Sample records for vero cell line

  1. Antiproliferative efficacy of Tabernaemontana divaricata against HEP2 cell line and Vero cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Selvakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laryngeal cancer may also be called cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma. Conventional plants are a precious source of novel anticancer agents and are still in performance better role in health concern. The study was intended to estimation of the anticancer activity of the chloroformic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata on the human epidermoid larynx carcinoma cell line (Hep 2). Materials and Method: The aerial parts (leaves, stem, and flowers) of T. divaricata were tested for its inhibitory effect in 96 microplate formats against Hep 2 cell line. The anticancer activity of samples on Hep 2 and Vero was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and various enzymatic parameters like catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, and superoxide anion scavenging activity. Viable cells were determined by the absorbance at 540 nm. Measurements were performed, and the concentration required for a 50% inhibition of viability (IC50) was determined graphically. The effect of the samples on the proliferation of Hep 2 and Vero cells was expressed as the % cell viability. Results: The extract on Hep 2 cell line up to 7.8 ?g/ml and that IC50 value on Hep 2 cell line was 112 ?g whereas 94 ?g for Vero cell line. Hence, T. divaricata has lesser significant action on Vero cell line. Conclusion: Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer. Our results clearly indicate the anticancer property of the medicinal plant T. divaricata against the human laryngeal carcinoma cell lines (Hep 2 cell line).

  2. The Genome Landscape of the African Green Monkey Kidney-Derived Vero Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes were identified in the 2.97-Gb genome sequence. A homozygous ?9-Mb deletion on chromosome 12 caused the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in Vero cells. In addition, an ?59-Mb loss of heterozygosity around this deleted region suggested that the homozygosity of the deletion was established by a large-scale conversion. Moreover, a genomic analysis of Vero cells revealed a female Chlorocebus sabaeus origin and proviral variations of the endogenous simian type D retrovirus. These results revealed the genomic basis for the non-tumourigenic permanent Vero cell lineage susceptible to various pathogens and will be useful for generating new sub-lines and developing new tools in the quality control of Vero cells. PMID:25267831

  3. Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Elaeis guineensis on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Elaeis guineensis methanol extract on MCF-7 and Vero cell. Methods In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in by MTT assay. Cell morphological changes were observed by using light microscope. Results The MTT assay indicated that methanol extract of the plant exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on MCF-7. Morphological alteration of the cell lines after exposure with Elaeis guineensis extract were observed under phase contrast microscope in the dose dependent manner. Conclusions The results suggest the probable use of the Elaeis guineensis methanol extract in preparing recipes for cancer-related ailments. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their in vivo cytotoxicity are under investigation. PMID:23569855

  4. [Evaluation of the infectivity of dengue 1 strains in the HepG2 and Vero cell lines].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Barroso, Alicia; Amin Blanco, Nevis; Morier Díaz, Luis; Pérez Hernández, Ela María

    2005-01-01

    Viral infectivity of Hawaii, 3 Peri and Riberao Pretto dengue 1 strains was evaluated in Vero and HepG2 cell lines by indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Dengue virus cellular tropism in vitro is diverse. They may replicate themselves in a great variety of cellular cultures, whose sensibility to viral infection is variable. The greatest percentage of infected cells in the HepG2 cell line was obtained with the highest multiplicities of infection (0.04 for Hawaii and Riberao Pretto strains and 0.01 for 3 Perú). The highest percentage of infected HepG2 and Vero cells for the studied strains and the greatest titer in the viral overnadant was obtained on the 5th day. Vero cell line was more sensitive to viral infection, since for the same multiplicity values it was detected a higher number of fluorescent cells and a better viral titre in the line of this overnadant than in the HepG2. The best result was obtained with the Hawaii strain that allowed to confirm faster the infection of the studied cellular lines. PMID:17966579

  5. Comparison of use of Vero cell line and suspension culture of murine macrophage to attenuation of virulence of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Khordadmehr, Monireh; Namavari, Mehdi; Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Mansourian, Maryam; Rahimian, Abdollah; Daneshbod, Yahya

    2013-10-01

    In this study the tachyzoite yields of Neospora caninum were compared in two cell lines: Vero (African Green Monkey Kidney) and suspension culture of murine macrophage (J774) cell lines. Then, N. caninum were continuously passaged in these cell lines for 3 months and the effect of host cells on virulence of tachyzoites was assessed by broiler chicken embryonated eggs. Inoculation was performed in the chorioallantoic (CA) liquid of the embryonated eggs with different dilutions (0.5 × 10(4), 1.0 × 10(4), 1.5 × 10(4)) of tachtzoites isolated from these cell cultures. The mortality pattern and pathological changes of the dead embryos and hatched chickens were noted. Tissue samples of brain, liver and heart were examined by histopathological and detection of DNA of parasite by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, consecutive sections of the tissues examined histologically were used for immunohistochemical (IHC) examination. Embryos inoculated with tachyzoites derived from Vero cell line (group V) showed a higher mortality rate (100%) than the embryos that received tachyzoites derived from J774 cell line (group J) (10% mortality rate). The results of this study indicated that the culture of N. caninum in J774 cell led to a marked increase in the number of tachyzoite yields and rapid attenuation in comparison to Vero, so the results were confirmed by IHC and PCR. This study is the first report of the significant effect of host cell on the attenuation of virulence of N. caninum tachyzoites. These findings could potentially provide a practical approach in the mass production of N. caninum tachyzoites, and also in producing live attenuated vaccine. PMID:23684321

  6. Chemical Synthesis, Characterisation, and Biocompatibility of Nanometre Scale Porous Anodic Aluminium Oxide Membranes for Use as a Cell Culture Substrate for the Vero Cell Line: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72?h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. PMID:24579077

  7. Chemical synthesis, characterisation, and biocompatibility of nanometre scale porous anodic aluminium oxide membranes for use as a cell culture substrate for the vero cell line: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; O'Dea, Mark; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72?h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. PMID:24579077

  8. Photodynamic efficiency of hypericin compared with chlorin and hematoporphyrin derivatives in HEp-2 and Vero epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Claudia; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Andrade, Gislaine P; Perussi, Janice R

    2015-06-01

    Hypericin (HY) is a photoactive aromatic dianthraquinone that is considered a potent photodynamic agent. In this study, hypericin and two other photosensitizers, a hematoporphyrin derivative (Photogem(®); PG) and a chlorin derivative (Photodithazine(®); PZ), were compared in terms of their phototoxicity toward two cell lines, HEp-2 and Vero. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of each of the photosensitizers was obtained after a 16.2Jcm(-2) dose of irradiation at 630±10nm. The IC50 values were 0.07±0.01 (HY), 1.0±0.2 (PZ), and 9±1?gmL(-1) (PG) in HEp-2 cells and 0.3±0.1 (HY), 1.6±0.2 (PZ) and 11±1?gmL(-1) (PG) in Vero cells, showing that HY is more phototoxic than the others when irradiated at 630nm. If these results are analyzed, simultaneously, with the first-order constant for BSA tryptophan photooxidation, obtained by fluorescence decay (?excitation=280nm), which are 11×10(-3)min(-1)±1. 10(-3)min(-1) (HY), 10×10(-3)min(-1)±1×10(-3)min(-1) (PZ), and 6×10(-3)min(-1)±1×10(-3)min(-1) (PG), it is possible to infer that the photodynamic efficiency alone is not sufficient to explain the higher HY phototoxicity. The lipophilicity is also an important factor for an efficient target cell accumulation and was assessed for all sensitizers through the octanol-water partition coefficient (log P): 1.20±0.02 (HY), -0.62±0.03 (PZ), and -0.9±0.2 (PG). The higher value for HY correlates well with its observed superior efficiency to promote damage at low concentrations and doses. As HY is used for the long-term treatment of mild depression, it is considered safe for humans. This fact and the present results reinforce the great potential of this photosensitizer to replace porphyrin derivatives, with the advantages that mean it could be used as photosensitizer in clinical photodynamic therapy. PMID:25910552

  9. Diquat-induced cytotoxicity on Vero and HeLa cell lines: effect of melatonin and dihydromelatonin

    PubMed Central

    Okuliarová, Monika; Ková?ová, Elena; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Diquat dibromide is a moderately toxic contact herbicide belonging to the bipyridyl group of redox-active compounds that induce a strong oxidative damage. Melatonin (MEL) can protect against oxidative damage under in vivo conditions, probably through its anti-oxidative capacity and ability to induce expression of anti-oxidative enzymes. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of diquat on viability of Vero and HeLa cells and possible protective effects of MEL and its analogue 2,3-dihydromelatonin (DMEL). Cell viability was evaluated with the MTT test. First, we analyzed dose-dependent effects of diquat on cell viability using the concentration range of 0.1–100 ?M. Second, we used the diquat dose which reduced cell viability by 50% and treated cells with either MEL or DMEL (both in the concentration range of 1–100 ?M) in the presence or absence of diquat. In addition, effects of both diquat and MEL on oxidative stress in HeLa cells were measured by flow cytometry using 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. We confirmed the expected negative effects of diquat on viability of Vero and HeLa cells. Melatonin and DMEL were able to prevent diquat reduced viability of Vero cells in rather low concentrations (1 ?M) and DMEL exerted substantially stronger protective effects than MEL. However in HeLa cells, we did not find the same effects and MEL even reduced their viability. Moreover, treatment of HeLa cells with high concentrations of MEL (100 ?M) exaggerated the pro-oxidative effects of diquat. The results suggest that in addition to the expected anti-oxidative effects, MEL exerts a pro-oxidative action which is cell type and dose dependent. PMID:26109898

  10. Autophagic Cell Death Is Induced by Acetone and Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Eupatorium odoratum In Vitro: Effects on MCF-7 and Vero Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Faizah Bt.; Syed Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin; Yin, Khoo Boon; Othman, Zulkhairi; Tilwari, Anita; Balaram, Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100??g/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:22666123

  11. Autophagic cell death is induced by acetone and ethyl acetate extracts from Eupatorium odoratum in vitro: effects on MCF-7 and vero cell lines.

    PubMed

    Harun, Faizah Bt; Syed Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin; Yin, Khoo Boon; Othman, Zulkhairi; Tilwari, Anita; Balaram, Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Eupatorium odoratum (EO) contains many biologically active compounds, the anticancer effects of which are not well documented. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects and mechanism of action of EO extracts on MCF-7 and Vero cell lines. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay, morphological alterations, and apoptosis were carried out. Autophagy was evaluated by LC3-A protein expression. Cytotoxic activity, membrane blebbing and ballooning at 24 hours, replacement by mass vacuolation, and double membrane vesicles mimicking autophagy and cell death were observed in the cancer cells. No apoptosis was observed by DNA fragmentation assay. Overexpression of LC3-A protein indicated autophagic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed G0 and G2/M arrest. The Vero cells did not show significant cell death at concentrations <100??g/mL. These results thus suggest that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of EO induce cell death through induction of autophagy and hold potential for development as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:22666123

  12. VERO cells (cercopithecus aethiops kidney) — growth characteristics and viral susceptibility for use in diagnostic virology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Macfarlane; R. G. Sommerville

    1969-01-01

    Summary An investigation of some of the characteristics of the VERO cell line (Cercopithecus aethiops kidney) is reported, in which the suitability of the cells for use in routine diagnostic virology was examined. VERO cells will:1.grow to monolayers as rapidly as other heteroploid cell lines, but will maintain as usable monolayers in conventional maintenance medium for a significantly longer time;2.grow

  13. MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers for VERO cell tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Teferedegne, Belete; Macauley, Juliete; Foseh, Gideon; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Chumakov, Konstantin; Murata, Haruhiko; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2014-08-20

    MicroRNA expression appears to capture the process of neoplastic development in vitro in the VERO line of African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells (Teferedegne et al. PLoS One 2010;5(12):e14416). In that study, specific miRNA signatures were correlated with the transition, during serial tissue-culture passage, of low-density passaged 10-87 VERO cells from a non-tumorigenic phenotype at passage (p) 148 to a tumorigenic phenotype at p256. In the present study, six miRNAs (miR-376a, miR-654-3p, miR-543, miR-299-3p, miR-134 and miR-369-3p) were chosen from the identified signature miRNAs for evaluation of their use as potential biomarkers to track the progression of neoplastic development in VERO cells. Cells from the 10-87 VERO cell line at passage levels from p148 to p256 were inoculated into newborn and adult athymic nude mice. No tumors were observed in animals inoculated with cells from p148 to p186. In contrast, tumor incidences of 20% developed only in newborn mice that received 10-87 VERO cells at p194, p234 and p256. By qPCR profiling of the signature miRNAs of 10-87 VERO cells from these cell banks, we identified p194 as the level at which signature miRNAs elevated concurrently with the acquisition of tumorigenic phenotype with similar levels expressed beyond this passage. In wound-healing assays at 10-passage intervals between p150 to p250, the cells displayed a progressive increase in migration from p165 to p186; beginning at p194 and higher passages thereafter, the cells exhibited the highest rates of migration. By qPCR analysis, the same signature miRNAs were overexpressed with concomitant acquisition of the tumorigenic phenotype in another lineage of 10-87 VERO cells passaged independently at high density. Correlation between the passages at which the cells expressed a tumorigenic phenotype and the passages representing peaks in expression levels of signature miRNAs indicates that these miRNAs are potential biomarkers for the expression of the VERO cell tumorigenic phenotype. PMID:25024114

  14. Cytotoxic effects of etephon and maleic hydrazide in Vero, Hep2, HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, Begum; Baydan, Emine; Okur, Hamza; Gurcan, Ismayil Safa

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of etephon and maleic hydrazide, used as plant growth regulators in agriculture, were reported as low in mammals in previous studies. However, in vitro cytotoxicity studies in mammalian cells are currently missing to understand their toxicity at molecular level. In the current study, the cytotoxicity of these compounds, were studied in Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelium), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), Hep2 (human epidermoid cancer) cells by MTT ((3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromure) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays. Maleic hydrazide had lower IC50 values for all cell lines compared to ethephon. Least cytotoxic effect treated by ethephon were observed in Vero, followed by HepG2 and Hep2. Similarly maleic hydrazide also showed least cytotoxicity on Vero cells, followed by Hep2 and HepG2 cells (p?Vero cells, followed by HepG2 and Hep2 cells (p?0.868 (p?cells to be supplemented by further studies. PMID:24495230

  15. Can Vero cell co-culture improve in-vitro maturation of bovine oocytes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fariba Moulavi; Sayyed Mortaza Hosseini; Saeid Kazemi Ashtiani; Abdolhossein Shahverdi; Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vero cell co-culture on developmental competence of immature oocytes. Bovine cumulus–oocyte complexes (COC) were matured in presence or absence of Vero cells. Matured oocytes were inseminated and cultured for up to 9 days. Cleavage percentages were recorded on day 2 after insemination and embryos were evaluated on a daily basis.

  16. Development of a Vero cell DNA reference standard for residual DNA measurement in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shouchun; Dong, Guanmu; Tang, Jianrong; Li, Jia; Liu, Jinghua; Shi, Leitai; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-02-01

    This collaborative study developed a Vero cell DNA reference for standardizing dot blot hybridization, an assay widely employed to measure residual DNA contents of viral vaccines prepared with Vero cells. High purity of Vero cell DNA was extracted and characterized by Hind III enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Then, with a cooperative calibration, the concentration of Vero cell DNA reference bulk solution was determined (64.0 ± 1.9 ?g/mL, OD 260/OD 280 = 1.87) and diluted (40 ng/mL) with Tris-EDTA buffer containing bovine serum albumin as freeze-dried excipients. With industrial filling apparatus, the diluted bulk was loaded into ampoules (0.5 mL each) which were heat sealed after nitrogen filling. Finally, a collaborative study showed that the Vero cell DNA reference could reach a sensitivity of 1 to 5 pg/dot and maintained good stability after accelerated destruction test. The successful establishment of the Vero cell DNA quantitative reference will facilitate the standardization of dot blot hybridization for testing residual host cell DNA. PMID:23291952

  17. A Vero-cell-adapted vaccine donor strain of influenza A virus generated by serial passages.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weibin; Zhang, Hong; Han, Qinglin; Li, Li; Chen, Yixin; Xia, Ningshao; Chen, Ze; Shu, Yuelong; Xu, Ke; Sun, Bing

    2015-01-01

    A cell culture-based vaccine production system is preferred for the large-scale production of influenza vaccines and has advantages for generating vaccines against highly pathogenic influenza A viruses. Vero cells have been widely used in human vaccine manufacturing, and the safety of these cells has been well demonstrated. However, the most commonly used influenza-vaccine donor virus, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) virus, does not grow efficiently in Vero cells. Therefore, we adapted the PR8 virus to Vero cells by continuous passaging, and a high-growth strain was obtained after 20 passages. Sequence analysis and virological assays of the adapted strain revealed that mutations in four viral internal genes (NP, PB1, PA and NS1) were sufficient for adaptation. The recombinant virus harboring these mutations (PR8-4mut) displayed accelerated viral transport into the nucleus and increased RNP activity. Importantly, the PR8-4mut could serve as a backbone donor virus to support the growth of the H7N1, H9N2 and H5N1 avian viruses and the H1N1 and H3N2 human viruses in Vero cells without changing its pathogenicity in either chicken embryos or mice. Thus, our work describes the generation of a Vero-adapted, high-yield PR8-4mut virus that may serve as a promising candidate for an influenza-vaccine donor virus. PMID:25448099

  18. A single NS2 mutation of K86R promotes PR8 vaccine donor virus growth in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Han, Qinglin; Ping, Xianqiang; Li, Li; Chang, Chong; Chen, Ze; Shu, Yuelong; Xu, Ke; Sun, Bing

    2015-08-01

    Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent and control infection by influenza viruses, and a cell-culture-based vaccine production system is preferred as the future choice for the large-scale production of influenza vaccines. As one of the WHO-recommended cell lines for producing influenza vaccines, Vero cells do not efficiently support the growth of the current influenza A virus vaccine donor strain, the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) virus. In this study, a single mutation of K86R in the NS2 protein can sufficiently render the high-yielding property to the PR8 virus in Vero cells. Further analysis showed that the later steps in the virus replication cycle were accelerated by NS2K86R mutation, which may relate to an enhanced interaction between NS2K86R and the components of host factor F1Fo-ATPase, FoB and F1?. Because the NS2K86R mutation does not increase PR8 virulence in either mice or embryonated eggs, the PR8-NS2K86R virus could serve as a promising vaccine donor strain in Vero cells. PMID:25817403

  19. Inhibition of puumala and tula hantaviruses in Vero cells by MxA protein.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, M; Melén, K; Vaheri, A; Julkunen, I

    1996-10-01

    Human MxA protein is a type I Interferon-inducible intracytoplasmic protein, which mediates antiviral actions against a variety of negative-strand RNA viruses including influenza A, measles, and vesicular stomatitis viruses. Recently, it has also been shown that several members of the Bunyaviridae family are inhibited by MxA protein. The hantavirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family includes important human pathogenic viruses, e.g., Puumala (PUUV), Hantaan, and Sin Nombre viruses. Tula virus (TULV) is a new member of the genus, but its pathogenicity in man remains to be determined. As assumed by the similarities in replication strategy. MxA would be a good candidate molecule for antiviral action against these viruses, also. To gain more insight into the MxA action on PUUV, we studied PUUV and TULV replication in stably MxA genetransfected Vero cells. We show that MxA protein has the capacity to inhibit both viral protein and RNA accumulation in virus-infected cells. We also studied PUUV and TULV infection in MxA-transfected U-937 cell clones. In these cell lines both hantaviruses grew poorly, independent of whether the cells were expressing MxA or not Whether cell line-specific differences in the antiviral activity of MxA protein against hantaviruses exist cannot be conclusively determined due to the lack of productive infection of PUUV and TULV in U-937 cells. PMID:8862399

  20. Impedance monitoring of herpes simplex virus-induced cytopathic effect in Vero cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungbo Cho; Sybille Becker; Hagen von Briesen; Hagen Thielecke

    2007-01-01

    New regulations like, e.g. the European Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals Regulation (the REACH regulation) require efficient and easy to use cell-based systems to get toxicological data of chemicals or to detect viruses in small samples of serum. In this article, we investigate whether the effect of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) on Vero (green monkey kidney) cells can be

  1. Tula hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Kukkonen, Sami; Vapalahti, Olli; Plyusnin, Alexander; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

    2004-11-01

    Hantaviruses are known to cause two severe human diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The mechanisms of pathogenesis of these two diseases are progressively becoming understood. Recently, two hantaviruses, Hantaan and Prospect Hill were reported to cause programmed cell death of Vero E6 cells. This study shows that Tula hantavirus (TULV) infection efficiently triggers an apoptotic programme in infected Vero E6 cells, and that the replication of TULV is required for the activation of caspase 3 and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, two molecular hallmarks of apoptosis. The enforced treatment of infected Vero E6 cells with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), but not interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), advanced the time course of apoptosis. Furthermore, caspase 8 was activated on day 4 post-infection, the same day when caspase 3 was activated. TNF receptor 1 was induced during a late stage of TULV infection. These data suggest that, unlike during influenza A virus infection, TNF-alpha, but not type I IFN-alpha/beta, may contribute significantly to apoptosis in a synergistic manner with TULV propagation. Interestingly, pretreatment with a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, efficiently inhibited apoptosis of TULV-infected Vero E6 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that TULV replication initiates a typical apoptotic programme involving caspase 8 activation. PMID:15483239

  2. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt.

    PubMed

    Lafon-Hughes, Laura; Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C; Kun, Alejandra; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

  3. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Kun, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

  4. Peptides extracted from vero cell cultures overcome the blastocyst block of mouse embryos in a serum-free medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-Fu Chen; Hong-Nerng Ho; Shee-Uan Chen; Kuang-Han Chao; Heng-Ru Lin; Su-Cheng Huang; Tzu-Yao Lee; Yu-Shih Yang

    1994-01-01

    Purpose  \\u000a The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a Vero cell coculture system on the development of mouse embryos.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a Mouse embryos were randomly divided and cultured in human tubal fluid (HTF) medium with\\/without Vero cell monolayers, conditioned\\u000a medium (CM) obtained from Vero cell cultures, and HTF medium supplemented with peptides extracted from CM. The concentrated

  5. Protective effect of zinc chloride against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity on vero cells: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of cobalt chloride on Vero cells. The cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of cobalt chloride ranging from 0.5 to 1,000 ?M, and cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and resazurin assays. Possible protective effects of vitamin E, coenzyme Q(10), and zinc chloride were also tested in this system. A gradual decrease in cell proliferation was observed at concentrations ~? 200 ?M in incubation periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h with MTT assay. Exposure of cells to 500 and 1,000 ?M cobalt chloride caused significant decrease in cell survival. A biphasic survival profile of cells was observed at 1-25 ?M concentration range following 96 h of incubation. With resazurin assay, cytotoxicity profile of CoCl(2) was found comparable to the results of MTT assay, particularly at high concentrations and long incubation periods. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was noted following exposure of cells to ? 250 ?M of CoCl(2) for 24 h and ? 100 ?M concentrations of CoCl(2) for 48-96 h. Pretreatment of cells with ZnCl(2) for 4 or 24 h provided significant protection against cobalt chloride-induced cytotoxicity when measured with MTT assay. However, vitamin E or coenzyme Q(10) was not protective. CoCl(2) had dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. Preventive effect of ZnCl(2) against CoCl(2)-induced cytotoxicity should be considered in detail to define exact mechanism of toxicity in Vero cells. PMID:22281816

  6. [A study of the antiherpetic activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts in the Vero cells infected with the herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Polkovnikova, M V; Nosik, N N; Garaev, T M; Kondrashina, N G; Finogenova, M P; Shibnev, V A

    2014-01-01

    The chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) contains a wide range of excellent bioactive compounds. However, limited information exists on the antiviral activity of the compounds extracted from chaga. A number of subfractions of chaga were obtained using different solvents and different procedures. The subfractions of chaga extracted with water, alcohol, alkali were tested for their toxicity for the Vero cell culture and antiviral effect in the Vero cells infected with the Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Type 1. It was shown that most of the subfractions were not toxic for the Vero cells and had protective effect on the Vero cells infected with HSV. The subfraction IV in the concentration 5 microg/ml protected the Vero cells from cytodestructive action of HSV and no viral DNA was detected in infected cells treated with chaga extracts. Best protective effect was observed when compound was added before or within one hour after the Vero cells were infected with HSV. PMID:25069286

  7. Tula hantavirus triggers pro-apoptotic signals of ER stress in Vero E6 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Lankinen, Hilkka; Putkuri, Niina; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti

    2005-03-01

    Tula virus is a member of the Hantavirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Viruses of this family have an unusual pattern of intracellular maturation at the ER-Golgi compartment. We recently found that Tula virus, similar to several other hantaviruses, is able to induce apoptosis in cultured cells [Li, X.D., Kukkonen, S., Vapalahti, O., Plyusnin, A., Lankinen, H., Vaheri, A., 2004. Tula hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation. J. Gen. Virol. 85, 3261-3268.]. However, the cellular mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrate that the progressive replication of Tula virus in Vero E6 cells initiates several death programs that are intimately associated with ER stress: (1) early activation of ER-resident caspase-12; (2) phosphorylation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target transcriptional factor, c-jun; (3) induction of the pro-apoptotic transcriptional factor, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153, or C/EBP homologous protein (Gadd153/chop); and (4) changes in the ER-membrane protein BAP31 implying cross-talk with the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that a sustained ER stress was induced marked by an increased expression of an ER chaperone Grp78/BiP. Taken together, we have identified involvement of ER stress-mediated death program in Tula virus-infected Vero E6 cells which provides a new approach to understand the mechanisms in hantavirus-induced apoptosis. PMID:15708603

  8. Removing residual DNA from Vero-cell culture-derived human rabies vaccine by using nuclease.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Ming; Bai, Fu-Liang; Xu, Wen-Juan; Yang, Yong-Bi; An, Ying; Li, Tian-He; Yu, Yin-Hang; Li, De-Shan; Wang, Wen-Fei

    2014-09-01

    The clearance of host cell DNA is a critical indicator for Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the clearance of DNA in Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine by purification process utilizing ultrafiltration, nuclease digestion, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the bioprocess of using nuclease decreased residual DNA. Dot-blot hybridization analysis showed that the residual host cell DNA was <100 pg/ml in the final product. The residual nuclease in rabies vaccine was less than 0.1 ng/ml protein. The residual nuclease could not paly the biologically active role of digestion of DNA. Experiments of stability showed that the freeze-drying rabies virus vaccine was stable and titers were >5.0 IU/ml. Immunogenicity test and protection experiments indicated mice were greatly induced generation of neutralizing antibodies and invoked protective effects immunized with intraperitoneal injections of the rabies vaccine. These results demonstrated that the residual DNA was removed from virus particles and nuclease was removed by gel filtration chromatography. The date indicated that technology was an efficient method to produce rabies vaccine for human use by using nuclease. PMID:25108516

  9. Real-time Imaging of Rabies Virus Entry into Living Vero cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haijiao; Hao, Xian; Wang, Shaowen; Wang, Zhiyong; Cai, Mingjun; Jiang, Junguang; Qin, Qiwei; Zhang, Maolin; Wang, Hongda

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of rabies virus (RABV) infection is vital for prevention and therapy of virulent rabies. However, the infection mechanism remains largely uncharacterized due to the limited methods and viral models. Herein, we utilized a powerful single-virus tracking technique to dynamically and globally visualize the infection process of the live attenuated rabies vaccine strain-SRV9 in living Vero cells. Firstly, it was found that the actin-enriched filopodia is in favor of virus reaching to the cell body. Furthermore, by carrying out drug perturbation experiments, we confirmed that RABV internalization into Vero cells proceeds via classical dynamin-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis with requirement for intact actin, but caveolae-dependent endocytosis is not involved. Then, our real-time imaging results unambiguously uncover the characteristics of viral internalization and cellular transport dynamics. In addition, our results directly and quantitatively reveal that the intracellular motility of internalized RABV particles is largely microtubule-dependent. Collectively, our work is crucial for understanding the initial steps of RABV infection, and elucidating the mechanisms of post-infection. Significantly, the results provide profound insight into development of novel and effective antiviral targets. PMID:26148807

  10. Infection of Vero Cells by BK Virus Is Dependent on Caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Eash, Sylvia; Querbes, William; Atwood, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy occurs in ?5% of renal transplant recipients and results in loss of graft function in 50 to 70% of these patients. The disease is caused by reactivation of the common human polyomavirus BK (BKV) in the transplanted kidney. The early events in productive BKV infection are unknown. In this report, we focus on elucidating the mechanisms of BKV internalization in its target cell. Our data reveal that BKV entry into permissive Vero cells is slow, is independent of clathrin-coated-pit assembly, is dependent on an intact caveolin-1 scaffolding domain, is sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibition, and requires cholesterol. BKV colocalizes with the caveola-mediated endocytic marker cholera toxin subunit B but not with the clathrin-dependent endocytic marker transferrin. In addition, BKV infectious entry is sensitive to elevation in intracellular pH. These findings indicate that BKV entry into Vero cells occurs by caveola-mediated endocytosis involving a pH-dependent step. PMID:15479799

  11. Identification of diphtheria toxin receptor and a nonproteinous diphtheria toxin-binding molecule in Vero cell membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eisuke Mekada; Yoshio Okada; Tsuyoshi Uchida

    1988-01-01

    Two substances possessing the ability to bind to diphtheria toxin (DT) were found to be present in a membrane fraction from DT-sensitive Vero cells. One of these substances was found on the basis of its ability to bind DT and inhibit its cytotoxic effect. This inhibitory substance competitively inhibited the bind- ing of DT to Veto cells. However this inhibitor

  12. Immunogenicity of single-dose Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Nozomi; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Shimbo, Takuro; Kotaki, Akira; Ujiie, Mugen; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kaku, Mitsuo; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, intensive immunization against Japanese encephalitis (JE) was performed from 1967 to 1976, and regular JE immunization was performed thereafter. However, for Japanese adults facing JE risk, dates of vaccination with new inactivated Vero cell-derived JE vaccine are unavailable. This study investigated how a single dose of Vero cell-derived JE vaccine affects Japanese adults. Neutralizing antibodies were measured pre- and post-JE vaccination in 79 participants (age 40.7 ± 9.4 years), enrolled between October 2009 and March 2011, whose JE-vaccination data were gathered from vaccination records and history taking. Before vaccination, the participants' seroprotection rate (SPR) was 51.9%, whereas SPR after vaccination was 93.7%. The seroconversion rate (SCR), which measures seronegative cases that turn seropositive after vaccination, was 86.8%. The geometric mean titer (GMT) was 14.7 before vaccination and 70.1 after vaccination. Age was a significant difference between seroprotected (42.8 years) and non-seroprotected (38.7 years) groups before vaccination. Then the difference of age, SCR, pre-vaccination GMT, post-vaccination GMT and sex ratio were also significant in participants aged 25-39 years and ?40 years, who represent generations born when Japan's JE-vaccination policy changed. SCR was 100% in participants aged 25-39 years with a vaccination recorded 55.6% in participants aged 25-39 without a vaccination record, and 96.0% in participants aged ?40 years. Thus, more participants aged 25-39 years were seroprotected before vaccination, but SCR was higher in those aged ?40 years. Most Japanese adults can be protected after one-dose vaccination, but this may be insufficient for people aged 25-39 years without recorded JE vaccination. PMID:24485326

  13. Detection of Latent Retroviruses in Vaccine-related Cell Substrates: Investigation of RT Activity Produced by Chemical Induction of Vero Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailun; Khan, Arifa S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) The detection of known and novel viruses is important for cell substrate and vaccine safety. A major challenge is detection of latent viruses such as endogenous retroviruses and oncogenic DNA viruses. We have evaluated activation of endogenous retroviruses in a Vero cell line using chemical induction and various conventional and emerging methods for virus detection and characterization. In addition, infectivity studies were done to determine whether any induced virus particles were replication competent. This approach may be used for enhancing vaccine safety by assessing the presence of potential chemically-inducible, latent viruses in cell substrates to be used for vaccine manufacture. PMID:22294598

  14. Synthesis of Proteins and Glycoproteins in Dengue Type 2 Virus-infected Vero and Aedes albopictus Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREG W. SMITH; PETER J. WRIGHT

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY Fifteen proteins were detected in Vero cells infected by dengue type 2 (DEN-2) virus that were not observed in mock-infected cells, namely P98, p82, P67, GP60, gp54, GP46, p30, p28, gp22, GP20, pl8, gpl6, pl5, pl4 and gpl3. With the exceptions of gp54 and gp 13, polypeptides corresponding to those listed above were also observed in DEN-2 virus-infected Aedes

  15. Identification of diphtheria toxin receptor and a nonproteinous diphtheria toxin-binding molecule in Vero cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Two substances possessing the ability to bind to diphtheria toxin (DT) were found to be present in a membrane fraction from DT-sensitive Vero cells. One of these substances was found on the basis of its ability to bind DT and inhibit its cytotoxic effect. This inhibitory substance competitively inhibited the binding of DT to Vero cells. However this inhibitor could not bind to CRM197, the product of a missense mutation in the DT gene, and did not inhibit the binding of CRM197 to Vero cells. Moreover, similar levels of the inhibitory activity were observed in membrane fractions from DT-insensitive mouse cells, suggesting the inhibitor is not the DT receptor which is specifically present in DT-sensitive cells. The second DT-binding substance was found in the same Vero cell membrane preparation by assaying the binding of 125I-labeled CRM197. Such DT-binding activity could not be observed in membrane preparation from mouse L cells. From competition studies using labeled DT and CRM proteins, we conclude that this binding activity is due to the surface receptor for DT. Treatment of these substances with several enzymes revealed that the inhibitor was sensitive to certain RNases but resistant to proteases, whereas the DT receptor was resistant to RNase but sensitive to proteases. The receptor was solubilized and partially purified by chromatography on CM- Sepharose column. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis of the partially purified receptor revealed that a 14.5-kD protein is the DT receptor, or at least a component of it. PMID:3417759

  16. Proteome analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)-infected Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Songlin; Zhang, Huan; Ding, Zhen; Luo, Rui; An, Kang; Liu, Lianzeng; Bi, Jing; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong

    2015-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes an acute, highly contagious, and devastating viral enteric disease with a high mortality rate in suckling pigs. A large-scale outbreak of PED occurred in China in 2010, with PEDV emerging in the United States in 2013 and spreading rapidly, posing significant economic and public health concerns. In this study, LC-MS/MS coupled to iTRAQ labeling was used to quantitatively identify differentially expressed cellular proteins in PEDV-infected Vero cells. We identified 49 differentially expressed cellular proteins, of which 8 were upregulated and 41 downregulated. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in apoptosis, signal transduction, and stress responses. Based on these differentially expressed proteins, we propose that PEDV might utilize apoptosis and extracellular signal regulated kinases pathways for maximum viral replication. Our study is the first attempt to analyze the protein profile of PEDV-infected cells by quantitative proteomics, and we believe our findings provide valuable information with respect to better understanding the host response to PEDV infection. PMID:25604190

  17. Preparation of Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein NS1 obtained from culture fluid of JEV-infected Vero cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lee; K. Watanabe; C. Aizawa; A. Nomoto; H. Hashimoto

    1991-01-01

    Summary The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) nonstructural protein NS1 was released efficiently into culture fluid of JEV-infected Vero cells. The JEV NS1 protein in the infected culture fluid was found almost as a high-molecular-weight form, probably a dimer form of NS1, and was converted to a monomer by boiling. Large amounts of NS1 protein were accumulated in the infected culture

  18. A Sabin 1 poliovirus-based vaccine vector transfects Vero cells with high efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changgui

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, live oral poliovirus (PV) vaccines have contributed to the eradication of wild PV in most countries. These live vaccine strains have a high safety record and can stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses. As both of these factors are critical characteristics of a good vaccine, we aimed to modify the oral PV vaccines to create a powerful vaccine vector for extraneous antigen expression. In this study, we amplified three separate fragments from the Sabin 1 virus genome by RT-PCR and cloned them into the pGEM-TEasy vector. A cassette containing engineered protease cleavage sites and a polylinker was introduced into one of these fragments (f1) in front of the translation start site. This construction facilitated the insertion of foreign genes into the vector and the subsequent release of their co-translated antigens after digestion by endogenous protease. We also placed a ribozyme (Rz) sequence between the T7 promoter and viral genomic DNA so that in vitro transcription and Rz cleavage recreated the authentic 5? end of the PV genome RNA. Poly(A)40 tails were added to the 3? end of the genome to stabilize the transcribed RNA. The three PV genome fragments and their derivatives were cloned into various types of vectors that were transfected into Vero cells. Virus rescue experiments demonstrated that both the Rz and poly(A)40 elements were required for high transfection efficiency of the vector-derived RNAs. PMID:19003009

  19. Vero microcultures for adenovirus neutralization tests.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C; Bingham, P G

    1978-01-01

    A microculture neutralization test is described for measuring specific antibody levels to the 35 human adenovirus serotypes in Vero cells. The test is read at 5 days by macroscopic observation after staining the uninfected cells with crystal violet. The test is performed with a minimum of manipulations and gives serum titers comparable with those obtained in tube macrocultures of monkey kidney, human embryonic kidney, and Vero cells. The Vero microculture neutralization test measures inhibition of adenovirus toxicity, although selected human adenoviruses serially subpassaged in Vero cells were shown to successfully adapt and replicate in the absence of detectable helper viruses. Images PMID:670375

  20. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Grown in HEp-2 Cells Causes more Severe Disease in Lambs than Virus Grown in Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Derscheid, Rachel J.; van Geelen, Albert; McGill, Jodi L.; Gallup, Jack M.; Cihlar, Tomas; Sacco, Randy E.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children. A small percentage of these individuals develop severe and even fatal disease. To better understand the pathogenesis of severe disease and develop therapies unique to the less-developed infant immune system, a model of infant disease is needed. The neonatal lamb pulmonary development and physiology is similar to that of infants, and sheep are susceptible to ovine, bovine, or human strains of RSV. RSV grown in Vero (African green monkey) cells has a truncated attachment G glycoprotein as compared to that grown in HEp-2 cells. We hypothesized that the virus grown in HEp-2 cells would cause more severe clinical symptoms and cause more severe pathology. To confirm the hypothesis, lambs were inoculated simultaneously by two different delivery methods (intranasal and nebulized inoculation) with either Vero-grown or HEp-2-grown RSV Memphis 37 (M37) strain of virus to compare viral infection and disease symptoms. Lambs infected with HEp-2 cell-derived virus by either intranasal or nebulization inoculation had significantly higher levels of viral RNA in lungs as well as greater clinical disease including both gross and histopathologic lesions compared to lambs similarly inoculated with Vero-grown virus. Thus, our results provide convincing in vivo evidence for differences in viral infectivity that corroborate previous in vitro mechanistic studies demonstrating differences in the G glycoprotein expression by RSV grown in Vero cells. PMID:24284879

  1. A novel animal-component-free medium for rabies virus production in Vero cells grown on Cytodex 1 microcarriers in a stirred bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samia Rourou; Arno van der Ark; Samy Majoul; Khaled Trabelsi; Tiny van der Velden; Héla Kallel

    2009-01-01

    Vero cells growth and rabies production in IPT-AF medium, a property animal-component-free medium are described in this work.\\u000a Kinetics of cell growth and rabies virus (strain LP 2061) production were first conducted in spinner flasks. Over eight independent\\u000a experiments, Vero cell growth in IPT-AF medium, on 2 g\\/l Cytodex 1 was consistent. An average Cd (cell division number) of\\u000a 3.3?±?0.4 and

  2. Preclinical evaluation of Vaxfectin-adjuvanted Vero cell-derived seasonal split and pandemic whole virus influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Larry R; Wodal, Walter; Crowe, Brian A; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Bruehl, Peter; Schwendinger, Michael G; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sullivan, Sean M; Shlapobersky, Mark; Hartikka, Jukka; Rolland, Alain; Barrett, P Noel; Kistner, Otfried

    2013-06-01

    Increasing the potency and supply of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines remains an important unmet medical need which may be effectively accomplished with adjuvanted egg- or cell culture-derived vaccines. Vaxfectin, a cationic lipid-based adjuvant with a favorable safety profile in phase 1 plasmid DNA vaccines trials, was tested in combination with seasonal split, trivalent and pandemic whole virus, monovalent influenza vaccines produced in Vero cell cultures. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in Vaxfectin-adjuvanted to nonadjuvanted vaccinated mice and guinea pigs revealed 3- to 20-fold increases in antibody titers against each of the trivalent influenza virus vaccine strains and 2- to 8-fold increases in antibody titers against the monovalent H5N1 influenza virus vaccine strain. With the vaccine doses tested, comparable antibody responses were induced with formulations that were freshly prepared or refrigerated at conventional 2-8°C storage conditions for up to 6 mo. Comparison of T-cell frequencies measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay between groups revealed increases of between 2- to 10-fold for each of the adjuvanted trivalent strains and up to 22-fold higher with monovalent H5N1 strain. Both trivalent and monovalent vaccines were easy to formulate with Vaxfectin by simple mixing. These preclinical data support further testing of Vaxfectin-adjuvanted Vero cell culture vaccines toward clinical studies designed to assess safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans. PMID:23857272

  3. Preclinical evaluation of Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted Vero cell-derived seasonal split and pandemic whole virus influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Larry R.; Wodal, Walter; Crowe, Brian A.; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Bruehl, Peter; Schwendinger, Michael G.; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sullivan, Sean M.; Shlapobersky, Mark; Hartikka, Jukka; Rolland, Alain; Barrett, P. Noel; Kistner, Otfried

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the potency and supply of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines remains an important unmet medical need which may be effectively accomplished with adjuvanted egg- or cell culture-derived vaccines. Vaxfectin®, a cationic lipid-based adjuvant with a favorable safety profile in phase 1 plasmid DNA vaccines trials, was tested in combination with seasonal split, trivalent and pandemic whole virus, monovalent influenza vaccines produced in Vero cell cultures. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted to nonadjuvanted vaccinated mice and guinea pigs revealed 3- to 20-fold increases in antibody titers against each of the trivalent influenza virus vaccine strains and 2- to 8-fold increases in antibody titers against the monovalent H5N1 influenza virus vaccine strain. With the vaccine doses tested, comparable antibody responses were induced with formulations that were freshly prepared or refrigerated at conventional 2–8°C storage conditions for up to 6 mo. Comparison of T-cell frequencies measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay between groups revealed increases of between 2- to 10-fold for each of the adjuvanted trivalent strains and up to 22-fold higher with monovalent H5N1 strain. Both trivalent and monovalent vaccines were easy to formulate with Vaxfectin® by simple mixing. These preclinical data support further testing of Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted Vero cell culture vaccines toward clinical studies designed to assess safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans. PMID:23857272

  4. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

  5. Exogenous ACE2 Expression Allows Refractory Cell Lines To Support Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Mossel, Eric C.; Huang, Cheng; Narayanan, Krishna; Makino, Shinji; Tesh, Robert B.; Peters, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    Of 30 cell lines and primary cells examined, productive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (Urbani strain) (SARS-CoV) infection after low-multiplicity inoculation was detected in only six: three African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines (Vero, Vero E6, and MA104), a human colon epithelial line (CaCo-2), a porcine kidney epithelial line [PK(15)], and mink lung epithelial cells (Mv 1 Lu). SARS-CoV produced a lytic infection in Vero, Vero E6, and MA104 cells, but there was no visible cytopathic effect in Caco-2, Mv 1 Lu, or PK(15) cells. Multistep growth kinetics were identical in Vero E6 and MA104 cells, with maximum titer reached 24 h postinoculation (hpi). Virus titer was maximal 96 hpi in CaCo-2 cells, and virus was continually produced from infected CaCo-2 cells for at least 6 weeks after infection. CaCo-2 was the only human cell type of 13 tested that supported efficient SARS-CoV replication. Expression of the SARS-CoV receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), resulted in SARS-CoV replication in all refractory cell lines examined. Titers achieved were variable and dependent upon the method of ACE2 expression. PMID:15731278

  6. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People's Republic of China (China)] [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People's Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue, E-mail: euy-tokyo@umin.ac.jp [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People's Republic of China (China)] [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People's Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang, E-mail: liaogy@21cn.com [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People's Republic of China (China)] [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People's Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  7. Growth of vaccine strains of avian pneumovirus in different cell lines.

