grijalva; Xiaoyan Zhou; Wentao Yang; Menashe Bar Eli; Gordon B. Mills; Dihua Yu

359

Establishment and Characterization of a Novel Human Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor Cell Line, JN-DSRCT-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exact nature of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) remains controversial. More detailed analyses might be facilitated by the establishment of permanent DSRCT cell lines. To date, however, no human DSRCT cell line has been reported. In this study, we report the establishment of a new human cell line, JN-DSRCT-1, from the pleural effusion of a 7-year-old boy

Jun Nishio; Hiroshi Iwasaki; Masako Ishiguro; Yuko Ohjimi; Chikako Fujita; Fumio Yanai; Keiko Nibu; Akihisa Mitsudome; Yasuhiko Kaneko; Masahiro Kikuchi

2002-01-01

360

Derivation and characterization of matched cell lines from primary and recurrent serous ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Cell line models have proven to be effective tools to investigate a variety of ovarian cancer features. Due to the limited number of cell lines, particularly of the serous subtype, the heterogeneity of the disease, and the lack of cell lines that model disease progression, there is a need to further develop cell line resources available for research. This study describes nine cell lines derived from three ovarian cancer cases that were established at initial diagnosis and at subsequent relapse after chemotherapy. Methods The cell lines from three women diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (1369, 2295 and 3133) were derived from solid tumor (TOV) and ascites (OV), at specific time points at diagnosis and relapse (R). Primary treatment was a combination of paclitaxel/carboplatin (1369, 3133), or cisplatin/topotecan (2295). Second line treatment included doxorubicin, gemcitabine and topotecan. In addition to molecular characterization (p53, HER2), the cell lines were characterized based on cell growth characteristics including spheroid growth, migration potential, and anchorage independence. The in vivo tumorigenicity potential of the cell lines was measured. Response to paclitaxel and carboplatin was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Results All cell lines had either a nonsense or missense TP53 mutations. The ability to form compact spheroids or aggregates was observed in six of nine cell lines. Limited ability for migration and anchorage independence was observed. The OV3133(R) cell line, formed tumors at subcutaneous sites in SCID mice. Based on IC50 values and dose response curves, there was clear evidence of acquired resistance to carboplatin for TOV2295(R) and OV2295(R2) cell lines. Conclusion The study identified nine new high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell lines, derived before and after chemotherapy that provides a unique resource for investigating the evolution of this common histopathological subtype of ovarian cancer. PMID:22931248

2012-01-01

361

Network signatures of cellular immortalization in human lymphoblastoid cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We identified network signatures of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles. •More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCLs. •MicroRNA target genes in LCLs are involved in apoptosis and immune-related functions. •This approach is useful to find functional miRNA targets in specific cell conditions. -- Abstract: Human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) has been used as an in vitro cell model in genetic and pharmacogenomic studies, as well as a good model for studying gene expression regulatory machinery using integrated genomic analyses. In this study, we aimed to identify biological networks of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles of microRNAs and their target genes in LCLs. We first selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs (DEmiRs) between early passage LCLs (eLCLs) and terminally differentiated late passage LCLs (tLCLs). The in silico and correlation analysis of these DEGs and DEmiRs revealed that 1098 DEG–DEmiR pairs were found to be positively (n = 591 pairs) or negatively (n = 507 pairs) correlated with each other. More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCL immortalizations. The target DEGs of DEmiRs were enriched for cellular functions associated with apoptosis, immune response, cell death, JAK–STAT cascade and lymphocyte activation while non-miRNA target DEGs were over-represented for basic cell metabolisms. The target DEGs correlated negatively with miR-548a-3p and miR-219-5p were significantly associated with protein kinase cascade, and the lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. In addition, the miR-106a and miR-424 clusters located in the X chromosome were enriched in DEmiR–mRNA pairs for LCL immortalization. In this study, the integrated transcriptomic analysis of LCLs could identify functional networks of biologically active microRNAs and their target genes involved in LCL immortalization.

Shim, Sung-Mi; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong 363-951 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong 363-951 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jae-Pil, E-mail: jaepiljeon@hanmail.net [Division of Brain Diseases, Center for Biomedical Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong 363-951 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Brain Diseases, Center for Biomedical Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong 363-951 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-15

362

Sulphamoylated 2-Methoxyestradiol Analogues Induce Apoptosis in Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is a naturally occurring estradiol metabolite which possesses antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. However, due to its limited biological accessibility, synthetic analogues have been synthesized and tested in attempt to develop drugs with improved oral bioavailability and efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of three novel in silico-designed sulphamoylated 2ME2 analogues on the HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cell line and estrogen receptor-negative breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. A dose-dependent study (0.1–25 ?M) was conducted with an exposure time of 24 hours. Results obtained from crystal violet staining indicated that 0.5 ?M of all 3 compounds reduced the number of cells to 50%. Lactate dehydrogenase assay was used to assess cytotoxicity, while the mitotracker mitochondrial assay and caspase-6 and -8 activity assays were used to investigate the possible occurrence of apoptosis. Tubulin polymerization assays were conducted to evaluate the influence of these sulphamoylated 2ME2 analogues on tubulin dynamics. Double immunofluorescence microscopy using labeled antibodies specific to tyrosinate and detyrosinated tubulin was conducted to assess the effect of the 2ME2 analogues on tubulin dynamics. An insignificant increase in the level of lactate dehydrogenase release was observed in the compounds-treated cells. These sulphamoylated compounds caused a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation indicating apoptosis induction by means of the intrinsic pathway in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells. Microtubule depolymerization was observed after exposure to these three sulphamoylated analogues. PMID:24039728

Visagie, Michelle; Theron, Anne; Mqoco, Thandi; Vieira, Warren; Prudent, Renaud; Martinez, Anne; Lafanechère, Laurence; Joubert, Annie

2013-01-01

363

The telomerase inhibitor imetelstat depletes cancer stem cells in breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Cancer stem cells (CSC) are rare drug-resistant cancer cell subsets proposed to be responsible for the maintenance and recurrence of cancer and metastasis. Telomerase is constitutively active in both bulk tumor cell and CSC populations but has only limited expression in normal tissues. Thus, inhibition of telomerase has been shown to be a viable approach in controlling cancer growth in nonclinical studies and is currently in phase II clinical trials. In this study, we investigated the effects of imetelstat (GRN163L), a potent telomerase inhibitor, on both the bulk cancer cells and putative CSCs. When breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with imetelstat in vitro, telomerase activity in the bulk tumor cells and CSC subpopulations were inhibited. Additionally, imetelstat treatment reduced the CSC fractions present in the breast and pancreatic cell lines. In vitro treatment with imetelstat, but not control oligonucleotides, also reduced the proliferation and self-renewal potential of MCF7 mammospheres and resulted in cell death after <4 weeks of treatment. In vitro treatment of PANC1 cells showed reduced tumor engraftment in nude mice, concomitant with a reduction in the CSC levels. Differences between telomerase activity expression levels or telomere length of CSCs and bulk tumor cells in these cell lines did not correlate with the increased sensitivity of CSCs to imetelstat, suggesting a mechanism of action independent of telomere shortening for the effects of imetelstat on the CSC subpopulations. Our results suggest that imetelstat-mediated depletion of CSCs may offer an alternative mechanism by which telomerase inhibition may be exploited for cancer therapy. PMID:21062983

Joseph, Immanual; Tressler, Robert; Bassett, Ekaterina; Harley, Calvin; Buseman, Christen M; Pattamatta, Preeti; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W; Go, Ning F

2010-11-15

364

Analysis of multiple markers for cancer stem-like cells in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) play important roles in cancer initiation and progression. CSCs have been isolated using several markers, but those for thyroid CSCs remain to be confirmed. We therefore conducted a comprehensive search for thyroid CSC markers. Expression of nine cell surface markers (CD13, CD15, CD24, CD44, CD90, CD117, CD133, CD166, and CD326) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, which are CSC markers in various solid cancers, and the ability to form spheres in vitro and tumors in vivo were investigated using eight thyroid cancer cell lines (FRO, KTC1/2/3, TPC1, WRO, ACT1, and 8505C). Among these, four cell lines (FRO, KTC3, ACT1, and 8505C) possessed the both abilities; however, common markers indicative of CSCs were not observed. The pattern of ability to form spheres was completely matched to that of tumor formation, suggesting that our sphere assay is valuable for assessment of tumor-forming ability. Next, the cells were sorted using these markers and subjected to the sphere assay. In three cell lines (FRO, KTC3, and ACT1), ALDH(pos) cells showed higher sphere forming ability than ALDH(neg) cells but not in other cells. CD326(hi) also appeared to be a candidate marker only in FRO cells. However, these subpopulations did not follow a classical hierarchical model because ALDH(neg) and CD326(low) fractions also generated ALDH(pos) and CD326(hi) cells, respectively. These data suggest that ALDH activity is probably a major candidate marker to enrich thyroid CSCs but not universal; other markers such as CD326 that regulate different CSC properties may exist. PMID:24531915

Shimamura, Mika; Nagayama, Yuji; Matsuse, Michiko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Mitsutake, Norisato