    PubMed

    Patnayak, Devi P; Tiwari, A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2005-04-01

    The isolation of avian pneumovirus (APV) (avian metapneumovirus) is usually performed in embryonated chicken eggs or chicken embryo fibroblast cell cultures followed by adaptation in continuous cell lines such as Vero cells. This study was conducted to find a suitable cell line that could be used to propagate vaccine strains of APV to high titre. For this purpose, we compared the growth of two Vero cell-adapted vaccine strains of APV (P63 and ca-APV) in seven different cell types with their growth in Vero cells. The cell types used were BGM-70, MA-104, QT-35, BHK-21, McCoy and DF-1 cells and primary turkey embryo fibroblast cells. When compared with growth in Vero cells, both viruses yielded higher titres in BGM-70 cells, while P63 also produced higher titres in MA-104 cells. In another experiment, the two viruses were grown and titrated in Vero cells under various cell culture conditions, such as age of cells, seeding concentration, and time of harvest. None of these cell culture variables were found to affect virus titres. PMID:16191692

  8. A Basic Study on the Biological Monitoring for Vanadium—Effects of Vanadium on Vero Cells and the Evaluation of Intracellular Vanadium Contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariko Mochizuki; Eiko Kudo; Mitsuho Kikuchi; Takashi Takano; Yojiro Taniuchi; Tomoya Kitamura; Ryo Hondo; Fukiko Ueda

    2011-01-01

    A high concentration of vanadium (V) has toxic effects on human and animals and is one of environmental pollutants. In the\\u000a present study, we have conducted a fundamental study using cultured Vero cells from monkey kidney for the future environmental\\u000a monitoring. Orthovanadate (VAN), one of V compounds, of 10?10 and 10?8 M did not affect the cell growth although the higher

  9. A polysaccharide fraction from medicinal herb Prunella vulgaris downregulates the expression of herpes simplex virus antigen in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Lawrence Chi-Ming; Zhu, Wen; Ooi, Vincent Eng-Choon

    2004-07-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are pathogenic. With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of HSV, new antiviral agents, especially those with different modes of action, are urgently needed. Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae), a perennial plant commonly found in China and Europe, has long been used as a folk medicine to cure ailments. In this study, a polysaccharide fraction was prepared from Prunella vulgaris (PPV), and its effects on the expressions of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens in their host Vero cells were investigated with flow cytometry. The HSV antigen increased time-dependently in the infected cells, and PPV reduced its expression. The effective concentrations of PPV with 50% reductions of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens were 20.6 and 20.1 microg/ml, respectively. The novelty of PPV is that it also reduces the antigen expression of acyclovir-resistant strain of HSV-1. After incubations with 25-100 microg/ml of PPV the HSV antigen-positive cells were reduced by 24.8-92.6%, respectively, showing that this polysaccharide fraction has a different mode of anti-HSV action from acyclovir. Results from this study show that PPV is effective against both the HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections, and flow cytometry offers a quantitative and highly reproducible anti-HSV drug-susceptibility assay. PMID:15182906

  10. A basic study on the biological monitoring for vanadium-effects of vanadium on Vero cells and the evaluation of intracellular vanadium contents.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Kudo, Eiko; Kikuchi, Mitsuho; Takano, Takashi; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Kitamura, Tomoya; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2011-07-01

    A high concentration of vanadium (V) has toxic effects on human and animals and is one of environmental pollutants. In the present study, we have conducted a fundamental study using cultured Vero cells from monkey kidney for the future environmental monitoring. Orthovanadate (VAN), one of V compounds, of 10(-10) and 10(-8) M did not affect the cell growth although the higher concentration of above 10(-6) M VAN inhibited the cell growth accompanied with the decrease in cell numbers and morphological changes. Given that the washing method with ice-cold Li is also effective for determination of the cellular Na content, we used this method for the determination of the V content of the Vero cells. The V distributions in Vero cell; in the 10(-3) M VAN solution, extracellular and intracellular were obtained as 1:0.564:0.036 and 1:0.662:0.098 at 60 and 120 min after the treatment of VAN. The intracellular V content was 10% of the applied concentration of VAN. Consequently, it was suggested that V concentration of 10(-7) and 10(-6) M in the tissue and environment, respectively, might become the threshold concentration; a criterion of the environmental contamination when we carry out environmental monitoring. PMID:20556539

  11. Comparison of Vero Cell Assay and PCR as Indicators of the Presence of VerocytotoxigenicEscherichia coliin Bovine and Human Fecal Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. RAHN; J. B. WILSON; K. A. MCFADDEN; S. C. READ; A. G. ELLIS; S. A. RENWICK; R. C. CLARKE; ANDR. P. JOHNSON

    1996-01-01

    Comparisons were made between Vero cell assay (VCA) and PCR as indicators for the detection of verocy- totoxigenicEscherichiacoli(VTEC;alsoknownasShiga-liketoxin-producingE.coli)andaspredictorsofVTEC isolation from bovine and human fecal samples. Fecal samples were collected as part of a survey on the prevalence of VTEC on dairy farms in southern Ontario (J. B. Wilson et al., J. Infect. Dis., 174:1021-1027, 1996). A total of 2,655 samples

  12. Reduction of spiked porcine circovirus during the manufacture of a Vero cell-derived vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Cornelia; Leydold, Sandra M; Modrof, Jens; Farcet, Maria R; Grillberger, Leopold; Schäfer, Birgit; Anderle, Heinz; Kreil, Thomas R

    2014-04-11

    Porcine circovirus-1 (PCV1) was recently identified as a contaminant in live Rotavirus vaccines, which was likely caused by contaminated porcine trypsin. The event triggered the development of new regulatory guidance on the use of porcine trypsin which shall ensure that cell lines and porcine trypsin in use are free from PCV1. In addition, manufacturing processes of biologicals other than live vaccines include virus clearance steps that may prevent and mitigate any potential virus contamination of product. In this work, artificial spiking of down-scaled models for the manufacturing process of an inactivated pandemic influenza virus vaccine were used to investigate inactivation of PCV1 and the physico-chemically related porcine parvovirus (PPV) by formalin and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment as well as removal by the purification step sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. A PCV1 infectivity assay, using a real-time PCR infectivity readout was established. The formalin treatment (0.05% for 48h) showed substantial inactivation for both PCV1 and PPV with reduction factors of 3.0log10 and 6.8log10, respectively, whereas UV-C treatment resulted in complete PPV (?5.9log10) inactivation already at a dose of 13mJ/cm but merely 1.7log10 at 24mJ/cm(2) for PCV1. The UV-C inactivation results with PPV were confirmed using minute virus of mice (MVM), indicating that parvoviruses are far more sensitive to UV-C than PCV1. The sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation also contributed to PCV1 clearance with a reduction factor of 2log10. The low pH treatment during the production of procine trypsin was investigated and showed effective inactivation for both PCV1 (4.5log10) and PPV (6.4log10). In conclusion, PCV1 in general appears to be more resistant to virus inactivation than PPV. Still, the inactivated pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing process provides for robust virus reduction, in addition to the already implemented testing for PCV1 to avoid any contaminations. PMID:24560672

  13. Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH

    SciTech Connect

    Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.

    1987-08-01

    The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/. Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na/sup +/ was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na/sup +/. At a constant external concentration of HCO/sub 3/-, the amount of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO/sub 3/- decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO/sub 3/- is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ both in the absence and presence of Na/sup +/. At alkaline internal pH, HCO/sub 3/- stimulated the efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na/sup +/ and HCO/sub 3/- were required to induce /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.

  14. Spectroscopic evaluation of the effect of a red microalgal polysaccharide on herpes-infected Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly

    2003-04-01

    The sulfated polysaccharide obtained from a species of red microalga has proved to be a potent antiviral agent against various members of the herpes family. In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate differences between normal cells, those infected with herpes viruses, and infected cells treated with red microalgal polysaccharide. FT-IR enables the characterization of cell or tissue pathology based on characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of the cells. The advantage of microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy over conventional FT-IR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell cultures or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and noninfected cells, and between infected cells treated with the polysaccharide and those not treated. In infected cells, there was an impressive decrease in sugar content and a considerable increase in phosphate levels in conjunction with the infection progress. Our results also proved that sugars penetrated and accumulated inside cells treated with the red microalgal polysaccharide. These could have been sugar fragments of low molecular weight present in the polysaccharide solution, despite purification by dialysis. Such sugar accumulation might be responsible for a breakdown in the internal steps of the viral replication cycle. PMID:14658634

  15. Bovine colostrum ultrafiltrate supplemented with adult bovine serum and transferrin: An effective fbs substitute for cultivation of vero and CHO-K1 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimo Pakkanen

    1994-01-01

    Summary  A mixture containing an ultrafiltrate fraction (UF) of bovine colostrum (6.7%), adult bovine serum (BS) (1%), and human holo-transferrin\\u000a (hTF) (5 mg\\/liter) was developed for cultivation of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and African green monkey kidney cells\\u000a (Vero). The growth-supporting activity of the mixture (UF\\/BS\\/hTF) was comparable to that of 1 to 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)\\u000a and considerably

  16. Chemical mutagenesis of dengue virus type 4 yields mutant viruses which are temperature sensitive in vero cells or human liver cells and attenuated in mice.

    PubMed

    Blaney, J E; Johnson, D H; Firestone, C Y; Hanson, C T; Murphy, B R; Whitehead, S S

    2001-10-01

    A recombinant live attenuated dengue virus type 4 (DEN4) vaccine candidate, 2ADelta30, was found previously to be generally well tolerated in humans, but a rash and an elevation of liver enzymes in the serum occurred in some vaccinees. 2ADelta30, a non-temperature-sensitive (non-ts) virus, contains a 30-nucleotide deletion (Delta30) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genome. In the present study, chemical mutagenesis of DEN4 was utilized to generate attenuating mutations which may be useful in further attenuation of the 2ADelta30 candidate vaccine. Wild-type DEN4 2A virus was grown in Vero cells in the presence of 5-fluorouracil, and a panel of 1,248 clones were isolated. Twenty ts mutant viruses were identified that were ts in both simian Vero and human liver HuH-7 cells (n = 13) or only in HuH-7 cells (n = 7). Each of the 20 ts mutant viruses possessed an attenuation phenotype, as indicated by restricted replication in the brains of 7-day-old mice. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 20 ts mutant viruses identified nucleotide substitutions in structural and nonstructural genes as well as in the 5' and 3' UTRs, with more than one change occurring, in general, per mutant virus. A ts mutation in the NS3 protein (nucleotide position 4995) was introduced into a recombinant DEN4 virus possessing the Delta30 deletion, thereby creating rDEN4Delta30-4995, a recombinant virus which is ts and more attenuated than rDEN4Delta30 virus in the brains of mice. We are assembling a menu of attenuating mutations that should be useful in generating satisfactorily attenuated recombinant dengue vaccine viruses and in increasing our understanding of the pathogenesis of dengue virus. PMID:11559806

  17. Transcriptional profiling of Vero E6 cells over-expressing SARS-CoV S2 subunit: Insights on viral regulation of apoptosis and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Y.-S. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: ysyeung@graduate.hku.hk; Yip, C.-W. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h0024004@hkusua.hku.hk; Hon, C.-C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h9826299@hkusua.hku.hk; Chow, Ken Y.C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: chow@pasteur.fr; Ma, Iris C.M. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h0105962@hkusua.hku.hk; Zeng Fanya [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: fzeng@hkucc.hku.hk; Leung, Frederick C.C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: fcleung@hkucc.hku.hk

    2008-02-05

    We have previously demonstrated that over-expression of spike protein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or its C-terminal subunit (S2) is sufficient to induce apoptosis in vitro. To further investigate the possible roles of S2 in SARS-CoV-induced apoptosis and pathogenesis of SARS, we characterized the host expression profiles induced upon S2 over-expression in Vero E6 cells by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Possible activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in S2 expressing cells was suggested, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cytochrome c and down-regulation of the Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic members. Inhibition of Bcl-2-related anti-apoptotic pathway was further supported by the diminution of S2-induced apoptosis in Vero E6 cells over-expressing Bcl-xL. In addition, modulation of CCN E2 and CDKN 1A implied the possible control of cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase. This study is expected to extend our understanding on the pathogenesis of SARS at a molecular level.

  18. Establishment of cell lines with increased susceptibility to EV71/CA16 by stable overexpression of SCARB2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A group type 16 (CA16) belong to human Enterovirus species A of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses are recognized as the major pathogens responsible for epidemics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), which presents with fever and vesicular eruptions of palms, soles of the feet or mouth. Human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been identified as the receptor for both EV71 and CA16, as overexpression of SCARB2 in cells can enhance virus replication significantly. Methods In this study, we used a lentivirus packaging vector to transduce the SCARB2 gene into human embryonic kidney cells (293), human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) to create stable expression lines. Expression of SCARB2 in the resulting three transgenic cell lines was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Results Levels of SCARB2 mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR in 293-SCARB2 (293S) or RD-SCARB2 (RDS) transgenic cell lines were approximately 2?×?102 times higher than those in 293 and RD cells, respectively, and three times higher in Vero-SCARB2 (VeroS) than in Vero cells. Furthermore, EV71 and CA16 virus titers in 293S and RDS cells were 102–103-fold higher (detected in RD cell) than those in the parental cells, and a 10-fold higher titer of EV71 was achieved in VeroS cells compared with that in Vero cells. Conclusions We established for the first time three cell lines stably overexpressing SCARB2, which showed drastic increases in susceptibility to EV71/CA16 infection. These optimal cell lines may be utilized to develop inactivated vaccines for EV71/CA16 and facilitate rapid detection and isolation of HFMD pathogens or other Enterovirus serotypes. Furthermore, these stable cell lines also can serve as tools to facilitate drug screenings as well as molecular studies on virus-host interactions and pathogenesis of causative agents for HFMD. PMID:23919614

  19. Genetic and phenotypic properties of vero cell-adapted Japanese encephalitis virus SA14-14-2 vaccine strain variants and a recombinant clone, which demonstrates attenuation and immunogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gromowski, Gregory D; Firestone, Cai-Yen; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Whitehead, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    The live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) SA14-14-2 vaccine, produced in primary hamster kidney cells, is safe and effective. Past attempts to adapt this virus to replicate in cells that are more favorable for vaccine production resulted in mutations that significantly reduced immunogenicity. In this study, 10 genetically distinct Vero cell-adapted JEV SA14-14-2 variants were isolated and a recombinant wild-type JEV clone, modified to contain the JEV SA14-14-2 polyprotein amino acid sequence, was recovered in Vero cells. A single capsid protein mutation (S66L) was important for Vero cell-adaptation. Mutations were also identified that modulated virus sensitivity to type I interferon-stimulation in Vero cells. A subset of JEV SA14-14-2 variants and the recombinant clone were evaluated in vivo and exhibited levels of attenuation that varied significantly in suckling mice, but were avirulent and highly immunogenic in weanling mice and are promising candidates for the development of a second-generation, recombinant vaccine. PMID:25311701

  20. Antibody response of patients after postexposure rabies vaccination with small intradermal doses of purified chick embryo cell vaccine or purified Vero cell rabies vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, D. J.; Banzhoff, A.; Nicolay, U.; Sirikwin, S.; Dumavibhat, B.; Tongswas, S.; Wasi, C.

    2000-01-01

    Although the introduction of tissue culture vaccines for rabies has dramatically improved the immunogenicity and safety of rabies vaccines, they are often prohibitively expensive for developing countries. To examine whether smaller doses of these vaccines could be used, we tested the safety and immunogenicity of purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) on 211 patients in Thailand with World Health Organization (WHO) category II and III exposures to rabies. The patients presented at two Thai hospitals and were randomized into three groups. Patients in Group 1 received 0.1 ml PCECV intradermally at two sites on days 0, 3, 7, and at one site on days 30 and 90. Group 2 was treated similarly, except that purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) was used instead of PCECV. Group 3 received 1.0 ml PCECV intramuscularly on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90. After 0, 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 days serum was collected from the subjects and the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of rabies virus neutralizing antibody determined. After 14 days the GMT of 59 patients vaccinated intradermally with PCECV was equivalent to that of patients who received PVRV. Adverse reactions were more frequent in patients who received vaccines intradermally, indicating the reactions were associated with the route of injection, rather than the vaccine per se. We conclude that PCECV is a safe and highly immunogenic vaccine for postexposure rabies vaccination when administered intradermally in 0.1-ml doses using the two-site method ("2,2,2,0,1,1") recommended by WHO. PMID:10859864

  1. Original article Apoptosis induction in BEFV-infected Vero and MDBK

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Apoptosis induction in BEFV-infected Vero and MDBK cells through Src-dependent JNK ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)-infected cultured cells could induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. This study and induced apoptosis in Vero and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, and a kinetic study showed a higher

  2. Transport of an external Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) protein from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum: studies with cholera toxin in Vero cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The A2 chain of cholera toxin (CTX) contains a COOH-terminal Lys-Asp- Glu-Leu (KDEL) sequence. We have, therefore, analyzed by immunofluorescence and by subcellular fractionation in Vero cells whether CTX can used to demonstrate a retrograde transport of KDEL proteins from the Golgi to the ER. Immunofluorescence studies reveal that after a pulse treatment with CTX, the CTX-A and B subunits (CTX-A and CTX-B) reach Golgi-like structures after 15-20 min (maximum after 30 min). Between 30 and 90 min, CTX-A (but not CTX-B) appear in the intermediate compartment and in the ER, whereas the CTX-B are translocated to the lysosomes. Subcellular fractionation studies confirm these results: after CTX uptake for 15 min, CTX-A is associated only with endosomal and Golgi compartments. After 30 min, a small amount of CTX-A appears in the ER in a trypsin-resistant form, and after 60 min, a significant amount appears. CTX-A seems to be transported mainly in its oxidized form (CTX-A1-S-S-CTX-A2) from the Golgi to the ER, where it becomes slowly reduced to form free CTX A1 and CTX-A2, as indicated by experiments in which cells were homogenized 30 and 90 min after the onset of CTX uptake in the presence of N- ethylmaleimide. Nocodazol applied after accumulation of CTX in Golgi inhibits the appearance of CTX-A in the ER and delays the increase of 3',5'cAMP, indicating the participation of microtubules in the retrograde Golgi-ER transport. PMID:8666663

  3. ACTION OF CYTOCHALASIN D ON CELLS OF ESTABLISHED LINES

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Armand F.; Godman, Gabriel C.; Deitch, Arline D.; Tanenbaum, Stuart W.

    1974-01-01

    HeLa, Vero, L, HEp2, and MDBK cells respond immediately to 0.2–0.5 µg/ml cytochalasin D (CD) with sustained contraction (contracture), loss of microvilli, expression of endoplasmic contents (zeiosis), nuclear protrusion, and extension of cytoplasmic processes. The development of these changes is depicted, and the dose-response patterns in these cell lines are described. MDBK is generally most resistant and HeLa most sensitive to these effects of CD. Cells in G1 are most sensitive to CD; responsiveness decreases progressively during early S and is least in mid S through G2. CD inhibits transport of [14C]deoxyglucose in HeLa by about 45% but has no significant effect on hexose uptake in Vero and MDBK; sugar transport is thus apparently unrelated to any morphologic effect of CD. Although spreading and attachment are impeded, CD does not decrease and may even enhance the adhesiveness of established monolayers. Contraction appears to be a primary early effect of CD, upon which other visible changes follow. It is prevented by some inhibitors of energy metabolism (deoxyglucose and dinitrophenol) and does not occur in glycerinated models without ATP. The possible bases of the contractile response to CD are discussed. Although direct or indirect action of CD on some microfilaments may occur, a generalized structural disruption of contractile filaments by CD is considered unlikely. PMID:4208074

  4. Designing cell lines for viral vaccine production: Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Genzel, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    Established animal cells, such as Vero, Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs), are still the main cell lines used for viral vaccine production, although new "designer cells" have been available for some years. These designer cell lines were specifically developed as a cell substrate for one application and are well characterized. Later screening for other possible applications widened the product range. These cells grow in suspension in chemically defined media under controlled conditions and can be used for up to 100 passages. Scale-up is easier and current process options allow cultivation in disposable bioreactors at cell concentrations higher than 1×10(7) cells/mL. This review covers the limitations of established cell lines and discusses the requirements and screening options for new host cells. Currently available designer cells for viral vaccine production (PER.C6, CAP, AGE1.CR, EB66 cells), together with other new cell lines (PBS-1, QOR/2E11, SogE, MFF-8C1 cells) that were recently described as possible cell substrates are presented. Using current process knowledge and cell line development tools, future upstream processing could resemble today's Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell processes for monoclonal antibody production: small scale bioreactors (disposable) in perfusion or fed-batch mode with cell concentrations above 1×10(8) cells/mL. PMID:25903999

  5. Establishment and characterization of a new Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) cell line with special emphasis on virus susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, A B; Parashar, Deepti; Jadi, Ramesh S; Basu, Atanu; Mokashi, Chetan; Arankalle, Vidya A; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2009-10-01

    A new cell line from the neonate larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) mosquito was established and characterized. The cell line at the 50th passage (P) level consisted of three prominent cell types, i.e., epithelial-like cells (92%), fibroblast-like cells (7%), and giant cells ( approximately 1%). Karyological analysis showed diploid (2n = 6) number of chromosomes in >75% cells at P-50. The growth kinetics studied at 52nd passage level showed approximately tenfold increase in cell number over a 10-d study period. The species specificity studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting profile analysis using RAPD primers demonstrated 100% homology with the host profile showing the integrity of the cell line. Electron microscopy revealed the absence of mycoplasma or other adventitious agents. The cell line supported the multiplication of seven arboviruses, i.e., Chikungunya (CHIK), Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue 2 (DEN-2), Chandipura, vesicular stomatitis, and Chittoor viruses. The cell line did not replicate Ganjam and Kaisodi viruses. CHIK virus yield in the new cell line was approximately 3log and 0.5log 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50))/mL higher than Vero E6 and C6/36 cell lines, respectively. In the case of DEN-2 virus, it yielded 1log TCID(50)/mL higher than Vero E6, but lesser than C6/36 cell line. Due to its high susceptibility to a broad spectrum of viruses, the new cell line may find application in virus isolation during epidemics and in antigen production. PMID:19533252

  6. Cell line characterization and authentication.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J; Hukku, B

    1998-01-01

    Research and development involving the use of cell lines require precise knowledge of the purity and species of origin of the cell lines used. This can only be assured by periodic monitoring of cultured cell lines for possible contamination by other cells and for characteristics that authenticate the cell line identity. In the absence of such monitoring, inter- and intraspecies cell line contaminations are likely to occur in the laboratories of unsuspecting investigators and can result in the generation of mistaken conclusions with an attendant loss of investigators' time, effort, and resources. This chapter provides a history and an overview of the methods that have been developed for cell line authentication, the type of information each of these different methods provides, and how synthesis of that information can be used to characterize a cell line and confirm its identity. An effective cell line monitoring strategy is described that involves testing for a combination of genetic markers, including cell membrane species antigens, isoenzymes, chromosomes, and DNA fingerprints, and use of databases for each marker system to compare the results obtained with a test cell culture with results from an extensive panel of previously tested cell lines. PMID:9648106

  7. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)] [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  8. Toxigenicity of culture filtrates of Salmonella enteritidis isolates on three mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, H; Heaney, S B; Singer, J T

    1995-07-01

    Culture filtrates of 28 Salmonella enteritidis isolates were tested for toxicity on Vero-, CHO-, and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Cytopathic effects on HFF cells were extensive, and were observed even with some filtrates diluted 1:256. Vero cells showed effects with filtrates diluted up to 1:16, and CHO cells gave weak or no reaction. All isolates produced iron-binding siderophores as determined by reactions on chrome-azurol-S medium. PMID:7553360

  9. Biology of SNU Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ja-Lok

    2005-01-01

    SNU (Seoul National University) cell lines have been established from Korean cancer patients since 1982. Of these 109 cell lines have been characterized and reported, i.e., 17 colorectal carcinoma, 12 hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 gastric carcinoma, 12 uterine cervical carcinoma, 17 B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from cancer patients, 5 ovarian carcinoma, 3 malignant mixed Mllerian tumor, 6 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 7 renal cell carcinoma, 9 brain tumor, 6 biliary tract, and 4 pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. These SNU cell lines have been distributed to biomedical researchers domestic and worldwide through the KCLB (Korean Cell Line Bank), and have proven to be of value in various scientific research fields. The characteristics of these cell lines have been reported in over 180 international journals by our laboratory and by many other researchers from 1987. In this paper, the cellular and molecular characteristics of SNU human cancer cell lines are summarized according to their genetic and epigenetic alterations and functional analysis. PMID:19956504

  10. Role of Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella in adhesion, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induction in T24 and Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Villar, Silvia; Umpiérrez, Ana; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is frequently associated with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). It is proposed that several virulence factors are associated with P. mirabilis uropathogenicity. The aim of this work was to elucidate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects mediated by MR/P fimbriae and flagella in eukaryotic cells in vitro. Two cell lines (kidney- and bladder-derived) were infected with a clinical wild-type P. mirabilis strain and an MR/P and a flagellar mutant. We evaluated adhesion, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by microscopy, comet assay and triple staining technique, respectively. Mutant strains displayed lower adhesion rates than the P. mirabilis wild-type strain and were significantly less effective to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic effects compared to the wild type. We report for the first time that P. mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella mediate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells, at least in in vitro conditions. These results could contribute to design new strategies for the control of UTI. PMID:25724892

  11. Plant cell lines in cell morphogenesis research.

    PubMed

    Seifertová, Daniela; Klíma, Petr; Pa?ezová, Markéta; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Opatrný, Zden?k

    2014-01-01

    Plant organs and tissues consist of many various cell types, often in different phases of their development. Such complex structures do not allow direct studies on behavior of individual cells. In contrast, populations of in vitro-cultured plant cells represent valuable tool for studying processes on a single-cell level, including cell morphogenesis. Here we describe characteristics of well-established model tobacco and Arabidopsis cell lines and provide detailed protocol on their cultivation, characterization, and genetic transformation. PMID:24132432

  12. Performance characteristics of qualified cell lines for isolation and propagation of influenza viruses for vaccine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Donis, Ruben O; Davis, C Todd; Foust, Angie; Hossain, M Jaber; Johnson, Adam; Klimov, Alexander; Loughlin, Rosette; Xu, Xiyan; Tsai, Theodore; Blayer, Simone; Trusheim, Heidi; Colegate, Tony; Fox, John; Taylor, Beverly; Hussain, Althaf; Barr, Ian; Baas, Chantal; Louwerens, Jaap; Geuns, Ed; Lee, Min-Shi; Venhuizen, Odewijk; Neumeier, Elisabeth; Ziegler, Thedi

    2014-11-12

    Cell culture is now available as a method for the production of influenza vaccines in addition to eggs. In accordance with currently accepted practice, viruses recommended as candidates for vaccine manufacture are isolated and propagated exclusively in hens' eggs prior to distribution to manufacturers. Candidate vaccine viruses isolated in cell culture are not available to support vaccine manufacturing in mammalian cell bioreactors so egg-derived viruses have to be used. Recently influenza A (H3N2) viruses have been difficult to isolate directly in eggs. As mitigation against this difficulty, and the possibility of no suitable egg-isolated candidate viruses being available, it is proposed to consider using mammalian cell lines for primary isolation of influenza viruses as candidates for vaccine production in egg and cell platforms. To investigate this possibility, we tested the antigenic stability of viruses isolated and propagated in cell lines qualified for influenza vaccine manufacture and subsequently investigated antigen yields of such viruses in these cell lines at pilot-scale. Twenty influenza A and B-positive, original clinical specimens were inoculated in three MDCK cell lines. The antigenicity of recovered viruses was tested by hemagglutination inhibition using ferret sera against contemporary vaccine viruses and the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase were determined. MDCK cell lines proved to be highly sensitive for virus isolation. Compared to the virus sequenced from the original specimen, viruses passaged three times in the MDCK lines showed up to 2 amino acid changes in the hemagglutinin. Antigenic stability was also established by hemagglutination inhibition titers comparable to those of the corresponding reference virus. Viruses isolated in any of the three MDCK lines grew reasonably well but variably in three MDCK cells and in VERO cells at pilot-scale. These results indicate that influenza viruses isolated in vaccine certified cell lines may well qualify for use in vaccine production. PMID:24975811

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave americana, strychnos nuxvomica and areca catechu extracts using mcf-7 cell line.

    PubMed

    Anajwala, Chetan C; Patel, Rajesh M; Dakhara, Sanjay L; Jariwala, Jitesh K

    2010-04-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC(50) value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 ?g/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic. PMID:22247852

  14. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF AGAVE AMERICANA, STRYCHNOS NUXVOMICA AND ARECA CATECHU EXTRACTS USING MCF-7 CELL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Anajwala, Chetan C.; Patel, Rajesh M.; Dakhara, Sanjay L.; Jariwala, Jitesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nuxvomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 ?g/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic. PMID:22247852

  15. A Three-Dimensional Comparison of Tick-Borne Flavivirus Infection in Mammalian and Tick Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Dorward, David W.; Hansen, Bryan T.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    2012-01-01

    Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) are sustained in nature through cycling between mammalian and tick hosts. In this study, we used African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) and Ixodes scapularis tick cells (ISE6) to compare virus-induced changes in mammalian and arthropod cells. Using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography (ET), we examined viral protein distribution and the ultrastructural changes that occur during TBFV infection. Within host cells, flaviviruses cause complex rearrangement of cellular membranes for the purpose of virus replication. Virus infection was accompanied by a marked expansion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) staining and markers for TBFV replication were localized mainly to the ER in both cell lines. TEM of Vero cells showed membrane-bound vesicles enclosed in a network of dilated, anastomosing ER cisternae. Virions were seen within the ER and were sometimes in paracrystalline arrays. Tubular structures or elongated vesicles were occasionally noted. In acutely and persistently infected ISE6 cells, membrane proliferation and vesicles were also noted; however, the extent of membrane expansion and the abundance of vesicles were lower and no viral particles were observed. Tubular profiles were far more prevalent in persistently infected ISE6 cells than in acutely infected cells. By ET, tubular profiles, in persistently infected tick cells, had a cross-sectional diameter of 60–100 nm, reached up to 800 nm in length, were closed at the ends, and were often arranged in fascicle-like bundles, shrouded with ER membrane. Our experiments provide analysis of viral protein localization within the context of both mammalian and arthropod cell lines as well as both acute and persistent arthropod cell infection. Additionally, we show for the first time 3D flavivirus infection in a vector cell line and the first ET of persistent flavivirus infection. PMID:23112871

  16. Susceptibility of mosquito and tick cell lines to infection with various flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, C H; Uzcátegui, N Y; Armesto, M; Bell-Sakyi, L; Gould, E A

    2004-09-01

    The genus Flavivirus consists of more than 70 virus species and subtypes, the majority of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks, although some have no known vector (NKV). The ability of these viruses to infect cultured cells derived from mosquito or tick species offers a useful insight into the suitability of such vectors to harbour and replicate particular viruses. We undertook a comparative study of the susceptibility of mammalian Vero cells, a clonal mosquito cell line (C6/36) and recently developed cell lines derived from the ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Ixodes ricinus (L.) (IRE/CTVM18), I. scapularis (Say) (ISE6), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Neumann) (RAE/CTVM1) and Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) (AVL/CTVM17) to infection with 13 flaviviruses (and one alphavirus) using immunofluorescence microscopy and plaque assay techniques. The C6/36 mosquito cell line was infected by all the mosquito-borne flaviviruses tested but not by NKV viruses or tick-borne viruses, with the exception of Langat virus (LGTV). The tick cell lines were susceptible to infection by all of the tick-borne viruses tested, as well as two mosquito-borne viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) and the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), but not other mosquito-borne viruses or NKV viruses. PMID:15347394

  17. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, T P; Bickham, U; Bayne, C J

    2013-06-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  18. Development and characterization of insect cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight E. Lynn

    1996-01-01

    With the wide availability of insect cell culture media, it can generally be considered a routine process to develop new cell lines. Exceptions to this statement do exist, of course. Difficulties may arise when attempting to culture a specific cell type. For example, while there are a few cell lines from insect fat body and at least one from the

  19. Mechanisms of action and antiproliferative properties of Brassica oleracea juice in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Brandi, Giorgio; Schiavano, Giuditta F; Zaffaroni, Nadia; De Marco, Cinzia; Paiardini, Mirko; Cervasi, Barbara; Magnani, Mauro

    2005-06-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are an important source of compounds that may be useful for chemoprevention. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative activity of juice obtained from leaves of several varieties of Brassica oleracea on both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+; MCF-7 and BT474) and ER-negative (ER-; MDA-MB-231 and BT20) human breast cancer cell lines. The effect of juice on cell proliferation was evaluated on DNA synthesis and on cell cycle-related proteins. Juice markedly reduced DNA synthesis, evaluated by [3H]thymidine incorporation, starting from low concentrations (final concentration 5-15 mL/L), and this activity was independent of ER. All cauliflower varieties tested suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Cell growth inhibition was accompanied by significant cell death at the higher juice concentrations, although no evidence of apoptosis was found. Interestingly, the juice displayed a preferential activity against breast cancer cells compared with other mammalian cell lines investigated (ECV304, VERO, Hep2, 3T3, and MCF-10A) (P < 0.01). At the molecular level, the inhibition of proliferation was associated with significantly reduced CDK6 expression and an increased level of p27 in ER+ cells but not in ER- cells, whereas a common feature in all cell lines was significantly decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. These results suggest that the edible part of Brassica oleracea contains substances that can markedly inhibit the growth of both ER+ and ER- human breast cancer cells, although through different mechanisms. These results suggest that the widely available cruciferous vegetables are potential chemopreventive agents. PMID:15930460

  20. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3?-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  1. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  2. NCI-H292 as an alternative cell line for the isolation and propagation of the human paramyxoviruses.

    PubMed

    Castells, E; George, V G; Hierholzer, J C

    1990-01-01

    Primary rhesus monkey kidney (MK) cells have long been the cells of choice for isolation and propagation of the human paramyxoviruses (parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, 4A, 4B, and mumps). However, problems with the supply and cost of MK cells and the presence of endogenous viruses, including herpes B virus and SV-5, necessitated a search for an alternative cell line. Continuous cell cultures of human origin (L132, A-549, HuT-292, HEK, G-293, G-401, A-498, A-704, CAKI-1, RD) and simian origin (LLC-MK2, BSC-1, MA-104, Vero) were evaluated for their capacity to support the growth of the human paramyxoviruses, as followed by cytopathic effect, hemadsorption, hemagglutination, and EIA. NCI-H292 (HuT-292) human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (ATCC # CRL-1848) proved to be the most sensitive line for cultivating all serotypes and strains of the paramyxoviruses. These cells were also shown to be a suitable substitute for MK in primary isolation of paramyxoviruses from clinical specimens. RPMI-1640 with 1.5 micrograms/ml trypsin was the preferred maintenance medium; alternatively, Eagle's MEM supplemented with 1.5 micrograms/ml trypsin and 0.1% ITS was satisfactory. NCI-H292 cells are a continuous line with excellent growth characteristics, although the genetic polyploidy of the cells may limit the number of passages of usable cells. PMID:2260924

  3. How Embryonic Stem Cell Lines are Made

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. This animation presents the basics on how stem cell lines are established. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents how embryonic stem cell lines are made through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

  4. Alteration of cell cycle progression by Sindbis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ruirong; Saito, Kengo; Isegawa, Naohisa; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-10

    We examined the impact of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on cell cycle progression in a cancer cell line, HeLa, and a non-cancerous cell line, Vero. Cell cycle analyses showed that SINV infection is able to alter the cell cycle progression in both HeLa and Vero cells, but differently, especially during the early stage of infection. SINV infection affected the expression of several cell cycle regulators (CDK4, CDK6, cyclin E, p21, cyclin A and cyclin B) in HeLa cells and caused HeLa cells to accumulate in S phase during the early stage of infection. Monitoring SINV replication in HeLa and Vero cells expressing cell cycle indicators revealed that SINV which infected HeLa cells during G1 phase preferred to proliferate during S/G2 phase, and the average time interval for viral replication was significantly shorter in both HeLa and Vero cells infected during G1 phase than in cells infected during S/G2 phase. PMID:25976675

  5. Review article Immortal porcine lymphoblastoid cell lines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Immortal porcine lymphoblastoid cell lines: interest for veterinary and medical (Received 18 January 1994; accepted 22 April 1994) Summary ― Immortal lymphoblastoid cell lines of B porcine breeds. The lymphoblast immortalization has been putatively attributed to an oncogenic virus

  6. Infectious mononucleosis: immunoglobulin synthesis by cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Glade, Philip R.; Chessin, Lawrence N.

    1968-01-01

    Immunoglobulin synthesis by 16 long-term suspension cultures of mononuclear cells derived from peripheral blood of nine patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) has been demonstrated by radioimmunoelectrophoretic techniques. All cell lines synthesized molecules with IgG (?) heavy chain specificity. 14 cell lines produced molecules with IgM (?) heavy chain specificity and 11 cell lines produced molecules with IgA (?) heavy chain specificity. No detectable synthesis of molecules with IgD (?) heavy chain specificity was observed by these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with IM. 13 cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) light chain specificity and 6 cell lines produced molecules with type L (?) light chain specificity. Of interest, 9 of 16 lines produced IgG (?), IgA (?), and IgM (?) heavy chain molecules and 5 of these cell lines produced molecules with type K (?) and type L (?) light chain specificity as well. Further characterization by combined polyacrylamide gel filtration, immunodiffusion, and radioautography indicated the presence of newly synthesized immunoglobulin molecules with both heavy and light polypeptide chains in close association as well as free light polypeptide chain synthesis. Investigation of the localization of immunoglobulin in single cells by immunofluorescent techniques revealed that 5-22% of cells in these lines were strongly reactive with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated rabbit antisera directed against the antigenic determinants of human IgG and cross-reactive with the determinants common to IgA and IgM. No heterophile antibody, heteroagglutinin, or hemolytic antibody could be demonstrated in these cell lines derived from peripheral blood of patients with heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis. Images PMID:4175543

  7. Assessment of immunogenic potential of Vero adapted formalin inactivated vaccine derived from novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mugdha Tiwari; Manmohan Parida; S. R. Santhosh; Mohsin Khan; Paban Kumar Dash; P. V. Lakshmana Rao

    2009-01-01

    The recent resurgence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in India and Indian Ocean Islands with unusual clinical severity is a matter of great public health concern. Despite the fact that CHIKV resurgence is associated with epidemic of unprecedented magnitude, no approved licensed vaccine is currently available. In the present study, a Vero cell adapted purified formalin inactivated prototype vaccine candidate was

  8. Spontaneous Cell Competition in Immortalized Mammalian Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo I.; Chen, Yi-Ju; Li, Jinyang; Witze, Eric S.; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2015-01-01

    Cell competition is a form of cell-cell interaction by which cells compare relative levels of fitness, resulting in the active elimination of less-fit cells, “losers,” by more-fit cells, “winners.” Here, we show that in three routinely-used mammalian cell lines – U2OS, 3T3, and MDCK cells – sub-clones arise stochastically that exhibit context-dependent competitive behavior. Specifically, cell death is elicited when winner and loser sub-clones are cultured together but not alone. Cell competition and elimination in these cell lines is caspase-dependent and requires cell-cell contact but does not require de novo RNA synthesis. Moreover, we show that the phenomenon involves differences in cellular metabolism. Hence, our study demonstrates that cell competition is a common feature of immortalized mammalian cells in vitro and implicates cellular metabolism as a mechanism by which cells sense relative levels of “fitness.” PMID:26200654

  9. Cytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator ash wastes toward mammalian kidney cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Jang Huang; Jia-Lin Tsai; Ming-Huei Liao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash wastes—bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash—were extracted using a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractant. These so-called final TCLP extracts were applied to African green monkey kidney cells (Vero), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21), and pig kidney cells (PK-15), multi-well absorption reader analysis was performed to test how the

  10. Formation and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX in tumor and nontumor cell lines induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Sandra R.; Milanetto, Marilia; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Imasato, Hidetake; Perussi, Janice R.

    2005-04-01

    The endogenous photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a haem precursor and induces the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in mitochondria-containing cells. Due to the slow conversion of porphyrins to haem, high levels of PPIX are found in the tissues, sufficient to produce a photodynamic effect following exposure to light. Since PpIX accumulates effectively in tumor cells, the use of ALA leads to a better photoselectivity than Photofrin. However, this selectivity has not been sufficiently studied. As far as we know there is just one study comparing the amount of accumulated PpIX in non-tumor and tumor cell lines. In this work we attempt to compare not just the production but also the accumulation and cytotoxicity of PpIX in non-tumor (VERO) versus tumor (Hep-2) cells induced by the use of ALA. The results have shown that both non-tumor and tumor cell lines produce the same amount of PpIX but just the tumor cells can accumulate PpIX. So, under illumination, only the tumor cells will be killed.