2014-01-01

365

A comparison of heat and radiation sensitivity of three human glioma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Three human glioma cell lines were tested for radiation and hyperthermia sensitivity and compared to the responses of a normal human fibroblast cell line. The radiation response of the glioma cell lines exhibited a large shoulder on the radiation survival curve indicating radioresistance when compared to the more radiosensitive fibroblast cell line. The hyperthermia response for the glioma cell lines was qualitatively similar to responses reported for other cell lines. When compared to normal human fibroblasts the glioma cells were found to be more sensitive to hyperthermia than the normal fibroblasts indicating hyperthermia may be a promising method or adjunct to radiotherapy in the treatment of resistant glioma cells or tumors. The results also show that both the radiation and thermal response is influenced by cell culture conditions and growth status. Two of the cell lines grown to confluency and treated in confluency showed an increased radiation resistance at low doses and the cell lines showed decreased resistance at high doses compared to cells plated to confluency. An increased thermal resistance, especially at the lower heating temperatures, was also observed for cells grown to confluency. Measurements of residual glucose in the culture medium at the time of irradiation was about the same for the two culture methods (55%-65%). Cell cycle analysis showed that the differences were not related to changes in cell cycle distribution.

Raaphorst, G.P.; Feeley, M.M.; Da Silva, V.F.; Danjoux, C.E.; Gerig, L.H. (Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada))

1989-09-01

366

Flow cytometric analysis for detection of tumor-initiating cells in feline mammary carcinoma cell lines.  

PubMed

A small population of cells known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), which have the capacity to self-renew, differentiate, and form tumors at high frequency, has a potential role in tumor initiation, aggression, and recurrence. In human breast cancers, TICs are identified by surface markers, such as CD44 and CD24, and an aldefluor assay based on aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(+)) using flow cytometry. However, the usefulness of surface markers CD44 and CD24 and ALDH activity in feline mammary carcinomas remains largely elusive. We attempted to identify CD44(+)CD24(-) and ALDH(+) cells using 8 feline mammary carcinoma cell lines, including FKNp, which was obtained from a primary lesion, and the capacity to generate tumor nodules was analyzed in immunodeficient mice injected with ALDH(+) FKNp-derived cells. The CD44(+)CD24(-) and ALDH(+) cells were detected in all cell lines derived from feline mammary carcinomas. Xenograft transplantation into immunodeficient mice demonstrated that as few as 1 × 10(2) ALDH(+) cells could initiate tumor growth in 1 out of 4 mice, while 1 × 10(3) ALDH(+) cells initiated tumor growth in 5 out of 6 mice. However, 1 × 10(3) ALDH(-) cells failed to initiate tumors in all the tested mice. ALDH(+)-derived tumors contained both ALDH(+) and ALDH(-) cells, indicating that ALDH(+) FKNp-derived cells had higher tumorigenicity than ALDH(-) cells. These results suggest that TICs may exist in feline mammary carcinomas, and further characterization of CD44(+)CD24(-) and ALDH(+) cells is needed to define novel therapies targeted against TICs. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the contribution of TICs in tumorigenesis. PMID:24041801

Michishita, Masaki; Otsuka, Aya; Nakahira, Rei; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sasaki, Nobuo; Arai, Toshiro; Takahashi, Kimimasa

2013-11-15

367

Enhancement of Radiation Response in Osteosarcoma and Rhabomyosarcoma Cell Lines by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can enhance the sensitivity of cells to photon radiation treatment (XRT) by altering numerous molecular pathways. We investigated the effect of pan-HDACIs such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on radiation response in two osteosarcoma (OS) and two rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis were examined in OS (KHOS-24OS, SAOS2) and RMS (A-204, RD) cell lines treated with HDACI and HDACI plus XRT, respectively. Protein expression was investigated via immunoblot analysis, and cell cycle analysis and measurement of apoptosis were performed using flow cytometry. Results: SAHA induced an inhibition of cell proliferation and clonogenic survival in OS and RMS cell lines and led to a significant radiosensitization of all tumor cell lines. Other HDACI such as M344 and valproate showed similar effects as investigated in one OS cell line. Furthermore, SAHA significantly increased radiation-induced apoptosis in the OS cell lines, whereas in the RMS cell lines radiation-induced apoptosis was insignificant with and without SAHA. In all investigated sarcoma cell lines, SAHA attenuated radiation-induced DNA repair protein expression (Rad51, Ku80). Conclusion: Our results show that HDACIs enhance radiation action in OS and RMS cell lines. Inhibition of DNA repair, as well as increased apoptosis induction after exposure to HDACIs, can be mechanisms of radiosensitization by HDACIs.

Blattmann, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.blattmann@med.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology, Immunology and Pulmology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Oertel, Susanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ehemann, Volker [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-09-01

368

Isolation and characterization of conditionally immortalized mouse glomerular endothelial cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation and characterization of conditionally immortalized mouse glomerular endothelial cell lines.BackgroundThe culture and establishment of glomerular cell lines has proven to be an important tool for the understanding of glomerular cell functions in glomerular physiology and pathology. Especially, the recent establishment of a conditionally immortalized visceral epithelial cell line has greatly boosted the research on podocyte biology.MethodsGlomeruli were isolated from

Angelique L. Rops; JOHAN VAN DER VLAG; Cor W. Jacobs; Henry B. Dijkman; Joost F. Lensen; Tessa J. Wijnhoven; Lambert P. van den Heuvel; Toin H. van Kuppevelt; J. H. M. Berden

2004-01-01

369

Germline transmission of a novel rat embryonic stem cell line derived from transgenic rats.  

PubMed

Germline-competent rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are important resources for the creation of mutant rat models using ES-cell-based gene targeting technology. The ability to isolate germline-competent ES cell lines from any rat strain, including genetically modified strains, would allow for more sophisticated genetic manipulations without extensive breeding. Sprague Dawley (SD) males carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene were used as the founder animals for the derivation of ES cell lines. A number of ES cell lines were established and subjected to rigorous quality control testing that included assessment of pluripotency factor expression, karyotype analysis, and pathogen/sterility testing. Two male ES cell lines, SD-Tg.EC1/Rrrc and SD-Tg.EC8/Rrrc, were injected into blastocysts recovered from a cross of Dark Agouti (DA) males with SD females. Resulting chimeric animals were bred with wild-type SD mates to verify the germline transmissibility of the ES cell lines by identifying pups carrying the ES cell line-derived EGFP transgene. While both ES cell lines gave rise to chimeric animals, only SD-Tg.EC1 was germline competent. This confirms the feasibility of deriving germline-competent ES cell lines from transgenic rat strains and provides a novel ES cell line with a stable green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter for future genetic manipulations to create new rat models. PMID:22455749

Men, Hongsheng; Bauer, Beth A; Bryda, Elizabeth C

2012-09-20

370

Cell cycle phase dependent productivity of a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO1-15500, producing recombinant human tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) via the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) amplification\\u000a system, was studied in batch culture. In this system both DHFR and tPA are under the control of the strong constitutive viral\\u000a SV40 early promoter. Employing the cumulative viable cell-hour approach, the specific productivity of tPA had maxima in

Roshni L. Dutton; Jeno Scharer; Murray Moo-Young

2006-01-01

371

Rift Valley Fever Virus Incorporates the 78 kDa Glycoprotein into Virions Matured in Mosquito C6/36 Cells  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus able to transition between distant host species, causing potentially severe disease in humans and ruminants. Viral proteins are encoded by three genomic segments, with the medium M segment coding for four proteins: nonstructural NSm protein, two glycoproteins Gn and Gc and large 78 kDa glycoprotein (LGp) of unknown function. Goat anti-RVFV polyclonal antibody and mouse monoclonal antibody, generated against a polypeptide unique to the LGp within the RVFV proteome, detected this protein in gradient purified RVFV ZH501 virions harvested from mosquito C6/36 cells but not in virions harvested from the mammalian Vero E6 cells. The incorporation of LGp into the mosquito cell line - matured virions was confirmed by immune-electron microscopy. The LGp was incorporated into the virions immediately during the first passage in C6/36 cells of Vero E6 derived virus. Our data indicate that LGp is a structural protein in C6/36 mosquito cell generated virions. The protein may aid the transmission from the mosquitoes to the ruminant host, with a possible role in replication of RVFV in the mosquito host. To our knowledge, this is a first report of different protein composition between virions formed in insect C6/36 versus mammalian Vero E6 cells. PMID:24489907

Weingartl, Hana M.; Zhang, Shunzhen; Marszal, Peter; McGreevy, Alan; Burton, Lynn; Wilson, William C.

2014-01-01

372

Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

373

Establishment and Characterization of 7 Novel Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines from Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer with poor prognosis worldwide and the molecular mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to establish a collection of human HCC cell lines from patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. From the 20 surgical HCC sample collections, 7 tumors were successfully developed in immunodeficient mice and further established 7 novel HCC cell lines (LIXC002, LIXC003, LIXC004, LIXC006, LIXC011, LIXC012 and CPL0903) by primary culture. The characterization of cell lines was defined by morphology, growth kinetics, cell cycle, chromosome analysis, short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, molecular profile, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, response to clinical chemotherapeutics was validated both in vitro and in vivo. STR analysis indicated that all cell lines were unique cells different from known cell lines and free of contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma. The other findings were quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Chromosome aberration could be found in all cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein was overexpressed only in 3 out of 7 cell lines. 4 cell lines expressed high level of vimentin. Ki67 was strongly stained in all cell lines. mRNA level of retinoic acid induced protein 3 (RAI3) was decreased in all cell lines. The 7 novel cell lines showed variable sensitivity to 8 tested compounds. LIXC011 and CPL0903 possessed multiple drug resistance property. Sorafenib inhibited xenograft tumor growth of LIXC006, but not of LIXC012. Our results indicated that the 7 novel cell lines with low passage maintaining their clinical and pathological characters could be good tools for further exploring the molecular mechanism of HCC and anti-cancer drug screening. PMID:24416385