  11. Comparison of the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts of nine salvia species grown in Jordan against breast cancer cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma; Kasabri, Violet; Majdalawi, Lara; Naffa, Randa

    2012-01-01

    Background: The antiproliferative activity of Salvia species grown in Jordan has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this work was to study the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts from nine Salvia species grown in Jordan against a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in human tumor models of breast cancer; MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, and BT 474 by the sulforhodamine B assay. In addition, the extracts were evaluated using a non-transformed cell line (Vero) and normal fibroblast cells in order to demonstrate their selectivity and safety. Results: From the nice ethanol extracts under investigation, those of S. dominica and S. fruticosa showed an inhibitory concentration of 50% of cells (IC50) in concentrations less than 30?g/mL against the four cell lines under investigation. S. syriaca and S. hormium showed an IC50 below 30?g/ml for two out of the four cell lines. S. fruticosa, S. hormium and S. syriaca showed selectivity in their antiproliferative activity against estrogen receptor positive cell lines with minimal toxicity against normal human periodontal fibroblasts. Phytochemical screening using thin layer chromatography indicated the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins in all examined extracts. Conclusion: Three of the plant extracts under investigation exhibited antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells and were shown to be safe and selective. These could be considered as a potential source for novel anticancer therapy. PMID:24082637

  12. Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks versus L929 and Vero cell lines in Rickettsia slovaca life cycle evaluated by quantitative real time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vojtech Boldiš; Eva Špitalská

    2010-01-01

    Ticks transmit many different pathogens to animals, humans and their pets. Rickettsia slovaca, as a member of the spotted-fever-group rickettsiae is an agent of the human disease Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA),\\u000a also called Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL), which occurs from the Mediterranean to central Europe, transmitted\\u000a by Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor marginatus (Acari: Ixodidae). In this study, quantitative real

  13. Cell assessment by at-line microscopy.

    PubMed

    Babitzky, Alexander; Lindner, Patrick; Scheper, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This protocol regards a microscopic application and software for image-guided monitoring of mammalian cells which grow in suspension cultures. It has been developed in order to establish an automated microscopic application for in situ and at-line cell monitoring in bioreactors (Akin et al., Biosens Bioelectron 26:4532-4537, 2011; Babitzky et al., At-line microscopic analysis of suspension cell cultures. In: ECCE/ECAB, the first joint European Congress of chemical engineering and applied biotechnology, September 25-29, 2011, Berlin, Germany, 2011. http://www.tci.uni-hannover.de, Poster). The application aims to assess the analysis of an appropriated sample volume of mammalian cell cultivation medium. The sample is injected into a microfluidic slide which is suitable for transmitted light microscopy and is attached to an automated microscope device, the at-line microscope. The major attribute of microscope automation ascribes to the camera software, which enables sequential image capturing and storing. Image analysis and cell detection are performed by the software that is based on the edge detection algorithm developed by Canny (IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 8:679-698, 1986; Finding edges and lines in images.Technical Report 720, MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 1983). The analysis results are cell count, morphological characteristics, and grayscale values of the detected cells. The presented setup can be applied to low-volume cultivations and has been successfully tested for monitoring CHO-K1 cell cultivation processes. PMID:24297425

  14. Mast cell and basophil cell lines: a compendium.

    PubMed

    Passante, Egle

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils play a crucial role during type I hypersensitivity reactions. However, despite efforts to elucidate their role in the pathogenesis of allergy and inflammation, our understanding of mast cell and basophil biology is still relatively scarce. The practical difficulty in obtaining a sufficient number of purified primary cells from biological samples has slowed down the process of reaching a full understanding of the physiological role of these functionally similar cell types. The establishment of several immortalized cell lines has been a useful tool to establish and perform sophisticated laboratory protocols that are impractical using primary cells. Continuous cell lines have been extensively used to investigate the allergen/IgE-mediated cell activation, to elucidate the degranulation dynamics, to investigate structural and functional properties of the high-affinity receptor (Fc?RI), and to test cell-stabilizing compounds. In this chapter we review the most widely used and better characterized mast cell and basophil cell lines, highlighting their advantages and drawbacks. It must be pointed out, however, that while cell lines represent a useful in vitro tool due to their easy manipulability and reduced culture costs, they often show aberrant characteristics which are not fully representative of primary cell physiology; results obtained with such cells therefore must be interpreted with due care. PMID:25149487

  15. Acquisition of cell-cell fusion activity by amino acid substitutions in spike protein determines the infectivity of a coronavirus in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Xiao Bo; Fang, Shou Guo; Tay, Felicia P L; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Coronavirus host and cell specificities are determined by specific interactions between the viral spike (S) protein and host cell receptor(s). Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis (IBV) has been adapted to embryonated chicken eggs, primary chicken kidney (CK) cells, monkey kidney cell line Vero, and other human and animal cells. Here we report that acquisition of the cell-cell fusion activity by amino acid mutations in the S protein determines the infectivity of IBV in cultured cells. Expression of S protein derived from Vero- and CK-adapted strains showed efficient induction of membrane fusion. However, expression of S protein cloned from the third passage of IBV in chicken embryo (EP3) did not show apparent syncytia formation. By construction of chimeric S constructs and site-directed mutagenesis, a point mutation (L857-F) at amino acid position 857 in the heptad repeat 1 region of S protein was shown to be responsible for its acquisition of the cell-cell fusion activity. Furthermore, a G405-D point mutation in the S1 domain, which was acquired during further propagation of Vero-adapted IBV in Vero cells, could enhance the cell-cell fusion activity of the protein. Re-introduction of L857 back to the S gene of Vero-adapted IBV allowed recovery of variants that contain the introduced L857. However, compensatory mutations in S1 and some distant regions of S2 were required for restoration of the cell-cell fusion activity of S protein carrying L857 and for the infectivity of the recovered variants in cultured cells. This study demonstrates that acquisition of the cell-cell fusion activity in S protein determines the selection and/or adaptation of a coronavirus from chicken embryo to cultured cells of human and animal origins. PMID:19572016

  16. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany) [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  17. Transitional cell cancer: establishment and characterization of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Elliott, A Y; Bronson, D L; Fraley, E E

    1978-12-01

    Eleven long-term (in culture more than 1 yr) cell lines were established from surgical specimens of human TCC. Characterization studies performed on the individual cell lines showed that each 1) demonstrated an abnormal human karyotype, 2) grew in soft agar, 3) exhibited rapid growth and multilayering 4) was free from microbial and HeLa cell contamination, 5) produced tumors in cheek pouches of immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamsters, 6) contained ultrastructural features consistently found in epithelial cells in culture, and 7) could be grown to high cell densities in roller-bottle cultures. PMID:748774

  18. Cancer stem cells from colorectal cancer-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Trevor M.; Gandhi, Shaan C.; Wilding, Jennifer L.; Muschel, Ruth; Bodmer, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the subpopulation of cells within a tumor that can self-renew, differentiate into multiple lineages, and drive tumor growth. Here we describe a two-pronged approach for the identification and characterization of CSCs from colorectal cancer cell lines, using a Matrigel-based differentiation assay, and cell surface markers CD44 and CD24. About 20 to 30% of cells from the SW1222 cell line form megacolonies in Matrigel that have complex 3D structures resembling colonic crypts. The megacolonies’ capacity to self-renew in vitro is direct evidence that they contain the CSCs. Furthermore, just 200 cells from SW1222 megacolonies initiate tumors in NOD/SCID mice. We also showed that CD44+CD24+ cells enriched for colorectal CSCs in the HT29 and SW1222 cell lines, which can self-renew and reform all four CD44/CD24 subpopulations, are the most clonogenic in vitro and can initiate tumors in vivo. A single SW1222 CD44+CD24+ CSC, when grown in Matrigel, can form large megacolonies that differentiate into enterocyte, enteroendocrine, and goblet cell lineages. The HCT116 line does not differentiate or express CDX1, nor does it contain subpopulations of cells with greater tumor-forming capacity, suggesting that HCT116 contains mainly CSCs. However, forced expression of CDX1 in HCT116 leads to reduced clonogenicity and production of differentiating crypt-containing colonies, which can explain the selection for reduced CDX1 expression in many colorectal cancers. In summary, colorectal cancer cell lines contain subpopulations of CSCs, characterized by their cell surface markers and colony morphology, which can self-renew and differentiate into multiple lineages. PMID:20133591

  19. TRANSFECTION OF INSECT CELL LINES USING POLYETHYLENIMINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect cell lines have been widely used in recombinant baculovirus expression systems and transient gene expression studies. Critical to these applications have been the transfection of foreign DNA. This has been widely done using labor intensive and cytotoxic liposome-based transfection reagents....

  20. Anticancer effect of the extracts from Polyalthia evecta against human hepatoma cell line (HepG2)

    PubMed Central

    Machana, Sasipawan; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Barusrux, Sahapat

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anticancer activity of Polyalthia evecta (P. evecta) (Pierre) Finet & Gagnep against human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Methods The anticancer activity was based on (a) the cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cells (HepG2) assessed using a neutral red assay and (b) apoptosis induction determined by evaluation of nuclei morphological changes after DAPI staining. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was assessed by HPLC analysis. Results The 50% ethanol-water crude leaf extract of P. evecta (EW-L) showed greater potential anticancer activity with high cytotoxicity [IC50 = (62.8 ± 7.3)µg/mL] and higher selectivity in HepG2 cells than normal Vero cells [selective index (SI) = 7.9]. The SI of EW-L was higher than the positive control, melphalan (SI = 1.6) and the apoptotic cells (46.4 ± 2.6) % induced by EW-L was higher than the melphalan (41.6 ± 2.1)% (P<0.05). The HPLC chromatogram of the EW-L revealed the presence of various kinds of polyphenolics and flavonoids in it. Conclusions P. evecta is a potential plant with anticancer activity. The isolation of pure compounds and determination of the bioactivity of individual compounds will be further performed. PMID:23569932

  1. Effect of black tea extract on herpes simplex virus-1 infection of cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation was to determine if black tea extract (BTE), consisting primarily of flavanol compounds called theaflavins, could inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection in cultured A549 (human epithelial) and Vero cells. Methods The effect of BTE both on A549 and Vero cultured cells and on HSV-1 was assessed by using phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy, and cell viability and proliferation assays. After establishing the maximum non-cytotoxic concentration of BTE, A549 and Vero cells and HSV-1 virions were treated with varying concentrations of BTE, respectively. A549 and Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) insert at the UL46 gene. The effect of infectivity was determined by viral DNA extraction followed by PCR, plaque assays, adsorption assays, and electrophoresis of PCR products. Results BTE was not cytotoxic to A549 and Vero cells, as confirmed by cell viability and proliferation assays, in which BTE treated groups paralleled the positive control group. For both cell lines, plaque assays and fluorescent microscopy indicated an inverse relationship between BTE concentration (from 0.14 ?M – 1.4 mM) and HSV-1 infectivity. Specifically, PCR and electrophoresis showed a reduction in the viral genome following treatment with BTE. In addition, there was a noticeable decrease in the amount of viral plaques for BTE treated samples in the adsorption assays. Conclusions BTE consisting primarily of theaflavins is not cytotoxic and can reduce or block the production of infectious HSV-1 virions in cultured A549 and Vero cells, thus inhibiting the infectivity of the virus by interfering in the attachment, penetration and viral DNA replication of HSV-1 particles. These findings indicate that BTE enriched with theaflavins has the potential to be developed as a safe, therapeutic antiviral agent to prevent the spread of HSV-1. PMID:23777309

  2. Investigating citrullinated proteins in tumour cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The conversion of arginine into citrulline, termed citrullination, has important consequences for the structure and function of proteins. Studies have found PADI4, an enzyme performing citrullination, to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumours and have shown that PADI4 participates in the process of tumorigenesis. However, as citrullinated proteins have not been systematically investigated in tumours, the present study aimed to identify novel citrullinated proteins in tumours by 2-D western blotting (2-D WB). Methods Two identical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels were prepared using extracts from ECA, H292, HeLa, HEPG2, Lovo, MCF-7, PANC-1, SGC, and SKOV3 tumour cell lines. The expression profiles on a 2-DE gel were trans-blotted to PVDF membranes, and the blots were then probed with an anti-citrulline antibody. By comparing the 2-DE profile with the parallel 2-D WB profile at a global level, protein spots with immuno-signals were collected from the second 2-DE gel and identified using mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation was used to verify the expression and citrullination of the targeted proteins in tumour cell lines. Results 2-D WB and mass spectrometry identified citrullinated ?-enolase (ENO1), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), keratin 8 (KRT8), tubulin beta (TUBB), T cell receptor chain and vimentin in these cell lines. Immunoprecipitation analyses verified the expression and citrullination of ENO1, HSP60, KRT8, and TUBB in the total protein lysates of the tumour cell lines. Conclusions The citrullination of these proteins suggests a new mechanism in the tumorigenic process. PMID:24099319

  3. Novel Cell-Based Method To Detect Shiga Toxin 2 from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Inhibitors of Toxin Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Beatriz; Massey, Shane; Friedman, Mendel; Swimley, Michelle S.; Teter, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of food-borne illness. This human pathogen produces Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) which inhibit protein synthesis by inactivating ribosome function. The present study describes a novel cell-based assay to detect Stx2 and inhibitors of toxin activity. A Vero cell line harboring a destabilized variant (half-life, 2 h) of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) was used to monitor the toxin-induced inhibition of protein synthesis. This Vero-d2EGFP cell line produced a fluorescent signal which could be detected by microscopy or with a plate reader. However, a greatly attenuated fluorescent signal was detected in Vero-d2EGFP cells that had been incubated overnight with either purified Stx2 or a cell-free culture supernatant from Stx1- and Stx2-producing E. coli O157:H7. Dose-response curves demonstrated that the Stx2-induced inhibition of enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence mirrored the Stx2-induced inhibition of overall protein synthesis and identified a picogram-per-milliliter threshold for toxin detection. To establish our Vero-d2EGFP assay as a useful tool for the identification of toxin inhibitors, we screened a panel of plant compounds for antitoxin activities. Fluorescent signals were maintained when Vero-d2EGFP cells were exposed to Stx1- and Stx2-containing medium in the presence of either grape seed or grape pomace extract. The antitoxin properties of the grape extracts were confirmed with an independent toxicity assay that monitored the overall level of protein synthesis in cells treated with purified Stx2. These results indicate that the Vero-d2EGFP fluorescence assay is an accurate and sensitive method to detect Stx2 activity and can be utilized to identify toxin inhibitors. PMID:19139230

  4. On the ontology based representation of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ganzinger, Matthias; He, Shan; Breuhahn, Kai; Knaup, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cell lines are frequently used as highly standardized and reproducible in vitro models for biomedical analyses and assays. Cell lines are distributed by cell banks that operate databases describing their products. However, the description of the cell lines' properties are not standardized across different cell banks. Existing cell line-related ontologies mostly focus on the description of the cell lines' names, but do not cover aspects like the origin or optimal growth conditions. The objective of this work is to develop an ontology that allows for a more comprehensive description of cell lines and their metadata, which should cover the data elements provided by cell banks. This will provide the basis for the standardized annotation of cell lines and corresponding assays in biomedical research. In addition, the ontology will be the foundation for automated evaluation of such assays and their respective protocols in the future. To accomplish this, a broad range of cell bank databases as well as existing ontologies were analyzed in a comprehensive manner. We identified existing ontologies capable of covering different aspects of the cell line domain. However, not all data fields derived from the cell banks' databases could be mapped to existing ontologies. As a result, we created a new ontology called cell culture ontology (CCONT) integrating existing ontologies where possible. CCONT provides classes from the areas of cell line identification, origin, cell line properties, propagation and tests performed. PMID:23144907

  5. On the Ontology Based Representation of Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ganzinger, Matthias; He, Shan; Breuhahn, Kai; Knaup, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cell lines are frequently used as highly standardized and reproducible in vitro models for biomedical analyses and assays. Cell lines are distributed by cell banks that operate databases describing their products. However, the description of the cell lines' properties are not standardized across different cell banks. Existing cell line-related ontologies mostly focus on the description of the cell lines' names, but do not cover aspects like the origin or optimal growth conditions. The objective of this work is to develop an ontology that allows for a more comprehensive description of cell lines and their metadata, which should cover the data elements provided by cell banks. This will provide the basis for the standardized annotation of cell lines and corresponding assays in biomedical research. In addition, the ontology will be the foundation for automated evaluation of such assays and their respective protocols in the future. To accomplish this, a broad range of cell bank databases as well as existing ontologies were analyzed in a comprehensive manner. We identified existing ontologies capable of covering different aspects of the cell line domain. However, not all data fields derived from the cell banks' databases could be mapped to existing ontologies. As a result, we created a new ontology called cell culture ontology (CCONT) integrating existing ontologies where possible. CCONT provides classes from the areas of cell line identification, origin, cell line properties, propagation and tests performed. PMID:23144907

  6. Metabolic profiling of insect cell lines: Unveiling cell line determinants behind system's productivity.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Francisca; Bernal, Vicente; Saelens, Xavier; Lozano, Ana B; Bernal, Cristina; Sevilla, Angel; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2014-04-01

    Baculovirus infection boosts the host biosynthetic activity towards the production of viral components and the recombinant protein of interest, hyper-productive phenotypes being the result of a successful adaptation of the cellular network to that scenario. Spodoptera frugiperda derived Sf9 and Trichoplusia ni derived High Five cell lines have a major track record for the production of recombinant proteins, with High Five cells presenting higher productivities. A metabolic profiling of the two insect cell lines was pursued to underpin specific cellular traits behind productive phenotypes. Multivariate analysis identified cell-line dependent metabolic signatures linked to productivity. Pathway analysis highlighted cellular pathways of paramount importance in supporting infection and protein production. Moreover, better producer phenotypes proved to be correlated with the capacity of cells to shift their metabolism in favor of energy-generating pathways to fuel biosynthesis, a scenario observed in the High Five cell line. Metabolomic profiling allowed us to identify metabolic pathways involved in infection and recombinant protein production, which can be selected as targets for further improvement of the system. PMID:24258249

  7. Late transient expression of human hepatitis B virus genes in monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Colbère-Garapin, F; Horodniceanu, F; Kourilsky, P; Garapin, A C

    1983-01-01

    The expression of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface (HBS) and e (HBe) antigens has been studied comparatively in monkey and mouse cell lines co-transfected with HBV DNA and the dominant selective marker aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase gene. We have found that the kinetics and stability of expression of the HBS gene varies with the cell lines used. Only a late transient expression of both HBS and HBe is observed between 1 and 5 weeks after transfection in monkey kidney Vero cells transfected with the complete HBV genome, while a permanent expression of HBS and HBe is obtained in mouse cells. HBS and HBe are excreted into the cell culture medium. HBe is expressed in cells transfected with the complete HBV genome, but not with isolated HBS gene. In clones of Vero cells transformed with the HBS gene, HBV sequences were rearranged or lost. Images Fig. 6. PMID:11894903

  8. Microwave-mediated extracellular synthesis of metallic silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using macro-algae (Gracilaria edulis) extracts and its anticancer activity against human PC3 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini, Ramaramesh Indra; Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Geetha, Natesan; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2014-12-01

    A rapid and novel microwave-mediated protocol was established for extracellular synthesis of metallic silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using the extracts of macro-algae Gracilaria edulis (GE) and also examined its anticancer activity against human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3). The formation of silver nanoparticles (GEAgNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (GEZnONPs) in the reaction mixture was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were spherical and rod-shaped, respectively. Cell viability assays were carried out to determine the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and ZnONPs against PC3 and normal African monkey kidney (VERO) cell line. The inhibitory concentration values were found to be 39.60, 28.55, 53.99 ?g/mL and 68.49, 88.05, 71.98 ?g/mL against PC3 cells and Vero cells for AgNPs, ZnONPs, and aqueous G. edulis extracts, respectively, at 48 h incubation period. As evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, the percentage of the apoptotic bodies was found to be 62 and 70 % for AgNPs and ZnONPs, respectively. The present results strongly suggest that the synthesized ZnONPs showed an effective anticancer activity against PC3 cell lines than AgNPs. PMID:25380639

  9. Personalized chemotherapy profiling using cancer cell lines from selectable mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Hirohiko; Rauenzahn, Sherri; Shim, Joong Sup; Karikari, Collins A.; Feldmann, Georg; Hua, Li; Kamiyama, Mihoko; Schuler, F. William; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Beaty, Robert M.; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Liang, Hong; Mullendore, Michael E.; Mo, Guanglan; Hidalgo, Manuel; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Hruban, Ralph H.; Jinnah, H. A.; Roden, Richard B. S.; Jimeno, Antonio; Liu, Jun O.; Maitra, Anirban; Eshleman, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose High-throughput chemosensitivity testing of low-passage cancer cell lines can be used to prioritize agents for personalized chemotherapy. However, generating cell lines from primary cancers is difficult, because contaminating stromal cells overgrow the malignant cells. Experimental Design We produced a series of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt)-null immunodeficient mice. During growth of human cancers in these mice, hprt-null murine stromal cells replace their human counterparts. Results Pancreatic and ovarian cancers explanted from these mice were grown in selection media to produce pure human cancer cell lines. We screened one cell line with a 3,131-drug panel and identified seventy-seven FDA approved drugs with activity, including two novel drugs to which the cell line was uniquely sensitive. Xenografts of this carcinoma were selectively responsive to both drugs. Conclusion Chemotherapy can be personalized using patient-specific cell lines derived in biochemically selectable mice. PMID:23340293

  10. EXAFS studies of prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Kisiel, A.; Steininger, R.; Goettlicher, J.

    2013-04-01

    Sulphur plays a vital role in every human organism. It is known, that sulphur-bearing compounds, such as for example cysteine and glutathione, play critical roles in development and progression of many diseases. Any alteration in sulphur's biochemistry could become a precursor of serious pathological conditions. One of such condition is prostate cancer, the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in the western world and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men. The purpose of presented studies was to examine what changes occur in the nearest chemical environment of sulphur in prostate cancer cell lines in comparison to healthy cells. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used, followed by theoretical calculations. The results of preliminary analysis is presented.

  11. Characterization of a transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Krishnamoorthy; P. Agarwal; G. Prasanna; K. Vopat; W. Lambert; H. J. Sheedlo; I.-H. Pang; D. Shade; R. J. Wordinger; T. Yorio; A. F Clark; N. Agarwal

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a rat retinal ganglion cell line by transformation of rat retinal cells. For this investigation, retinal cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (PN1) rats and transformed with the ?2 E1A virus. In order to isolate retinal ganglion cells (RGC), single cell clones were chosen at random from the transformed cells.

  12. Investigation of the uptake of drugs, carcinogens and mutagens by individual mammalian cells using a scanning proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholewa, M.; Turnbull, I. F.; Legge, G. J. F.; Weigold, H.; Marcuccio, S. M.; Holan, G.; Tomlinson, E.; Wright, P. J.; Dillon, C. T.; Lay, P. A.; Bonin, A. M.

    1995-09-01

    The use of micro-PIXE [1] in measuring the quantitative uptake of drugs containing metal atoms by individual Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cell line) and V79 Chinese hamster lung cells is demonstrated. One class of drugs, heteropolytungstates, which are being assessed for activity against the HIV virus, were studied using Vero cells. The cellular uptake of a series of chromium compounds, including carcinogens and mutagens, in which the metal oxidation state was either (III), (V) or (VI), was measured using V79 cells. It was found that, unlike any other techniques, scanning proton microprobe (SPM) offers both the sensitivity and spatial resolution to carry out unicellular analysis. The use of cultured cell lines in these analyses was shown to have distinct advantages over cells such as peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs).

  13. Characterization and Properties of Nine Human Ovarian Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Langdon; Sandra S. Lawrie; Frances G. Hay; Mary M. Hawkes; Amanda McDonald; Ian P. Hayward; Dick J. Schol; Jo Hilgers; Robert C. F. Leonard; John F. Smyth

    Four series of cell lines have been derived from patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma. Nine cell lines have been established at different stages of treatment: eight from malignant effusions and one from a solid metas tasis. Six lines were derived from the ascites or pleural effusion of patients with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma: PEO1, PEO4, and PEO6 from one patient, PEA1 and

  14. FRABEL's REIMAGINED at McKEE BOTANICAL GARDEN 350 US FEDERAL HIGHWAY, VERO BEACH

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    FRABEL's REIMAGINED at McKEE BOTANICAL GARDEN 350 US FEDERAL HIGHWAY, VERO BEACH TUESDAY, MARCH 12:45 Arrive at McKee Botanical Garden. I will gather all reciprocal garden passes prior to entering) east to US 1. Go North on US 1 to Vero Beach. McKee Botanical Garden is located at 350 US Highway 1

  15. Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 major DNA-binding protein, ICP8, in transformed cell lines: complementation of deletion mutants and inhibition of wild-type virus.

    PubMed Central

    Orberg, P K; Schaffer, P A

    1987-01-01

    To minimize the contribution of residual activity associated with the temperature-sensitive (ts) form of ICP8 specified by available ts mutants, deletion mutations in this gene were constructed. Cells permissive for the generation and propagation of ICP8 deletion mutants were first obtained. Vero cells were cotransfected with pKEF-P4, which contains the gene for ICP8, and pSV2neo or a hybrid plasmid containing the G418 resistance gene linked to pKEF-P4. Of the 48 G418-resistant cell lines, 21 complemented ICP8 ts mutants in plaque assays at the nonpermissive temperature. Four of these were examined by Southern blot analysis and shown to contain 1 to 3 copies of the ICP8 gene per haploid genome equivalent. Cell line U-47 was used as the permissive host for construction of ICP8 deletion mutants. In addition to cell lines which complemented ts mutants, two lines, U-27 and U-35, significantly inhibited plaque formation by wild-type virus, contained 30 and 100 copies of the ICP8 gene per haploid genome equivalent, respectively, and expressed large amounts of ICP8 after infection with wild-type virus. At low but not high multiplicities of infection, this inhibition was accompanied by underproduction of viral polypeptides of the early, delayed-early, and late kinetic classes. For construction of deletion mutants, a 780-base-pair XhoI fragment was deleted from pSG18-SalIA, a plasmid which contains the gene for ICP8, to yield pDX. U-47 cells were then cotransfected with pDX and infectious wild-type DNA. Mutant d61, isolated from the progeny of cotransfection, was found to contain both the engineered deletion in the ICP8 gene and an oriL-associated deletion of approximately 55 base pairs. Because d61 contained two mutations, a second mutant, d21, which carried the engineered ICP8 deletion but an intact oriL, was constructed by cotransfection of U-47 cells with wild-type DNA and an SalI-KpnI fragment purified from pDX. Phenotypic analysis of d21 and d61 revealed that they were similar in all properties examined: both exhibited efficient growth in U-47 cells but not in Vero cells; both induced the synthesis of an ICP8 polypeptide which was smaller than the wild-type form of the protein and which, unlike the wild-type protein, was found in the cytoplasm and not the nucleus of infected Vero cells; and nonpermissive Vero cells infected with either mutant failed to express late viral polypeptides. Images PMID:3029408

  16. The pursuit of ES cell lines of domesticated ungulates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In contrast to differentiated cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC) maintain an undifferentiated state, have the ability to self-renew, and exhibit pluripotency, i.e., they can give rise to most if not all somatic cell types and to the germ cells, egg and sperm. These characteristics make ES cell lines...

  17. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors.

  18. Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines for Rhabdomyosarcoma Research: Utility and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, Ashley R. P.; Jones, Rosanne; Crose, Lisa E. S.; Belyea, Brian C.; Barr, Frederic G.; Linardic, Corinne M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell-line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis. PMID:23882450

  19. GREG cells, a dysferlin-deficient myogenic mouse cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Glen W.; Mekhedov, Elena; Blank, Paul S. [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Morree, Antoine de [Center for Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)] [Center for Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Pekkurnaz, Gulcin [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Nagaraju, Kanneboyina [Research Center for Genetic Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)] [Research Center for Genetic Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Zimmerberg, Joshua, E-mail: zimmerbj@mail.nih.gov [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large ({approx} 200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by laser wounding in the presence of FM1-43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority ({approx} 66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.

  20. Polyamine synthesis in maize cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hiatt, A. (Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Uptake of ({sup 14}C)putrescine, ({sup 14}C)arginine, and ({sup 14}C)ornithine was measured in five separate callus cell lines of Zea mays. Each precursor was rapidly taken into the intracellular pool in each culture where, on the average 25 to 50% of the total putrescine was found in a conjugated form, detected after acid hydrolysis. Half-maximal labeling of each culture was achieved in less than 1 minute. Within this time frame of precursor incorporation, only putrescine derived from arginine was conjugated, indicating that putrescine pools derived from arginine may initially be sequestered from ornithine-derived putrescine. The decarboxylase activities were measured in each culture after addition of exogenous polyamine to the growth medium to assess differential regulation of the decarboxylases. Arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities were augmented by added polyamine, the effect on arginine decarboxylase being eightfold greater than on ornithine decarboxylase. Levels of extractable ornithine decarboxylase were consistently 15- to 100-fold higher than arginine decarboxylase, depending on the titer of extracellular polyamine. Taken as whole the results support the idea that there are distinct populations of polyamine that are initially sequestered after the decarboxylase reactions and that give rise to separate end products and possibly have separate functions.

  1. Proteomics of cancer cell lines resistant to microtubule stabilizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Horwitz, Susan Band; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the clinical success of microtubule interacting agents (MIAs), a significant challenge for oncologists is the inability to predict the response of individual cancer patients to these drugs. In the present study, six cell lines were compared by 2D DIGE proteomics to investigate cellular resistance to the class of MIAs known as microtubule stabilizing agents (MSAs). The human lung cancer cell line A549 was compared to two drug-resistant daughter cell lines, a Taxol resistant cell line (AT12) and an epothilone B (EpoB) resistant cell line (EpoB40). The ovarian cancer cell line Hey was compared to two drug-resistant daughter cell lines, an EpoB resistant cell line (EpoB8) and an ixabepilone resistant cell line (Ixab80). All 2D DIGE results were validated by Western blot analyses. A variety of cytoskeletal and cytoskeleton-associated proteins were differentially expressed in drug resistant cells. Differential abundance of 14-3-3?, galectin-1 and phosphorylation of stathmin are worthy of further studies as candidate predictive biomarkers for MSAs. This is especially true for galectin-1, a ?-galactose-binding lectin that mediates tumor invasion and metastasis. Galectin-1 was greatly increased in EpoB- and ixabepilone-resistant cells and its suppression caused an increase in drug sensitivity in both drug-sensitive and -resistant Hey cells. Furthermore, the growth medium from resistant Hey cells contained higher levels of galectin-1, suggesting that galectin-1 could play a role in resistance to microtubule stabilizing agents. PMID:24252851

  2. Morphometric Subtyping for a Panel of Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju Han; Hang Chang; Gerald Fontenay; Nicholas J. Wang; Joe W. Gray; Bahram Parvin

    2009-01-01

    A panel of cell lines of diverse molecular background offers an improved model system for high-content screening, comparative analysis, and cell systems biology. A computational pipeline has been developed to collect images from cell-based assays, segment individual cells and colonies, represent segmented objects in a multidimensional space, and cluster them for identifying distinct subpopulations. While each segmentation strategy can vary

  3. The effects of oncolytic reovirus in canine lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, C C; Umeki, S; Igase, M; Coffey, M; Noguchi, S; Okuda, M; Mizuno, T

    2014-10-15

    Reovirus is a potent oncolytic virus in many human neoplasms that has reached phase II and III clinical trials. Our laboratory has previously reported the oncolytic effects of reovirus in canine mast cell tumour (MCT). In order to further explore the potential of reovirus in veterinary oncology, we tested the susceptibility of reovirus in 10 canine lymphoma cell lines. Reovirus-induced cell death, virus replication and infectivity were confirmed in four cell lines with variable levels of susceptibility. The level of Ras activation varied among the cell lines with no correlation with reovirus susceptibility. Reovirus-susceptible cell lines underwent apoptosis as proven by propidium iodide (PI) staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, cleavage of PARP and inhibition of cell death by caspase inhibitor. A single intratumoral injection of reovirus suppressed the growth of canine lymphoma subcutaneous tumour in NOD/SCID mice. Unlike canine MCT, canine lymphoma is less susceptible to reovirus. PMID:25319493

  4. Replicative Capacity of MERS Coronavirus in Livestock Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Corman, Victor M.; Müller, Marcel A.; Lenk, Matthias; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2014-01-01

    Replicative capacity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was assessed in cell lines derived from livestock and peridomestic small mammals on the Arabian Peninsula. Only cell lines originating from goats and camels showed efficient replication of MERS-CoV. These results provide direction in the search for the intermediate host of MERS-CoV. PMID:24457147

  5. T-cell and mast cell lines respond to B-cell stimulatory factor 1.

    PubMed

    Mosmann, T R; Bond, M W; Coffman, R L; Ohara, J; Paul, W E

    1986-08-01

    The murine lymphokine B-cell stimulatory factor 1 (BSF-1) has been described previously in terms of its action on B lymphocytes. We now provide evidence that BSF-1 is also responsible for two additional biological activities. The first of these is the stimulation or maintenance of a state of activation in mouse T-cell lines. The second activity is the increase in the proliferative rate of certain mast cell lines costimulated with interleukin 3. The T-cell and mast cell activities are mediated by purified BSF-1 and copurify with BSF-1 from supernatants of certain T-cell lines. Each of these activities is inhibited by monoclonal anti-BSF-1 but not by monoclonal anti-interleukin 2 antibody. The antibody inhibition results also indicate that BSF-1 is the major or only source of these two activities in the activated T-cell supernatants that we have tested. PMID:3090545

  6. Studies on tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation in human lung cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst Heinmöller; Rolf J. Weinel; Hans H. Heidtmann; Ursula Salge; Reiner Seitz; Inge Schmitz; Klaus M. Müller; Hubert Zirngibl

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the ability of human lung cancer cells of different histological subtypes to cause platelet aggregation. Tumor-cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) was studied in vitro in 13 human lung cancer cell lines [small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), squamous-cell lung cancer, large-cell lung cancer, adenocarcinoma and alveolar-cell lung cancer]. Three tumor cell lines failed to aggregate platelets in plateletrich plasma, whereas platelet

  7. Identification of a Novel Rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hailun; Galvin, Teresa A.; Glasner, Dustin R.; Shaheduzzaman, Syed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Sf9 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is used as a cell substrate for biological products, and no viruses have been reported in this cell line after extensive testing. We used degenerate PCR assays and massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to identify a novel RNA virus belonging to the order Mononegavirales in Sf9 cells. Sequence analysis of the assembled virus genome showed the presence of five open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to the genes for the N, P, M, G, and L proteins in other rhabdoviruses and an unknown ORF of 111 amino acids located between the G- and L-protein genes. BLAST searches indicated that the S. frugiperda rhabdovirus (Sf-rhabdovirus) was related in a limited region of the L-protein gene to Taastrup virus, a newly discovered member of the Mononegavirales from a leafhopper (Hemiptera), and also to plant rhabdoviruses, particularly in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the L-protein gene indicated that Sf-rhabdovirus is a novel virus that branched with Taastrup virus. Rhabdovirus morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of filtered supernatant samples from Sf9 cells. Infectivity studies indicated potential transient infection by Sf-rhabdovirus in other insect cell lines, but there was no evidence of entry or virus replication in human cell lines. Sf-rhabdovirus sequences were also found in the Sf21 parental cell line of Sf9 cells but not in other insect cell lines, such as BT1-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5; High Five) cells and Schneider's Drosophila line 2 [D.Mel.(2); SL2] cells, indicating a species-specific infection. The results indicate that conventional methods may be complemented by state-of-the-art technologies with extensive bioinformatics analysis for identification of novel viruses. IMPORTANCE The Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line is used as a cell substrate for the development and manufacture of biological products. Extensive testing has not previously identified any viruses in this cell line. This paper reports on the identification and characterization of a novel rhabdovirus in Sf9 cells. This was accomplished through the use of next-generation sequencing platforms, de novo assembly tools, and extensive bioinformatics analysis. Rhabdovirus identification was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Infectivity studies showed the lack of replication of Sf-rhabdovirus in human cell lines. The overall study highlights the use of a combinatorial testing approach including conventional methods and new technologies for evaluation of cell lines for unexpected viruses and use of comprehensive bioinformatics strategies for obtaining confident next-generation sequencing results. PMID:24672045

  8. Respiratory epithelial cell lines exposed to anoxia produced inflammatory mediator.

    PubMed

    Shahriary, Cyrus M; Chin, Terry W; Nussbaum, Eliezer

    2012-12-01

    Human epithelial cell lines were utilized to examine the effects of anoxia on cellular growth and metabolism. Three normal human epithelial cells lines (A549, NHBE, and BEAS-2B) as well as a cystic fibrosis cell line (IB3-1) and its mutation corrected cell line (C38) were grown in the presence and absence of oxygen for varying periods of time. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Cellular metabolism and proliferation were assayed by determining mitochondrial oxidative burst activity by tetrazolium compound reduction. The viability of cells was indirectly measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. A549, NHBE, and BEAS-2B cells cultured in the absence of oxygen showed a progressive decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation after one to three days. There was a concomitant increase in IL-8 production. Cell lines from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients did not show a similar detrimental effect of anoxia. However, the IL-8 level was significantly increased only in IB3-1 cells exposed to anoxia after two days. Anoxia appears to affect certain airway epithelial cell lines uniquely with decreased cellular proliferation and a concomitant increased production of a cytokine with neutrophilic chemotactic activity. The increased ability of the CF cell line to respond to anoxia with increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the inflammatory damage seen in CF bronchial airway. This study indicates the need to use different cell lines in in vitro studies investigating the role of epithelial cells in airway inflammation and the effects of environmental influences. PMID:23301190

  9. Development of a conditionally immortalized human pancreatic ? cell line

    PubMed Central

    Scharfmann, Raphaël; Pechberty, Severine; Hazhouz, Yasmine; von Bülow, Manon; Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Grenier-Godard, Maud; Guez, Fanny; Rachdi, Latif; Lohmann, Matthias; Czernichow, Paul; Ravassard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic patients exhibit a reduction in ? cells, which secrete insulin to help regulate glucose homeostasis; however, little is known about the factors that regulate proliferation of these cells in human pancreas. Access to primary human ? cells is limited and a challenge for both functional studies and drug discovery progress. We previously reported the generation of a human ? cell line (EndoC-?H1) that was generated from human fetal pancreas by targeted oncogenesis followed by in vivo cell differentiation in mice. EndoC-?H1 cells display many functional properties of adult ? cells, including expression of ? cell markers and insulin secretion following glucose stimulation; however, unlike primary ? cells, EndoC-?H1 cells continuously proliferate. Here, we devised a strategy to generate conditionally immortalized human ? cell lines based on Cre-mediated excision of the immortalizing transgenes. The resulting cell line (EndoC-?H2) could be massively amplified in vitro. After expansion, transgenes were efficiently excised upon Cre expression, leading to an arrest of cell proliferation and pronounced enhancement of ? cell–specific features such as insulin expression, content, and secretion. Our data indicate that excised EndoC-?H2 cells are highly representative of human ? cells and should be a valuable tool for further analysis of human ? cells. PMID:24667639

  10. Establishment and characterization of a bovine rectal myxoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Aditya P; Tiwari, Ashok K; Ravi Kumar, G; Chaturvedi, U; Veer Singh, Lakshya; Saxena, Shikha; Palia, S K; Jadon, N S; Singh, R; Singh, K P; Brahmaprakash, B S; Maiti, S K; Das, A K

    2015-02-01

    A new bovine cell line was developed from tumor biopsy material of rectum obtained from clinical case of 7 years old cattle with tumor mass obliterating the rectal opening. Histopathology of tumor revealed scattered stellate cells arranged singly or in clusters in loose mucinous ground substance, simulating myxoma. The cells obtained from tumor mass have been cultured for more than 36 months in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The population doubling time of this cell line was about 20.64 h. The cytogenetic analysis revealed several chromosomal abnormalities with bizarre karyotype. The origin of the cell line was confirmed by PCR amplification of 1086 bp fragment of 16s rRNA using bovine species specific primers. The new cell line would act as in vitro model to study many aspect of cancer biology such as tumor development, differentiation and therapeutics regimen to combat cancer. PMID:25441618

  11. Epithelial mesenchymal transition traits in human breast cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Blick; E. Widodo; H. Hugo; M. Waltham; M. E. Lenburg; R. M. Neve; E. W. Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) has long been associated with breast cancer cell invasiveness and evidence of EMT\\u000a processes in clinical samples is growing rapidly. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of increasingly larger numbers of\\u000a human breast cancer (HBC) cell lines have confirmed the existence of a subgroup of cell lines (termed Basal B\\/Mesenchymal)\\u000a with enhanced invasive properties and a predominantly mesenchymal gene

  12. Coitinuous cell lines from embryonic tissues of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Yunker; J. Cory; H. Meibos

    1981-01-01

    Summary  Six new cell lines were established in continous culture from embryonic tissues of ixodid ticks. Four were fromDermacentor variabilis and two fromD. parumapertus. The cells are mostly fibroblastic and diploid. Mosquito-borne viruses (Chikungunya, O'nyong, yellow fever, and St. Louis\\u000a encephalitis) as well as tick-borne ones (Langat, Powassan, Colorado tick fever, Kemerovo, and Sawgrass) replicated in certain\\u000a of these cell lines,

  13. The polyGeVero® software for fast and easy computation of 3D radiotherapy dosimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The polyGeVero® software package was elaborated for calculations of 3D dosimetry data such as the polymer gel dosimetry. It comprises four workspaces designed for: i) calculating calibrations, ii) storing calibrations in a database, iii) calculating dose distribution 3D cubes, iv) comparing two datasets e.g. a measured one with a 3D dosimetry with a calculated one with the aid of a treatment planning system. To accomplish calculations the software was equipped with a number of tools such as the brachytherapy isotopes database, brachytherapy dose versus distance calculation based on the line approximation approach, automatic spatial alignment of two 3D dose cubes for comparison purposes, 3D gamma index, 3D gamma angle, 3D dose difference, Pearson's coefficient, histograms calculations, isodoses superimposition for two datasets, and profiles calculations in any desired direction. This communication is to briefly present the main functions of the software and report on the speed of calculations performed by polyGeVero®.

  14. [Decontamination of continual cell lines spontaneously infected with mycoplasmas].

    PubMed

    Machatková, M; Jurmanová, K; Snejdar, V

    1986-07-01

    The continual cell lines of bovine kidneys MDBK and AUBEK, and porcine kidneys RPD and IBRS, spontaneously infected with Mycoplasma arginini and Acholeplasma laidlawii, were decontaminated by the method of selective elimination. Two elimination procedures were modified to be used for the decontamination: one based on the reduction of infection by the light treatment of the cultures, the other based on the selection of mycoplasma-free cell population through cell clonation. On the basis of a long-continued control of the cell clones a methodical procedure of the preparation of mycoplasma-free cell lines was worked out. PMID:3090766

  15. Radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines exposed to 12C6+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, X.; Yang, J.; Li, W.; Guo, C.; Dang, B.; Wang, J.; Zhou, L.; Wei, W.; Gao, Q.