Hu, Gang; Xie, Fubo; Ouyang, Kedong; Tang, Xuzhen; Wang, Minjun; Wen, Danyi; Zhu, Yizhun; Qin, Xiaoran

2014-01-01

374

Isolation and characterization of cell lines of Nicotiana tabacum lacking nitrate reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorate-resistant cell lines were established from survivors after plating allodihaploid cells of Nicotiana tabacum into solid medium containing 20 mM chlorate and amino acids as sole nitrogen source. Data characterizing 9 of the most resistant lines are presented. The mutational origin of these lines was inferred on the basis of the enhancement of the variant frequency by mutagen treatment, and

Andreas J. Mtiller; Reinhard Grafe

1978-01-01

375

An on-line Estimation Procedure for Cell-Loss Probabilities in ATM links  

E-print Network

An on-line Estimation Procedure for Cell-Loss Probabilities in ATM links Costas Courcoubetis.g., cell-loss rates of the order of 10?6 ?10?9 ), any direct brute-force on-line estimation procedure would , George Fouskas and Richard Webery Abstract We present a methodology for the on-line estimation

Weber, Richard

376

The Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line EKVX Produces an Infectious Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus  

PubMed Central

The cell lines of the NCI-60 panel represent different cancer types and have been widely utilized for drug screening and molecular target identification. Screening these cell lines for envelope proteins or gene sequences related to xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) revealed that one cell line, EKVX, was a candidate for production of an infectious gammaretrovirus. The presence of a retrovirus infectious to human cells was confirmed by the cell-free transmission of infection to the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Amplification and sequencing of additional proviral sequences from EKVX confirmed a high degree of similarity to X-MLV. The cell line EKVX was established following passage of the original tumor cells through nude mice, providing a possible source of the X-MLV found in the EKVX cells. PMID:22355448

Cmarik, Joan L.; Troxler, Jami A.; Hanson, Charlotte A.; Zhang, Xiang; Ruscetti, Sandra K.

2011-01-01

377

Quantitative gene expression assessment identifies appropriate cell line models for individual cervical cancer pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Cell lines have been used to study cancer for decades, but truly quantitative assessment of their performance as models is often lacking. We used gene expression profiling to quantitatively assess the gene expression of nine cell line models of cervical cancer. Results We find a wide variation in the extent to which different cell culture models mimic late-stage invasive cervical cancer biopsies. The lowest agreement was from monolayer HeLa cells, a common cervical cancer model; the highest agreement was from primary epithelial cells, C4-I, and C4-II cell lines. In addition, HeLa and SiHa cell lines cultured in an organotypic environment increased their correlation to cervical cancer significantly. We also find wide variation in agreement when we considered how well individual biological pathways model cervical cancer. Cell lines with an anti-correlation to cervical cancer were also identified and should be avoided. Conclusion Using gene expression profiling and quantitative analysis, we have characterized nine cell lines with respect to how well they serve as models of cervical cancer. Applying this method to individual pathways, we identified the appropriateness of particular cell lines for studying specific pathways in cervical cancer. This study will allow researchers to choose a cell line with the highest correlation to cervical cancer at a pathway level. This method is applicable to other cancers and could be used to identify the appropriate cell line and growth condition to employ when studying other cancers. PMID:17493265

Carlson, Mark W; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Marcotte, Edward M

2007-01-01

378

Lymphoblastoid cell lines in pharmacogenomic discovery and clinical translation  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict how an individual patient will respond to a particular treatment is the ambitious goal of personalized medicine. The genetic make up of an individual has been shown to play a role in drug response. For pharmacogenomic studies, human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) comprise a useful model system for identifying genetic variants associated with pharmacologic phenotypes. The availability of extensive genotype data for many panels of LCLs derived from individuals of diverse ancestry allows for the study of genetic variants contributing to interethnic and interindividual variation in susceptibility to drugs. Many genome-wide association studies for drug-induced phenotypes have been performed in LCLs, often incorporating gene-expression data. LCLs are also being used in follow-up studies to clinical findings to determine how an associated variant functions to affect phenotype. This review describes the most recent pharmacogenomic findings made in LCLs, including the translation of some findings to clinical cohorts. PMID:22176622

Wheeler, Heather E; Dolan, M Eileen

2012-01-01

379

Phytoestrogens regulate the proliferation and expression of stem cell factors in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumors.  

PubMed

Phytoestrogens have been shown to exert anti-proliferative effects on different cancer cells. In addition it could be demonstrated that inhibition of proliferation is associated with downregulation of the known stem cell factors NANOG, POU5F1 and SOX2 in tumor cells. We demonstrate the potential of Belamcanda chinensis extract (BCE) and tectorigenin as anticancer drugs in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumor cells (TGCT) by inhibition of proliferation and regulating the expression of stem cell factors. The TGCT cell lines TCam-2 and NTera-2 were treated with BCE or tectorigenin and MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of tumor cells. In addition, the expression of stem cell factors was analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, global expression analysis was performed by microarray technique. BCE and tectorigenin inhibited proliferation and downregulated the stem cell factors NANOG and POU5F1 in TGCT cells. In addition, gene expression profiling revealed induction of genes important for the differentiation and inhibition of oncogenes. Utilizing connectivity map in an attempt to elucidate mechanism underlying BCE treatments we found highly positive association to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) amongst others. Causing no histone deacetylase inhibition, the effects of BCE on proliferation and stem cell factors may be based on histone-independent mechanisms such as direct hyperacetylation of transcription factors. Based on these findings, phytoestrogens may be useful as new agents in the treatment of TGCT. PMID:23969837

Hasibeder, Astrid; Venkataramani, Vivek; Thelen, Paul; Radzun, Heinz-Joachim; Schweyer, Stefan

2013-11-01

380

Phytoestrogens regulate the proliferation and expression of stem cell factors in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Phytoestrogens have been shown to exert anti-proliferative effects on different cancer cells. In addition it could be demonstrated that inhibition of proliferation is associated with downregulation of the known stem cell factors NANOG, POU5F1 and SOX2 in tumor cells. We demonstrate the potential of Belamcanda chinensis extract (BCE) and tectorigenin as anticancer drugs in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumor cells (TGCT) by inhibition of proliferation and regulating the expression of stem cell factors. The TGCT cell lines TCam-2 and NTera-2 were treated with BCE or tectorigenin and MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of tumor cells. In addition, the expression of stem cell factors was analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, global expression analysis was performed by microarray technique. BCE and tectorigenin inhibited proliferation and downregulated the stem cell factors NANOG and POU5F1 in TGCT cells. In addition, gene expression profiling revealed induction of genes important for the differentiation and inhibition of oncogenes. Utilizing connectivity map in an attempt to elucidate mechanism underlying BCE treatments we found highly positive association to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) amongst others. Causing no histone deacetylase inhibition, the effects of BCE on proliferation and stem cell factors may be based on histone-independent mechanisms such as direct hyperacetylation of transcription factors. Based on these findings, phytoestrogens may be useful as new agents in the treatment of TGCT. PMID:23969837

HASIBEDER, ASTRID; VENKATARAMANI, VIVEK; THELEN, PAUL; RADZUN, HEINZ-JOACHIM; SCHWEYER, STEFAN

2013-01-01

381

Establishment of a cloned line of Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells adapted to cell culture.  

PubMed

A cloned line of cells adapted to culture has been isolated from the Lewis Lung Carcinoma and has been designated the Lewis lung carcinoma line 1 (LLC1). It grows as a monolayer culture in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum with a plating efficiency of about 94% and a doubling time of 21 h. LLC1 cells remain highly tumorigenic in C57B1 mice and produce primary tumors and lung metastases histologically indistinguishable from the original tumor line. The doubling time for a subcutaneous tumor derived from LLC1 cells was 23 h for a tumor mass of about 0.1 g and 40 h for a tumor mass of about 1 g. The cell line forms discrete colonies on a plastic substrate and can be used in a focus assay to determine drug induced cytotoxicity. Results with a number of chemotherapeutic agents are reported; in general, sensitivity measured in vitro does not correspond with published reports of sensitivity of the Lewis Lung carcinoma in vivo. PMID:7226139

Bertram, J S; Janik, P

1980-11-01

382

Nuclear Motility in Glioma Cells Reveals a Cell-Line Dependent Role of Various Cytoskeletal Components  

PubMed Central

Nuclear migration is a general term for the movement of the nucleus towards a specific site in the cell. These movements are involved in a number of fundamental biological processes, such as fertilization, cell division, and embryonic development. Despite of its importance, the mechanism of nuclear migration is still poorly understood in mammalian cells. In order to shed light on the mechanical processes underlying nuclear movements, we adapted a micro-patterning based assay. C6 rat and U87 human glioma cells seeded on fibronectin patterns - thereby forced into a bipolar morphology - displayed oscillatory movements of the nucleus or the whole cell, respectively. We found that both the actomyosin system and microtubules are involved in the nuclear/cellular movements of both cell lines, but their contributions are cell-/migration-type specific. Dynein activity was necessary for nuclear migration of C6 cells but active myosin-II was dispensable. On the other hand, coupled nuclear and cellular movements of U87 cells were driven by actomyosin contraction. We explain these cell-line dependent effects by the intrinsic differences in the overall mechanical tension due to the various cytoskeletal elements inside the cell. Our observations showed that the movements of the nucleus and the centrosome are strongly correlated and display large variation, indicating a tight but flexible coupling between them. The data also indicate that the forces responsible for nuclear movements are not acting directly via the centrosome. Based on our observations, we propose a new model for nuclear oscillations in C6 cells in which dynein and microtubule dynamics are the main drivers of nuclear movements. This mechanism is similar to the meiotic nuclear oscillations of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and may be evolutionary conserved. PMID:24691067