    AIM To investigate the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines METHODS Accelerated carbon ions by heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou HIRFL have high LET We employed it to study the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines SMMC-7721 and human normal liver cell lines L02 using premature chromosome condensation technique PCC Cell survive was documented by a colony assay Chromatid breaks were measured by counting the number of chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks immediately after prematurely chromosome condensed by Calyculin-A RESULTS The survival curve of the two cell lines presented a good linear relationship and the survival fraction of L02 is higher than that of SMMC-7721 Additionally the two types of G 2 phase chromosome breaks chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks of L02 are lower than that of SMMC-7721 CONCLUSION Human normal liver cell line have high radioresistance than that of hepatoma cell line It imply that it is less damage to normal organs when radiotherapy to hepatoma

  16. Tumor cell-selective antiproliferative effect of the extract from Morinda citrifolia fruits.

    PubMed

    Arpornsuwan, Teerakul; Punjanon, Tadsanee

    2006-06-01

    The methanol extract from Morinda citrifolia fruits was tested for cytotoxicity activity on the MTT assay. The appearance of cytotoxic changes after exposure to the extract was in a concentration dependent manner. The median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of the extract in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells and human laryngeal carcinoma (Hep2) cells were found to be 2.5, 3 and 5 mg/mL, respectively. A concentration of 0.1 mg/mL of crude extract exhibited cytotoxic activity against breast cancer (MCF7) and neuroblastoma (LAN5) cell lines at 29% and 36%, respectively. The same concentration of extract showed no toxicity to Vero and very little toxicity to BHK (6%) and Hep2 (13%) cells. PMID:16619339

  17. Clonal cell lines from the rat central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Schubert; S. Heinemann; W. Carlisle; H. Tarikas; B. Kimes; J. Patrick; J. H. Steinbach; W. Culp; B. L. Brandt

    1974-01-01

    Five neuronal and a large collection of putative glial cell lines from the rat central nervous system have been established in clonal cell culture and partially characterised. These cells shed new light on the distribution of neurotransmitter synthesis and brain-specific antigens among nerve and glia.

  18. A cell line (HBL-100) established from human breast milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin V. Gaffney

    1982-01-01

    A continuous cell line (HBL-100) was obtained from primary cultures of cells derived from an early lactation sample of human milk. There was no evidence of a breast lesion in the milk donor. Karyotype analysis showed that all metaphases contained human chromosomes including a large acrocentric marker chromosome. Both desmosomes and cytoplasmic tonofibrils were observed during early passage. HBL-100 cells

  19. Development and characterization of a largemouth bass cell line.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Cornwell, Emily R; Schumacher, Vanessa L; Glasner, Lindsay I; Baker, Barry J; Frattini, Stephen A; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The development and characterization of a new cell line, derived from the ovary of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, is described. Gonad tissue was collected from Largemouth Bass that were electrofished from Oneida Lake, New York. The tissue was processed and grown in culture flasks at approximately 22°C for more than 118 passages during an 8-year period from 2004 to 2011. The identity of these cells as Largemouth Bass origin was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b gene. Growth rate at three different temperatures was documented. The cell line was susceptible to Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) and its replication was compared with that of Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus fry (BF-2), one of the cell lines recommended for LMBV isolation by the American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section Blue Book. Quantitative PCR results from the replication trial showed the BF-2 cell line produced approximately 10-fold more LMBV copies per cell than the new Largemouth Bass cell line after 6 d, while the titration assay showed similar quantities in each cell line after 1 week. Received February 18, 2014; accepted April 16, 2014. PMID:25229492

  20. The effect of desferrioxamine on cell proliferation in human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Siegers, C P; Bumann, D; Baretton, G

    1991-01-01

    Iron is known to have a stimulatory effect on cell proliferation whereas the iron-complexing agent desferrioxamine (DFO) has an inhibitory influence on the growth of cultured cells. The effect of iron salts and DFO on cell proliferation and DNA synthesis was studied on two established human tumour cell lines, a colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and a hepatoma-derived cell line (Hep.G2). Cell proliferation was estimated by the neutral red method, DNA synthesis by measuring the [(3)H]thymidine incorporation into the cells. For the analysis of the cell cycle the cells were marked with bromodeoxyuridine for S-phase cells and the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 for all proliferating cells. Ferric chloride stimulated cell proliferation in the Caco-2 line whereas there was no effect in the Hep.G2 line. DFO inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in both cell lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed a prolongation of the cell cycle by DFO, thereby reducing the number of cells entering the proliferating phases of the cell cycle in both cell lines. The data support the essential role of iron in cell proliferation and tumour growth. PMID:20732049

  1. A Stable Cranial Neural Crest Cell Line from Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Mamoru; Arias, Athena C.; Liu, Liqiong; Chen, Yi-Bu; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2012-01-01

    Cranial neural crest cells give rise to ectomesenchymal derivatives such as cranial bones, cartilage, smooth muscle, dentin, as well as melanocytes, corneal endothelial cells, and neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that although multipotent stem-like cells may exist during the course of cranial neural crest development, they are transient, undergoing lineage restriction early in embryonic development. We have developed culture conditions that allow cranial neural crest cells to be grown as multipotent stem-like cells. With these methods, we obtained 2 independent cell lines, O9-1 and i10-1, which were derived from mass cultures of Wnt1-Cre; R26R-GFP-expressing cells. These cell lines can be propagated and passaged indefinitely, and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, smooth muscle cells, and glial cells. Whole-genome expression profiling of O9-1 cells revealed that this line stably expresses stem cell markers (CD44, Sca-1, and Bmi1) and neural crest markers (AP-2?, Twist1, Sox9, Myc, Ets1, Dlx1, Dlx2, Crabp1, Epha2, and Itgb1). O9-1 cells are capable of contributing to cranial mesenchymal (osteoblast and smooth muscle) neural crest fates when injected into E13.5 mouse cranial tissue explants and chicken embryos. These results suggest that O9-1 cells represent multipotent mesenchymal cranial neural crest cells. The O9-1 cell line should serve as a useful tool for investigating the molecular properties of differentiating cranial neural crest cells. PMID:22889333

  2. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields aren’t considered as a real carcinogenic agent despite the fact that some studies have showed impairment of the DNA integrity in different cells lines. The aim of this study was evaluation of the late effects of a 100 Hz and 5.6 mT electromagnetic field, applied continuously or discontinuously, on the DNA integrity of Vero cells assessed by alkaline Comet assay and by cell cycle analysis. Normal Vero cells were exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (100 Hz, 5.6 mT) for 45 minutes. The Comet assay and cell cycle analysis were performed 48 hours after the treatment. Results Exposed samples presented an increase of the number of cells with high damaged DNA as compared with non-exposed cells. Quantitative evaluation of the comet assay showed a significantly (<0.001) increase of the tail lengths, of the quantity of DNA in tail and of Olive tail moments, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase of the frequency of the cells in S phase, proving the occurrence of single strand breaks. The most probable mechanism of induction of the registered effects is the production of different types of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The analysis of the registered comet indices and of cell cycle showed that extremely low frequency electromagnetic field of 100 Hz and 5.6 mT had a genotoxic impact on Vero cells. PMID:24401758

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A BRAIN METASTATIC CANINE PROSTATE CANCER CELL LINE

    PubMed Central

    Thudi, Nanda K.; Shu, Sherry T.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Nadella, Murali V.P.; Van Bokhoven, Adrie; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Simmons, Jessica K.; Murahari, Sridhar; Kisseberth, William C.; Breen, Matthew; Williams, Christina; Chen, Ching-Shih; McCauley, Laurie K.; Keller, Evan T.; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer in men has a high mortality and morbidity due to metastatic disease. The pathobiology of prostate cancer metastasis is not well understood and cell lines and animal models that recapitulate the complex nature of the disease are needed. Therefore, the goal of the study was to establish and characterize a new prostate cancer line derived from a dog with spontaneous prostate cancer. Methods A new cell line (Leo) was derived from a dog with spontaneous prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry and PCR were used to characterize the primary prostate cancer and xenografts in nude mice. Subcutaneous tumor growth and metastases in nude mice were evaluated by bioluminescent imaging, radiography and histopathology. In vitro chemosensitivity of Leo cells to therapeutic agents was measured. Results Leo cells expressed the secretory epithelial cytokeratins (CK) 8, 18 and ductal cell marker, CK7. The cell line grew in vitro (over 75 passages) and was tumorigenic in the subcutis of nude mice. Following intracardiac injection, Leo cells metastasized to the brain, spinal cord, bone, and adrenal gland. The incidence of metastases was greatest to the central nervous system (80%) with a lower incidence to bone (20%) and the adrenal glands (16%). In vitro chemosensitivity assays demonstrated that Leo cells were sensitive to velcade and an HDAC-42 inhibitor with IC50 concentrations of 1.9 nM and 0.95 ?M respectively. Conclusion The new prostate cancer cell line (Leo) will be a valuable model to investigate the mechanisms of the brain and bone metastases. PMID:21321976

  4. Formation of germ-line chimaeras from embryo-derived teratocarcinoma cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Bradley; Martin Evans; Matthew H. Kaufman; Elizabeth Robertson

    1984-01-01

    The recent availability in culture of embryo-derived pluripotential cells which exhibit both a normal karyotype and a high differentiative ability1-3 has encouraged us to assess the potential of these cells to form functional germ cells following their incorporation into chimaeric mice. We report here the results of blastocyst injection studies using three independently isolated XY embryo-derived cell lines (EK.CP1, EK.CC1.1

  5. Transport of paraquat by a renal epithelial cell line, MDCK.

    PubMed

    Chan, B S; Lazzaro, V A; Seale, J P; Duggin, G G

    1997-11-01

    Transport of paraquat (PQ), a herbicidal cation, was previously investigated in a proximal (LLC-PK1), renal epithelial cell line using permeable collagen-coated filters. PQ was actively transported from the basolateral side via a cation transport system by the LLC-PK1 cells. In the present study, the transport of PQ was investigated in a distal renal epithelial cell line, MDCK. PQ was predominantly transported from the basolateral to apical (B to A) side. The basolateral transport of PQ in MDCK cells was not saturable with increasing concentrations and not energy dependent. The flux and uptake of PQ was much lower in the MDCK than LLC-PK1 cells. It is concluded that MDCK, a distal renal tubular cell line, does not have an active transport system for PQ. PMID:9415931

  6. Neurectoderm markers retained in phenotypical skeletal muscle cells arising from a glial cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanda A. Lennon; Susan Peterson; David Schubert

    1979-01-01

    Differentiation in vitro of striated muscle from apparently non-muscle precursor cells has been reported in thymus reticulum1, a fibroblast-like mouse embryo line2 and in a neuronelike cell line derived from a rat brain tumour3. Also Tomozawa and Sueko reported the differentiation of a peripheral neurotumour clonal stem cell line into separate neuronal and glial cell types4. We report here the

  7. Establishment of the DU.528 human lymphohemopoietic stem cell line

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have established the DU.528 cell line from the pretreatment leukemia cells of a patient who underwent a T lymphoblastic-to-promyelocytic phenotype conversion during treatment with the adenosine deaminase inhibitor, deoxycoformycin. The cell line and clones obtained from it by limiting dilution have the same karyotype previously found in the patient's pretreatment T lymphoblasts and post-deoxycoformycin treatment promyelocytes. DU.528 cells in continuous culture for greater than 2 yr display a predominant undifferentiated T lymphoblastoid phenotype. These cells spontaneously generate progeny of at least three lineages, T lymphoid, granulocytic/monocytic, and erythroid. The surface marker most consistently expressed by DU.528 cells in the undifferentiated state is the 3A1 antigen, which has been found on prothymocytes in the embryonic thymus. Some undifferentiated DU.528 cells also expressed the IL-2 receptor, but no other T cell differentiation antigens. Exposure of DU.528 cells to a variety of agents induced myeloid maturation; adenosine and deoxyadenosine, in the presence of deoxycoformycin, induced expression of myeloid differentiation antigens. Our results suggest that DU.528 is a lymphohematopoietic stem cell line and support the hypothesis that differentiation of pluripotent stem cells may be altered by genetic deficiency of adenosine deaminase. DU.528 cells may provide a useful model for examining factors that regulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:4056659

  8. Effects of small interfering RNAs targeting fascin on human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian M Ortiz; Tetsuo Ito; Yosuke Hashimoto; Satoshi Nagayama; Akira Iwai; Shigeru Tsunoda; Fumiaki Sato; Miguel Martorell; Jose Garcia; Ana Perez; Yutaka Shimada

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fascin induces membrane protrusions and cell motility. Fascin overexpression was associated with poor prognosis, and its downregulation reduces cell motility and invasiveness in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Using a stable knockdown cell line, we revealed the effect of fascin on cell growth, cell adhesion and tumor formation. METHODS: We examined whether fascin is a potential target in ESCC

  9. A sub-40-ns chain FRAM architecture with 7-ns cell-plate-line drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisaburo Takashima; Susumu Shuto; Iwao Kunishima; Hiroyuki Takenaka; Yukihito Oowaki; Shin-ichi Tanaka

    1999-01-01

    A nonvolatile chain FRAM adopting a new cell-plate-line drive technique was demonstrated. Two key circuit techniques, a two-way metal cell-plate line and a cell-plate line shared with 16 cells, reduce cell-plate-line delay to 7 ns and reduce plate drive area to 1\\/5. The total cell-plate-line delay, including cell transistor delay due to eight cells in series, is reduced to 15

  10. Metronidazole decreases viability of DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Anna; Kr?towski, Rafa?; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna; Car, Halina

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50??g/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250??g/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test. PMID:23777253

  11. Transcription profiles of non-immortalized breast cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Fernandez-Cobo; James F Holland; Beatriz GT Pogo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Searches for differentially expressed genes in tumours have made extensive use of array technology. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Here we compare cultures of non-immortalized breast cancer cells, normal non-immortalized breast cells and immortalized normal and breast cancer cells to identify which elements of a defined set of well-known cancer-related

  12. Variation in Hematopoietic Potential of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasem Kulkeaw; Yuka Horio; Chiyo Mizuochi; Minetaro Ogawa; Daisuke Sugiyama

    2010-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were originally generated from somatic cells by ectopic expression of four transcription\\u000a factor genes: Oct3\\/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Currently, iPS cell lines differ in tissue origin, the combination of factors used to construct them, the method of gene\\u000a delivery and expression of pluripotency markers. Thus to evaluate iPS cells for haematotherapy, the hematopoietic potential

  13. Isolation of two chloroethylnitrosourea-sensitive Chinese hamster cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, H.; Numata, M.; Tohda, H.; Yasui, A.; Oikawa, A. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    1-((4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl)-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3- nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), a cancer chemotherapeutic bifunctional alkylating agent, causes chloroethylation of DNA and subsequent DNA strand cross-linking through an ethylene bridge. We isolated and characterized two ACNU-sensitive mutants from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary cells and found them to be new drug-sensitive recessive Chinese hamster mutants. Both mutants were sensitive to various monofunctional alkylating agents in a way similar to that of the parental cell lines CHO9. One mutant (UVS1) was cross-sensitive to UV and complemented the UV sensitivity of all Chinese hamster cell lines of 7 established complementation groups. Since UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis was very low, a new locus related to excision repair is thought to be defective in this cell line. Another ACNU-sensitive mutant, CNU1, was slightly more sensitive to UV than the parent cell line. CNU1 was cross-sensitive to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and slightly more sensitive to mitomycin C. No increased accumulation of ACNU and a low level of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in this cell as compared with the parental cell line suggest that there is abnormality in a repair response of this mutant cell to some types of DNA cross-links.

  14. Modulation of melphalan cytotoxic activity in human melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Supino, R; Caserini, C; Orlandi, L; Zaffaroni, N; Silvestrini, R; Vaglini, M; Zunino, F

    1996-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to potentiate the cytotoxic effects of melphalan through pharmacological and physical modulators. The combination of the cytotoxic agent with ethacrynic acid, a glutathione-S-transferase pi (GST pi) inhibitor, or topotecan, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, or mild hyperthermia was investigated. The selected cell lines exhibited variable levels of expression of GST pi, DNA topoisomerase I and heat-shock proteins. Mild hyperthermia (42 degrees C) alone potentiated melphalan cytotoxicity, especially in the two cell lines exhibiting low basal levels of HSP70 expression. The combination of the GST inhibitor with melphalan resulted in a potentiation of drug cytotoxicity only in JR8 cells, one of the two cell lines which expressed high levels of GST pi mRNA and which were the less responsive to ethacrinic acid alone. A synergistic interaction between topotecan and melphalan was observed only in the cell lines expressing low levels of topoisomerase I even if all cell lines exhibited a comparable sensitivity to this agent. The results support an involvement of GST and DNA topoisomerase in cell defense and response to the alkylating agent. However, the variable potentiation of the cytotoxic effects of melphalan achieved in different cell systems suggests that factors other than the level of expression of the modulation target are responsible of such potentiation. PMID:8862730

  15. Screening Services – NCI-60 DTP Human Tumor Cell Line Screen

    Cancer.gov

    The In Vitro Cell Line Screening Project (IVCLSP) is a dedicated service providing direct support to the DTP anticancer drug discovery program. The in vitro cell line screen was implemented in fully operational form in April of 1990. It required approximately five years (1985 - 1990) to develop, and persistence in the effort reflected dissatisfaction with the performance of prior in vivo primary screens. This project is designed to screen up to 3,000 compounds per year for potential anticancer activity.

  16. PI Control of Gene Expression in Tumorous Cell Lines 

    E-print Network

    Mendonca, Rouella J.

    2010-01-16

    PI CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION IN TUMOROUS CELL LINES A Thesis by ROUELLA JOAN MENDONCA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 2009 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering PI CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION IN TUMOROUS CELL LINES A Thesis by ROUELLA JOAN MENDONCA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  17. Baculovirus studies in new, indigenous lepidopteran cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pant, U; Sudeep, A B; Athawale, S S; Vipat, V C

    2002-01-01

    Eight lepidopteran cell lines were established recently and their susceptibility to different insect viruses was studied. Two Spodoptera litura cell lines from the larval and pupal ovaries, were found highly susceptible to S. litura nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SLNPV, 5-6 x 10(6) NPV/ml). The Helicoverpa armigera cell line from the embryonic tissue was highly susceptible to H. armigera NPV (HaNPV, 6.3 x 10(6) NPV/ml). These in vitro grown SLNPV and HaNPV caused 100% mortality to respective 2nd instar larvae. The susceptibility of the cryo-preserved cell lines to respective baculoviruses (SLNPV/HaNPV) was studied and no significant difference in their susceptibility status was observed. The cultures could grow as suspension culture on shakers and may find application for in vitro production of wild type/recombinant baculoviruses as bio-insecticides. S. litura and Bombyx mori cell lines from larval ovaries, were highly susceptible to Autographa californica NPV (5.5 x 10(6) NPV/ml) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV, 6.1 x 10(6) NPV/ml) respectively. These cell lines may find application in baculovirus expression vector studies for the production of recombinant proteins, useful in the development of diagnostic kits or as vaccines. PMID:12561971

  18. Transcription profiles of non-immortalized breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Cobo, Mariana; Holland, James F; Pogo, Beatriz GT

    2006-01-01

    Background Searches for differentially expressed genes in tumours have made extensive use of array technology. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Here we compare cultures of non-immortalized breast cancer cells, normal non-immortalized breast cells and immortalized normal and breast cancer cells to identify which elements of a defined set of well-known cancer-related genes are differentially expressed. Methods Cultures of cells from pleural effusions or ascitic fluids from breast cancer patients (MSSMs) were used in addition to commercially-available normal breast epithelial cells (HMECs), established breast cancer cell lines (T-est) and established normal breast cells (N-est). The Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 cDNA expression array was employed. The data obtained were analysed using widely-available statistical and clustering software and further validated through real-time PCR. Results According to Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) and AtlasImage software, 48 genes differed at least 2-fold in adjusted intensities between HMECs and MSSMs (p < 0.01). Some of these genes have already been directly linked with breast cancer, metastasis and malignant progression, whilst others encode receptors linked to signal transduction pathways or are otherwise related to cell proliferation. Fifty genes showed at least a 2.5-fold difference between MSSMs and T-est cells according to AtlasImage, 2-fold according to SAM. Most of these classified as genes related to metabolism and cell communication. Conclusion The expression profiles of 1176 genes were determined in finite life-span cultures of metastatic breast cancer cells and of normal breast cells. Significant differences were detected between the finite life-span breast cancer cell cultures and the established breast cancer cell lines. These data suggest caution in extrapolating information from established lines for application to clinical cancer research. PMID:16626496

  19. Hedgehog signaling pathway is inactive in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chatel, Guillaume; Ganeff, Corine; Boussif, Naima; Delacroix, Laurence; Briquet, Alexandra; Nolens, Gregory; Winkler, Rosita

    2007-12-15

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in human development. Abnormal activation of this pathway has been observed in several types of human cancers, such as the upper gastro-intestinal tract cancers. However, activation of the Hh pathway in colorectal cancers is controversial. We analyzed the expression of the main key members of the Hh pathway in 7 colon cancer cell lines in order to discover whether the pathway is constitutively active in these cells. We estimated the expression of SHH, IHH, PTCH, SMO, GLI1, GLI2, GLI3, SUFU and HHIP genes by RT-PCR. Moreover, Hh ligand, Gli3 and Sufu protein levels were quantified by western blotting. None of the cell lines expressed the complete set of Hh pathway members. The ligands were absent from Colo320 and HCT116 cells, Smo from Colo205, HT29 and WiDr. GLI1 gene was not expressed in SW480 cells nor were GLI2/GLI3 in Colo205 or Caco-2 cells. Furthermore the repressive form of Gli3, characteristic of an inactive pathway, was detected in SW480 and Colo320 cells. Finally treatment of colon cancer cells with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor of the Hh pathway, did not downregulate PTCH and GLI1 genes expression in the colorectal cells, whereas it did so in PANC1 control cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway is not common in colorectal cancer cell lines. PMID:17683069

  20. Rabeprazole exhibits antiproliferative effects on human gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gu, Mengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xinxin; Ma, Han; Yao, Hangping; Ji, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)/K(+)-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the ?- and ?-subunits of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent. PMID:25202402

  1. Establishment and Characterization of Four New Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pao-Min Loh; Gerald H. Clamori; Robert A. Robinson; Mark L. White; Bharati Hukku; Nicholas P. Rossi; Ward D. Peterson

    1984-01-01

    Four new human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines have been established in vitro. These cell lines have been character ized by (a) growth of a tumor in nude mice with histopathology similar to that of the primary, (b) isoenzyme patterns phenotypi- cally human and distinct from each other, (c) distinguishing karyotypic findings, (d) growth rate determinations, and (e) pres

  2. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  3. p53 is frequently mutated in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, P J; Allan, G J; Shanahan, F; Vousden, K H; Crook, T

    1991-01-01

    A panel of 12 Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and four other B cell lines were tested for the presence of mutations in p53. Protein analysis using a mutant-specific antibody and sequencing of both cDNA and genomic DNA revealed changes relative to the standard p53 protein sequence in 12 of the 16 lines studied, including 10 of the BL lines. Mutation of p53 in the BL lines was usually accompanied by loss of the other allele of p53. Testing of the mutated p53 cDNAs for gain of transforming activity or loss of growth suppression activity showed that several of the BL mutants were functionally altered from wild-type p53. Images PMID:1915267

  4. Novel cell lines established from pediatric brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingying; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Melendez, Elizabeth Y.; Smbatyan, Goar; Moats, Rex A.; Rosol, Michael; Biegel, Jaclyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The paucity of cell culture models for childhood brain tumors prompted us to establish pediatric cell lines for use in biological experiments and preclinical developmental therapeutic studies. Three cell lines were established, CHLA-200 (GBM), CHLA-259 (anaplastic medulloblastoma) and CHLA-266 (atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, AT/RT). Consistent with an AT/RT origin, CHLA-266 lacked INI1 expression and had monosomy 22. All lines had unique DNA short tandem repeat “fingerprints” matching that of the patient’s tumor tissue and were adherent on tissue culture plastic, but differed in morphology and doubling times. CHLA-200 had a silent mutation in TP53. CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 had wild-type TP53. All three lines were relatively resistant to multiple drugs when compared to the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line, using the DIMSCAN fluorescence digital image microscopy cytotoxicity assay. RNA expression of MYC and MYCN were quantified using RT-PCR (Taqman). CHLA-200 expressed MYC, DAOY and CHLA-259 expressed MYCN, and CHLA-266 expressed both MYCN and MYC. CHLA-200 was only tumorigenic subcutaneously, but CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 were tumorigenic both subcutaneously and in brains of NOD/SCID mice. Immunohistochemistry of the xenografts revealed GFAP staining in CHLA-200 and PGP 9.5 staining in CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 tumors. As expected, INI1 expression was lacking in CHLA-266 (AT/RT). These three new cell lines will provide useful models for research of pediatric brain tumors. PMID:22120608

  5. Novel cell lines established from pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Melendez, Elizabeth Y; Smbatyan, Goar; Moats, Rex A; Rosol, Michael; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Reynolds, C Patrick

    2012-04-01

    The paucity of cell culture models for childhood brain tumors prompted us to establish pediatric cell lines for use in biological experiments and preclinical developmental therapeutic studies. Three cell lines were established, CHLA-200 (GBM), CHLA-259 (anaplastic medulloblastoma) and CHLA-266 (atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, AT/RT). Consistent with an AT/RT origin, CHLA-266 lacked INI1 expression and had monosomy 22. All lines had unique DNA short tandem repeat "fingerprints" matching that of the patient's tumor tissue and were adherent on tissue culture plastic, but differed in morphology and doubling times. CHLA-200 had a silent mutation in TP53. CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 had wild-type TP53. All three lines were relatively resistant to multiple drugs when compared to the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line, using the DIMSCAN fluorescence digital image microscopy cytotoxicity assay. RNA expression of MYC and MYCN were quantified using RT-PCR (Taqman). CHLA-200 expressed MYC, DAOY and CHLA-259 expressed MYCN, and CHLA-266 expressed both MYCN and MYC. CHLA-200 was only tumorigenic subcutaneously, but CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 were tumorigenic both subcutaneously and in brains of NOD/SCID mice. Immunohistochemistry of the xenografts revealed GFAP staining in CHLA-200 and PGP 9.5 staining in CHLA-259 and CHLA-266 tumors. As expected, INI1 expression was lacking in CHLA-266 (AT/RT). These three new cell lines will provide useful models for research of pediatric brain tumors. PMID:22120608

  6. Generation and characterization of a mouse lymphatic endothelial cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Sironi; Annarita Conti; Sergio Bernasconi; Anna M. Fra; Fabio Pasqualini; Manuela Nebuloni; Eleonora Lauri; Maida De Bortoli; Alberto Mantovani; Elisabetta Dejana; Annunciata Vecchi

    2006-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels, by channeling fluid and leukocytes from the periphery into lymph nodes, play a central role in the development of the immune response. Despite their importance in homeostasis and disease, the difficulties in enriching and culturing lymphatic endothelial cells limit studies of their biology. Here, we report the isolation, stabilization, and characterization of a mouse lymphatic endothelial cell line

  7. Retinal ganglion cell line apoptosis induced by hydrostatic pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish Agar; Shaojuan Li; Neeraj Agarwal; Minas T. Coroneo; Mark A. Hill

    2006-01-01

    Cellular responses to changes in pressure are implicated in numerous disease processes. In glaucoma apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is associated with elevated intra-ocular pressure, however, the exact cellular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously shown that pressure can induce apoptosis in B35 and PC12 neuronal cell lines, using an in vitro model for pressure elevation. A novel RGC

  8. MOLECULAR AND CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LUNG TUMOR CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have measured the levels of amplification of oncogenes and tumor marker genes or other genes of interest in nine human lung tumor cell lines in comparison to normal human bronchial epithelial cells or normal blood lymphocytes to test the hypothesis that aberrant amplification ...

  9. Drug resistance in malignant rhabdoid tumor cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary B. Rosson; Timothy S. Vincent; Betty W. Oswald; Cynthia F. Wright

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the in vitro sensitivity of four malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) cell lines to six chemotherapeutic agents: 5-fluororuacil, vincristine, carboplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and paclitaxel. We also sought to determine whether a defect in the p53 signaling pathway may contribute to the pronounced drug resistance of MRT. Methods: MRT cells were treated with various concentrations of each drug and

  10. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junying Yu; Maxim A. Vodyanik; Kim Smuga-Otto; Jessica Antosiewicz-Bourget; Jennifer L. Frane; Shulan Tian; Jeff Nie; Gudrun A. Jonsdottir; Victor Ruotti; Ron Stewart; Igor I. Slukvin; James A. Thomson

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal

  11. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of two newly established renal cell carcinoma cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf S. R. Bergerheim; Mats Söderhäll; Eugene Zabarovsky; Bo Franzén; Agneta Manneborg-Sandlund; Chunde Li; Stefan H. Jacobson; Gert Auer; Georg Klein; V. Peter Collins

    1996-01-01

    Two new cell lines from human renal cell carcinoma are reported. Primary cell cultures from 75 consecutive cases of nephrectomy and metastatic surgery due to different stages of RCC during 4 years were studied. Two cell cultures could be propagated for more than 50 passages in vitro. HN4 was derived from a grade III clear cell carcinoma. HN51 originated from

  12. Differential effects of monastrol in two human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Leizerman, I; Avunie-Masala, R; Elkabets, M; Fich, A; Gheber, L

    2004-08-01

    The kinesin-related protein HsEg5 plays essential roles in mitotic spindle dynamics. Although inhibition of HsEg5 has been suggested as an aid in cancer treatment, the effects of such inhibition on human cells have not been characterized. Here we studied the effects of monastrol, an allosteric HsEg5 inhibitor, on AGS and HT29 cell lines and compared them to those of taxol. While both cell lines were similarly sensitive to taxol, AGS cells were more sensitive to monastrol. The differences in sensitivity were determined by the degree of inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, reversibility of monastrol-induced G2/M arrest, intracellular phenotypes and induction of apoptosis. In both cell lines, monastrol-induced apoptosis was accompanied by mitochondrial membrane depolarization and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 cleavage. In AGS, but not HT29 cells, monastrol-induced apoptosis involved a prominent cleavage of procaspases 8 and 3. While in AGS cells, monastrol induced the formation of symmetric microtubule asters only, in HT29 cells, asymmetric asters were also formed, which may be related to specific HsEg5 functions in HT29 cells. PMID:15316655

  13. Genetic design of an optimized packaging cell line for gene vectors transducing human B cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Hettich; A Janz; R Zeidler; D Pich; E Hellebrand; B Weissflog; A Moosmann; W Hammerschmidt

    2006-01-01

    Viral gene vectors often rely on packaging cell lines, which provide the necessary factors in trans for the formation of virus-like particles. Previously, we reported on a first-generation packaging cell line for gene vectors, which are based on the B-lymphotropic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a human ?-herpesvirus. This 293HEK-derived packaging cell line harbors a helper virus genome with a genetic modification

  14. Germ line development: lessons learned from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Arroyo, Ana M; Medrano, Jose V; Remohí, José; Simón, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Current knowledge about mammalian germ line development is mainly based on the mouse model and little is known about how this fundamental process occurs in humans. This review summarizes our current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic germ line development in mammals, mainly focusing on primordial germ cell (PGC) specification events, comparing the differences between mouse and human models. We also emphasize the knowledge derived from the most successful strategies used to generate germ cell-like cells in vitro in both models and major obstacles to obtaining bona fide in vitro-derived gametes are considered. PMID:25461452

  15. Generation of islet-like cell aggregates from human non-pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Sureshbabu, Shalini Kashipathi; Shahani, Pradnya; Bhawna, Chandravanshi; Warrier, Sudha R; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    To explore a novel source for the derivation of islets, we examined the differentiation potential of human non-pancreatic cancer cell lines, HeLa (cervical carcinoma cell line) and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line). These cells were subjected to a serum-free, three-step sequential differentiation protocol which gave two distinct cell populations: single cells and cellular aggregates. Subsequent analysis confirmed their identity as pancreatic acinar cells and islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs), as evidenced by amylase secretion and diphenylthiocarbazone staining respectively. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunocytochemistry assessment of the ICAs revealed the expression of pancreatic specific markers Ngn-3, Glut-2, Pax-6 and Isl-1. These ICAs secreted insulin in response to glucose challenge, confirming their functionality. We propose that ICAs generated from HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines could form a promising in vitro platform of human islet equivalents (hIEQs) for diabetes research. PMID:25257585

  16. Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

    2014-01-01

    Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise. PMID:25117809

  17. Establishment, Immortalisation and Characterisation of Pteropid Bat Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Todd, Shawn; Grimley, Samantha; McEachern, Jennifer A.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Smith, Craig; Tachedjian, Mary; De Jong, Carol; Virtue, Elena R.; Yu, Meng; Bulach, Dieter; Liu, Jun-Ping; Michalski, Wojtek P.; Middleton, Deborah; Field, Hume E.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2009-01-01

    Background Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. Methodology/Findings Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. Conclusions/Significance The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study. PMID:20011515

  18. Phosphoproteomic analysis of AML cell lines identifies leukemic oncogenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise K. Walters; Valerie L. Goss; Eric P. Stoffregen; Ting-Lei Gu; Kimberly Lee; Julie Nardone; Laura McGreevey; Michael C. Heinrich; Michael W. Deininger; Roberto Polakiewicz; Brian J. Druker

    2006-01-01

    STAT5 is constitutively phosphorylated in leukemic cells in approximately 70% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. To identify kinase candidates potentially responsible for STAT5 phosphorylation, we used liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) mass spectrometry to detect phosphoproteins in AML cell lines. We established TEL-ARG and BCR-ABL fusion proteins as the mechanism underlying STAT5 phosphorylation in HT-93 and KBM-3 cells, respectively.

  19. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from parthenogenetic blastocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyun Mai; Yang Yu; Tao Li; Liu Wang; Mei-jue Chen; Shu-zhen Huang; Canquan Zhou; Qi Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is one of the main, and most useful, methods to derive embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which may be an important source of histocompatible cells and tissues for cell therapy. Here we describe the derivation and characterization of two ESC lines (hPES-1 and hPES-2) from in vitro developed blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes. Typical ESC morphology was seen,

  20. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 suppression and arginine restriction inhibit cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ching; Fang, Jung-Hua; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer metastasis remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths. There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches targeting metastatic gastric cancer. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) expression is increased in gastric cancer. We detected the protein expression of ASS1 in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, NCI-N87, and MKN45) and in murine gastric cancer cell lines (3I and 3IB2). We used vector-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression to silence ASS1 expression in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines, and analyzed the effects of this protein on cell migration and metastasis. We demonstrated that ASS1 silencing suppressed cell migration in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines. ASS1 knockdown significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after the intrasplenic implantation of 3IB2 cancer cell clones. To determine whether arginine restriction may represent a therapeutic approach to treat gastric cancer, the sensitivity of tumor cells to arginine depletion was determined in gastric cancer cells. Arginine depletion significantly inhibited cell migration in the gastric cancer cell line. The silencing of ASS1 expression in MKN45 and 3IB2 gastric cancer cells markedly decreased STAT3 protein expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ASS1 protein is required for cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:25928182

  1. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 suppression and arginine restriction inhibit cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ching; Fang, Jung-Hua; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer metastasis remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths. There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches targeting metastatic gastric cancer. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) expression is increased in gastric cancer. We detected the protein expression of ASS1 in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, NCI-N87, and MKN45) and in murine gastric cancer cell lines (3I and 3IB2). We used vector-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression to silence ASS1 expression in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines, and analyzed the effects of this protein on cell migration and metastasis. We demonstrated that ASS1 silencing suppressed cell migration in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines. ASS1 knockdown significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after the intrasplenic implantation of 3IB2 cancer cell clones. To determine whether arginine restriction may represent a therapeutic approach to treat gastric cancer, the sensitivity of tumor cells to arginine depletion was determined in gastric cancer cells. Arginine depletion significantly inhibited cell migration in the gastric cancer cell line. The silencing of ASS1 expression in MKN45 and 3IB2 gastric cancer cells markedly decreased STAT3 protein expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ASS1 protein is required for cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:25928182

  2. Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

  3. Non-targeted radiation effects in vertebrate cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Lorna

    Radiation effects, such as bystander effects, hyper radiosensitivity/induced radioresistance (HRS/IRR) and adaptive response that are not related to direct DNA damage are now accepted. However the inter-relationship between them and the possible impact on the scientific basis for radiation protection are highly controversial. This thesis attempts to elucidate the mechanisms of some of these well known but little understood effects. Each paper examines some aspect of bystander effects, adaptive responses and HRS/IRR in an effort to understand how they vary with cell type, dose and time of exposure to single or multiple doses. All the effects involve non-linear dose effect curves and are mainly evident following low doses. Overall findings of the thesis include (1) A clear difference was observed between radioresistant, tumorigenic cell lines with mutant p53 gene expression, and radiosensitive, more normal, cell lines with wild type p53. In general death inducing bystander responses are induced in normal cell populations exposed to low doses of radiation while survival inducing IRR and adaptive responses are seen in the radioresistant tumorigenic cell lines. (2) A cohort of fish cell lines which demonstrated survival promoting bystander effects, also did not show a protective adaptive responses. (3) Adaptive responses traditionally occur when a large challenge dose is given 4--6hrs following low (10--100mGy) priming doses but this thesis shows that for the epithelial cell lines tested, the size of the priming dose (range 0.1--2Gy) does not appear to alter the size of the recovery response. Additionally increased survival could be detected in some cases when the challenge dose was given within one hour of the priming dose. The overall conclusion is that cell lines induce either a bystander response or a protective/adaptive response depending on genetic background and other factors. Care is needed in the interpretation of data generated from only one or two cell lines and in the extrapolation of mechanistic ideas based on one or two cell lines to other cell types or to the in vivo situation.

  4. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of Human Astrocyte Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Menet, Anne; Speth, Cornelia; Larcher, Clara; Prodinger, Wolfgang M.; Schwendinger, Michael G.; Chan, Philippe; Jäger, Michael; Schwarzmann, Fritz; Recheis, Heidrun; Fontaine, Marc; Dierich, Manfred P.

    1999-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in different central nervous system syndromes. The major cellular receptor for EBV, complement receptor type 2 (CR2) (CD21), is expressed by different astrocyte cell lines and human fetal astrocytes, suggesting their susceptibility to EBV infection. We demonstrated the infection of two astrocyte cell lines, T98 and CB193, at low levels. As infection was mediated by CR2, we used two stable CR2 transfectant astrocyte cell lines (T98CR2 and CB193CR2) to achieve a more efficient infection. We have monitored EBV gene expression for 2 months and observed the transient infection of T98 and T98CR2 cells and persistent infection of CB193 and CB193CR2 cells. The detection of BZLF1, BALF2, and BcLF1 mRNA expression suggests that the lytic cycle is initiated at early time points postinfection. At later time points the pattern of mRNA expressed (EBER1, EBNA1, EBNA2, and LMP1) differs from latency type III in the absence of LMP2A transcription and in the expression of BALF2 and BcLF1 but not BZLF1. A reactivation of the lytic cycle was achieved in CB193CR2 cells by the addition of phorbol esters. These studies identify astrocyte cell lines as targets for EBV infection and suggest that this infection might play a role in the pathology of EBV in the brain. PMID:10438862

  5. Modeling Adenovirus Latency in Human Lymphocyte Cell Lines ? †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A.; Gooding, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180), BJAB cells could not be reinfected with adenovirus, even when CAR was reintroduced to the cells via retroviral transduction, suggesting that the expression of multiple genes had been stably altered in these cells following infection. PMID:20573817

  6. The effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone on cell surface proteins and cell interactions in Drosophila melanogaster cell lines 

    E-print Network

    Stachowiak, Janice Ann

    1986-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF 20-HYDROXYECDYSONE ON CELL SURFACE PROTEINS AND CELL INTERACTIONS IN DROSOPHILA MEIANOGASTER CELL LINES A Thesrs JANICE ANN STACHOWIAK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM Unrversz. ty rn partial fulfillment... (20-HOE), causes changes in intercellular adhesion resulting in evagination in Drosophila imaginal discs and ir. aggregation in Drosophila tissue culture cells by affecting the synthesis of cell surface proteins. The DrosophDa cell lines, L3 and S3...

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to test fuel cell components at a scale and under conditions that can be accurately extrapolated to full system performance. This requires specially designed equipment that replicates the pressure (up to 6.5 bara), temperature (about 910 C), anode and cathode gas compositions, flows and power generation density of the full scale design. The SBTS fuel cell anode gas is produced through the reaction of pipeline natural gas with a mixture of steam, CO2, and O2 in a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor. Production of the fuel cell anode gas in this manner provides the capability to test a fuel cell with varying anode gas compositions ranging from traditional reformed natural gas to a coal-syngas surrogate fuel. Stark State College and RRFCS have a history of collaboration. This is based upon SSCAs commitment to provide students with skills for advanced energy industries, and RRFCS need for a workforce that is skilled in high temperature fuel cell development and testing. A key to this approach is the access of students to unique SOFC test and evaluation equipment. This equipment is designed and developed by RRFCS, with the participation of SSC interns. In the near-term, the equipment will be used by RRFCS for technology development. When this stage is completed, and RRFCS has moved to commercial products, SSC will utilize this equipment for workforce training. The RRFCS fuel cell design is based upon a unique ceramic substrate architecture in which a porous, flat substrate (tube) provides the support structure for a network of solid oxide fuel cells that are electrically connected in series. These tubes are grouped into a {approx}350-tube repeat configuration, called a stack/block. Stack/block testing, performed at system conditions, provides data that can be confidently scaled to full scale performance. This is the basis for the specially designed and developed test equipment that is required for advancing and accelerating the RRFCS SOFC power system development program. All contract DE-EE0003229 objectives were achieved and deliverables completed during the peri

  8. ScanningElectronMicroscopicObservationof Two RetinoblastomaCell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary C. McFall; Rose Marie Nagy; Barbara T. Nagle; Loily M. McGreevy

    Two continuousretinoblastomacell lines were ob served by scanning electron microscopy. Both cell lines spontaneously grow as a suspensionof roundcells in clusters,chains, and unique ring (rosette)formations. Scanningelectronmicroscopy ofsuspension cellsreveals somevariationin the numberand frequencyof surface adornmentssuch as blebs, lamellipodia,and microvibli. Although thecelllinesare nonadherent to substratum and thereforeassumea sphericalform,highlyvillouscellsare notcharacteristic of the entirecellpopulations. WhenWERI-Rbl and Y79 are seededontoa polyorni thine-treatedsubstrate,aftachmentandgrowthas adher ent culturesare

  9. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, J M; Gorringe, K L; Chin, S-F; Orsetti, B; Besret, C; Courtay-Cahen, C; Roberts, I; Theillet, C; Caldas, C; Edwards, P A W

    2000-01-01

    The extensive chromosome rearrangements of breast carcinomas must contribute to tumour development, but have been largely intractable to classical cytogenetic banding. We report here the analysis by 24-colour karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of 19 breast carcinoma cell lines and one normal breast epithelial cell line, which provide model examples of karyotype patterns and translocations present in breast carcinomas. The CGH was compared with CGH of 106 primary breast cancers. The lines varied from perfectly diploid to highly aneuploid. Translocations were very varied and over 98% were unbalanced. The most frequent in the carcinomas were 8;11 in five lines; and 8;17, 1;4 and 1;10 in four lines. The most frequently involved chromosome was 8. Several lines showed complex multiply-translocated chromosomes. The very aneuploid karyotypes appeared to fall into two groups that evolved by different routes: one that steadily lost chromosomes and at one point doubled their entire karyotype; and another that steadily gained chromosomes, together with abnormalities. All karyotypes fell within the range seen in fresh material and CGH confirmed that the lines were broadly representative of fresh tumours. The karyotypes provide a resource for the cataloguing and analysis of translocations in these tumours, accessible at http://www.path.cam.ac.uk/~pawefish. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11044355

  10. The role of calcium in differentiation of leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rephaeli, A; Aviram, A; Rabizadeh, E; Englender, T; Shaklai, M

    1990-04-01

    Increased calcium influx associated with differentiation of four human myeloid leukemic cell lines: HL-60, KG-1, U-937 and K-562, to either monocytic or granulocytic direction was demonstrated. Calcium influx was measured employing two methods; measurement of radioactive calcium influx rate at 4 degrees C and employing the fluorescent probe, fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. The increase in Ca2+ influx was demonstrated with three chemically unrelated differentiation inducers: retinoic acid, 1 alpha, 25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 and dimethyl sulfoxide. Inhibitors of calcium uptake such as verapamil diltiazem and cromolyn, partially reduced differentiation, suggesting that differentiation of myeloid leukemic cell lines is dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium. PMID:2383856

  11. Osmotic stress affects functional properties of human melanoma cell lines

    E-print Network

    La Porta, Caterina A M; Pasini, Maria; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J; Zapperi, Stefano; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of microenvironment in cancer growth and metastasis is a key issue for cancer research. Here, we study the effect of osmotic pressure on the functional properties of primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. In particular, we experimentally quantify individual cell motility and transmigration capability. We then perform a circular scratch assay to study how a cancer cell front invades an empty space. Our results show that primary melanoma cells are sensitive to a low osmotic pressure, while metastatic cells are less. To better understand the experimental results, we introduce and study a continuous model for the dynamics of a cell layer and a stochastic discrete model for cell proliferation and diffusion. The two models capture essential features of the experimental results and allow to make predictions for a wide range of experimentally measurable parameters.