Kiss, Alexa; Horvath, Peter; Rothballer, Andrea; Kutay, Ulrike; Csucs, Gabor

2014-01-01

383

Adult T-Cell Leukemia: Antigen in an ATL Cell Line and Detection of Antibodies to the Antigen in Human Sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect immunofluorescence of certain human sera demonstrated an antigen(s) in the cytoplasm of 1-5% of the cells of a T-cell line, MT-1, from a patient with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), which is endemic in southwestern Japan. The antigen was not detected in other human lymphoid cell lines, including six T-cell lines, seven B-cell lines, and four non-T non-B cell lines.

Yorio Hinuma; Kinya Nagata; Masao Hanaoka; Masuyo Nakai; Tadashi Matsumoto; Ken-Ichiro Kinoshita; Shigeru Shirakawa; Isao Miyoshi

1981-01-01

384

Role of Shiga/Vero toxins in pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin (Stx) is the primary cause of severe host responses including renal and central nervous system (CNS) disease in Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. The interaction of Stx with different eukaryotic cell types is described. Host responses to Stx and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are compared as related to the features of the STEC-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). Data derived from animal models of HUS and CNS disease, in vivo, and eukaryotic cells, in vitro, are evaluated in relation to HUS disease of humans.

Obata, Fumiko; Obrig, Tom

2014-01-01

385

Braided stream and flood plain architecture: the Rio Vero Formation, Spanish Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early- to middle-Miocene fluvial sandstones of the Rio Vero Formation were studied, in an area around the town of Barbastro, south central Pyrenees Spain. The outstanding quality of outcrops in this area allows a three-dimensional study of architectural elements.Six architectural elements are recognised, described in detail, and interpreted from three key localities. Seven main lithofacies were identified and sub-divided into

S. J. Jones; L. E. Frostick; T. R. Astin

2001-01-01

386

Derivation and osmotolerance characterization of three immortalized tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) cell lines.  

PubMed

Fish cell cultures are becoming more widely used models for investigating molecular mechanisms of physiological response to environmental challenge. In this study, we derived two immortalized Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) cell lines from brain (OmB) and lip epithelium (OmL), and compared them to a previously immortalized bulbus arteriosus (TmB) cell line. The OmB and OmL cell lines were generated without or with Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor/3T3 feeder layer supplementation. Although both approaches were successful, ROCK inhibitor/feeder layer supplementation was found to offer the advantages of selecting for epithelial-like cell type and decreasing time to immortalization. After immortalization (? passage 5), we characterized the proteomes of the newly derived cell lines (OmB and OmL) using LCMS and identified several unique cell markers for each line. Subsequently, osmotolerance for each of the three cell lines following acute exposure to elevated sodium chloride was evaluated. The acute maximum osmotolerance of these tilapia cell lines (>700 mOsm/kg) was markedly higher than that of any other known vertebrate cell line, but was significantly higher in the epithelial-like OmL cell line. To validate the physiological relevance of these tilapia cell lines, we quantified the effects of acute hyperosmotic challenge (450 mOsm/kg and 700 mOsm/kg) on the transcriptional regulation of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the compatible organic osmolyte, myo-inositol. Both enzymes were found to be robustly upregulated in all three tilapia cell lines. Therefore, the newly established tilapia cells lines represent valuable tools for studying molecular mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response of euryhaline fish. PMID:24797371

Gardell, Alison M; Qin, Qin; Rice, Robert H; Li, Johnathan; Kültz, Dietmar

2014-01-01

387

Establishment and characterization of a new cell line of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae).  

PubMed

A new cell line, designated as ZJBIQ-Chsu-I, was initiated from the fat body of larval Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) in TNM-FH insect medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum. The polygonal cells (65.6%) were predominant among various cell types, and the diameter range was from 12.63 to 22.50 ?m. The cell line showed a typical lepidopteran chromosome pattern ranging from 108 to 136 chromosomes in the majority of the cells. The population doubling time (PDT) of the cell line at the 15th passage was 62 h. This cell line was found to be susceptible to Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeNPV). By the DNA amplification fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (DAF-PCR) technique, it was confirmed that cell line ZJBIQ-Chsu-I really originated from C. suppressalis. PMID:25381037

Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Yipeng; Yu, Xiaoping

2014-11-01

388

Mucous and ciliated cell metaplasia in epithelial linings of odontogenic inflammatory and developmental cysts.  