  12. Mouse DRG Cell Line with Properties of Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Ciara; Chetrit, Jonathan; Holley, Matthew C.; Grundy, David; Nassar, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell lines from DRG neurons aid drug discovery because they can be used for early stage, high-throughput screens for drugs targeting pain pathways, with minimal dependence on animals. We have established a conditionally immortal DRG cell line from the Immortomouse. Using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and calcium microfluorimetry, we demonstrate that the cell line MED17.11 expresses markers of cells committed to the sensory neuron lineage. Within a few hours under differentiating conditions, MED17.11 cells extend processes and following seven days of differentiation, express markers of more mature DRG neurons, such as NaV1.7 and Piezo2. However, at least at this time-point, the nociceptive marker NaV1.8 is not expressed, but the cells respond to compounds known to excite nociceptors, including the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and the voltage gated sodium channel agonist, veratridine. Robust calcium transients are observed in the presence of the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, histamine and norepinephrine. MED17.11 cells have the potential to replace or reduce the use of primary DRG culture in sensory, pain and developmental research by providing a simple model to study acute nociception, neurite outgrowth and the developmental specification of DRG neurons. PMID:26053673

  13. Mouse DRG Cell Line with Properties of Nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Doran, Ciara; Chetrit, Jonathan; Holley, Matthew C; Grundy, David; Nassar, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell lines from DRG neurons aid drug discovery because they can be used for early stage, high-throughput screens for drugs targeting pain pathways, with minimal dependence on animals. We have established a conditionally immortal DRG cell line from the Immortomouse. Using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and calcium microfluorimetry, we demonstrate that the cell line MED17.11 expresses markers of cells committed to the sensory neuron lineage. Within a few hours under differentiating conditions, MED17.11 cells extend processes and following seven days of differentiation, express markers of more mature DRG neurons, such as NaV1.7 and Piezo2. However, at least at this time-point, the nociceptive marker NaV1.8 is not expressed, but the cells respond to compounds known to excite nociceptors, including the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and the voltage gated sodium channel agonist, veratridine. Robust calcium transients are observed in the presence of the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, histamine and norepinephrine. MED17.11 cells have the potential to replace or reduce the use of primary DRG culture in sensory, pain and developmental research by providing a simple model to study acute nociception, neurite outgrowth and the developmental specification of DRG neurons. PMID:26053673

  14. Hypoxic cell turnover in different solid tumor lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ljungkvist, Anna S.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands) and Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeaa University, Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: a.ljungkvist@rther.umcn.nl; Bussink, Johan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rijken, Paulus F.J.W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Begg, Adrian C. [Division of Experimental Therapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Raleigh, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and the amount of tumor hypoxia has been shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of radiotherapy. The efficacy of combined modality treatments depends both on the sequence and timing of the treatments. Hypoxic cell turnover in tumors may be important for optimal scheduling of combined modality treatments, especially when hypoxic cell targeting is involved. Methods and Materials: Previously we have shown that a double bioreductive hypoxic marker assay could be used to detect changes of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature after carbogen and hydralazine treatments. This assay was used in the current study to establish the turnover rate of hypoxic cells in three different tumor models. The first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times before tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. Hypoxic cell turnover was defined as loss of pimonidazole (first marker) relative to CCI-103F (second marker). Results: The half-life of hypoxic cell turnover was 17 h in the murine C38 colon carcinoma line, 23 h and 49 h in the human xenograft lines MEC82 and SCCNij3, respectively. Within 24 h, loss of pimonidazole-stained areas in C38 and MEC82 occurred concurrent with the appearance of pimonidazole positive cell debris in necrotic regions. In C38 and MEC82, most of the hypoxic cells had disappeared after 48 h, whereas in SCCNij3, viable cells that had been labeled with pimonidazole were still observed after 5 days. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the double hypoxia marker assay can be used to study changes in both the proportion of hypoxic tumor cells and their lifespan at the same time. The present study shows that large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rates may exist among tumor lines, with half-lives ranging from 17-49 h.

  15. Cytolytic cells induce HMGB1 release from melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ito, Norimasa; DeMarco, Richard A; Mailliard, Robbie B; Han, Jie; Rabinowich, Hannah; Kalinski, Pawel; Stolz, Donna Beer; Zeh, Herbert J; Lotze, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is one of the recently defined damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, passively released from necrotic cells and secreted by activated macrophage/monocytes. Whether cytolytic cells induce HMGB1 release from tumor cells is not known. We developed a highly sensitive method for detecting intracellular HMGB1 in tumor cells, allowing analysis of the type of cell death and in particular, necrosis. We induced melanoma cell death with cytolytic lymphokine-activated killing (LAK) cells, tumor-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes, TRAIL, or granzyme B delivery and assessed intracellular HMGB1 retention or release to investigate the mechanism of HMGB1 release by cytolytic cells. HMGB1 release from melanoma cells (451Lu, WM9) was detected within 4 h and 24 h following incubation with IL-2-activated PBMC (LAK activity). HLA-A2 and MART1 or gp100-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes induced HMGB1 release from HLA-A2-positive and MART1-positive melanoma cells (FEM X) or T2 cell-loaded, gp100-specific peptides. TRAIL treatment, however, induced HMGB1 release, and it is interesting that this extrinsic pathway-mediated cell death was blocked with the pancaspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone. Conversely, granzyme B delivery did not induce HMGB1 release. HMGB1, along with other intracellular factors released from tumor cells induced by cytolysis, may be important components of the disordered tumor microenvironment. This has important implications for the immunotherapy of patients with cancer. Specifically, HMGB1 may promote healing or immune reactivity, depending on the nature of the local inflammatory response and the presence (or absence) of immune effectors. PMID:16968820

  16. Bryostatin analogue-induced apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Song, Xiaohua; Schrier, Adam J; Wender, Paul A; Dower, Nancy A; Stone, James C

    2012-08-01

    The anti-cancer effects of bryostatin-1, a potent diacylglycerol analogue, have traditionally been attributed to its action on protein kinase C. However, we previously documented apoptosis in a B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line involving diacylglycerol analogue stimulation of Ras guanyl-releasing protein, a Ras activator, and Bim, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein. To further explore the role of Bim, we examined several Bim-deficient B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells for their responses to pico, a synthetic bryostatin-1-like compound. The Bim(-) mantle cell lymphoma cell lines Jeko-1, Mino, Sp53, UPN1, and Z138 and the Bim(+) cell line Rec-1, as well as the Burkitt lymphoma cells lines BL2 (Bim(-)) and Daudi (Bim(+)), were examined for their response to pico using assays for proliferation and apoptosis as well as biochemical methods for Ras guanyl-releasing proteins and Bcl-2 family members. With the exception of UPN1, mantle cell lymphoma cell lines underwent pico-induced apoptosis, as did BL2. In some cases, hallmarks of apoptosis were substantially diminished in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors. Pico treatment generally led to increased expression of proapoptotic Bik, although the absolute levels of Bik varied considerably between cell lines. A pico-resistant variant of Z138 exhibited decreased Bik induction compared to parental Z138 cells. Pico also generally decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Mcl1. Although, these changes in Bcl-2 family members seem unlikely to fully account for the differential behavior of the cell lines, our demonstration of a potent apoptotic process in most cell lines derived from mantle cell lymphoma encourages a re-examination of diacylglycerol analogues in the treatment of this subset of B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. PMID:22465296

  17. Bryostatin analogue-induced apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Song, Xiaohua; Schrier, Adam J.; Wender, Paul A.; Dower, Nancy A.; Stone, James C.

    2014-01-01

    The anti-cancer effects of bryostatin-1, a potent diacylglycerol analogue, have traditionally been attributed to its action on protein kinase C. However, we previously documented apoptosis in a B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line involving diacylglycerol analogue stimulation of Ras guanyl-releasing protein, a Ras activator, and Bim, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein. To further explore the role of Bim, we examined several Bim-deficient B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells for their responses to pico, a synthetic bryostatin-1-like compound. The Bim? mantle cell lymphoma cell lines Jeko-1, Mino, Sp53, UPN1, and Z138 and the Bim+ cell line Rec-1, as well as the Burkitt lymphoma cells lines BL2 (Bim?) and Daudi (Bim+), were examined for their response to pico using assays for proliferation and apoptosis as well as biochemical methods for Ras guanyl-releasing proteins and Bcl-2 family members. With the exception of UPN1, mantle cell lymphoma cell lines underwent pico-induced apoptosis, as did BL2. In some cases, hallmarks of apoptosis were substantially diminished in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors. Pico treatment generally led to increased expression of proapoptotic Bik, although the absolute levels of Bik varied considerably between cell lines. A pico-resistant variant of Z138 exhibited decreased Bik induction compared to parental Z138 cells. Pico also generally decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL and Mcl1. Although, these changes in Bcl-2 family members seem unlikely to fully account for the differential behavior of the cell lines, our demonstration of a potent apoptotic process in most cell lines derived from mantle cell lymphoma encourages a re-examination of diacylglycerol analogues in the treatment of this subset of B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. PMID:22465296

  18. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune modulation approach.

    PubMed

    Chanput, Wasaporn; Mes, Jurriaan J; Wichers, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    THP-1 is a human leukemia monocytic cell line, which has been extensively used to study monocyte/macrophage functions, mechanisms, signaling pathways, and nutrient and drug transport. This cell line has become a common model to estimate modulation of monocyte and macrophage activities. This review attempts to summarize and discuss recent publications related to the THP-1 cell model. An overview on the biological similarities and dissimilarities between the THP-1 cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived-monocytes and macrophages, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the use of THP-1 cell line, is included. The review summarizes different published co-cultivation studies of THP-1 cells with other cell types, for instance, intestinal cells, adipocytes, T-lymphocytes, platelets, and vascular smooth muscle cells, which can be an option to study cell-cell interaction in vitro and can be an approach to better mimic in vivo conditions. Macrophage polarization is a relatively new topic which gains interest for which the THP-1 cell line also may be relevant. Besides that an overview of newly released commercial THP-1 engineered-reporter cells and THP-1 inflammasome test-cells is also given. Evaluation of recent papers leads to the conclusion that the THP-1 cell line has unique characteristics as a model to investigate/estimate immune-modulating effects of compounds in both activated and resting conditions of the cells. Although the THP-1 response can hint to potential responses that might occur ex vivo or in vivo, these should be, however, validated by in vivo studies to draw more definite conclusions. PMID:25130606

  19. Continuous porcine cell lines developed from alveolar macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M Weingartl; M Sabara; J Pasick; E van Moorlehem; L Babiuk

    2002-01-01

    Porcine monomyeloid cell lines were established following transfection of primary porcine alveolar macrophage cultures with plasmid pSV3neo, carrying genes for neomycin resistance and SV40 large T antigen. The parental clone 3D4 exhibited a relatively rapid doubling time (25.5 h), high plating efficiency and mixed phenotype with respect to growth on a solid support. Single cell cloning of the 3D4 parent

  20. Feeder-independent continuous culture of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line is a bipotent cell line, i.e., capable of forming either bile ductules or hepatocyte monolayers in vitro, that was derived from the primary culture of pig embryonic stem cells. The cell line has been strictly feeder-dependent in that cell replication morphology,...

  1. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...ASN-0002 Authentication of Human Cell Lines: Standardization...Development Organization Workgroup. Human cell line samples are cells taken from a human being that can be grown in...can be used for scientific experiments, as examples of the...

  2. What is the nature of the RGC-5 cell line?

    PubMed

    Sippl, C; Tamm, E R

    2014-01-01

    The immortalized RGC-5 cell line has been widely used as a cell culture model to study the neurobiology of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The cells were originally introduced as derived from rat RGC showing expression of various neuronal markers, in particular the RGC-characteristic proteins Brn3 and Thy1. Recent data gave rise to concerns regarding the origin and nature of the cells. RGC-5 cells were identified to be of mouse origin and their expression of RGC characteristics was questioned by some laboratories. This article summarizes the available data on the properties of RGC-5, discusses common protocols for their differentiation and is aimed at providing researchers some guidelines on the benefits and limitations of RGC-5 for research. PMID:24664692

  3. Studies on BrdU labeling of hematopoietic cells: stem cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lizhen; Reddy, Prem Veer; McAuliffe, Christina I; Colvin, Gerald; Quesenberry, Peter J

    2003-11-01

    Studies using chronic in vivo BrdU exposure, isolating primitive stem cells, and determining BrdU labeling, indicate that stem cells cycle. BrdU is also incorporated into DNA during damage/repair. DNA, which has incorporated BrdU due to cycle transit is heavier than normal, while the density of DNA with damage/repair incorporation is intermediate. DNA density of purified lineage-rhodamine low (rho(low)) Hoechst low (Ho(low)) stem cells or FDC-P1 cell line cells-was assessed in vitro, after exposure to cytokines and BrdU (cycling model) or cytokines and BrdU with bleomycin to induce strand breaks and hydroxyurea to halt cycle progression (damage/repair model). We determined DNA density using cesium chloride (CsCl) gradients and either fluorometry or dot blot chemiluminesence. DNA from BrdU labeled cycling Lin-rho(lo)Ho(lo) or FDC-P1 cells was heavier than normal DNA, while damage repair DNA had an intermediate density. We then assessed BrdU labeling of Lin-rho(lo)Ho(lo) cells in vivo. We found that 70.9% of lin-rho(lo)Ho(lo) cells labeled at 5 weeks. DNA density of these cells was low, in the damage/repair range, but similar results were obtained with stem cells, which had proliferated in vivo. Dilution of BrdU in in vitro culture of proliferating FDC-P1 cells also resulted in damage/repair density. We conclude that in vitro BrdU labeling models can distinguish between proliferation and damage/repair, but that we cannot obtain high enough in vivo levels to address this issue. All together, while we cannot absolutely exclude damage/repair as contributing to stem cell BrdU labeling, the data indicate that primitive bone marrow stem cells are probably a cycling population. PMID:14502565

  4. Immortality of cell lines: challenges and advantages of establishment.

    PubMed

    Maqsood, Muhammad Irfan; Matin, Maryam M; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Ghasroldasht, Mohammad M

    2013-10-01

    Cellular immortality happens upon impairment of cell-cycle checkpoint pathways (p53/p16/pRb), reactivation or up-regulation of telomerase enzyme, or upregulation of some oncogenes or oncoproteins leading to a higher rate of cell division.There are also some other factors and mechanisms involved in immortalisation, which need to be discovered. Immortalisation of cells derived from different sources and establishment of immortal cell lines has proven useful in understanding the molecular pathways governing cell developmental cascades in eukaryotic, especially human, cells. After the breakthrough of achieving the immortal cells and understanding their critical importance in the field of molecular biology, intense efforts have been dedicated to establish cell lines useful for elucidating the functions of telomerase, developmental lineage of progenitors, self-renewal potency, cellular transformation, differentiation patterns and some bioprocesses, like odontogenesis. Meanwhile, discovering the exact mechanisms of immortality, a major challenge for science yet, is believed to open new gateways toward understanding and treatment of cancer in the long term. This review summarises the methods involved in establishing immortality, its advantages and the challenges still being faced in this field. PMID:23723166

  5. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from equine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Kristina; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Zhang, Puzheng; Laflamme, Simon; Vincent, Patrick; Agha-Mohammadi, Siamak; Woltjen, Knut; Monetti, Claudio; Michael, Iacovos Prodromos; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Nagy, Andras

    2011-09-01

    The domesticated horse represents substantial value for the related sports and recreational fields, and holds enormous potential as a model for a range of medical conditions commonly found in humans. Most notable of these are injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have sparked tremendous hopes for future regenerative therapies of conditions that today are not possible to cure. Equine iPS (EiPS) cells, in addition to bringing promises to the veterinary field, open up the opportunity to utilize horses for the validation of stem cell based therapies before moving into the human clinical setting. In this study, we report the generation of iPS cells from equine fibroblasts using a piggyBac (PB) transposon-based method to deliver transgenes containing the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, expressed in a temporally regulated fashion. The established iPS cell lines express hallmark pluripotency markers, display a stable karyotype even during long-term culture, and readily form complex teratomas containing all three embryonic germ layer derived tissues upon in vivo grafting into immunocompromised mice. Our EiPS cell lines hold the promise to enable the development of a whole new range of stem cell-based regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine, as well as aid the development of preclinical models for human applications. EiPS cell could also potentially be used to revive recently extinct or currently threatened equine species. PMID:21347602

  6. A cell line model for the differentiation of human dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carsten Berges; Cord Naujokat; Sarah Tinapp; Hubert Wieczorek; Alexandra Höh; Mahmoud Sadeghi; Gerhard Opelz; Volker Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We have identified human monocytic (THP-1) and myelogenous CD34+ (KG-1) leukemia cell lines that can be differentiated rapidly into mature dendritic cells (DCs) when cultured in serum-free medium containing GM-CSF, TNF-?, and ionomycin. These hematopoietic cell line-derived DCs are highly pure and monotypic, and display the morphologic, phenotypic, molecular, and functional properties of DCs generated from human donor-derived monocytes or

  7. Human cystic fibrosis embryonic stem cell lines derived on placental mesenchymal stromal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Deleu; E Gonzalez-Merino; N Gaspard; TMU Nguyen; P Vanderhaeghen; L Lagneaux; M Toungouz; Y Englert; F Devreker

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the production of two new human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines affected by cystic fibrosis. These cell lines are heterozygous compounds, each a carrier of the DF508 mutations associated either with E585X or with 3849+10 kb C?T. The derivation process was performed on irradiated human placental mesenchymal stromal cells and designed to minimize contact with xeno-components. This

  8. A process-line for large area organic solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Alstrup; Frederik C. Krebs; Torben Kjær; Matteo Biancardo; Holger Spanggaard

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we would like to address the key role of fabrication in the performance and lifetime of organic photovoltaics. The realization of a complete process line for the construction of large area organic photovoltaics (250 x 400 mm) is described. Among many of the factors that influence organic solar cell lifetime, oxygen and water exposure is the most

  9. DIVERSITY OF ARSENIC METABOLISM IN CULTURED HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diversity of arsenic metabolism in cultured human cancer cell lines. Arsenic has been known to cause a variety of malignancies in human. Pentavalent As (As 5+) is reduced to trivalent As (As3+) which is further methylated by arsenic methyltransferase(s) to monomethylarson...

  10. USING NEUROBLASTOMA CELL LINES TO EXAMINE ORGANOPHOSPHATE NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need to deploy IN VITRO models to test neurotoxic scribes the use of by industry and government regulatory agencies. his research describes the neuroblastoma cell lines to address the relationship between esterase inhibition and neurotoxic outcome following exposure to organo...

  11. Differential Sensitivity in the Survival of Oligodendrocyte Cell Lines to

    E-print Network

    Bongarzone, Ernesto R.

    Differential Sensitivity in the Survival of Oligodendrocyte Cell Lines to Overexpression of Myelin in oligodendrocyte survival by overexpression studies in vitro and in vivo. The classic and sr proteolipids are targeted to different cellular com- partments in the oligodendrocyte, suggesting different cellular

  12. Selection of endosulfan-tolerant gram cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Saxena; M. U. Beg

    1988-01-01

    Three alternate exposures of Cicer arietinum (gram) root callus to lethal (1 ppm) endosulfan-containing selective medium (SM) and non-selective medium (NSM) yielded a tolerant cell line (1 ESR). Such an induced resistance was retained during subculture on NSM for 15 generations tested so far. Higher soluble proteins and peroxidase activity were found in 1 ESR compared to mother tissue.

  13. Expression of melatoninergic receptors in human placental choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Lanoix; Rodney Ouellette; Cathy Vaillancourt

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melatonin crosses the placenta and enters the fetal circulation. Moreover, experimental data sug- gest a possible influence of melatonin on placental function and fetal development in humans. To date, the expression and role of melatonin receptors in human placenta choriocarcinoma cell lines and in human term placental tissues remain to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Results from RT-PCR, western

  14. Radiosensitization of colorectal carcinoma cell lines by histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Flatmark, Kjersti; Nome, Ragnhild V; Folkvord, Sigurd; Bratland, Åse; Rasmussen, Heidi; Ellefsen, Mali Strand; Fodstad, Øystein; Ree, Anne Hansen

    2006-01-01

    Background The tumor response to preoperative radiotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer varies greatly, warranting the use of experimental models to assay the efficacy of molecular targeting agents in rectal cancer radiosensitization. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and thereby remodeling of chromatin structure, may override cell cycle checkpoint responses to DNA damage and amplify radiation-induced tumor cell death. Methods Human colorectal carcinoma cell lines were exposed to ionizing radiation and HDAC inhibitors, and cell cycle profiles and regulatory factors, as well as clonogenicity, were analyzed. Results In addition to G2/M phase arrest following irradiation, the cell lines displayed cell cycle responses typical for either intact or defective p53 function (the presence or absence, respectively, of radiation-induced expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and subsequent accumulation of G1 phase cells). In contrast, histone acetylation was associated with complete depletion of the G1 population of cells with functional p53 but accumulation of both G1 and G2/M populations of cells with defective p53. The cellular phenotypes upon HDAC inhibition were consistent with the observed repression of Polo-like kinase-1, a regulatory G2/M phase kinase. Following pre-treatment with HDAC inhibitors currently undergoing clinical investigation, the inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on clonogenicity was significantly amplified. Conclusion In these experimental models, HDAC inhibition sensitized the tumor cells to ionizing radiation, which is in accordance with the concept of increased probability of tumor cell death when chromatin structure is modified. PMID:16887021

  15. Endogenously produced nitric oxide inhibits endothelial cell growth as demonstrated using novel antisense cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Judith E; Johnstone, Alan P; Whitley, Guy St J

    2000-01-01

    Proliferation of endothelial cells is a vital component of vascular repair and angiogenesis. The endothelial cell mediator, nitric oxide (NO) has been reported both to inhibit and to promote endothelial cell proliferation. In this study we have generated cell lines which constitutively express antisense RNA to a region of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from a murine endothelial cell line, sEnd-1. In response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-? (IFN-?) these antisense cells had no detectable RNA for endogenous iNOS, barely detectable iNOS protein and produced 82% less NO than did the control transfected line. Stimulation of the control transfected line caused significant NO production and inhibition of cell growth whereas for the antisense line, producing little NO in response to stimulation, proliferation remained the same as for unstimulated cells. No differences in cell death were observed between unstimulated and LPS/IFN-? stimulated cells. The data presented in this study directly demonstrate that NO derived endogenously from iNOS inhibits proliferation of endothelial cells. This approach overcomes problems in other studies where NO donors or non-isoform specific inhibitors of NO synthase have been used. PMID:10960079

  16. Metal mutagenesis in transgenic Chinese hamster cell lines.

    PubMed

    Klein, C B; Kargacin, B; Su, L; Cosentino, S; Snow, E T; Costa, M

    1994-09-01

    Metals are toxic agents for which genotoxic effects are often difficult to demonstrate. To study metal mutagenesis, we have used two stable hprt/gpt+ transgenic cell lines that were derived from Chinese hamster V79 cells. Both the G12 and G10 cell lines are known to be very sensitive to clastogens such as X-rays and bleomycin, with the mutagenic response of the integrated xanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (gpt) gene in G10 usually exceeding that of the same gene in the transgenic G12 cells. In studies with carcinogenic insoluble nickel compounds, a high level of mutagenesis was found at the gpt locus of G12 cells but not at the endogenous hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus of V79 cells. We have since demonstrated the similar recovery of a high frequency of viable G12 mutants with other insoluble nickel salts including nickel oxides (black and green). The relative mutant yield for the insoluble nickel compounds (G12 > G10) is the opposite of that obtained with nonmetal clastogens (G10 > G12). In the G12 cells, nickel mutagenesis may be related to the integration of the gpt sequence into a heterochromatic region of the genome. For some of the insoluble nickel compounds, significant inhibition of both cytotoxicity and mutant yield resulted when the G12 cells were pretreated with vitamin E. In comparison with the nickel studies, the mutagenic responses to chromium compounds in these cell lines were not as dramatic. Mutagenesis of the gpt target could not be demonstrated with other metals such as mercury or vanadium. PMID:7843139

  17. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of phenazine in two human cell lines.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Claire F; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-06-01

    Phenazine was recently identified as a drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP), but little is known of its toxic effects. We examined in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of phenazine (1.9-123 ?M) in HepG2 and T24 cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined by an impedance-based real-time cell analysis instrument. The BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) proliferation and MTT ((3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assays were used to examine mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity was determined using the alkaline comet assay. Concentration-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in HepG2 cells, primarily due to an antiproliferative effect (BrdU 24 h IC50: 11 ?M; 48 h IC50: 7.8 ?M) observed as low as 1.9 ?M. T24 cells experienced a minor antiproliferative effect (BrdU 24 h IC50: 47 ?M; 48 h IC50: 17 ?M). IC50 values for HepG2 proliferation and viability were 54-77% lower compared to T24 cells. In both cell lines, IC50 values for proliferation were 66-90% lower than those for viability. At phenazine concentrations producing equivalent cytotoxicity, HepG2 cells (1.9-30.8 ?M) experienced no significant genotoxic effects, while T24 cells (7.7-123 ?M) experienced significant genotoxicity at ?61.5 ?M. While these effects were seen at phenazine concentrations above those found in disinfected water, the persistence of the antiproliferative effect and the differential toxicity in each cell line deserves further study. PMID:24380821

  18. 75 FR 65581 - Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E surface airspace, and airspace extending...feet above the surface, and remove Class E airspace designated as an extension to...

  19. Reversal of diabetes following transplantation of an insulin-secreting human liver cell line: Melligen cells

    PubMed Central

    Lawandi, Janet; Tao, Chang; Ren, Binhai; Williams, Paul; Ling, Dora; Swan, M Anne; Nassif, Najah T; Torpy, Fraser R; O’Brien, Bronwyn A; Simpson, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to the transplantation of islets, a human liver cell line has been genetically engineered to reverse type 1 diabetes (TID). The initial liver cell line (Huh7ins) commenced secretion of insulin in response to a glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/l. After transfection of the Huh7ins cells with human islet glucokinase, the resultant Melligen cells secreted insulin in response to glucose within the physiological range; commencing at 4.25 mmol/l. Melligen cells exhibited increased glucokinase enzymatic activity in response to physiological glucose concentrations, as compared with Huh7ins cells. When transplanted into diabetic immunoincompetent mice, Melligen cells restored normoglycemia. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that both cell lines expressed a range of ?-cell transcription factors and pancreatic hormones. Exposure of Melligen and Huh7ins cells to proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IFN-?) affected neither their viability nor their ability to secrete insulin to glucose. Gene expression (microarray and qRT-PCR) analyses indicated the survival of Melligen cells in the presence of known ?-cell cytotoxins was associated with the expression of NF-?B and antiapoptotic genes (such as BIRC3). This study describes the successful generation of an artificial ?-cell line, which, if encapsulated to avoid allograft rejection, may offer a clinically applicable cure for T1D. PMID:26029722

  20. Establishment and characterization of two divergent cell lines derived from a human chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gerharz, C. D.; Moll, R.; Störkel, S.; Ramp, U.; Hildebrandt, B.; Molsberger, G.; Koldovsky, P.; Gabbert, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is a distinct type of renal cancer presumably derived from the intercalated cell of the collecting duct system and exhibiting a better prognosis than other types of renal cell carcinoma. Chromophobe carcinomas can be separated from other types of renal cell carcinoma by their characteristic cytomorphology, ultrastructural appearance, cytoskeletal architecture, and cytogenetic aberrations. As no permanent cell line of the chromophobe tumor type has previously been described, we are the first to report on the successful establishment and characterization of two divergent permanent cell lines, ie, chrompho-A and chrompho-B, derived from the same chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. With immunocytochemistry, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and Western blot, chrompho-A and chrompho-B exclusively exhibited cytokeratins (Nos. 7, 8, 18, and 19) but not vimentin. Ultrastructural studies revealed numerous cytoplasmic microvesicles as well as coated vesicles that are known to be characteristic features of the intercalated cell. Chrompho-B cells exhibited a shorter mean population doubling time (tD = 43 hours) than chrompho-A cells (tD = 51 hours). Both cell lines failed to produce tumors in nude mice with the subrenal capsule assay. Cytogenetic analyses revealed hyperdiploid chromosome numbers in both cell lines with telomeric associations as well as numeric aberrations known from chromophobe renal cell carcinomas in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:7717462

  1. Off-line test of the KISS gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Yutaka; Imai, Nobuaki; Ishiyama, Hironobu; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Miyatake, Hiroari; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kim, Yung Hee; Mukai, Momo; Matsuo, Yukari; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu; Huyse, Mark; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Van Duppen, Piet

    2013-12-01

    The KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) has been constructed at RIKEN to study the ?-decay properties of neutron-rich isotopes with neutron numbers around N = 126 for application to astrophysics. A key component of KISS is a gas cell filled with argon gas at a pressure of 50 kPa to stop and collect the unstable nuclei, where the isotopes of interest will be selectively ionized using laser resonance ionization. We have performed off-line tests to study the basic properties of the gas cell and of KISS using nickel and iron filaments placed in the gas cell.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Spheroid Cells from Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Line WM266-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. R. Na; S. H. Seok; D. J. Kim; J. H. Han; T. H. Kim; H. Jung; B. H. Lee; J. H. Park

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Spheroid cells which can grow as nonattached spheroids in vitro culture condition are considered as tumor-initiating cells that have properties similar to those of stem cells. However, the existence of spheroid cells in WM-266-4, a human malignant metastatic melanoma cell line, has not yet been reported. Methods: Accordingly, we investigated whether WM-266-4 can form spheroids, and characterized these spheroids

  3. Human Fucci Pancreatic Beta Cell Lines: New Tools to Study Beta Cell Cycle and Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carlier, Géraldine; Maugein, Alicia; Cordier, Corinne; Pechberty, Séverine; Garfa-Traoré, Meriem; Martin, Patrick; Scharfmann, Raphaël; Albagli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell cycle in beta cells is poorly understood, especially in humans. We exploited here the recently described human pancreatic beta cell line EndoC-?H2 to set up experimental systems for cell cycle studies. We derived 2 populations from EndoC-?H2 cells that stably harbor the 2 genes encoding the Fucci fluorescent indicators of cell cycle, either from two vectors, or from a unique bicistronic vector. In proliferating non-synchronized cells, the 2 Fucci indicators revealed cells in the expected phases of cell cycle, with orange and green cells being in G1 and S/G2/M cells, respectively, and allowed the sorting of cells in different substeps of G1. The Fucci indicators also faithfully red out alterations in human beta cell proliferative activity since a mitogen-rich medium decreased the proportion of orange cells and inflated the green population, while reciprocal changes were observed when cells were induced to cease proliferation and increased expression of some beta cell genes. In the last situation, acquisition of a more differentiated beta cell phenotype correlates with an increased intensity in orange fluorescence. Hence Fucci beta cell lines provide new tools to address important questions regarding human beta cell cycle and differentiation. PMID:25259951

  4. Cetuximab enhances the efficacy of bortezomib in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Wagenblast; Mehran Baghi; Christoph Arnoldner; Sotirios Bisdas; Wolfgang Gstöttner; Hanns Ackermann; Angelika May; Markus Hambek; Rainald Knecht

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Proteasome inhibition has been shown to be effective in multiple myeloma and solid tumor models. In this in vitro study, we\\u000a investigated the antitumor effect of bortezomib (Velcade®) in combination with cetuximab in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SCC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Dose-escalation studies were performed in five squamous cell carcinoma cell lines using bortezomib or cetuximab alone or in\\u000a combination. Cell survival

  5. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  6. Carbon nanoparticles for gene transfection in eukaryotic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zanin, H; Hollanda, L M; Ceragioli, H J; Ferreira, M S; Machado, D; Lancellotti, M; Catharino, R R; Baranauskas, V; Lobo, A O

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, oxygen terminated cellulose carbon nanoparticles (CCN) was synthesised and applied in gene transfection of pIRES plasmid. The CCN was prepared from catalytic of polyaniline by chemical vapour deposition techniques. This plasmid contains one gene that encodes the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in eukaryotic cells, making them fluorescent. This new nanomaterial and pIRES plasmid formed ?-stacking when dispersed in water by magnetic stirring. The frequencies shift in zeta potential confirmed the plasmid strongly connects to the nanomaterial. In vitro tests found that this conjugation was phagocytised by NG97, NIH-3T3 and A549 cell lines making them fluorescent, which was visualised by fluorescent microscopy. Before the transfection test, we studied CCN in cell viability. Both MTT and Neutral Red uptake tests were carried out using NG97, NIH-3T3 and A549 cell lines. Further, we use metabolomics to verify if small amounts of nanomaterial would be enough to cause some cellular damage in NG97 cells. We showed two mechanisms of action by CCN-DNA complex, producing an exogenous protein by the transfected cell and metabolomic changes that contributed by better understanding of glioblastoma, being the major finding of this work. Our results suggested that this nanomaterial has great potential as a gene carrier agent in non-viral based therapy, with low cytotoxicity, good transfection efficiency, and low cell damage in small amounts of nanomaterials in metabolomic tests. PMID:24863237

  7. Ecdysone and the cell cycle: investigations in a mosquito cell line.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Ann M; Gerenday, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Cell lines provide a tool for investigating basic biological processes that underlie the complex interactions among the tissues and organs of an intact organism. We compare the evolution of insect and mammalian populations as they progress from diploid cell strains to continuous cell lines, and review the history of the well-characterized Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line, C7-10. Like Kc and S3 cells from Drosophila melanogaster, C7-10 cells are sensitive to the insect steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and express 20E-inducible proteins as well as the EcR and USP components of the ecdysteroid receptor. The decrease in growth associated with 20E treatment results in an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cycle, and a concomitant decrease in levels of cyclin A. In contrast, 20E induces a G2 arrest in a well-studied imaginal disc cell line from the moth, Plodia interpunctella. We hypothesize that 20E-mediated events associated with molting and metamorphosis include effects on regulatory proteins that modulate the mitotic cell cycle and that differences between the 20E response in diverse insect cell lines reflect an interplay between classical receptor-mediated effects on gene expression and non-classical effects on signaling pathways similar to those recently described for the vertebrate steroid hormone, estrogen. PMID:20303973

  8. Identification of cell surface antigen expression in canine hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Ayumi; Neo, Sakurako; Ishizuka, Chinatsu; Kato, Takashi; Segawa, Kazuhito; Kawarai, Shinpei; Ogihara, Kikumi; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsuchiya, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of surface antigens in canine hepatocellular carcinoma (cHCC) have not been clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate surface antigens, which are considered as stem/progenitor or cancer cell markers, in cHCC cell lines. Expression of various antigens including CD29, CD34, CD44, CD90, CD133 and Dlk-1 was assessed in four cHCC cell lines by flow cytometry. CD44, CD133 and Dlk-1 expression was detectable in all cell lines, and three cell lines expressed CD29. These results indicate that CD29, CD44, CD133 and Dlk-1 have potential as suitable markers in cHCC identification, suggesting that these findings will contribute to the establishment of an early diagnostic tool for the identification of hepatocellular maturation processes. PMID:23412833

  9. Establishment and characterization of four new human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Loh, P M; Clamon, G H; Robinson, R A; White, M L; Hukku, B; Rossi, N P; Peterson, W D

    1984-08-01

    Four new human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines have been established in vitro. These cell lines have been characterized by (a) growth of a tumor in nude mice with histopathology similar to that of the primary, (b) isoenzyme patterns phenotypically human and distinct from each other, (c) distinguishing karyotypic findings, (d) growth rate determinations, and (e) presence of epidermal growth factor receptors. Each of the cell lines will form colonies when directly seeded into a flask without soft agar. The development and availability of the four cell lines may facilitate in vitro studies of the biology of this common cancer. Their clonogenic potential may be of value in the study of sensitivity to antineoplastic agents. Their low passage level may mean that their antigens still resemble those of the primary tumor. PMID:6744280

  10. Fluorescence Assay 2. http://www.tgrbio.com/cancer-cell-lines-primary-cell-

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Fluorescence Assay References 1. 2. http://www.tgrbio.com/cancer-cell-lines-primary-cell- cultures-therapies in cancer patients. This makes the study of both agonist and antagonist ligands important as the knowledge kidney cells (HEK-293) using cDNA prepared from plasmid cDNA expressed in E.coli The pcDNA then underwent

  11. Bilirubin and light induced cell death in a murine lymphoma cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terje Christensen; Ellen B. Roll; Alicja Jaworska; Gunnar Kinn

    2000-01-01

    Cells from the mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y-R were exposed to blue light from phototherapy lamps in the presence of solutions of 160 ?M bilirubin supplemented with serum albumin. HPLC analysis showed that the bilirubin solution was photooxidised as a function of increasing light dose. The cells were stained with trypan blue to score necrosis, and apoptosis was assayed by

  12. Aberrant autophosphorylation of c-Kit receptor in canine mast cell tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Fujino, Yasuhito; Watanabe, Manabu; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ohno, Koichi; Sasaki, Nobuo; Sugano, Sumio; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2010-10-15

    Several studies indicated that KIT mutation could cause ligand-independent activation of c-Kit receptor in canine mast cell tumor (MCT). The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms of c-Kit receptor activation in various canine MCT cell lines. Four cell lines, HRMC (derived from cutaneous MCT), VIMC1 (visceral MCT), CoMS1 (visceral MCT) and CMMC1 (cutaneous MCT), were cultured in stem cell factor (SCF, a ligand of c-Kit receptor)-free medium and subjected to analyses of KIT mutation, c-Kit receptor phosphorylation, SCF expression and the effects of SCF stimulation. In addition, the SCF/c-Kit receptor autocrine mechanism was verified in HRMC cells. HRMC cells expressed wild type c-Kit receptor. Both VIMC1 and CoMS1 cells had the same one amino acid (AA) substitution in the extracellular domain of c-Kit receptor. CMMC1 cells had at least three variants of c-Kit receptor such as one AA deletion in the extracellular domain (variant A), one AA substitution in the extracellular domain as well as an internal tandem duplication in the juxtamembrane domain (variant B), and a nonsense mutation (variant C). Both mature and immature forms of c-Kit receptor were observed and the c-Kit receptors were phosphorylated in all cell lines. While both mature and immature forms of c-Kit receptor were substantially phosphorylated in CMMC1 cells, the immature form was slightly phosphorylated in other cell lines. Phosphorylation of c-Kit receptor in HRMC, VIMC1 and CoMS1 cells were enhanced by SCF stimulation whereas no enhancement was observed in CMMC1 cells. There was no effect of SCF stimulation on proliferation of all the cell lines. SCF protein was detectable in only HRMC cells although mRNA expression of SCF was detected in all the cell lines. A tyrosine kinase inhibitor Dasatinib (internal inhibitor) inhibited c-Kit receptor phosphorylation in HRMC cells whereas anti-canine SCF antibody (external inhibitor) had no inhibitory effect. Thus there could be no external SCF/c-Kit receptor autocrine mechanism whereas there could be an internal autocrine mechanism within HRMC cells. The results indicated that consistent c-Kit receptor phosphorylation could be caused by the stimulation with autocrine SCF in HRMC cells while it could be caused by functional mutations of KIT in VIMC1, CoMS1 and CMMC1 cells. As the four canine MCT cell lines had various aberrations associated with c-Kit receptor phosphorylation, KIT mutation and SCF expression, such molecular biological diversity might reflect the different biological behavior in canine MCT. PMID:20591500

  13. Comparative proteomic profiling of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yikwon; Han, Dohyun; Min, Hophil; Jin, Jonghwa; Yi, Eugene C; Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-31

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal cancers and is associated with limited diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Currently, gemcitabine is the only effective drug and represents the preferred first-line treatment for chemotherapy. However, a high level of intrinsic or acquired resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine can contribute to the failure of gemcitabine treatment. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer, we performed label-free quantification of protein expression in intrinsic gemcitabine-resistant and - sensitive human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines using our improved proteomic strategy, combined with filter-aided sample preparation, single-shot liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, enhanced spectral counting, and a statistical method based on a power law global error model. We identified 1931 proteins and quantified 787 differentially expressed proteins in the BxPC3, PANC-1, and HPDE cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis identified 15 epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and 13 EMT-related proteins that were closely associated with drug resistance were differentially expressed. Interestingly, 8 of these proteins were involved in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism. These results suggest that proteins related to the EMT and glutathione metabolism play important roles in the development of intrinsic gemcitabine resistance by pancreatic cancer cell lines. PMID:25518923

  14. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yslas, Edith I; Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F; Barbero, César A; Rivarola, Viviana A

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using l-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86°±1 to 90°±1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. PMID:25842107

  15. Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

  16. Excitability and contractility of skeletal muscle engineered from primary cultures and cell lines

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Robert G.