PubMed

The incidence of mucous and ciliated cells in epithelial linings was examined among odontogenic inflammatory cysts (radicular cysts) and developmental cysts (dentigerous and primordial cysts). Mucous cells were found in 20.8% of all cysts examined, while ciliated cells were found in 11.4%; however, ciliated cells were always accompanied by mucous cells. The incidence of mucous cells in radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts and that of ciliated cells in radicular cysts was higher in the maxilla than in the mandible, while the incidence of mucous cells in primordial cysts and that of ciliated cells in dentigerous cysts and primordial cysts was higher in the mandible than in the maxilla. The present results regarding mucous cells and ciliated cells in the epithelial linings of intraosseous odontogenic cysts indicate a metaplasic origin, but the cause and biological significance of this phenomenon is not known. Mucous cells were present in the surface layer of epithelial linings, and intraepithelial gland-like structures lined with mucous cells were observed in the hyperplastic regions of epithelial linings of several radicular and dentigerous cysts. Such gland-like structures lined by mucous cells in the thickened epithelial lining, which have not been demonstrated previously, resembled the glandular structures of "glandular odontogenic cysts". PMID:16050487

Takeda, Yasunori; Oikawa, Yuko; Furuya, Izuru; Satoh, Masanobu; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

2005-06-01

389

Inhibition of geranylgeranylation mediates sensitivity to CHOP-induced cell death of DLBCL cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Prenylation is a post-translational hydrophobic modification of proteins, important for their membrane localization and biological function. The use of inhibitors of prenylation has proven to be a useful tool in the activation of apoptotic pathways in tumor cell lines. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rab GGT) is responsible for the prenylation of the Rab family. Overexpression of Rab GGTbeta has been identified in CHOP refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using a cell line-based model for CHOP resistant DLBCL, we show that treatment with simvastatin, which inhibits protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, sensitizes DLBCL cells to cytotoxic treatment. Treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 or the geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 indicates that the reduction in cell viability was restricted to inhibition of geranylgeranylation. In addition, treatment with BMS1, a combined inhibitor of farnesyl transferase and Rab GGT, resulted in a high cytostatic effect in WSU-NHL cells, demonstrated by reduced cell viability and decreased proliferation. Co-treatment of BMS1 or GGTI-298 with CHOP showed synergistic effects with regard to markers of apoptosis. We propose that inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation together with conventional cytostatic therapy is a potential novel strategy for treating patients with CHOP refractory DLBCL.

Ageberg, Malin, E-mail: Malin.Ageberg@med.lu.se [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden)] [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden); Rydstroem, Karin, E-mail: Karin.Rydstom@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Linden, Ola, E-mail: Ola.Linden@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Linderoth, Johan, E-mail: Johan.Linderoth@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Jerkeman, Mats, E-mail: Mats.Jerkeman@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Drott, Kristina, E-mail: Kristina.Drott@med.lu.se [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden)] [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden)

2011-05-01

390

The melanocyte inducing factor MITF is stably expressed in cell lines from human clear cell sarcoma.  

PubMed

Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is associated with the EWS/ATF1 oncogene that is created by chromosomal fusion of the Ewings Sarcoma oncogene (EWS) and the cellular transcription factor ATF1. The melanocytic character of CCS suggests that the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf), a major inducer of melanocytic differentiation, may be miss-expressed in CCS. Accordingly, we show that the mRNA and protein of the melanocyte-specific isoform of Mitf (Mitf-M) are present in several cultured CCS cell lines (Su-ccs-1, DTC1, Kao, MST-1, MST-2 and MST-3). The above cell lines thus provide a valuable experimental resource for examining the role of Mitf-M in both CCS and melanocyte differentiation. Melanocyte-specific expression of Mitf-M is achieved via an ATF-dependent melanocyte-specific cAMP-response element in the Mitf-M promoter, and expression of Mitf-M in CCS cells suggests that EWS/ATF1 (a potent and promiscuous activator of cAMP-inducible promoters) may activate the Mitf-M promoter. Surprisingly, however, the Mitf-M promoter is not activated by EWS/ATF1 in transient assays employing CCS cells, melanocytes or nonmelanocytic cells. Thus, our results indicate that Mitf-M promoter activation may require an appropriate chromosomal context in CCS cells or alternatively that the Mitf-M promoter is not directly activated by EWS/ATF1. PMID:12966428

Li, K K C; Goodall, J; Goding, C R; Liao, S-K; Wang, C-H; Lin, Y-C; Hiraga, H; Nojima, T; Nagashima, K; Schaefer, K-L; Lee, K A W