    Excitability and contractility of skeletal muscle engineered from primary cultures and cell lines of skeletal muscle engineered from primary cultures and cell lines. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 280: C288­C295-dimensional skeletal muscle constructs, termed myooids, engineered from C2C12 myoblast and 10T1/2 fibroblast cell lines

  17. Detection of circulating tumour cells on mRNA levels with established breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zebisch, Michael; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Andergassen, Ulrich; Hutter, Stephan; Neugebauer, Julia; Engelstädter, Verena; Günthner-Biller, Maria; Jeschke, Udo; Friese, Klaus; Rack, Brigitte

    2013-03-01

    Circulating tumour cells were detected and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood, based on the fact that the expression of certain genes is upregulated in tumour tissues in comparison to surrounding blood cells. Calibration curves showing gene expression as functions of the number of tumour cells within a blood sample were prepared. Blood samples were therefore spiked with cells of breast cancer cell lines, RNA was extracted, transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA) and used in real-time PCR reaction on the Cytokeratins (CK) 8, 18 and 19. Calibration curves were generated by Microsoft™ Excel®. Relative quantification curves of gene expression in different breast cancer cell lines showed no unitary tendencies. The oscillations in the relative quantification curves of gene expression suggested an occurrence of immunological effects, leading to an apparent agglutination of added tumour cells together with the blood cells of the sample. Thus, strategies to obtain evaluable results should be considered. PMID:24648925

  18. Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregates inhibited proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted apoptosis, especially for hepatoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinqian; Sun, Qiang; Bo, Jian; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Mengran; Xia, Zhenglin; Ju, Lili; Xiang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) may be useful as carriers for anticancer drugs due to their particular structure. However, the interactions between the material itself and cancerous or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, the effects of raw SWNH material on the biological functions of human liver cell lines were studied. Our results showed that unmodified SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted their apoptosis, especially in hepatoma cell lines. Individual spherical SWNH particles were found inside the nuclei of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the lysosomes of normal human liver L02 cells, implying that SWNH particles could penetrate into human liver cells_and the different interacted mechanisms on human normal cell lines compared to hepatoma cell lines. Further research on the mechanisms and application in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with SWNHs is needed. PMID:24523586

  19. Improving the efficiency of CHO cell line generation using glutamine synthetase gene knockout cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Hatfield, Christopher C; Shaw, Margaret M; Frye, Christopher C

    2012-04-01

    Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with their unique characteristics, have become a major workhorse for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins, one of the major challenges in CHO cell line generation (CLG) is how to efficiently identify those rare, high-producing clones among a large population of low- and non-productive clones. It is not unusual that several hundred individual clones need to be screened for the identification of a commercial clonal cell line with acceptable productivity and growth profile making the cell line appropriate for commercial application. This inefficiency makes the process of CLG both time consuming and laborious. Currently, there are two main CHO expression systems, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-based methotrexate (MTX) selection and glutamine synthetase (GS)-based methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, that have been in wide industrial use. Since selection of recombinant cell lines in the GS-CHO system is based on the balance between the expression of the GS gene introduced by the expression plasmid and the addition of the GS inhibitor, L-MSX, the expression of GS from the endogenous GS gene in parental CHOK1SV cells will likely interfere with the selection process. To study endogenous GS expression's potential impact on selection efficiency, GS-knockout CHOK1SV cell lines were generated using the zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology designed to specifically target the endogenous CHO GS gene. The high efficiency (?2%) of bi-allelic modification on the CHO GS gene supports the unique advantages of the ZFN technology, especially in CHO cells. GS enzyme function disruption was confirmed by the observation of glutamine-dependent growth of all GS-knockout cell lines. Full evaluation of the GS-knockout cell lines in a standard industrial cell culture process was performed. Bulk culture productivity improved two- to three-fold through the use of GS-knockout cells as parent cells. The selection stringency was significantly increased, as indicated by the large reduction of non-producing and low-producing cells after 25?µM L-MSX selection, and resulted in a six-fold efficiency improvement in identifying similar numbers of high-productive cell lines for a given recombinant monoclonal antibody. The potential impact of GS-knockout cells on recombinant protein quality is also discussed. PMID:22068567

  20. Melatonin decreases cell proliferation, impairs myogenic differentiation and triggers apoptotic cell death in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Codenotti, Silvia; Battistelli, Michela; Burattini, Sabrina; Salucci, Sara; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Rezzani, Rita; Faggi, Fiorella; Colombi, Marina; Monti, Eugenio; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    Melatonin is a small indole produced by the pineal gland and other tissues, and has numerous functions that aid in the maintenance of the whole body homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep to protection from oxidative stress. Melatonin has also been reported to counteract cell growth and chemoresistance in different types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on different human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. The results showed that melatonin significantly affected the behavior of RMS cells, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and impairment of myogenic differentiation followed by increased apoptotic cell death, as observed by immunoblotting analysis of apoptosis-related markers including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. Similar findings were observed using a combination of microscopy techniques, including scanning/transmission electron and confocal microscopy. Furthermore, melatonin in combination with doxorubicin or cisplatin, two compounds commonly used for the treatment of solid tumors, increased the sensitivity of RMS cells to apoptosis. These data indicated that melatonin may be effective in counteracting RMS tumor growth and chemoresistance. PMID:25998836

  1. Characterization of a human stromal cell line supporting hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation: Effect of HIV expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Mosca; Sumesh Kaushal; Suzanne Gartner; Stephen W. Kessler; Vince F. La Russa; Ernest F. Terwilliger; Jerome H. Kim; Richard G. Carroll; Eric R. Hall; Liyanage P. Perera; Zhipeng Yu; David W. Ritchey; Jin Xu; Daniel C. St. Louis; Douglas L. Mayers

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the role that bone marrow-derived stromal cells have on human hematopoiesis in HIV infection. In particular, we dissected the heterogeneous bone marrow microenvironment to study the effect HIV expression might have on the cell population capable of producing the cytokines which will support human CD34+ cell differentiation. A stromal cell line, Lof(11-10), was established from

  2. Inhibition of lymphokine-activated killer cell generation by cultured tumor cell lines in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre J. Guillou; Peter C. Sedman; Carol W. Ramsden

    1989-01-01

    The co-culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with high concentrations of interleukin 2 normally generates lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells capable of indiscriminate lysis of tumor targets. However, the addition of certain cell-line-derived tumor cells to the LAK generation cultures within the first 48 h of culture initiation resulted in the suppression of the LAK cytotoxicity measured after 3–4

  3. Destabilization of Akt Promotes the Death of Myeloma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanan; Fu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Constitutive activation of Akt is believed to be an oncogenic signal in multiple myeloma and is associated with poor patient prognosis and resistance to available treatment. The stability of Akt proteins is regulated by phosphorylating the highly conserved turn motif (TM) of these proteins and the chaperone protein HSP90. In this study we investigate the antitumor effects of inhibiting mTORC2 plus HSP90 in myeloma cell lines. We show that chronic exposure of cells to rapamycin can inhibit mTORC2 pathway, and AKT will be destabilized by administration of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG). Finally, we show that the rapamycin synergizes with 17-AAG and inhibits myeloma cells growth and promotes cell death to a greater extent than either drug alone. Our studies provide a clinical rationale of use mTOR inhibitors and chaperone protein inhibitors in combination regimens for the treatment of human blood cancers. PMID:25243120

  4. Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Daniéli; Horn, Ana Paula; Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Pelegrini, Alessandra Luiza; Henriques, Amélia T; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-12-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors of the central nervous system. Currently no efficient treatment is available. This study evaluated the effect and underlying mechanisms of boldine, an aporphine alkaloid of Peumus boldus, on glioma proliferation and cell death. Boldine decreased the cell number of U138-MG, U87-MG and C6 glioma lines at concentrations of 80, 250 and 500 muM. We observed that cell death caused by boldine was cell-type specific and dose-dependent. Exposure to boldine for 24 h did not activate key mediators of apoptosis. However, it induced alterations in the cell cycle suggesting a G(2)/M arrest in U138-MG cells. Boldine had no toxic effect on non-tumor cells when used at the same concentrations as those used on tumor cells. Based on these results, we speculate that boldine may be a promising compound for evaluation as an anti-cancer agent. PMID:19050827

  5. Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Deborah L; Speirs, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling has contributed significantly to our understanding of this heterogeneity at a molecular level, refining taxonomy based on simple measures such as histological type, tumour grade, lymph node status and the presence of predictive markers like oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) to a more sophisticated classification comprising luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, HER2-positive and normal subgroups. In the laboratory, breast cancer is often modelled using established cell lines. In the present review we discuss some of the issues surrounding the use of breast cancer cell lines as experimental models, in light of these revised clinical classifications, and put forward suggestions for improving their use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:21884641

  6. Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Singla, Deepak; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains the most devastating disease with worst prognosis. There is a pressing need to accelerate the drug discovery process to identify new effective drug candidates against pancreatic cancer. We have developed QSAR models for predicting promiscuous inhibitors using the pharmacological data. Our models achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86, when evaluated on 10-fold cross-validation. Our models have also successfully validated the drug-to-oncogene relationship and further we used these models to screen FDA approved drugs and tested them in vitro. We have integrated these models in a webserver named as DiPCell, which will be useful for screening and designing novel promiscuous drug molecules. We have also identified the most and least effective drugs for pancreatic cancer cell lines. On the other side, we have identified resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines, which need investigative scanner on them to put light on resistant mechanism in pancreatic cancer.

  7. Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling has contributed significantly to our understanding of this heterogeneity at a molecular level, refining taxonomy based on simple measures such as histological type, tumour grade, lymph node status and the presence of predictive markers like oestrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) to a more sophisticated classification comprising luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, HER2-positive and normal subgroups. In the laboratory, breast cancer is often modelled using established cell lines. In the present review we discuss some of the issues surrounding the use of breast cancer cell lines as experimental models, in light of these revised clinical classifications, and put forward suggestions for improving their use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:21884641

  8. Pseudoislet of hybrid cellular spheroids from commercial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jo, Y H; Nam, B M; Kim, B Y; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Yeo, J E; Yang, W; Park, S H; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Investigators conducting diabetes-related research have focused on islet transplantation as a radical therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic islet isolation, an essential process, is a very demanding work because of the proteolytic enzymes, species, treatment time, and individual difference. Replacement of primary isolated pancreatic islets must be carried out continuously for various in vitro tests, making primary isolated islets a useful tool for cell transplantation research. Hence, we sought to develop pseudoislets from commercial pancreas-derived cell lines. In this study, we used RIN-5F and RIN-m cells, which secrete insulin, somatostatin, or glucagon. To manufacture hybrid cellular spheroids, the cells were cultured under hanging drop plate and nonadhesive plate methods. We observed that hybrid cellular pseudoislets exhibited an oval shape, with sizes ranging from 590 to 1200 ?m. Their morphology was similar to naïve islets. Cell line pseudoislets secreted and expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Thus, the current artificially manufactured biomimetic pseudoislets resembled pancreatic islets of the endocrine system, appearing as cellular aggregates that secreted insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Enhanced immunoisolation techniques may lead to the development of new islet sources for pancreatic transplantation through this pseudoislet strategy. PMID:24157046

  9. New Model for Gastroenteropancreatic Large-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: Establishment of Two Clinically Relevant Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Andreas; Mersch, Sabrina; Boeck, Inga; Dizdar, Levent; Weihe, Eberhard; Hilal, Zena; Krausch, Markus; Möhlendick, Birte; Topp, Stefan A.; Piekorz, Roland P.; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Anlauf, Martin; Knoefel, Wolfram T.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel WHO-classification has been introduced that divided gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) according to their proliferation index into G1- or G2-neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and poorly differentiated small-cell or large-cell G3-neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). Our knowledge on primary NECs of the GEP-system is limited due to the rarity of these tumors and chemotherapeutic concepts of highly aggressive NEC do not provide convincing results. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable cell line model for NEC that could be helpful in identifying novel druggable molecular targets. Cell lines were established from liver (NEC-DUE1) or lymph node metastases (NEC-DUE2) from large cell NECs of the gastroesophageal junction and the large intestine, respectively. Morphological characteristics and expression of neuroendocrine markers were extensively analyzed. Chromosomal aberrations were mapped by array comparative genomic hybridization and DNA profiling was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated and the sensitivity against chemotherapeutic agents assessed. Both cell lines exhibited typical morphological and molecular features of large cell NEC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that both cell lines retained their malignant properties. Whereas NEC-DUE1 and -DUE2 were resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and oxaliplatin, a high sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was observed for the NEC-DUE1 cell line. Taken together, we established and characterized the first GEP large-cell NEC cell lines that might serve as a helpful tool not only to understand the biology of these tumors, but also to establish novel targeted therapies in a preclinical setup. PMID:24551139

  10. Establishment of Fruit Bat Cells (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a Model System for the Investigation of Filoviral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Krähling, Verena; Dolnik, Olga; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker; Günther, Stephan; Becker, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Background The fruit bat species Rousettus aegyptiacus was identified as a potential reservoir for the highly pathogenic filovirus Marburg virus. To establish a basis for a molecular understanding of the biology of filoviruses in the reservoir host, we have adapted a set of molecular tools for investigation of filovirus replication in a recently developed cell line, R06E, derived from the species Rousettus aegyptiacus. Methodology/Principal Findings Upon infection with Ebola or Marburg viruses, R06E cells produced viral titers comparable to VeroE6 cells, as shown by TCID50 analysis. Electron microscopic analysis of infected cells revealed morphological signs of filovirus infection as described for human- and monkey-derived cell lines. Using R06E cells, we detected an unusually high amount of intracellular viral proteins, which correlated with the accumulation of high numbers of filoviral nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. We established protocols to produce Marburg infectious virus-like particles from R06E cells, which were then used to infect naïve target cells to investigate primary transcription. This was not possible with other cell lines previously tested. Moreover, we established protocols to reliably rescue recombinant Marburg viruses from R06E cells. Conclusion/Significance These data indicated that R06E cells are highly suitable to investigate the biology of filoviruses in cells derived from their presumed reservoir. PMID:20808767

  11. Characteristics of rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines derived from uterine carcinosarcomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Emoto; H. Iwasaki; K. Oshima; M. Kikuchi; Y. Kaneko; T. Kawarabayashi

    1997-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is occasionally found in the female genital tract, and mostly appears as one of the heterologous mesenchymal\\u000a components in uterine carcinosarcoma designated as malignant mixed müllerian tumour (MMMT). We examined the biological properties\\u000a of a pure rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell line designated FU-MMT-3, which was newly established from a surgical specimen taken\\u000a from a patient with uterine MMMT. We

  12. Cytotoxic effects of curcumin on osteosarcoma cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise K. Walters; Roman Muff; Bettina Langsam; Walter Born; Bruno Fuchs

    2008-01-01

    Summary  Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), one of the main components of the Indian spice turmeric, is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory\\u000a and anti-oxidant properties. In addition, curcumin has also been shown to have in vitro and in vivo efficacy against a variety of malignancies. In the current study we examined the cytotoxic effect of curcumin on seven osteosarcoma\\u000a (OS) cell lines with varying

  13. Gypsy moth cell lines divergent in viral susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Goodwin; G. J. Tompkins; P. McCawley

    1978-01-01

    Summary  A series of cell lines unique in insect virus susceptibility pattern have been isolated from the ovaries of the gypsy moth\\u000a (Lymantria dispar: Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on a synthetic medium with mammalian and avian serum supplementation. Growth curves showed the\\u000a poorest growth occurring on peptone-based media with somewhat better growth on amino-acid-based media. The best growth was\\u000a obtained with combined media.

  14. Role of the p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Cell Cycle Arrest and Radiosensitivity of Burkitt's Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick M. O'Connor; Joany Jackman; Daniel Jondle; Kishor Bhatia; Ian Magrath; Kurt W. Kohn

    We have assessed the role of the p5Ì tumor suppressor gene in cell cycle arrest and cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation in 17 Burkitt's lymphoma and Ivmphoblastoid cell lines. Cell cycle arrest was assessed by flow cytometry of cells 16 h following irradiation. In addition to the usual G2 arrest, the cell lines exhibited three types of responses in I.,: Class

  15. Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Infects but Does Not Replicate in Nonhuman Primate Primary Cells and Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ritzhaupt, Armin; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; Salomon, Daniel R.; Wilson, Carolyn A.

    2002-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) can infect human cell lines in vitro; hence, there is a presumed risk of viral exposure to a recipient when pig cells are transplanted into humans (xenotransplantation). Nonhuman primates (NHP) are considered a potential permissive animal model to study the risk of in vivo infection of PERV after xenotransplantation. We set out to determine whether PERV can infect and replicate in NHP primary cells or established cell lines from African green monkey, rhesus macaque, and baboon. We confirm that the NHP cell lines under investigation were infected with PERV as measured by detection of viral DNA and RNA by PCR and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, respectively, indicating that a functional receptor must be present on the cell surface. However, the load of detectable viral DNA in infected NHP cells declined over time, and the cells never had detectable reverse transcriptase activity. Utilizing quantitative real-time TaqMan PCR we found detectable levels of unintegrated DNA intermediates, but the levels were approximately 100-fold lower compared to HEK 293 cells infected with PERV. Virions released from infected NHP cells could productively infect naïve human cell lines, HEK 293 and HeLa, as shown by RT-PCR and RT assay. However, naïve NHP cells remained negative in RT-PCR and RT assay after exposure to virions from infected NHP cells. Together our data demonstrate that NHP cells are not permissive to productive replication by PERV, presumably due to inefficient cell entry and replication. In light of these observations, the appropriateness of NHP as suitable animal models to study PERV infection in vivo needs to be reevaluated. PMID:12388691

  16. Radiosensitization of uterine cancer cell lines by cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H N; Sevin, B U; Averette, H E; Gottlieb, C; Perras, J; Donato, D; Penalver, M

    1993-01-01

    Radiotherapy remains an integral part of uterine cancer therapy. Overcoming radioresistant tumors by sensitizers continues to be a prime objective in radiotherapy research. In this study, the effects of five cytotoxic agents on two radiosensitive and four radioresistant uterine cancer cell lines were investigated. The ATP bioluminescence was used to measure surviving fractions. Data analysis was done using the linear quadratic model and radiosensitivity index D. Both AN3 and SKUT1B were radiosensitive with Ds of 1.73 and 1.72 Gy, respectively. The resistant cell lines had the following D values: AE7, 3.50; ECC, 6.61; HEC1A, 4.59; and HEC1B, 13.49 Gy. The average radiosensitization effects for various drugs were measured by reduction of D: DXR 45 +/- 7, DDP 40 +/- 9, 5FU 55 +/- 10, MITO 59 +/- 14, and HU 1.7 +/- 7%. Except for HU, Wilcoxon analyses revealed that these sensitizing effects were significant with P < 0.02. In summary, Adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and mitomycin-C have the potential to be radiosensitizers in uterine cancer cell lines. PMID:8423017

  17. Diverse hematopoietic potentials of five human embryonic stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kai-Hsin; Nelson, Angelique M.; Fields, Paul A.; Hesson, Jennifer L.; Ulyanova, Tatiana; Cao, Hua; Nakamoto, Betty; Ware, Carol B.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature concerning the hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), the full hematopoietic potential of the majority of existing hESC lines remains unknown. In this study, the hematopoietic response of five NIH-approved hESC lines (H1, hSF6, BG01, BG02, and BG03) was compared. Our data show that despite expressing similar hESC markers under self-renewing conditions and initiating mesodermal differentiation under spontaneous differentiation conditions, marked differences in subsequent hematopoietic differentiation potential among these lines existed. A high degree of hematopoietic differentiation was attained only by H1 and BG02, whereas this process appeared to be abortive in nature for hSF6, BG01, and BG03. This difference in hematopoietic differentiation predisposition was readily apparent during spontaneous differentiation, and further augmented under hematopoietic-inducing conditions. This predisposition appeared to be intrinsic to the specific hESC line and independent of passage number or gender karyotype. Interestingly, H1 and BG02 displayed remarkable similarities in their kinetics of hematopoietic marker expression, hematopoietic colony formation, erythroid differentiation, and globin expression, suggesting that a similar, predetermined differentiation sequence is followed. The identification of intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the hematopoietic differentiation potential of hESCs will be of great importance for the putative clinical utility of hESC lines. PMID:18692044

  18. Isolation and characterization of high endothelial cell lines derived from mouse lymph nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Cook-Milis; Joan S. Gallagher; Thomas L. Feldbush

    1996-01-01

    Summary  Two long-term cultured cell lines were established from BALB\\/c mouse axillary and cervical lymph nodes that exhibited a combination\\u000a of functional, morphological, and phenotypic characteristics consistent only with high endothelial venule cells. Spleen lymphocytes\\u000a selectively bound and migrated across the cell lines. On Matrigel, these cell lines formed tubules with lumens, a characteristic\\u000a unique to endothelial cells. Morphologically the cells

  19. Secretome analysis of Glioblastoma cell line--HNGC-2.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Polisetty, Ravindra Varma; Ramamoorthy, Kalidoss; Tiwary, Shivani; Kaur, Navjot; Uppin, Megha S; Shiras, Anjali; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. We have carried out a deep analysis of the secretome of a rapidly proliferating and tumorigenic cell line HNGC-2, representing GBM, in an effort to identify proteins, which may be targeted in the plasma of GBM patients as markers for diagnosis and disease surveillance. Prefractionation of the proteins from the conditioned medium of HNGC-2 cells in SDS gels followed by LC-MS/MS analysis using an ESI-IT mass spectrometer (LTQ) led to a total of 996 protein identifications with ?2 peptides each. Of them, 664 proteins were observed in the transcriptome of HNGC-2 cells. The dataset of 996 proteins was mapped to important functional groups, such as cellular assembly and organisation, DNA recombination and repair, and other classes. Actin cytoskeleton signalling, phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K/AKT) and integrin linked kinase (ILK) signalling pathways were seen as enriched pathways. Comparisons with the published secretome of cell lines from 12 different cancers, including GBM, revealed that 348 proteins shared a commonality with a secretome of at least one other cell line, 321 of which were found to contain signal sequences or transmembrane domains and 335 could be linked to a plasma membrane or extracellular localization. Through intergration of this data we arrived at a non-redundant list of 597 protein identifications with the potential for secretion either by classical secretory pathways or by non-secretory processes; 233 of them have been detected in cerebrospinal fluid or plasma as per the published literature, and 172 have been implicated in GBM or other cancers. The HNGC-2 secretome dataset could serve as a useful resource for designing a targeted investigation of GBM biomarkers in plasma. PMID:23483059

  20. Cytogenetics of malignant epithelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines from nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Finerty, S.; Jarvis, J. E.; Epstein, M. A.; Trumper, P. A.; Ball, G.; Giovanella, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    The malignant epithelial cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and cells of lines derived form the lymphoid cells which infiltrate this tumour have been investigated cytogenetically. Chromosome spreads of lymphoblastoid cells of lines established from 7 different NPC biopsy specimens were examined after banding staining. Banding was also applied to the epithelial tumour cells of 5 further biopsy specimens freed from non-malignant infiltrating cells by passage through nude mice; epithelial cell spreads were obtained by in vivo splindle arrest. Five of the lymphoblastoid lines were found to be diploid, and 2 tetraploid; the karyotypes were essentially normal. The squamous epithelial nature of the cells in the nude-mouse-grown NPC tumours was established by light and electronmicroscopy, and 3 tumours were found to be near-triploid, and 2 near-diploid. The cells of the near-triploid tumours contained grossly abnormal chromosomes but those of the near-diploid tumours showed only relatively minor changes. Although abnormalities were observed which were specific for cells from each individual tumour, no discernible change was common to cells from all the tumours. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:629860

  1. Arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis through oxidative stress in cells of colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Akao, Yukihiro; Morikawa, Hiroshi; Hirata, Ichiro; Katsu, Kenichi; Naoe, Tomoki; Ohishi, Nobuko; Yagi, Kunio

    2002-03-29

    Exposure of three colon cancer cell lines, SW480, DLD-1, and COLO201, to arsenic trioxide in the medium induced a marked concentration-dependent suppression of cell growth. The intracellular contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) in these cell lines tended to be inversely correlated with the sensitivity of the cells to arsenic trioxide. Among the cell lines, SW480 cells underwent apoptosis at the low arsenic trioxide concentration of 2 microM, which was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine and was enhanced by buthionine sulfoximine. The production of reactive oxygen intermediates which were examined by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA), increased with time after treatment with arsenic trioxide. The apoptosis was executed by the activation of caspase 3, which was shown by Western blot, enzymatic activity, and apoptosis inhibition assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential of adherent apoptotic SW480 cells and the cells from intermediate layer separated by density gradient centrifugation, both of which showed the active form of caspase 3 by Western blot analysis, was not lost. The overexpression of Bcl-2 protein in SW480 cells could not prevent the apoptosis induced by the treatment with arsenic trioxide. All these findings indicate that arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in SW480 cells is executed by the activation of caspase 3 without mediating by mitochondria under the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. PMID:12005185

  2. Lycopene Treatment of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines Inhibits Adhesion and Migration Properties of the Cells

    PubMed Central

    Elgass, Simone; Cooper, Alan; Chopra, Mridula

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumption of lycopene through tomato products has been suggested to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Cellular adhesion and migration are important features of cancer progression and therefore a potential target for cancer interception. In the present study we have examined the in vitro effect of lycopene on these processes. Methods: Prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145 and immortalised normal prostate cell line PNT-2 were used. The adhesion assay consisted of seeding pre-treated cells onto Matrigel™, gently removing non-adherent cells and quantitating the adherent fraction using WST-1. Migratory potential was assessed using ibidi™ migration chamber inserts, in which a cell-free zone between two confluent areas was allowed to populate over time and the migration measured. Results: 24 hour incubation of prostate cell lines with 1.15µmol/l lycopene showed a 40% reduction of cellular motility in case of PC3 cells, 58% in DU145 cells and no effect was observed for PNT2 cells. A dose related inhibition of cell adhesion to a basement membrane in the form of Matrigel™ was observed in all three cell lines and it reached statistical significance for PC3 and PNT2 cells at lycopene concentrations ?1.15µmol/l. However, in case of DU145, only a concentration of 2.3µmol/l showed a significant reduction. Conclusion: This in vitro investigation indicates that lycopene can influence the cell adhesion and migration properties of cancer cells at a dose which is arguably achievable in patients. The results of our study expand our understanding of a chemo preventive role of lycopene in prostate cancer. PMID:25076850

  3. A cell line derived from non-neoplastic human neuroretinal cells.

    PubMed

    Mancini, M A; Kennedy, A; Frank, R N; Trese, M T; Hartzer, M; Hukku, B; Lin, L R

    1989-03-01

    We have derived a cell line from an epiretinal membrane excised surgically from a premature female infant born at a gestational age of 25 weeks, and who developed stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity. The cell line, which in early passages appeared immunocytochemically to contain cells with both neuronal and glial characteristics, has been maintained in culture for 14 months at the time this manuscript was submitted, and has survived 20 passages. The cells have a diploid, human karyotype, with most cells possessing 46 normal appearing chromosomes, including 44 autosomes and two X-chromosomes. Morphologically, the cell line at early passages consisted of polygonal cells and also of cells possessing long, spindly branching processes. These two cell types were cloned. Nearly 100% of the cells of both morphologic types in mixed cultures stained immunocytochemically for neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a neuronal marker, and approximately 5-10% of the cells in mixed cultures (including about 50% of the cells with the spindly morphology, that were less prevalent in mixed cultures) stained for glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), a glial marker. We have not performed "double-label" immunocytochemistry, but it was evident from the proportion of cells that stained with each marker that many cells must contain both GFAP and NSE. At least 50% of the cells in most of the early cultures were positive for keratin, while all were (and remain) negative for muscle actin. No cells are found that are immunocytochemically positive for factor VIII, a vascular endothelial cell marker. These cultured cells have also been studied immunocytochemically for their production of extracellular matrix substances. The cultures are immunocytochemically positive for type IV (but not type I) collagen, laminin and fibronectin. In later passages, cells of both clones lost their immunocytochemical positivity for GFAP and NSE, and all became positive for keratin. Cells of both clones also developed a similar, polygonal morphology, lacking long processes. By electron microscopy, many of the cells were seen to possess nonmotile cilia, with a 9 + 0 pattern of microtubule doublets. This cell line may be useful for studies of human retinal cell development and metabolism, and responses to pathological processes. PMID:2925321

  4. Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin E. Reubinoff; Chui-Yee Fong; Alan Trounson; Ariff Bongso; Martin F. Pera

    2000-01-01

    We describe the derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells from human blastocysts. Two diploid ES cell lines have been cultivated in vitro for extended periods while maintaining expression of markers characteristic of pluripotent primate cells. Human ES cells express the transcription factor Oct-4, essential for development of pluripotential cells in the mouse. When grafted into SCID mice, both lines

  5. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan) [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuo [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  6. Responses of human normal osteoblast cells and osteoblast-like cell line, MG63 cells, to pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suttatip Kamolmatyakul; Uraiwan Jinorose; Peerapong Prinyaroj; Yiping Li

    The objective of this in vitro study is to investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on cellular proliferation and osteocalcin production of osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63 cells, and human normal osteoblast cells (NHOC) obtained from surgical bone specimens. The cells were placed in 24-well culture plates in the amount of 3x104 cell\\/wells with 2 ml ?MEM media supplemented

  7. Expression of junctional proteins in choroid plexus epithelial cell lines: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska; Crissey L Pascale; Andrew N Pfeffer; Cassaundra Coulter; Adam Chodobski

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in using choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cell lines to study the properties of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Currently, there are three major CP-derived cell lines available. Z310 and TR-CSFB3, two immortalized cell lines carrying the simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene, were derived from rat CP epithelium, whereas the CPC-2 cell line was

  8. Equilibrium and kinetic analysis of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus attachment to different insect cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Wickham; M. L. Shuler; D. A. Hammer; R. R. Granados; H. A. Wood

    1992-01-01

    The kinetic and equilibrium attachment of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) to seven insect cell lines was evaluated. Kinetic experi- ments revealed differences of up to 10-fold in the infection rates among cell lines. Equilibrium binding also varied between cell lines and was saturable. The Tn 5B1-4 and Tn F cell lines had the highest virus binding affinities and

  9. Role of Shiga/Vero toxins in pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Fumiko; Obrig, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) is the primary cause of severe host responses including renal and central nervous system (CNS) disease in Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. The interaction of Stx with different eukaryotic cell types is described. Host responses to Stx and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are compared as related to the features of the STEC-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). Data derived from animal models of HUS and CNS disease, in vivo, and eukaryotic cells, in vitro, are evaluated in relation to HUS disease of humans. PMID:25530918

  10. Functional inhibition of endogenously produced urokinase decreases cell proliferation in a human melanoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheimer, J.C.; Wojta, J.; Christ, G.; Binder, B.R. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

    1989-07-01

    Binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor has been shown not only to focus proteolytic activity to the cell surface but also to exert a mitogenic effect on the human epidermal tumor cell line CCL 20.2. This report shows that u-PA is an autocrine mitogen in the human melanoma cell line GUBSB and that inhibition of receptor-bound u-PA by specific anti-u-PA antibodies causes a significant suppression of cell proliferation in this system. The GUBSB cell line secretes 70-80% of the u-Pa in its active form and expresses high-affinity u-PA receptors. Approximately 70% of the u-Pa receptors on these cells are occupied by endogenously secreted u-PA. Addition of the monoclonal antiu-PA antibody MPW5UK (10 nM), directed against the active site of u-PA, twice daily to the cell cultures resulted in a significant decrease of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation by the tumor cells, whereas a 10 times higher concentration of the monoclonal antibody MPW4UK, which does not inhibit plasminogen activator activity of u-PA, was necessary to achieve the same effect. Therefore, inhibition of receptor-bound u-PA might represent a tool not only to inactivate cell-bound proteolytic activity, necessary for invasion, but also to exert a specific antiproliferative effect on certain tumor cells.

  11. Functional estrogen receptors in a human preosteoclastic cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Fiorelli, G; Gori, F; Petilli, M; Tanini, A; Benvenuti, S; Serio, M; Bernabei, P; Brandi, M L

    1995-01-01

    The primary biological effect of the estrogen estradiol-17 beta (17 beta E2) on bone is to decrease bone resorption. However, whether 17 beta E2 affects osteoclast differentiation or function directly or through its action on osteoblasts is unclear. To investigate this question we examined the human preosteoclastic cell line FLG 29.1 for evidence of functional estrogen receptors (ERs). Southern blotting of reverse transcription-PCR amplification products with a 32P-labeled cDNA probe for the human ER mRNA demonstrated that FLG 29.1 cells express ER mRNA. Binding of [3H]17 beta E2 to nuclear ERs was steroid specific with approximately 400 saturable, high affinity (Kd approximately 1 nM) binding sites per cell nucleus. Nuclear ERs covalently labeled with [3H]tamoxifen aziridine showed an apparent molecular weight of 65,000 by SDS/PAGE and Western blotting with the D75 monoclonal antibody to human ER. Pretreatment of cells with 0.1, 1.0, or 10 nM 17 beta E2 induced a dose- and time-dependent specific binding of progesterone to FGL 29.1 cells, and stimulation of the cells with 10 nM and 100 nM 17 beta E2 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced cell proliferation. Transcriptional activity of the ER gene was detected by transient transfection of cells with the pERE-BLCAT plasmid containing the estrogen response element for the vitellogenin A2 gene and the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. Treatment of FLG 29.1 cells with 10 nM 17 beta E2 increased chloroamphenicol acetyltransferase expression from 5- to 29-fold compared to controls. These observations suggest a potential role for estrogen in osteoclastogenesis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7708703

  12. Molecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture

    E-print Network

    Kenny, Paraic

    together (e.g., ERBB2 amplified cell lines sharing the same morphometric properties as the grapeMolecular Predictors of 3D Morphogenesis by Breast Cancer Cell Lines in 3D Culture Ju Han1 , Hang generation. In this paper, a panel of 24 breast cell lines was grown in 3D culture, their morphology

  13. Cytotoxicity of cashew flavonoids towards malignant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Konan, Nzi André; Lincopan, Nilton; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; de Fátima Jacysyn, Jacqueline; Tiba, Mirtes Midori Tanae; Amarante Mendes, João Gustavo Pessini; Bacchi, Elfriede Marianne; Spira, Beny

    2012-07-01

    The leaves of the Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) are used by the folk medicine in South America and West Africa. This plant is rich in flavonoids, which are polyphenolic compounds widespread in plants, and that have diverse physiological effects. In a sub-acute toxicity assay it was found that an ethanolic extract of Cashew leaves elicited lymphopenia in rats. The extract was also found to be cytotoxic and to induce apoptosis in Jurkat (acute lymphoblastic leukemia) cells. The crude ethanolic extract was fractionated and resolved by HPLC. One of the four fractions obtained led to the isolation of the biflavonoid agasthisflavone. [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assays and flow cytometry analysis showed that the isolated compound displayed a high anti-proliferative effect in Jurkat cells with an IC(50) of 2.4 ?g/ml (4.45 ?M). The effect of agathisflavone on the acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL60, Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells and Hep-2 laryngeal carcinoma cells was also tested. The two latter ones were only mildly affected by agathisflavone. It is also shown that agathisflavone induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells and it this proposed that this is the likely mechanism of agathisflavone specific cytotoxicity. PMID:21106357

  14. Sensitization assays: monocyte-derived dendritic cells versus a monocytic cell line (THP-1).

    PubMed

    Tietze, Corinna; Blomeke, Brunhilde

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the skin sensitization process of contact allergens. Many efforts have been made to develop in vitro sensitization tests that employ DCs, but more recently protocols were introduced that use cell lines other than DCs. The potential of the cell line THP-1 compared to monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) was evaluated using a known potent sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and the terpenoid ascaridol (1,4-epodioxy-p-menth-2-ene), an ingredient present in oxidized tea tree oil. Activation of these cells was studied by estimation of the CD86 and CD54 cell surface expression. Overall, comparable results were found. The expression of CD86 was augmented by ascaridol in THP-1 and MoDCs, while the expression of CD54 was not reproducibly increased. These results encourage the further development of THP-1 cells as a short-term model for sensitization testing. PMID:18569603

  15. Digital cell image analysis of verapamil-induced effects in chemosensitive and chemoresistant neoplastic cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantal Etiévant; Olivier Pauwels; Robert Kiss

    1993-01-01

    We used chemosensitive and chemoresistant variants of the neoplastic mouse MXT mammary and human J82 and T24 bladder cell lines to characterize verapamil-induced cell proliferation and morphonuclear modifications in drug-treated and untreated cells. Chemoresistance to vinorelbine (Navelbine, aVinca alkaloid derivative), to DIAM3 (an investigational alkylating compound) and to Adriamycin (an intercalating agent) in the presence or absence of verapamil was

  16. Curcumin downregulates cell survival mechanisms in human prostate cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asok Mukhopadhyay; Carlos Bueso-Ramos; Devasis Chatterjee; Panayotis Pantazis; Bharat B Aggarwal

    2001-01-01

    While the role of nuclear transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in cell proliferation, and of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the suppression of apoptosis are known, their role in survival of prostate cancer cells is not well understood. We investigated the role of NF-?B and AP-1 in the survival of human androgen-independent (DU145) and -dependent (LNCaP) prostate cancer cell lines. Our

  17. Proteomic patterns of cervical cancer cell lines, a network perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major mortality factor in the female population. This neoplastic is an excellent model for studying the mechanisms involved in cancer maintenance, because the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the etiology factor in most cases. With the purpose of characterizing the effects of malignant transformation in cellular activity, proteomic studies constitute a reliable way to monitor the biological alterations induced by this disease. In this contextual scheme, a systemic description that enables the identification of the common events between cell lines of different origins, is required to distinguish the essence of carcinogenesis. Results With this study, we sought to achieve a systemic perspective of the common proteomic profile of six cervical cancer cell lines, both positive and negative for HPV, and which differ from the profile corresponding to the non-tumourgenic cell line, HaCaT. Our objectives were to identify common cellular events participating in cancer maintenance, as well as the establishment of a pipeline to work with proteomic-derived results. We analyzed by means of 2D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the protein extracts of six cervical cancer cell lines, from which we identified a consensus of 66 proteins. We call this group of proteins, the "central core of cervical cancer". Starting from this core set of proteins, we acquired a PPI network that pointed, through topological analysis, to some proteins that may well be playing a central role in the neoplastic process, such as 14-3-3?. In silico overrepresentation analysis of transcription factors pointed to the overexpression of c-Myc, Max and E2F1 as key transcription factors involved in orchestrating the neoplastic phenotype. Conclusions Our findings show that there is a "central core of cervical cancer" protein expression pattern, and suggest that 14-3-3? is key to determine if the cell proliferates or dies. In addition, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that the neoplastic phenotype is governed by a non-canonical regulatory pathway. PMID:21696634

  18. Raman spectra and discrimination of NPC cell line CNE1 and normal nasopharyngeal cell line NP69

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Yong-zeng; Su, Ying; Lin, Ju-qiang; Pan, Jian-ji; Chen, Rong; Zou, Chang-yan; Lin, Shaojun; Li, Chao

    2009-08-01

    As a non-destructive and non-invasive technique, Raman spectroscopy (RS) plays an important role in the field of biomedical research. Great progress has been made in the research of biological samples from cellular level to macro-tissues. In this letter, advances of RS in tumor cells and some statistic algorithm developed in recent years for cancer differentiation and diagnosis are introduced. Also, Raman spectra of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) cell line CNE1 and normal nasopharyngeal cell line NP69 are acquired by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy system. Raman bands are analyzed and compared to investigate the differences and relationship between CNE1 and NP69, Principle Components Analysis (PCA) is used to classify CNE1 and NP69 accurately with an accuracy of 100%. Comparing with CNE1, a blue-shift is observed in NP69 cells at band 936cm-1 and 2935cm-1 which are assigned to C-C stretch and CH3 stretching, respectively. Meanwhile, a red-shift is observed at 1338cm-1 assigned to A, G and C-H deformation vibration of protein. The results show that Raman spectroscopy has its potential and reliability to be one of the diagnostic methods for NPC and at the same time can provide valuable information for cancer early diagnosis.

  19. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres of two 4-cell stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    Geens, Mieke; Mateizel, Ileana; Sermon, Karen; De Rycke, Martine; Spits, Claudia; Cauffman, Greet; Devroey, Paul; Tournaye, Herman; Liebaers, Inge; Van de Velde, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, we demonstrated that single blastomeres of a 4-cell stage human embryo are able to develop into blastocysts with inner cell mass and trophectoderm. To further investigate potency at the 4-cell stage, we aimed to derive pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) from single blastomeres. METHODS Four 4-cell stage embryos were split on Day 2 of preimplantation development and the 16 blastomeres were individually cultured in sequential medium. On Day 3 or 4, the blastomere-derived embryos were plated on inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). RESULTS Ten out of sixteen blastomere-derived morulae attached to the MEFs, and two produced an outgrowth. They were mechanically passaged onto fresh MEFs as described for blastocyst ICM-derived hESC, and shown to express the typical stemness markers by immunocytochemistry and/or RT–PCR. In vivo pluripotency was confirmed by the presence of all three germ layers in the teratoma obtained after injection in immunodeficient mice. The first hESC line displays a mosaic normal/abnormal 46, XX, dup(7)(q33qter), del(18)(q23qter) karyotype. The second hESC line displays a normal 46, XY karyotype. CONCLUSION We report the successful derivation and characterization of two hESC lines from single blastomeres of four split 4-cell stage human embryos. These two hESC lines were derived from distinct embryos, proving that at least one of the 4-cell stage blastomeres is pluripotent. PMID:19633307

  20. Small cell lung cancer cell lines secrete predominantly ACTH precursor peptides not ACTH.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, M. F.; Crosby, S. R.; Gibson, S.; Twentyman, P. R.; White, A.

    1989-01-01

    A panel of 18 well characterised human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines was assessed for the production of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and its precursor peptides, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and pro-ACTH. These precursor peptides were measured directly using a novel two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) based on monoclonal antibodies, in conjunction with a similar IRMA for ACTH 1-39. Significant concentrations of ACTH precursors were secreted by 10 of the 18 cell lines (56%). The low levels of ACTH immunoreactivity detected in seven cell lines could be accounted for by the known cross-reactivity of precursors in the ACTH IRMA. This suggests there is little, if any, processing of ACTH precursors to ACTH. Cell pellet extracts contained undetectable or low levels of ACTH precursors and ACTH, indicating that these peptides are not stored intracellularly. During the growth of the SCLC cells in vitro ACTH precursors accumulated progressively in the culture medium. Thus the combination of a direct assay for the ACTH precursors and the panel of SCLC cell lines provides a valuable in vitro model for the expression of POMC in human tumours. PMID:2553086

  1. PACAP protects against TNF?-induced cell death in olfactory epithelium and olfactory placodal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Shami; Gandham, Mahendra; Lucero, Mary T

    2010-01-01

    In mouse olfactory epithelium (OE), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) protects against axotomy-induced apoptosis. We used mouse OE to determine whether PACAP protects neurons during exposure to the inflammatory cytokine TNF?. Live slices of neonatal mouse OE were treated with 40 ng/ml TNF? ± 40 nM PACAP for 6 hours and dying cells were live-labeled with 0.5% propidium iodide. TNF? significantly increased the percentage of dying cells while co-incubation with PACAP prevented cell death. PACAP also prevented TNF?-mediated cell death in the olfactory placodal (OP) cell lines, OP6 and OP27. Although OP cell lines express all three PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1,VPAC2), PACAP’s protection of these cells from TNF? was mimicked by the specific PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan and abolished by the PAC1 antagonist PACAP6–38. Treatment of OP cell lines with blockers or activators of the PLC and AC/MAPKK pathways revealed that PACAP-mediated protection from TNF? involved both pathways. PACAP may therefore function through PAC1 receptors to protect neurons from cell death during inflammatory cytokine release in vivo as would occur upon viral infection or allergic rhinitis-associated injury. PMID:20654718

  2. Different toxic effects of YTX in tumor K-562 and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates cellular phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In this regard, opposite effects had been described in the tumor model K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes in terms of cell viability, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein expression after YTX treatment. Studies in depth of the pathways activated by YTX in K-562 cell line, have demonstrated the activation of two different cell death types, apoptosis, and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the key role of type 4A PDE (PDE4A) in both pathways activated by YTX was demonstrated. Therefore, taking into account the differences between cellular lines and fresh cells, a study of cell death pathways activated by YTX in a non-tumor cell line with mitotic activity, was performed. The cellular model used was the lymphoblastoid cell line that represents a non-tumor model with normal apoptotic and mitotic machinery. In this context, cell viability and cell proliferation, expression of proteins involved in cell death activated by YTX and mitochondrial mass, were studied after the incubation with the toxin. Opposite to the tumor model, no cell death activation was observed in lymphoblastoid cell line in the presence of YTX. In this sense, variations in apoptosis hallmarks were not detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line after YTX incubation, whereas this type I of programmed cell death was observed in K-562 cells. On the other hand, autophagy cell death was triggered in this cellular line, while other autophagic process is suggested in lymphoblastoid cells. These YTX effects are related to PDE4A in both cellular lines. In addition, while cell death is triggered in K-562 cells after YTX treatment, in lymphoblastoid cells the toxin stops cellular proliferation. These results point to YTX as a specific toxic compound of tumor cells, since in the non-tumor lymphoblastoid cell line, no cell death hallmarks are observed.

  3. Establishment and characterization of a SV40T-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Jie Lu; Shu-Ping Guo; Tong Tong; Li-Hua Xu; Xiang-Yang Dong; Nai-Jun Hana; Shu-Jun Cheng

    1998-01-01

    The majority of human lung cancers originate from the carcinogenesis of bronchial epithelial cells. To study the malignant progression of human bronchial epithelial cells, we established a SV40T-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line, and observed some biological and genetic changes of the cell line at different passages. In a 2-year culture, this cell line was approaching malignancy without obvious senescence.

  4. Retinal ganglion cell line apoptosis induced by hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Agar, Ashish; Li, Shaojuan; Agarwal, Neeraj; Coroneo, Minas T; Hill, Mark A

    2006-05-01

    Cellular responses to changes in pressure are implicated in numerous disease processes. In glaucoma apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is associated with elevated intra-ocular pressure, however, the exact cellular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously shown that pressure can induce apoptosis in B35 and PC12 neuronal cell lines, using an in vitro model for pressure elevation. A novel RGC line allows us to study the effects of pressure on retinal neurons. 'RGC-5' cultures were subjected to elevated ambient hydrostatic pressure conditions in our model. Experimental pressure conditions were 100 mm Hg and 30 mm Hg, representing acute (high) and chronic (lower-pressure) glaucoma, and 15 mm Hg for normal intra-ocular pressure, set above atmospheric pressure for 2 h. Negative controls were treated identically except for the application of pressure, while positive controls were generated by treatment with a known apoptotic stimulus. Apoptosis was determined by a combination of cell morphology and specific TUNEL and Annexin V fluorescent markers. These were assessed simultaneously by laser scanning cytometry (LSC), which also enabled quantitative marker analysis. RGC-5 neurons showed a significantly increased proportion of apoptotic cells compared with controls; maximal at 100 mm Hg, moderate at 30 mm Hg and not statistically significant at 15 mm Hg. This graded response, proportionate to the level of pressure elevation, is representative of the severity of analogous clinical settings (acute, chronic glaucoma and normal). These results complement earlier findings of pressure-induced apoptosis in other neuronal cultures. They suggest the possibility of novel mechanisms of pressure-related mechanotransduction and cell death, relevant to the pathogenesis of diseases such as glaucoma. PMID:16638612

  5. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rajvi H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ‘discarded’ or ‘spare’ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ‘cryopreserve’ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ‘spare’ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ‘cryopreserved’ embryos then these also can be considered as ‘spare’. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, “what about ‘slightly’ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ‘discarded’ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ‘discarding’ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ‘use’ of ESC derived from the ‘abnormal appearing’ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material. PMID:25673530

  6. Detection of luxol-fast-blue positive cells in human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Broxmeyer, H E; Pelus, L M; Andreeff, M; Moore, M A

    1981-10-01

    Differentiation of HL-60 cells toward the eosinophilic series has not been reported previously. Eosinophil granule specific staining with Luxol-fast-blue was used to determine if HL-60 cells could differentiate into the eosinophilic lineage. The specificity of the Luxol-fast-blue stain for cells of the eosinophilic series was substantiated by comparison of the staining of cells from a patient with an eosinophilic syndrome by Wright-Giemsa and Luxol-fast-blue. Luxol-fast-blue positivity was most notable in cells found in colonies formed from HL-60 clonogenic cells in semisolid agar medium. Colony and cluster formation was spontaneous but in the presence of medium conditioned by either human placental cells or the human monocyte-like cell line, GCT, Luxol-fast-blue positive colonies and clusters were detected at a higher frequency. PMID:6175532

  7. Establishment and characterization of triple drug resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Sindhu Valiyaveedan; Kulsum, Safeena; Pandian, Ramanan Somasundara; Das, Debashish; Seshadri, Mukund; Hicks, Wesley; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Suresh, Amritha

    2015-08-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy leading to poor outcome and survival remains a challenge for developing strategies for therapeutic interventions in all types of cancer, including head and neck cancer. In vitro chemoresistant cell line models are an indispensable resource towards delineating the mechanisms involved in drug resistance/response and for the development of novel drugs. Current treatment for head and neck cancer includes chemotherapy with cisplatin, docetaxel and 5?fluorouracil (5?FU) and the response rates to these drugs in patients is 60?80%. The present study aimed to generate head and neck cancer triple drug?resistant cell lines in an effort towards elucidating the mechanisms underlying chemoresistance and providing a resourceful tool for drug design. Using two head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, Hep?2 (larynx) and CAL?27 (oral cavity), the present study sequentially exposed these cells to increasing concentrations of the combination of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5?FU (TPF) to generate triple drug?resistant cells, termed Hep?2 TPF resistant (TPFR) and CAL?27 TPFR. The effect of the drug treatments on the cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle and the expression of genes associated with multidrug resistance were analyzed in the parental cells and drug?resistant counterparts. The Hep?2 TPFR and CAL?27 TPFR cells exhibited a higher resistance index (RI?2) compared with that of the parental cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed a decreased number of TPFR cells in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05) and a corresponding accumulation of cells in G2/M phase. A reduced degree of apoptosis in these cells (Hep?2, 33 vs 20%, P=0.003; and CAL?27, 18 vs 9.7%) was complemented by an increased expression of genes involved in drug resistance, including MDR1, MRP2, ERCC1, CTR, survivin and thymidylate synthase. The present study, therefore, established two multi drug?resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and characterized these cells on a cellular and molecular level. Development of these tools accentuates their requirement in the field of drug discovery and in mechanistic studies elucidating the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:25962396

  8. Role of Alpha-Synuclein Protein Levels in Mitochondrial Morphology and Cell Survival in Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Li, Wenwei; Lu, Chuanzhen

    2012-01-01

    ?-Synuclein is highly associated with some neurodegeneration and malignancies. Overexpressing wild-type or mutant ?-synuclein promotes neuronal death by mitochondrial dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms of which remain poorly defined. It was recently reported that ?-synuclein expression could directly lead to mitochondrial fragmentation in vitro and in vivo, which may be due to ?-synuclein localization on mitochondria. Here, we applied a double staining method to demonstrate mitochondrial morphogenetic changes in cells overexpressed with ?-synuclein. We show that mitochondrial localization of ?-synuclein was increased following its overexpression in three distinct cell lines, including HeLa, SH-SY5Y, and PC12 cells, but no alteration in mitochondrial morphology was detected. However, ?-synuclein knockdown prevents MPP+-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells. These data suggest that ?-synuclein protein levels hardly affect mitochondrial morphology in normal cell lines, but may have some influence on that under certain environmental conditions. PMID:22558453

  9. Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Barallon, Rita; Bauer, Steven R.; Butler, John; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Furtado, Manohar; Kline, Margaret C.; Kohara, Arihiro; Los, Georgyi V.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Masters, John R. W.; Nardone, Mark; Nardone, Roland M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Price, Paul J.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Shewale, Jaiprakash; Sykes, Gregory; Steuer, Anton F.; Storts, Douglas R.; Thomson, Jim; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Kerrigan, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Cell misidentification and cross-contamination have plagued biomedical research for as long as cells have been employed as research tools. Examples of misidentified cell lines continue to surface to this day. Efforts to eradicate the problem by raising awareness of the issue and by asking scientists voluntarily to take appropriate actions have not been successful. Unambiguous cell authentication is an essential step in the scientific process and should be an inherent consideration during peer review of papers submitted for publication or during review of grants submitted for funding. In order to facilitate proper identity testing, accurate, reliable, inexpensive, and standardized methods for authentication of cells and cell lines must be made available. To this end, an international team of scientists is, at this time, preparing a consensus standard on the authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. This standard, which will be submitted for review and approval as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute, will provide investigators guidance on the use of STR profiling for authenticating human cell lines. Such guidance will include methodological detail on the preparation of the DNA sample, the appropriate numbers and types of loci to be evaluated, and the interpretation and quality control of the results. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public STR profile database under the auspices of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The consensus standard is anticipated to be adopted by granting agencies and scientific journals as appropriate methodology for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues. PMID:20614197

  10. Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues.

    PubMed

    Barallon, Rita; Bauer, Steven R; Butler, John; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Elmore, Eugene; Furtado, Manohar; Kline, Margaret C; Kohara, Arihiro; Los, Georgyi V; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Masters, John R W; Nardone, Mark; Nardone, Roland M; Nims, Raymond W; Price, Paul J; Reid, Yvonne A; Shewale, Jaiprakash; Sykes, Gregory; Steuer, Anton F; Storts, Douglas R; Thomson, Jim; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Kerrigan, Liz

    2010-10-01

    Cell misidentification and cross-contamination have plagued biomedical research for as long as cells have been employed as research tools. Examples of misidentified cell lines continue to surface to this day. Efforts to eradicate the problem by raising awareness of the issue and by asking scientists voluntarily to take appropriate actions have not been successful. Unambiguous cell authentication is an essential step in the scientific process and should be an inherent consideration during peer review of papers submitted for publication or during review of grants submitted for funding. In order to facilitate proper identity testing, accurate, reliable, inexpensive, and standardized methods for authentication of cells and cell lines must be made available. To this end, an international team of scientists is, at this time, preparing a consensus standard on the authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. This standard, which will be submitted for review and approval as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute, will provide investigators guidance on the use of STR profiling for authenticating human cell lines. Such guidance will include methodological detail on the preparation of the DNA sample, the appropriate numbers and types of loci to be evaluated, and the interpretation and quality control of the results. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public STR profile database under the auspices of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The consensus standard is anticipated to be adopted by granting agencies and scientific journals as appropriate methodology for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues. PMID:20614197

  11. Duck lymphocytes. VIII. T-lymphoblastoid cell lines from reticuloendotheliosis virus-induced tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah W. S. Chan; Yuki Bando; G. W. Warr; Darlene L. Middleton; D. A. Higgins

    1999-01-01

    The T strain of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV-T) obtained, along with the helper chicken syncytia virus (CSV), from the CSO4 cell line was highly oncogenic and rapidly fatal in ducks. Tumours were mainly seen in spleen, but neoplastic cells were observed microscopically in many organs. In vitro REV transformation of duck lymphocytes failed to yield stable cell lines, so cells from

  12. Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines Secrete the Major Plasma Proteins and Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara B. Knowles; Chin C. Howe; David P. Aden

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of the cell culture fluid from two new human hepatoma-derived cell lines reveals that 17 of the major human plasma proteins are synthesized and secreted by these cells. One of these cell lines, Hep 3B, also produces the two major polypeptides of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. When Hep 3B is injected into athymic mice, metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas

  13. Identification of a mitotic death signature in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sakurikar, Nandini; Eichhorn, Joshua M.; Alford, Sarah E.; Chambers, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the molecular mechanism of action of anti-mitotic drugs. The hypothesis was tested that death in mitosis occurs through sustained mitotic arrest with robust Cdk1 signaling causing complete phosphorylation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, and conversely, that mitotic slippage is associated with incomplete phosphorylation of Mcl-1/Bcl-xL. The results, obtained from studying six different cancer cell lines, strongly support the hypothesis and identify for the first time a unique molecular signature for mitotic death. The findings represent an important advance in understanding anti-mitotic drug action and provide insight into cancer cell susceptibility to such drugs which has important clinical implications. PMID:24099917

  14. Identification of a mitotic death signature in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sakurikar, Nandini; Eichhorn, Joshua M; Alford, Sarah E; Chambers, Timothy C

    2014-02-28

    This study examined the molecular mechanism of action of anti-mitotic drugs. The hypothesis was tested that death in mitosis occurs through sustained mitotic arrest with robust Cdk1 signaling causing complete phosphorylation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, and conversely, that mitotic slippage is associated with incomplete phosphorylation of Mcl-1/Bcl-xL. The results, obtained from studying six different cancer cell lines, strongly support the hypothesis and identify for the first time a unique molecular signature for mitotic death. The findings represent an important advance in understanding anti-mitotic drug action and provide insight into cancer cell susceptibility to such drugs which has important clinical implications. PMID:24099917

  15. A novel 2,6-diisopropylphenyl–docosahexaenoamide conjugate induces apoptosis in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey D. Altenburg; Kevin A. Harvey; Sharon McCray; Zhidong Xu; Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2011-01-01

    We have previously characterized the effects of 2,6-diisopropylphenyl–docosahexaenoamide (DIP–DHA) conjugates and their analogs on the proliferation and progression of breast cancer cell lines. For this study, we investigated the effects of the DIP–DHA conjugate on 2 representative T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines: CEM and Jurkat. Treatment of both cell lines with DIP–DHA resulted in significantly greater inhibition

  16. Persistence of a small subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells in the C6 glioma cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Kondo; Takao Setoguchi; Tetsuya Taga

    2004-01-01

    Both stem cells and cancer cells are thought to be capable of unlimited proliferation. Paradoxically, however, some cancers seem to contain stem-like cells (cancer stem cells). To help resolve this paradox, we investigated whether established malignant cell lines, which have been maintained for years in culture, contain a subpopulation of stem cells. In this article, we show that many cancer

  17. Comparison of antibody molecules produced from two cell lines with contrasting productivities and aggregate contents.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoichi; Imamoto, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Rie; Tsukahara, Masayoshi; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture processes that produce therapeutic antibodies with high productivity (titer) and low aggregate content reduce the risk of adverse effects and expense to patients. To elucidate the mechanism of aggregate formation, we compared trastuzumab samples produced from two contrasting cell lines: cell line A, which exhibits high titer and low aggregate content, and cell line B, which exhibits low titer and high aggregate content. Cell line B produced significantly fewer (approximately 1/3) antibodies compared with cell line A and contained higher (approximately 3-fold) percentages of aggregates. The aggregates of antibodies found in the protein A-purified samples of cell line B were associated mostly with noncovalent interactions. Cell line B exhibited a low content of monomers/dimers of light chains in the medium and within cells. Because light chains are essential for the correct folding of heavy chains and secretion of mature antibodies, the characteristics of cell line B may be attributed to low levels of light chain production. In addition, protein A-purified antibodies from cell line B (but not those from cell line A) contained fragments that are expected to expose the hydrophobic CH3 domain, which may serve as nuclei for aggregation. PMID:25501618

  18. A forensic path to RGC-5 cell line identification: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R; Clark, Abbot F; Daudt, Donald; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Yorio, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, a transformed cell line RGC-5 was developed from the rat retina that was thought to be of retinal ganglion cell origin. Since that time many investigators have used this line in a wide variety of studies to understand better retinal ganglion cell activity, cell signaling, and neuroprotection. Recently, a publication emerged that claimed that this RGC-5 cell line was derived from mouse and not rat, and other studies also indicated the expression of certain proteins that typically were not associated with retinal ganglion cells. This certainly came as a shock not only to the originators of this cell line, but also to others who have been using this as an in vitro model of rat retinal ganglion cells. As a result, we undertook experiments to determine if the RGC-5 cell line currently in use may have been mischaracterized. We, indeed, found that the RGC-5 cell line was of mouse and not rat origin, as was claimed originally in the original research report. We further determined whether these cells were of retinal ganglion origin. Our findings showed conclusively that RGC-5 cells were, indeed, of mouse origin and, using additional cytogenetic profile testing, karyotyping, and genetic and protein profiling, we concluded that these cells were not of retinal ganglion cell origin, but were the cell line 661W, a mouse SV-40 T antigen transformed photoreceptor cell line. The 661W cell line also was present in the laboratory of the originating laboratory and probably resulted in cross-contamination. The present study reviews some of the errors that were made in misidentifying the RGC-5 cell line and offers some insight as to how this may have happened, and ways one can avoid mischaracterization of a potentially important cell line. PMID:23975727

  19. Relating hepatocellular carcinoma tumor samples and cell lines using gene expression data in translational research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are used extensively to study cancer biology and to test hypotheses in translational research. The relevance of cell lines is dependent on how closely they resemble the tumors being studied. Relating tumors and cell lines, and recognizing their similarities and differences are thus very important for translational research. Rapid advances in genomics have led to the generation of large volumes of genomic and transcriptomic data for a diverse set of primary cancer samples, normal tissue samples and cancer cell lines. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common tumors worldwide, with high occurrence in Asia and sub-Saharan regions. The current effective treatments of HCC remain limited. In this work, we compared the gene expression measurements of 200 HCC tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas and over 1000 cancer cell lines including 25 HCC cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. We showed that the HCC tumor samples correlate closely with HCC cell lines in comparison to cell lines derived from other tumor types. We further demonstrated that the most commonly used HCC cell lines resemble HCC tumors, while we identified nearly half of the cell lines that do not resemble primary tumors. Interestingly, a substantial number of genes that are critical for disease development or drug response are either expressed at low levels or absent among highly correlated cell lines; additional attention should be paid to these genes in translational research. Our study will be used to guide the selection of HCC cell lines and pinpoint the specific genes that are differentially expressed in either tumors or cell lines. PMID:26043652

  20. How Reliable Are Sino-Nasal Cell Lines for Studying the Pathophysiology of Chronic Rhinosinusitis?

    PubMed Central

    Suwara, Monika I.; Borthwick, Lee A.; Wilson, Janet A.; Mann, Derek A.; Fisher, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Well-characterized cell lines represent useful scientific tools to study the pathophysiology of human disease. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a very common condition, though the number of CRS cell lines is limited, as are data showing how closely they resemble primary cells. Methodology: Searches for available human cell lines were performed using the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC). Identified cells were cultured and characterized with tinctorial and immunohistochemical staining and ELISA to assess their response to common, disease-relevant inflammatory stimuli. Carefully phenotyped CRS patients were recruited with informed consent. Primary nasal epithelial cell (PNEC) brushings were harvested, cultured, and compared to the available cell lines. Results: Searches identified 1 relevant CRS sino-nasal cell line, RPMI 2650. Cultured PNECs showed strong expression of epithelial markers while being negative for mesenchymal markers. However, RPMI 2650 cells show an atypical mixed epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype. When stimulated by pro-inflammatory ligands, PNECs responded in a dose-dependent manner, whereas RPMI 2650 cells showed limited response. Conclusions: The number and availability of cell lines to study the pathophysiology of CRS greatly underrepresent the disease burden. Additionally, the sole commercially available cell line appears to have a different phenotype and behavior to primary patient-derived cells. The development of further reproducible cell lines would be beneficial in our understanding of CRS. PMID:25539661

  1. The role of NEFL in cell growth and invasion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiquan; Zhuo, Ying; Shen, Zhuojian; Wang, Youyuan; Wang, Lili; Li, Haigang; Chen, Ju; Chen, Weiliang

    2014-03-01

    The neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL) gene located on chromosome 8q21 is associated with the cancer of several organs and is regarded as a potential tumor suppressor gene. However, the role of the NEFL protein has not yet been studied in cancer cells. Although evidence suggests that there is a correlation between NEFL expression and cancer, studies regarding the role of the NEFL protein have been mostly limited to neurological diseases, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth's disease (CMT). Most of these studies have not explored the role of NEFL in cancer cell apoptosis and/or invasion. In this study, NEFL expression was manipulated, and apoptosis and invasion were compared in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The results show that the expression of NEFL induces cancer cell apoptosis and inhibits invasion in these cell lines, suggesting that NEFL may play a role in cancer cell apoptosis and invasion. PMID:23992471

  2. Cytotoxic effects of fascaplysin against small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose)-Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS. PMID:24608973

  3. Interaction of the hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, with cultured human leukemic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sallay, I; Moriwaki, S; Nakamura, O; Yasuda, S; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N; Itoh, K; Ohba, H

    2000-12-01

    We studied interaction of CEL-III with cultured human leukemic cell lines and lymphocytes from normal adults by evaluating the extent of cytotoxicity and cytoagglutination. Among acute T lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines, CEL-III displayed increased toxicity against different acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines as a function of increasing differentiation stage. In the case of acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines, CEL-III showed strong cytotoxicity against relatively immature cell lines. We found that CEL-III was more toxic for ALL cell lines than leukocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy adults. Strong influence of the additional amount of calcium ion on the extent of cytotoxicity was observed. In addition, we describe a new way to evaluate the extent of cytoagglutination in "% of agglutinated cells". These findings make CEL-III a promising candidate in research for lectins which bind to and destroy only the targeted leukemic cells. PMID:11177600

  4. 188Rhenium-induced cell death and apoptosis in a panel of tumor cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoccia, Antonio; Banzato, Alessandra; Bello, Michele; Bollini, Dante; De Notaristefani, Francesco; Giron, Cecilia; Mazzi, Ulderico; Alafort, Laura Melendez; Moschini, Giuliano; Nadali, Anna; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rosato, Antonio; Tanzarella, Caterina; Uzunov, Nikolay

    2007-02-01

    Assessment of "in vitro" tumor growth inhibition and radiobiological effects, such as apoptosis, have been evaluated in human neoplastic cells of different histotypes (H460 lung cancer cells, U87 glioblastoma, LnCaP prostate tumor cells) treated using solutions of 188Rhenium-perrhenate. The MTT assay, which measures mitochondrial metabolism in the entire cell culture is a recognized test for cytotoxicity and was used in cells exposed 48-72 h to specific activities ranged from 37 to 148 GBq/l. Whereas H460 and LnCaP were particularly sensitive to treatment, U87 glioblastoma cells behaved as radioresistant ones. However, evaluation of 188Re-induced apoptosis indicated that this kind of cell death contributed only marginally to the reduction in cell viability of H460 and LNCaP lines, suggesting the existence of protective mechanisms against apoptosis. In this respect, the membrane receptor, CD44, whose expression is dysregulated in most malignant cell types has proven to alter the response of cancer cells to apoptotic stimuli, including ionizing radiation. Cell samples decorated with a FITC-labelled CD44 antibody indicated, that in H460 and U87 cells the CD44(+) correlated well with an apoptosis-resistant response. Conversely, LnCap cells proven as CD44(-) did not display however sensitivity to radio-induced apoptosis.

  5. A rare, human prostate oncocyte cell originates from the prostatic carcinoma (DU145) cell line.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Eze, Nkechinyere; Jamison, James M; McGuire, Karen; Summers, Jack L

    2013-12-01

    DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells are typically poorly differentiated and contain only scantily distributed organelles. However, among numerous tumor cells randomly examined by electron microscopy out of in vitro cultivation, a peculiar, rare oncocyte-like cell type has been observed whose nucleus appears to be of small dimension and with a cytoplasm almost entirely filled with often distorted mitochondria. A few small, dispersed lysosomal bodies, small cisterns of the endoplasmic reticulum and a few glycogen patches can be found among highly osmiophilic contrasted, cytosolic spaces filled by innumerable ribonucleoproteins. The excessive population of mitochondria may have arisen from a more populated tumor cell type wherein the altered mitochondria are found to appear burgeoning into a spherical-like size progeny crowding the tumor cells. Literature cited between 1950 and the present suggests that this rare, oncocytic, benign prostatic tumor cell type is likely appear epigenetically, stemming from an original secretory cell, which is confirmed by the origin of the cell line originally maintained as cell line out of a brain metastatic, adenocarcinoma niche. PMID:23957452

  6. Selective Killing of Human Malignant Cell Lines Deficient in Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase, a Purine Metabolic Enzyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoyuki Kamatani; Walter A. Nelson-Rees; Dennis A. Carson

    1981-01-01

    Seven out of 31 (23%) human malignant tumor cell lines had no detectable methylthioadenosine phosphorylase activity (<0.001 nmol\\/min per mg of protein), assayed with 5'-chloroadenosine as substrate. The enzyme-deficient cell lines were derived from five leukemias, one melanoma, and one breast cancer. None of 16 cell lines of nonmalignant origin, derived from lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, lacked the enzyme

  7. Signaling network of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Panvichian; K Orth; M. J Pilat; M. L Day; K. C Day; C Yee; J. M Kamradt; K. J Pienta

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. To attempt to identify the relationship of the key regulator molecules in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis using two metastatic cell lines: the human prostate carcinoma LNCaP line and the cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line.Methods. Both LNCaP and HeLa cells were continuously exposed to clinically achievable concentrations of paclitaxel and observed for activation of programmed cell death as measured by cytotoxic dose-response

  8. Characterization of a Human Squamous Carcinoma Cell Line Resistant to m-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly A. Teicher; Sylvia A. Holden; Michael J. Kelley; Thomas C. Shea; Carol A. Cucchi; Andre Rosowsky; W. David Henner; Emil Frei

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC-25\\/CP) which is relatively stably resistant to m-diam- minedichloroplatinum(II) (('1)1)1') after repeated exposure to escalating doses of the drug. The studies reported elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the SCC-25\\/CP cell line is resistant to CDDP. The SCC-25\\/CP cell line is approximately 30-fold resistant to CDDP, approximately 10-

  9. Tick cell lines: tools for tick and tick-borne disease research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Bell-Sakyi; Erich Zweygarth; Edmour F. Blouin; Ernest A. Gould; Frans Jongejan

    2007-01-01

    Over 40 cell lines are currently available from 13 ixodid\\u000aand one argasid tick species. The successful isolation\\u000aand propagation of several economically important tickborne\\u000apathogens in tick cell lines has created a useful\\u000amodel to study interactions between tick cells and\\u000athese viral and bacterial disease agents. Tick cell lines\\u000ahave already proved to be a useful tool in

  10. Germline Transmission of a Novel Rat Embryonic Stem Cell Line Derived from Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hongsheng; Bauer, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Germline-competent rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are important resources for the creation of mutant rat models using ES-cell-based gene targeting technology. The ability to isolate germline-competent ES cell lines from any rat strain, including genetically modified strains, would allow for more sophisticated genetic manipulations without extensive breeding. Sprague Dawley (SD) males carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene were used as the founder animals for the derivation of ES cell lines. A number of ES cell lines were established and subjected to rigorous quality control testing that included assessment of pluripotency factor expression, karyotype analysis, and pathogen/sterility testing. Two male ES cell lines, SD-Tg.EC1/Rrrc and SD-Tg.EC8/Rrrc, were injected into blastocysts recovered from a cross of Dark Agouti (DA) males with SD females. Resulting chimeric animals were bred with wild-type SD mates to verify the germline transmissibility of the ES cell lines by identifying pups carrying the ES cell line–derived EGFP transgene. While both ES cell lines gave rise to chimeric animals, only SD-Tg.EC1 was germline competent. This confirms the feasibility of deriving germline-competent ES cell lines from transgenic rat strains and provides a novel ES cell line with a stable green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter for future genetic manipulations to create new rat models. PMID:22455749

  11. Different host-cell shutoff strategies related to the matrix protein lead to persistence of vesicular stomatitis virus mutants on fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Desforges, M; Charron, J; Bérard, S; Beausoleil, S; Stojdl, D F; Despars, G; Laverdière, B; Bell, J C; Talbot, P J; Stanners, C P; Poliquin, L

    2001-07-01

    Acute infection of fibroblastic cell lines by the Indiana strain of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) usually induces dramatic cytopathic effects and shutoff of cellular gene expression. We have compared a series of independent mutants with differences in shutoff induction and found that M was mutated either in the N-terminus (M(51)R) or C-terminus (V(221)F and S(226)R). Furthermore, only double mutants (M mutation and a ts mutation related or not to M) were able to persist on fibroblast cell lines at 39 degrees C. A more detailed investigation of the infection was performed for the mutants T1026, TP3 and G31, differing in their host shutoff effects related to M protein. Viral activity in persistently infected mouse L-929 and monkey Vero cell lines was followed by viral proteins detection, RNA synthesis throughout infection and finally detection of infectious particles. All three mutants cause extensive CPE followed by emergence of persistently infected cells on Vero cells. The same thing is seen on L-929 cells except for T1026 which causes little CPE. Taken together, the results form a basis of further studies to clarify how various viral and cellular factors interact in the establishment of a persistent infection by VSV mutants. PMID:11376849

  12. Adult T-Cell Leukemia: Antigen in an ATL Cell Line and Detection of Antibodies to the Antigen in Human Sera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yorio Hinuma; Kinya Nagata; Masao Hanaoka; Masuyo Nakai; Tadashi Matsumoto; Ken-Ichiro Kinoshita; Shigeru Shirakawa; Isao Miyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence of certain human sera demonstrated an antigen(s) in the cytoplasm of 1-5% of the cells of a T-cell line, MT-1, from a patient with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), which is endemic in southwestern Japan. The antigen was not detected in other human lymphoid cell lines, including six T-cell lines, seven B-cell lines, and four non-T non-B cell lines.

  13. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  14. Gene expression profiling analysis of osteosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lu; Li, Jie; Yan, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary bone malignancy and has a poor prognosis. To investigate the mechanisms of osteosarcoma, the present analyzed the GSE28424 microarray. GSE28424 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and included a collective of 19 OS cell lines and four normal bone cell lines, which were used as controls. Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the Limma package in Bioconductor. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, interactions between the proteins encoded by the DEGs were identified using STRING, and the protein?protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized using Cytoscape. In addition, modular analysis of the PPI network was performed using the Clique Percolation Method (CPM) in CFinder. A total of 1,170 DEGs were screened, including 530 upreguated and 640 downregulated genes. The enriched functions included organelle fission, immune response and response to wounding. In addition, RPL8 was observed to be involved with the ribosomal pathway in module A of the PPI network of the DEGs. PLCG1, SYK and PLCG2 were also involved in the B?cell receptor signaling pathway in module B and the Fc?epsilon RI signaling pathway in module C. In addition, AURKA (degree=39), MAD2L1 (degree=38), CDCA8 (degree=38), BUB1 (degree=37) and MELK (degree=37) exhibited higher degrees of connectivity in module F. The results of the present study suggested that the RPL8, PLCG1, PLCG2, SYK, MAD2L1, AURKA, CDCA8, BUB1 and MELK genes may be involved in OS. PMID:26096802

  15. The cytotoxic effects of bendamustine in combination with cytarabine in mantle cell lymphoma cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Visco; Silvia Castegnaro; Katia Chieregato; Martina Bernardi; Elena Albiero; Cristina Zanon; Domenico Madeo; Francesco Rodeghiero

    Bendamustine is clinically useful in mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL). Its favorable toxicity profile in-vivo favors its combination with other cytotoxic drugs. Cytarabine is a key drug in the treatment of younger patients with MCL. The current study investigated the in-vitro cytotoxic effect of bendamustine and cytarabine, alone or combined, on two MCL cell lines representing the classic and blastoid variant of

  16. Host cell protein dynamics in the supernatant of a mAb producing CHO cell line.

    PubMed

    Tait, A S; Hogwood, C E M; Smales, C M; Bracewell, D G

    2012-04-01

    The characterization of host cell protein (HCP) content during the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins is an important aspect in the drug development process. Despite this, key components of the HCP profile and how this changes with processing has not been fully investigated. Here we have investigated the supernatant HCP profile at different times throughout culture of a null and model GS-CHO monoclonal antibody producing mammalian cell line grown in fed-batch mode. Using 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS we identify a number of intracellular proteins (e.g., protein disulfide isomerise; elongation factor 2; calreticulin) that show a significant change in abundance relative to the general increase in HCP concentration observed with progression of culture. Those HCPs that showed a significant change in abundance across the culture above the general increase were dependent on the cell line examined. Further, our data suggests that the majority of HCPs in the supernatant of the cell lines investigated here arise through lysis or breakage of cells, associated with loss in viability, and are not present due to the secretion of protein material from within the cell. SELDI-TOF and principal components analysis were also investigated to enable rapid monitoring of changes in the HCP profile. SELDI-TOF analysis showed the same trends in the HCP profile as observed by 2D-PAGE analysis and highlighted biomarkers that could be used for process monitoring. These data further our understanding of the relationship between the HCP profile and cell viability and may ultimately enable a more directed development of purification strategies and the development of cell lines based upon their HCP profile. PMID:22124969

  17. Bromodeoxyuridine Induces p53Dependent and Independent Cell Cycle Arrests in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dun-Fa Peng; Hiroyuki Sugihara; Takanori Hattori

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to clarify the effects of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis, and to demonstrate the role of P53 in these processes. Methods: We continuously exposed four human gastric carcinoma cell lines with different P53 status (P53 wild-type AGS and MKN-45, P53-mutated MKN-28 and P53-deleted KATO-III) to BrdU in asynchronous and synchronous

  18. Isolation and characterization of cell lines of Nicotiana tabacum lacking nitrate reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas J. Mtiller; Reinhard Grafe

    1978-01-01

    Chlorate-resistant cell lines were established from survivors after plating allodihaploid cells of Nicotiana tabacum into solid medium containing 20 mM chlorate and amino acids as sole nitrogen source. Data characterizing 9 of the most resistant lines are presented. The mutational origin of these lines was inferred on the basis of the enhancement of the variant frequency by mutagen treatment, and

  19. A one-mesh method for the cell-centered discretization of slide lines , B. Despresb

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A one-mesh method for the cell-centered discretization of slide lines G. Claira, , B. Despresb , E on several basic problems. Keywords: Slide lines, Constraints, Minimization method, Lagrangian Hydrodynamic of slide lines were described for staggered schemes. Recently, new methods adapted to cell

  20. Phytoestrogens regulate the proliferation and expression of stem cell factors in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    HASIBEDER, ASTRID; VENKATARAMANI, VIVEK; THELEN, PAUL; RADZUN, HEINZ-JOACHIM; SCHWEYER, STEFAN

    2013-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have been shown to exert anti-proliferative effects on different cancer cells. In addition it could be demonstrated that inhibition of proliferation is associated with downregulation of the known stem cell factors NANOG, POU5F1 and SOX2 in tumor cells. We demonstrate the potential of Belamcanda chinensis extract (BCE) and tectorigenin as anticancer drugs in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumor cells (TGCT) by inhibition of proliferation and regulating the expression of stem cell factors. The TGCT cell lines TCam-2 and NTera-2 were treated with BCE or tectorigenin and MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of tumor cells. In addition, the expression of stem cell factors was analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, global expression analysis was performed by microarray technique. BCE and tectorigenin inhibited proliferation and downregulated the stem cell factors NANOG and POU5F1 in TGCT cells. In addition, gene expression profiling revealed induction of genes important for the differentiation and inhibition of oncogenes. Utilizing connectivity map in an attempt to elucidate mechanism underlying BCE treatments we found highly positive association to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) amongst others. Causing no histone deacetylase inhibition, the effects of BCE on proliferation and stem cell factors may be based on histone-independent mechanisms such as direct hyperacetylation of transcription factors. Based on these findings, phytoestrogens may be useful as new agents in the treatment of TGCT. PMID:23969837

  1. Phytoestrogens regulate the proliferation and expression of stem cell factors in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Hasibeder, Astrid; Venkataramani, Vivek; Thelen, Paul; Radzun, Heinz-Joachim; Schweyer, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Phytoestrogens have been shown to exert anti-proliferative effects on different cancer cells. In addition it could be demonstrated that inhibition of proliferation is associated with downregulation of the known stem cell factors NANOG, POU5F1 and SOX2 in tumor cells. We demonstrate the potential of Belamcanda chinensis extract (BCE) and tectorigenin as anticancer drugs in cell lines of malignant testicular germ cell tumor cells (TGCT) by inhibition of proliferation and regulating the expression of stem cell factors. The TGCT cell lines TCam-2 and NTera-2 were treated with BCE or tectorigenin and MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation of tumor cells. In addition, the expression of stem cell factors was analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, global expression analysis was performed by microarray technique. BCE and tectorigenin inhibited proliferation and downregulated the stem cell factors NANOG and POU5F1 in TGCT cells. In addition, gene expression profiling revealed induction of genes important for the differentiation and inhibition of oncogenes. Utilizing connectivity map in an attempt to elucidate mechanism underlying BCE treatments we found highly positive association to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) amongst others. Causing no histone deacetylase inhibition, the effects of BCE on proliferation and stem cell factors may be based on histone-independent mechanisms such as direct hyperacetylation of transcription factors. Based on these findings, phytoestrogens may be useful as new agents in the treatment of TGCT. PMID:23969837

  2. The conformational alteration of the mutated extracellular domain of Fas in an adult T cell leukemia cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Maeda; Susumu Nakayama; Yasuaki Yamada; Kazuyuki Sugahara; Hajime Isomoto; Masayuki Tawara; Reishi Yamasaki; Yasuyuki Onimaru; Tetsuro Matsushita; Yoshiyuki Ohzono; Shimeru Kamihira

    2002-01-01

    Fas (APO-1\\/CD95) is a cell surface receptor involved in apoptosis. Almost all adult T cell leukemia (ATL) cells express abundant Fas antigen and show apoptosis induced by IgM anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb). We established the ATL cell line, RSO4, which was obtained from Fas-sensitive ATL cell line SO4 and showed resistance to apoptosis induced by the mAb. By sequencing analysis

  3. Retrovirus-mediated conditional immortalization and analysis of established cell lines of osteoclast precursor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, Shigehisa [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101 (Japan); Suzuki, Jun [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101 (Japan); Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Maruoka, Masahiro [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101 (Japan); Mizutamari, Megumi [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101 (Japan); Ishida-Kitagawa, Norihiro [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101 (Japan); Yogo, Keiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101 (Japan); Jat, Parmjit S. [Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, University College London, Square, London, WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom); Shishido, Tomoyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101 (Japan)]. E-mail: shishid@bs.naist.jp

    2006-11-10

    Osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs) have previously been established from bone marrow cells of SV40 temperature-sensitive T antigen-expressing transgenic mice. Here, we use retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to conditionally immortalize OPCs by expressing temperature-sensitive large T antigen (tsLT) from wild type bone marrow cells. The immortalized OPCs proliferated at the permissive temperature of 33.5 deg. C, but stopped growing at the non-permissive temperature of 39 deg. C. In the presence of receptor activator of NF{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), the OPCs differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and formed multinucleate osteoclasts at 33.5 deg. C. From these OPCs, we cloned two types of cell lines. Both differentiated into TRAP-positive cells, but one formed multinucleate osteoclasts while the other remained unfused in the presence of RANKL. These results indicate that the established cell lines are useful for analyzing mechanisms of differentiation, particularly multinucleate osteoclast formation. Retrovirus-mediated conditional immortalization should be a useful method to immortalize OPCs from primary bone marrow cells.

  4. Experimental exposure of arsenic in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells and cell line: Toxicological consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj K. Upreti; A. Kannan; A. B. Pant

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid and the drinking water contamination by inorganic arsenic remains a major public health problem. The trivalent arsenic (arsenite) is more toxic than the pentavalent form (arsenate), and is known to cause gastrointestinal toxicity. Specific immortal cell lines are considered to be suitable for toxicity screening and testing of chemicals as they are easy to

  5. Cell division promotes efficient retrotransposition in a stable L1 reporter cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long interspersed element type one (L1) actively modifies the human genome by inserting new copies of itself. This process, termed retrotransposition, requires the formation of an L1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, which must enter the nucleus before retrotransposition can proceed. Thus, the nuclear import of L1 RNP presents an opportunity for cells to regulate L1 retrotransposition post-translationally. The effect of cell division on L1 retrotransposition has been investigated by two previous studies, which observed varied degrees of inhibition in retrotransposition when primary cell strains or cancer cell lines were experimentally arrested in different stages of the cell cycle. However, seemingly divergent conclusions were reached. The role of cell division on retrotransposition remains highly debated. Findings To monitor both L1 expression and retrotransposition quantitatively, we developed a stable dual-luciferase L1 reporter cell line, in which a bi-directional tetracycline-inducible promoter drives the expression of both a firefly luciferase-tagged L1 element and a Renilla luciferase, the latter indicative of the level of promoter induction. We observed an additional 10-fold reduction in retrotransposition in cell-cycle arrested cells even after retrotransposition had been normalized to Renilla luciferase or L1 ORF1 protein levels. In synchronized cells, cells undergoing two mitoses showed 2.6-fold higher retrotransposition than those undergoing one mitosis although L1 expression was induced for the same amount of time. Conclusions Our data provide additional support for an important role of cell division in retrotransposition and argue that restricting the accessibility of L1 RNP to nuclear DNA could be a post-translational regulatory mechanism for retrotransposition. PMID:23497436

  6. Genetic variation in C57BL/6 ES cell lines and genetic instability in the Bruce4 C57BL/6 ES cell line.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Elizabeth D; Qu, Yun Yan; Genik, Suzanne J; Lyons, Robert H; Pacheco, Christopher D; Lieberman, Andrew P; Samuelson, Linda C; Nasonkin, Igor O; Camper, Sally A; Van Keuren, Margaret L; Saunders, Thomas L

    2007-08-01

    Genetically modified mouse strains derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells are powerful tools for gene function analysis. ES cells from the C57BL/6 mouse strain are not widely used to generate mouse models despite the advantage of a defined genetic background. We assessed genetic variation in six such ES cell lines with 275 SSLP markers. Compared to C57BL/6, Bruce4 differed at 34 SSLP markers and had significant heterozygosity on three chromosomes. BL/6#3 and Dale1 ES cell lines differed at only 3 SSLP makers. The C2 and WB6d ES cell lines differed at 6 SSLP markers. It is important to compare the efficiency of producing mouse models with available C57BL/6 ES cells relative to standard 129 mouse strain ES cells. We assessed genetic stability (the tendency of cells to become aneuploid) in 110 gene-targeted ES cell clones from the most widely used C57BL/6 ES cell line, Bruce4, and 710 targeted 129 ES cell clones. Bruce4 clones were more likely to be aneuploid and unsuitable for ES cell-mouse chimera production. Despite their tendency to aneuploidy and consequent inefficiency, use of Bruce4 ES cells can be valuable for models requiring behavioral studies and other mouse models that benefit from a defined C57BL/6 background. PMID:17828574

  7. Honokiol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bin; Peng, Zhi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gastric carcinoma is a malignant tumor that responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In our study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of honokiol, an active component isolated and purified from the Magnolia officinalis, in human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cell line. Methods: The cell viability was detected by the CCK8 assay. The cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were assessed by flow cytometer. The protein expression of cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressors were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Treatment of human gastric carcinoma cells with honokiol induced cell death in a dose-and time-dependent manner by using CCK8 assay. Consistent with the CCK8 assay, the flow cytometry results showed that the proportion of apoptosis cells had gained when the cells were exposed to honokiol. Moreover, Cyclin B1, CDC2 and cdc25C were downregulated, and the expression of p-CDC2 and p-cdc25c was significantly upregulated upon honokiol treatment. P53 and p21 were significantly upregulated by honokiol treatment. Treatment of MGC-803 cells with honokiol significantly increased the pro-apoptotic Bax level and decreased the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 level. Conclusions: These results confirmed that honokiol could induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, the underlying molecular mechanisms, at least partially, through activation p53 signaling and downregulation CDC2/cdc25C expression.

  8. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Yipeng; Yu, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    A new cell line, designated as ZJBIQ-Chsu-I, was initiated from the fat body of larval Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) in TNM-FH insect medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum. The polygonal cells (65.6%) were predominant among various cell types, and the diameter range was from 12.63 to 22.50 ?m. The cell line showed a typical lepidopteran chromosome pattern ranging from 108 to 136 chromosomes in the majority of the cells. The population doubling time (PDT) of the cell line at the 15th passage was 62 h. This cell line was found to be susceptible to Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeNPV). By the DNA amplification fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (DAF-PCR) technique, it was confirmed that cell line ZJBIQ-Chsu-I really originated from C. suppressalis. PMID:25381037

  9. DNA Fingerprint Comparison of Rainbow Trout and RTG-2 Cell Line Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepcion Becerril; Helda Acevedo; Mar Ferrero; Felix Sanz; Argelia Castaño

    2001-01-01

    The detection of genotoxic effects using in vitro cell systems can be extremely useful in risk assessment procedures. However, care should be taken in the extrapolation of in vitro results since, amongst other factors, established cell lines may deviate from the genetic characteristics of their species. In this work, the genetic similarities between the RTG-2 cell line and rainbow trout

  10. Transplantation of Germ Line Stem Cells for the Study and Manipulation of Spermatogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Dobrinski

    Transplantation of male germ line stem cells from a fertile donor to the testis of an infertile recipient restores donor-derived spermatogenesis in the recipient testis and the resulting sperm pass the donor genotype to the offspring of the recipient. Germ cell transplantation has been an invaluable tool to elucidate the biology of male germ line stem cells and their niche

  11. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PORCINE VISCERAL ENDODERM CELL LINES DERIVED FROM IN VIVO 11-DAY BLASTOCYSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two porcine cell lines of yolk-sac visceral endoderm, designated PE-1 and PE-2, were derived from in vivo 11-day porcine blastocysts that were either ovoid (PE-1) or at the early tubular stage of elongation (PE-2). Primary and secondary culture of cell lines was done on STO feeder cells. The PE-1 ...

  12. Effect of radiation combined with hyperthermia on human prostatic carcinoma cell lines in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kaver; J. L. Ware; J. D. Wilson; W. W. Jr. Koontz

    1991-01-01

    The effect of radiation combined with heat on three human prostatic carcinoma cell lines growing in vitro was investigated. Cells were exposed to different radiation doses followed by heat treatment at 43 degrees C for one hour. Heat treatment, given ten minutes after radiation, significantly enhanced the radiation response of all the cell lines studied. The combined effect of radiation

  13. Quantitative gene expression assessment identifies appropriate cell line models for individual cervical cancer pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W Carlson; Vishwanath R Iyer; Edward M Marcotte

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell lines have been used to study cancer for decades, but truly quantitative assessment of their performance as models is often lacking. We used gene expression profiling to quantitatively assess the gene expression of nine cell line models of cervical cancer. RESULTS: We find a wide variation in the extent to which different cell culture models mimic late-stage invasive

  14. Cytotoxic activity of pierisin, from the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, in various human cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuo Kono; Masahiko Watanabe; Kotaro Koyama; Taketoshi Kishimoto; Shoji Fukushima; Takashi Sugimura; Keiji Wakabayashi

    1999-01-01

    Pierisin, a protein purified from pupae of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, exhibits cytotoxic effects against the human gastric cancer TMK-1 cell line, inducing apoptosis. The present study was performed to determine whether pierisin might exert a similar influence on nine other human cancer cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Pierisin showed cytotoxic effects in all the

  15. Bit line coupling memory tests for single-cell fails in SRAMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Irobi; Zaid Al-Ars; Said Hamdioui

    2010-01-01

    Due to the decreasing dimensions of manufactured devices, the effect of bit line capacitive coupling on the behavior of faulty memory cells cannot be ignored. Neighboring cells influence the faulty behavior of defective cells through coupling. This paper analyzes and validates this behavior theoretically and through electrical simulations. The paper evaluates the impact of bit line coupling in SRAMs on

  16. Genetic Inheritance of Gene Expression in Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Monks, S. A.; Leonardson, A.; Zhu, H.; Cundiff, P.; Pietrusiak, P.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, J. W.; Sachs, A.; Schadt, E. E.

    2004-01-01

    Combining genetic inheritance information, for both molecular profiles and complex traits, is a promising strategy not only for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for complex traits but for understanding which genes, pathways, and biological processes are also under the influence of a given QTL. As a primary step in determining the feasibility of such an approach in humans, we present the largest survey to date, to our knowledge, of the heritability of gene-expression traits in segregating human populations. In particular, we measured expression for 23,499 genes in lymphoblastoid cell lines for members of 15 Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) families. Of the total set of genes, 2,340 were found to be expressed, of which 31% had significant heritability when a false-discovery rate of 0.05 was used. QTLs were detected for 33 genes on the basis of at least one P value <.000005. Of these, 13 genes possessed a QTL within 5 Mb of their physical location. Hierarchical clustering was performed on the basis of both Pearson correlation of gene expression and genetic correlation. Both reflected biologically relevant activity taking place in the lymphoblastoid cell lines, with greater coherency represented in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database (KEGG) pathways than in Gene Ontology database pathways. However, more pathway coherence was observed in KEGG pathways when clustering was based on genetic correlation than when clustering was based on Pearson correlation. As more expression data in segregating populations are generated, viewing clusters or networks based on genetic correlation measures and shared QTLs will offer potentially novel insights into the relationship among genes that may underlie complex traits. PMID:15514893

  17. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-11-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-(2-TH)mannose or L-(5,6-TH)fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-(1,6-TH)glucosamine and L-(1- UC)fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced TH-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine.

  18. Morphological changes in amphibian and fish cell lines infected with Andrias davidianus ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Gao, X C; Chen, Z Y; Yuan, J D; Zhang, Q Y

    2015-01-01

    Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV) is an emerging viral pathogen that causes severe disease in Chinese giant salamanders, the largest extant amphibian in the world. A fish cell line, Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC), and a new amphibian cell line, Chinese giant salamander spleen cell (GSSC), were infected with ADRV and observed by light and electron microscopy. The morphological changes in these two cell lines infected with ADRV were compared. Cytopathic effect (CPE) began with rounding of the cells, progressing to cell detachment in the cell monolayer, followed by cell lysis. Significant CPE was visualized as early as 24 h post infection (hpi) in EPC cells and at 36 hpi in GSSC cells. Microscopical examination showed clear and significant CPE in EPC cells, while less extensive and irregular CPE with some adherent cells remaining was observed in GSSC cells. Following ADRV infection, CPE became more extensive. Transmission electron micrographs showed many virus particles around cytoplasmic vacuoles, formed as crystalline arrays or scattered in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Infected cells showed alteration in nuclear morphology, with condensed and marginalized nuclear chromatin on the inner aspect of the nuclear membrane and formation of a cytoplasmic viromatrix adjacent to the nucleus in both cell lines. Some virus particles were also detected in the nucleus of infected GSSC cells. Both cell lines are able to support replication of ADRV and can therefore be used to investigate amphibian ranaviruses. PMID:25728809

  19. Inhibition of geranylgeranylation mediates sensitivity to CHOP-induced cell death of DLBCL cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ageberg, Malin, E-mail: Malin.Ageberg@med.lu.se [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden)] [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden); Rydstroem, Karin, E-mail: Karin.Rydstom@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Linden, Ola, E-mail: Ola.Linden@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Linderoth, Johan, E-mail: Johan.Linderoth@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Jerkeman, Mats, E-mail: Mats.Jerkeman@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Drott, Kristina, E-mail: Kristina.Drott@med.lu.se [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden)] [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Prenylation is a post-translational hydrophobic modification of proteins, important for their membrane localization and biological function. The use of inhibitors of prenylation has proven to be a useful tool in the activation of apoptotic pathways in tumor cell lines. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rab GGT) is responsible for the prenylation of the Rab family. Overexpression of Rab GGTbeta has been identified in CHOP refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using a cell line-based model for CHOP resistant DLBCL, we show that treatment with simvastatin, which inhibits protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, sensitizes DLBCL cells to cytotoxic treatment. Treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 or the geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 indicates that the reduction in cell viability was restricted to inhibition of geranylgeranylation. In addition, treatment with BMS1, a combined inhibitor of farnesyl transferase and Rab GGT, resulted in a high cytostatic effect in WSU-NHL cells, demonstrated by reduced cell viability and decreased proliferation. Co-treatment of BMS1 or GGTI-298 with CHOP showed synergistic effects with regard to markers of apoptosis. We propose that inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation together with conventional cytostatic therapy is a potential novel strategy for treating patients with CHOP refractory DLBCL.

  20. Melatonin inhibits cell proliferation and induces caspase activation and apoptosis in human malignant lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Lee, Melanie; de la Lastra, Catalina A; Guerrero, Juan M; Packham, Graham

    2012-11-01

    Melatonin exerts strong anti-tumour activity via several mechanisms, including anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in addition to its potent antioxidant activity. Several studies have investigated the effects of melatonin on haematological malignancies. However, the previous studies investigating lymphoid malignancies have been largely restricted to a single type of malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). Thus, we examined the actions of melatonin on the growth and apoptosis in a small panel of cell lines representing different human lymphoid malignancies including Ramos (Epstein-Barr virus-negative BL), SU-DHL-4 (diffuse large B cell lymphoma), DoHH2 (follicular B non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and JURKAT (acute T cell leukaemia). We showed that melatonin promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in all these cells, although there was marked variations in responses among different cell lines (sensitivity; Ramos/DoHH2 > SU-DHL-4 > JURKAT). Melatonin-induced apoptosis was relatively rapid, with increased caspase 3 and PARP cleavage detected within 0.5-1 h following melatonin addition. Moreover, there was evidence for rapid processing of both caspase 9, as well as a breakdown of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. On the contrary, caspase activation was detected only in SU-DHL-4 and Ramos cells following melatonin treatment suggesting that the extrinsic pathway does not make a consistent contribution to melatonin-induced apoptosis in malignant lymphocytes. Although all cell lines expressed the high-affinity melatonin receptors, MT1 and MT2, melatonin-induced caspase activation appeared to be independent these receptors. Our findings confirm that melatonin could be a potential chemotherapeutic/preventive agent for malignant lymphocytes. However, it is necessary to take into account that different lymphoid malignancies may differ in their response to melatonin. PMID:22582944

  1. Characterization of twenty-five ovarian tumour cell lines that phenocopy primary tumours.

    PubMed

    Ince, Tan A; Sousa, Aurea D; Jones, Michelle A; Harrell, J Chuck; Agoston, Elin S; Krohn, Marit; Selfors, Laura M; Liu, Wenbin; Chen, Ken; Yong, Mao; Buchwald, Peter; Wang, Bin; Hale, Katherine S; Cohick, Evan; Sergent, Petra; Witt, Abigail; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Gao, Sizhen; Agoston, Agoston T; Merritt, Melissa A; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R; Crum, Christopher P; Brugge, Joan S; Mills, Gordon B

    2015-01-01

    Currently available human tumour cell line panels consist of a small number of lines in each lineage that generally fail to retain the phenotype of the original patient tumour. Here we develop a cell culture medium that enables us to routinely establish cell lines from diverse subtypes of human ovarian cancers with >95% efficiency. Importantly, the 25 new ovarian tumour cell lines described here retain the genomic landscape, histopathology and molecular features of the original tumours. Furthermore, the molecular profile and drug response of these cell lines correlate with distinct groups of primary tumours with different outcomes. Thus, tumour cell lines derived using this methodology represent a significantly improved platform to study human tumour pathophysiology and response to therapy. PMID:26080861

  2. Downstream targets of HOXB4 in a cell line model of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han M.; Zhang, Hui; Schulz, Vincent; Tuck, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Enforced expression of the homeobox transcription factor HOXB4 has been shown to enhance hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and expansion ex vivo and in vivo. To investigate the downstream targets of HOXB4 in hematopoietic progenitor cells, HOXB4 was constitutively overexpressed in the primitive hematopoietic progenitor cell line EML. Two genome-wide analytical techniques were used: RNA expression profiling using microarrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)–chip. RNA expression profiling revealed that 465 gene transcripts were differentially expressed in KLS (c-Kit+, Lin?, Sca-1+)-EML cells that overexpressed HOXB4 (KLS-EML-HOXB4) compared with control KLS-EML cells that were transduced with vector alone. In particular, erythroid-specific gene transcripts were observed to be highly down-regulated in KLS-EML-HOXB4 cells. ChIP-chip analysis revealed that the promoter region for 1910 genes, such as CD34, Sox4, and B220, were occupied by HOXB4 in KLS-EML-HOXB4 cells. Side-by-side comparison of the ChIP-chip and RNA expression profiling datasets provided correlative information and identified Gp49a and Laptm4b as candidate “stemness-related” genes. Both genes were highly ranked in both dataset lists and have been previously shown to be preferentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and down-regulated in mature hematopoietic cells, thus making them attractive candidates for future functional studies in hematopoietic cells. PMID:20404135

  3. Treatment of prostate cancer cell lines and primary cells using low temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Deborah; Hirst, Adam; Frame, Fiona F.; Maitland, Norman J.

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms of cell death after plasma treatment of both benign and cancerous prostate epithelial cells are investigated. Prostate cancer tissue was obtained with patient consent from targeted needle core biopsies following radical prostatectomy. Primary cells were cultured from cancer tissue and plated onto a chamber slide at a density of 10,000 cells per well in 200 microliter of stem cell media (SCM). The treated sample was previously identified as Gleason grade 7 cancer through tissue histo-pathology. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet configuration, with helium as a carrier gas, and 0.3% O2 admixture was used for treating the cells. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) produced by the plasma are believed to be the main mediators of the plasma-cell interaction and response. We found the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced inside the cells increased with plasma exposure. Exposure to the plasma for >3 minutes showed high levels of DNA damage compared to untreated and hydrogen peroxide controls. Cell viability and cellular recovery are also investigated and will be presented. All findings were common to both cell lines, suggesting the potential of LTP therapy for both benign and malignant disease.

  4. MC3 Mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line enriched cancer stem-like cells following chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LOUQIANG; LI, LONGJIANG; WANG, YIN; LIU, YING; LI, CHUNJIE

    2014-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is common in human salivary glands. Surgery is the preferred treatment method for MEC and chemotherapy is often administered following surgery as an adjuvant cancer treatment; however, chemotherapy does not completely prevent tumor recurrence. Emerging evidence has indicated the existence of cancer stem-like (CSL)-cells in tumors. CSL-cells are important in the development, invasion and drug resistance of carcinomas. The present study aimed to investigate whether chemotherapy enriched the CSL-cells in the MEC cell line of MC3 using 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). The MC3 cells were treated with 5-Fu, which enhanced the spherogenesis and vitality of the cells and upregulated the pluripotency gene, octamer-binding transcription factor 4. Side population analysis demonstrated that the proportion of CSL-cells also increased. These findings showed that compared with other types of cancer cells, chemotherapy was unable to effectively kill the CSL-cells resulting in an enriched CSL-cell subpopulation with a higher resistance to chemotherapy, which may have been key the recurrence of MEC. PMID:24765178

  5. MC3 Mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line enriched cancer stem-like cells following chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Louqiang; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ying; Li, Chunjie

    2014-05-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is common in human salivary glands. Surgery is the preferred treatment method for MEC and chemotherapy is often administered following surgery as an adjuvant cancer treatment; however, chemotherapy does not completely prevent tumor recurrence. Emerging evidence has indicated the existence of cancer stem-like (CSL)-cells in tumors. CSL-cells are important in the development, invasion and drug resistance of carcinomas. The present study aimed to investigate whether chemotherapy enriched the CSL-cells in the MEC cell line of MC3 using 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). The MC3 cells were treated with 5-Fu, which enhanced the spherogenesis and vitality of the cells and upregulated the pluripotency gene, octamer-binding transcription factor 4. Side population analysis demonstrated that the proportion of CSL-cells also increased. These findings showed that compared with other types of cancer cells, chemotherapy was unable to effectively kill the CSL-cells resulting in an enriched CSL-cell subpopulation with a higher resistance to chemotherapy, which may have been key the recurrence of MEC. PMID:24765178

  6. Differential responses to genotoxic agents between induced pluripotent stem cells and tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Given potential values of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in basic biomedical research and regenerative medicine, it is important to understand how these cells regulate their genome stability in response to environmental toxins and carcinogens. The present study characterized the effect of Cr(VI), a well-known genotoxic agent and environmental carcinogen, on major molecular components of DNA damage response pathways in human iPS cells. We compared the effect of Cr(VI) on human iPS cells with two established cell lines, Tera-1 (teratoma origin) and BEAS-2B (lung epithelial origin). We also studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide and doxorubicin on modulating DNA damage responses in these cell types. We demonstrated that ATM and p53 phosphorylation is differentially regulated in human iPS cells compared with Tera-1 and BEAS-2B cells after exposure to various genotoxic agents. Moreover, we observed that inhibition of CK2, but not p38, promotes phosphorylation of p53S392 in iPS cells. Combined, our data reveal some unique features of DNA damage responses in human iPS cells. PMID:24283650

  7. Morphologic, molecular, and ultrastructural characterization of a feline synovial cell sarcoma and derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Cazzini, Paola; Frontera-Acevedo, Karelma; Garner, Bridget; Howerth, Elizabeth; Torres, Bryan; Northrup, Nicole; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2015-05-01

    A 2.5-year-old, male, neutered cat presented with a 5-month history of progressive right hind limb lameness and an enlarged right popliteal lymph node. Radiographs revealed significant bony lysis of the tarsus and distal tibia, and fine-needle aspirate of the bone lesion and lymph node revealed a neoplastic population of cells with uncertain origin. Amputation was elected, and the mass was submitted for histology and cellular culture for better characterization. Histologic examination revealed a mixture of spindle-shaped cells and larger, round to polygonal cells. All cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, and only the larger polygonal cells were also positive for cytokeratin. All cells were negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin, cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD18, CD79a, macrophage antibody (MAC)387, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Cultured neoplastic cells failed to express CD18, and were not able to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1 (IL-1)?, and IL-6 when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, disproving that the cells originated from the macrophage or monocyte line. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells were characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, interdigitating cellular processes, and membrane condensations. Based on location and cytologic, histologic, ultrastructural, and functional studies, this neoplasm was considered a synovial cell sarcoma. PMID:25901004

  8. A new cell line from larval fat bodies of the bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Yong-An; Qin, Qilian; Wang, Yuzhu; Li, Xuan; Miao, Lin; Yin, Zhenxian; Zhang, Aijun; Qu, Liangjian; Ding, Cui

    2006-01-01

    A new cell line, designated IOZCAS-Ha-I, was initiated from the fat body of larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in TNM-FH medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Spherical cells were predominant among the various cell types. The cell line showed a typical lepidopteran chromosome pattern ranging from 58 to 239 chromosomes in the majority of the cells. It was confirmed to have originated from the H. armigera by the DNA amplification- fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (DAF-PCR) technique. The new cell line was only slightly susceptible to the multiple nucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (NPV) from H. armigera. PMID:17316061

  9. Proliferation of mitochondria during the cell cycle of the human cell line (HL-60)

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Using rhodamine 123 to stain mitochondria of the human cell line HL-60, we have followed their increase over the cell cycle by flow cytometry. A near-linear synthesis of mitochondrial mass was shown to occur over the cell cycle. A comparison with the cell's DNA synthesis pattern obtained by the same technique established a common time-base. The mitochondrial synthesis curve changes with culture age. As a control, thd dye was tested for its binding specificity and for its use to resolve mitochondria microscopically. Its stoichiometric range was established and, above 0.25 microgram/ml, it was shown to reduce growth rate and cell viability in culture. PMID:7195902

  10. A Niche Maintaining Germ Line Stem Cells in the Drosophila Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting Xie; Allan C. Spradling

    2000-01-01

    Stromal cells are thought to generate specific regulatory microenviroments or ``niches'' that control stem cell behavior. Characterizing stem cell niches in vivo remains an important goal that has been difficult to achieve. The individual ovarioles of the Drosophila ovary each contain about two germ line stem cells that maintain oocyte production. Here we show that anterior ovariolar somatic cells comprising

  11. Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of human cloned natural killer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Hercend; Ellis L. Reinherz; Stefan Meuer; Stuart F. Schlossman; Jerome Ritz

    1983-01-01

    Extensive efforts have recently been made to characterize cells capable of mediating natural killing activity (see ref. 1 for review) and increasing evidence has arisen that these cells were heterogeneous2,3. By using the methods we have recently developed for cloning natural killer (NK) cells derived from peripheral blood4, we have analysed the heterogeneity of human NK cells. Seven cell lines

  12. Drug-Resistant Urothelial Cancer Cell Lines Display Diverse Sensitivity Profiles to Potential Second-Line Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Vallo, Stefan; Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Bartsch, Georg; Gust, Kilian M; Limbart, Dominik M; Rödel, Franz; Wezel, Felix; Haferkamp, Axel; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2015-06-01

    Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer of the bladder frequently results in the development of acquired drug resistance. Availability of cell culture models with acquired resistance could help to identify candidate treatments for an efficient second-line therapy. Six cisplatin- and six gemcitabine-resistant cell lines were established. Cell viability assays were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to 16 different chemotherapeutic substances. The activity of the drug transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1, a critical mediator of multidrug resistance in cancer) was evaluated using fluorescent ABCB1 substrates. For functional assessment, cells overexpressing ABCB1 were generated by transduction with a lentiviral vector encoding for ABCB1, while zosuquidar was used for selective inhibition. In this study, 8 of 12 gemcitabine- or cisplatin-resistant cell lines were cross-resistant to carboplatin, 5 to pemetrexed, 4 to methotrexate, 3 to oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel, and 2 to cabazitaxel, larotaxel, docetaxel, topotecan, doxorubicin, and mitomycin c, and 1 of 12 cell lines was cross-resistant to vinflunine and vinblastine. In one cell line with acquired resistance to gemcitabine (TCC-SUP(r)GEMCI(20)), cross-resistance seemed to be mediated by ABCB1 expression. Our model identified the vinca alkaloids vinblastine and vinflunine, in Europe an already approved second-line therapeutic for metastatic bladder cancer, as the most effective compounds in urothelial cancer cells with acquired resistance to gemcitabine or cisplatin. These results demonstrate that this in vitro model can reproduce clinically relevant results and may be suitable to identify novel substances for the treatment of metastatic bladder cancer. PMID:26055179

  13. Drug-Resistant Urothelial Cancer Cell Lines Display Diverse Sensitivity Profiles to Potential Second-Line Therapeutics12

    PubMed Central

    Vallo, Stefan; Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Bartsch, Georg; Gust, Kilian M.; Limbart, Dominik M.; Rödel, Franz; Wezel, Felix; Haferkamp, Axel; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2015-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer of the bladder frequently results in the development of acquired drug resistance. Availability of cell culture models with acquired resistance could help to identify candidate treatments for an efficient second-line therapy. Six cisplatin- and six gemcitabine-resistant cell lines were established. Cell viability assays were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to 16 different chemotherapeutic substances. The activity of the drug transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1, a critical mediator of multidrug resistance in cancer) was evaluated using fluorescent ABCB1 substrates. For functional assessment, cells overexpressing ABCB1 were generated by transduction with a lentiviral vector encoding for ABCB1, while zosuquidar was used for selective inhibition. In this study, 8 of 12 gemcitabine- or cisplatin-resistant cell lines were cross-resistant to carboplatin, 5 to pemetrexed, 4 to methotrexate, 3 to oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel, and 2 to cabazitaxel, larotaxel, docetaxel, topotecan, doxorubicin, and mitomycin c, and 1 of 12 cell lines was cross-resistant to vinflunine and vinblastine. In one cell line with acquired resistance to gemcitabine (TCC-SUPrGEMCI20), cross-resistance seemed to be mediated by ABCB1 expression. Our model identified the vinca alkaloids vinblastine and vinflunine, in Europe an already approved second-line therapeutic for metastatic bladder cancer, as the most effective compounds in urothelial cancer cells with acquired resistance to gemcitabine or cisplatin. These results demonstrate that this in vitro model can reproduce clinically relevant results and may be suitable to identify novel substances for the treatment of metastatic bladder cancer. PMID:26055179

  14. Established Thymic Epithelial Progenitor/Stem Cell-Like Cell Lines Differentiate into Mature Thymic Epithelial Cells and Support T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yu; Su, Juanjuan; Du, Yarui; Xu, Guoliang; Shi, Yufang; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Zhang, Xiaoren

    2013-01-01

    Common thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cells (TEPCs) differentiate into cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs), which are required for the development and selection of thymocytes. Mature TEC lines have been widely established. However, the establishment of TEPC lines is rarely reported. Here we describe the establishment of thymic epithelial stomal cell lines, named TSCs, from fetal thymus. TSCs express some of the markers present on tissue progenitor/stem cells such as Sca-1. Gene expression profiling verifies the thymic identity of TSCs. RANK stimulation of these cells induces expression of autoimmune regulator (Aire) and Aire-dependent tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in TSCs in vitro. TSCs could be differentiated into medullary thymic epithelial cell-like cells with exogenously expressed NF-?B subunits RelB and p52. Importantly, upon transplantation under the kidney capsules of nude mice, TSCs are able to differentiate into mature TEC-like cells that can support some limited development of T cells in vivo. These findings suggest that the TSC lines we established bear some characteristics of TEPC cells and are able to differentiate into functional TEC-like cells in vitro and in vivo. The cloned TEPC-like cell lines may provide useful tools to study the differentiation of mature TEC cells from precursors. PMID:24086471

  15. Characterization of a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line for influenza virus production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi; Huber, Victor C.; McCormick, Kara; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Boon, Adrianus C. M.; Zhu, Longchao; Hause, Ben; Webby, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a porcine intestine epithelial cell line, designated SD-PJEC for the propagation of influenza viruses. The SD-PJEC cell line is a subclone of the IPEC-J2 cell line, which was originally derived from newborn piglet jejunum. Our results demonstrate that SD-PJEC is a cell line of epithelial origin that preferentially expresses receptors of oligosaccharides with Sia2-6Gal modification. This cell line is permissive to infection with human and swine influenza A viruses and some avian influenza viruses, but poorly support the growth of human-origin influenza B viruses. Propagation of swine-origin influenza viruses in these cells results in a rapid growth rate within the first 24 h post-infection and the titres ranged from 4 to 8 log10 TCID50 ml?1. The SD-PJEC cell line was further tested as a potential alternative cell line to Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in conjunction with 293T cells for rescue of swine-origin influenza viruses using the reverse genetics system. The recombinant viruses A/swine/North Carolina/18161/02 (H1N1) and A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 (H3N2) were rescued with virus titres of 7 and 8.25 log10 TCID50 ml?1, respectively. The availability of this swine-specific cell line represents a more relevant substrate for studies and growth of swine-origin influenza viruses. PMID:22739061

  16. Understanding pathogenetic aspects and clinical presentation of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) through its derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Antonino; Cesarman, Ethel; Gloghini, Annunziata; Drexler, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a very rare subgroup of B-cell lymphomas presenting as pleural, peritoneal and pericardial neoplastic effusions in the absence of a solid tumor mass or recognizable nodal involvement. There is strong evidence that Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a causal agent of PEL. PEL tumor cells are latently infected by KSHV with consistent expression of several viral proteins and microRNAs that can affect cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The most relevant data on pathogenesis and biology of KSHV have been provided by studies on PEL derived cell lines. Fourteen continuous cell lines have been established from the malignant effusions of patients with AIDS-and non-AIDS-associated PEL. These KSHV+ EBV+/? cell lines are wellcharacterized, authenticated and mostly available from public biological ressource centers. The PEL cell lines display unique features and are clearly distinct from other lymphoma cell lines. PEL cell lines represent an indispensable tool for the understanding of KSHV biology and its impact on the clinical manifestation of PEL. Studies on PEL cell lines have shown that a number of viral genes, expressed during latency or lytic life cycle, have effects on cell binding, proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation. Also PEL cell lines are important model systems for the study of the pathology of PEL including the lack of invasive or destructive growth patterns and the peculiar propensity of PEL to involve body cavity surfaces. PMID:20051807

  17. Systematic variation in gene expression patterns in human cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas T. Ross; Uwe Scherf; Michael B. Eisen; Charles M. Perou; Christian Rees; Paul Spellman; Vishwanath Iyer; Stefanie S. Jeffrey; Matt Van de Rijn; Mark Waltham; Alexander Pergamenschikov; Jeffrey C. F. Lee; Deval Lashkari; Dari Shalon; Timothy G. Myers; David Botstein; John N. Weinstein; Patrick O. Brown

    2000-01-01

    We used cDNA microarrays to explore the variation in expression of approximately 8,000 unique genes among the 60 cell lines used in the National Cancer Institute's screen for anti-cancer drugs. Classification of the cell lines based solely on the observed patterns of gene expression revealed a correspondence to the ostensible origins of the tumours from which the cell lines were

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the human central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Kawamoto; S Nakamura; A Matsuo; I Akiguchi; H Shibasaki

    2000-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, initially purified from the rat glial cell line B49, has the ability to promote the survival and differentiation of various types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the present study, to evaluate the physiological role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system, we investigated the cellular and

  19. DNA fingerprinting of human cell lines using PCR amplification of fragment length polymorphisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Yan; Mark Ottenbreit; Bharati Hukku; Michael Mally; Sharong Chou; Joseph Kaplan

    1996-01-01

    Summary  Methods for monitoring cell line identification and authentication include species-specific immunofluorescence, isoenzyme\\u000a phenotyping, chromosome analysis, and DNA fingerprinting. Most previous studies of DNA fingerprinting of cell lines have used\\u000a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In this study, we examined the utility of an alternative and simpler method\\u000a of cell line DNA fingerprinting—polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of fragment length polymorphisms.

  20. In vitro growth of microsporidia Anncaliia algerae in cell lines from warm water fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Richelle Monaghan; Rebecca L. Rumney; Nguyen T. K. Vo; Niels C. Bols; Lucy E. J. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Anncaliia algerae is an aquatic microsporidium that most commonly infects mosquitoes but can be grown on the rabbit kidney cell line, RK-13.\\u000a Spores were purified from RK-13 cultures and added to cell lines from warm water fish and from an insect. The cell lines were\\u000a GFSK-S1 and GFB3C-W1 from goldfish skin and brain respectively, ZEB2J from zebrafish embryos, FHMT-W1 from

  1. Establishment and characterization of 13 cell lines from a green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) with fibropapillomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanan Lu; Vivek R. Nerurkar; Alonso A. Aguirre; Thierry M. Work; George H. Balazs; Richard Yanagihara

    1999-01-01

    Summary  Thirteen cell lines were established and characterized from brain, kidney, lung, spleen, heart, liver, gall bladder, urinary\\u000a bladder, pancreas, testis, skin, and periorbital and tumor tissues of an immature male green turtle (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas. Cell lines were optimally maintained at 30° C in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine\\u000a serum. Propagation of the turtle cell lines

  2. Establishment and characterization of insect cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia L. Goodman; Galal N. El Sayed; Arthur H. Mcintosh; James J. Grasela; Brad Stiles

    2001-01-01

    Summary  Cell lines from selected lepidopteran species were established for the overall purpose of use in baculovirus production. A\\u000a total of 36 new cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species were generated, including cell lines from a pyralid, the European\\u000a corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, a plutellid, the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella, as well as eight noctuids: the black cutworm,Agrotis ipsilon, the celery looper,Anagrapha falcifera,

  3. Lymphokine-activated killer cells lyse human renal cancer cell lines and cultured normal kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Miltenburg, A M; Meijer-Paape, M E; Daha, M R; Paul, L C

    1988-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether or not lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can damage renal tissue and therefore whether they may contribute to graft destruction during kidney allograft rejection. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated with a lymphokine preparation and the resulting LAK cells were tested against kidney cells from various sources. Renal cancer cells as well as cultured normal kidney cells were efficiently lysed by LAK cells, as assessed with Cr-labelled target cells, showing that both cell types are sensitive to LAK cell-mediated cytolysis. PMID:3259208

  4. Characterization of Resistance to Rhabdovirus and Retrovirus Infection in a Human Myeloid Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Boso, Guney; Somia, Nikunj V.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses interact with various permissive and restrictive factors in host cells throughout their replication cycle. Cell lines that are non-permissive to viral infection have been particularly useful in discovering host cell proteins involved in viral life cycles. Here we describe the characterization of a human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1, that is resistant to infection by retroviruses and a Rhabdovirus. We show that KG-1 cells are resistant to infection by Vesicular Stomatits Virus as well as VSV Glycoprotein (VSVG) pseudotyped retroviruses due to a defect in binding. Moreover our results indicate that entry by xenotropic retroviral envelope glycoprotein RD114 is impaired in KG-1 cells. Finally we characterize a post- entry block in the early phase of the retroviral life cycle in KG-1 cells that renders the cell line refractory to infection. This cell line will have utility in discovering proteins involved in infection by VSV and HIV-1. PMID:25811758

  5. Antitumor effects of saikosaponins, baicalin and baicalein on human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Motoo, Y; Sawabu, N

    1994-10-28

    Antitumor effects of nine components of a herbal medicine, 'Sho-saiko-to', were investigated on human hepatoma cell lines (PLC/PRF/5, Hep-G2), human liver cells (Chang) and a human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3). The concentration of each component required for 50% inhibition of cell growth of PLC/PRF/5 cells was as follows: saikosaponin-d, baicalin, 20 micrograms/ml; saikosaponin-a, baicalein, 50 micrograms/ml; saikosaponin-b2, -c, ginsenoside-Rb1, -Rg1, glycyrrhizin, > 1000 micrograms/ml. Saikosaponin-a in 50-micrograms/ml quantities inhibited the cell growth and DNA synthesis of all the cell lines tested. These results indicate that 'Sho-saiko-to' includes potent antitumor components such as saikosaponin-a, -d, baicalin against human hepatoma cells as well as other human cell lines. PMID:7954360

  6. Time line of redox events in aging postmitotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, Nicolas; Tienson, Heather; Lindemann, Antje; Vitvitsky, Victor; Reichmann, Dana; Banerjee, Ruma; Jakob, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    The precise roles that oxidants play in lifespan and aging are still unknown. Here, we report the discovery that chronologically aging yeast cells undergo a sudden redox collapse, which affects over 80% of identified thiol-containing proteins. We present evidence that this redox collapse is not triggered by an increase in endogenous oxidants as would have been postulated by the free radical theory of aging. Instead it appears to be instigated by a substantial drop in cellular NADPH, which normally provides the electron source for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. This decrease in NADPH levels occurs very early during lifespan and sets into motion a cascade that is predicted to down-regulate most cellular processes. Caloric restriction, a near-universal lifespan extending measure, increases NADPH levels and delays each facet of the cascade. Our studies reveal a time line of events leading up to the system-wide oxidation of the proteome days before cell death. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00306.001 PMID:23390587

  7. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  8. The importance of molecular cytogenetic analysis prior to using cell lines in research: The case of the KG-1a leukemia cell line

    PubMed Central

    PELLICCIA, FRANCA; UBERTINI, VALENTINA; BOSCO, NAZARIO

    2012-01-01

    KG-1 and its less differentiated subline KG-1a are leukemia cell lines used in research in a number of laboratories. The karyotypes of the two lines were initially identical. In the following years, further analysis revealed that the cell lines had acquired additional karyotypical abnormalities and differed in the presence of certain typical chromosomal rearrangements. To obtain cytogenetic authentication prior to the use of the two cell lines, we analyzed their karyotype by combining DAPI- and CMA-chromosome bandings and a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based approach by using BAC clones useful for the identification of chromosome regions of interest. Sequences of the MYC, PLZF, RARA and BCR genes, that are known to play a critical role in leukemogenesis, and certain BAC clones mapped to five known common fragile sites (CFS) were used for the FISH analysis. A telomeric probe (TTAGGG)n and a set of BAC clones were used to characterize the marker chromosome der(1) that was observed in the cell line KG-1a. The existence of notable differences between the karyotype of the KG-1a cell line previously described, and that described in this study, demonstrate that the use of established cancer cell lines should be preceded by cytogenetic and/or molecular characterization. PMID:22844360

  9. Tick Cell Lines for Study of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Other Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A.; Fazakerley, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level. PMID:21955214

  10. [Isolation of classical swine pest virus from homologous and heterologic cell lines].

    PubMed

    Vergun, L Iu

    2005-01-01

    This study was devoted to the choice of cell line for isolation of CSPV with high sensitivity. For this purpose the homologous transplantable cell lines from the collection of European References Laboratory of CSF (National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy, Poland) and heterological primary cell culture from the collection "Biotest-Laboratory". Cell cultures were cultivated as a monolayer in 96-hole microtitration plates. Antigen of CSFV was detected in peroxides-linked assay (PLA). Cell culture SK-6 proved to be the best line for isolation of CSFV from organ samples and samples of infected cell culture. The cell line--SK-6 is recommended for cultivation of CSFV other lines (LT, PK-15) are not fit for this purpose. PMID:15765885

  11. Establishment and exploitation of hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid human myeloma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Pennisi, Angela; Zhan, Fenghuang; Sawyer, Jeffrey R.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2009-01-01

    Summary The establishment of clinically relevant human myeloma cell lines is central for our understanding of myeloma pathogenesis and development of novel therapies for the disease. Unfortunately, most available lines were generated from extramedullary sites, harbored multiple genetic abnormalities and categorized as non-hyperdiploid. In contrast, hyperdiploid myeloma cell lines, which represent more than 50% of patients, are rare. We established procedures for establishment of stroma-dependent myeloma lines by passaging primary myeloma cells, in severe combined immunodeficient-human (SCID-hu) or SCID-rab mice followed by maintenance in co-culture with stromal cells. We described the establishment and characterization of two hyperdiploid (LD and CF) and two non-hyperdiploid (JB and BN) cell lines. Using our animal models, we also established bortezomib-sensitive and -resistant BN lines. These cell lines were cellularly, phenotypically and molecularly characterized using flow cytometry immunophenotyping, DNA content, G-band and multicolor spectral karyotyping (SKY) and global gene expression profiling. All four cell lines were infected with lentiviral-expressing luciferase for detection of tumour cells at high sensitivity level and for monitoring myeloma growth in co-cultures and in vivo by live animal imaging. These myeloma cell lines and the procedures used for their establishment provide essential tools for studying myeloma biology and therapy. PMID:17760811

  12. FTIR characterization of animal lung cells: normal and precancerous modified e10 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezell, D. M.; Pereira, T. M.; Mennecier, G.; Bachmann, L.; Govone, A. B.; Dagli, M. L. Z.

    2012-06-01

    The chemical carcinogens from tobacco are related to over 90% of lung cancers around the world. The risk of death of this kind of cancer is high because the diagnosis usually is made only in advanced stages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new diagnostic methods for detecting the lung cancer in earlier stages. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) can offer high sensibility and accuracy to detect the minimal chemical changes into the biological sample. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences on infrared spectra between normal lung cells and precancerous lung cells transformed by NNK. Non-cancerous lung cell line e10 (ATCC) and NNK-transformed e10 cell lines were maintained in complete culture medium (1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F12 [DMEM/Ham's F12], supplemented with 100 ng/ml cholera enterotoxin, 10 lg/ml insulin, 0.5 lg/ml. hydrocortisol, 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor, and 5% horse serum. The cultures were maintained in alcohol 70%. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Nicolet 6700 spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 3 spectra recorded, 30 infrared spectra were obtained from each cell line. The second derivate of spectra indicates that there are displacement in 1646 cm-1 (amine I) and 1255 cm-1(DNA), allowing the possibility to differentiate the two king of cells, with accuracy of 89,9%. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal e10 lung cells from precancerous e10 transformed by NNK.

  13. Efficient production of a gene mutant cell line through integrating TALENs and high-throughput cell cloning.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changhong; Fan, Yu; Li, Juan; Wang, Gancheng; Zhang, Hanshuo; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are becoming powerful DNA-targeting tools in a variety of mammalian cells and model organisms. However, generating a stable cell line with specific gene mutations in a simple and rapid manner remains a challenging task. Here, we report a new method to efficiently produce monoclonal cells using integrated TALE nuclease technology and a series of high-throughput cell cloning approaches. Following this method, we obtained three mTOR mutant 293T cell lines within 2 months, which included one homozygous mutant line. PMID:25524489

  14. Cell cycle control by natural phenols in cisplatin-resistant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Daniela; Vianello, Caterina; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Caparrotta, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2014-10-01

    Fifteen plant polyphenols, including flavonoids, cinnamic acids, coumarins and capsaicin, were investigated for their capacity to suppress cell growth and regulate the cell cycle of in vitro human ovarian carcinoma (2008 cell line) and cervix squamous carcinoma cells (A431), and their cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant subclones (C13 and A431Pt, respectively). Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of the polyphenols (0.01-100 ?M) indicated that especially rhein and quercetin were almost equiactive in wild type and CDDP-resistant cells, indicating lack of cross-resistance with cisplatin. Capsaicin was more potent in CDDP-resistant subclones than in wild type cells. The order of their potencies is flavonoids > anthraquinones > vanilloids > coumarins > phenols, cinnamic acids. The natural phenols which were most cytotoxic (rhein, quercetin and capsaicin) were able to cause the arrest of the cancer cell cycle, suggesting that specific cell cycle regulatory proteins are possibly involved in their intracellular mechanism of action. In particular, the natural compounds were revealed to be more active in CDDP-resistant cells than in wild types, especially inducing apoptotic death. PMID:25522537

  15. Bilirubin- and light induced cell death in a murine lymphoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Christensen, T; Roll, E B; Jaworska, A; Kinn, G

    2000-11-01

    Cells from the mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y-R were exposed to blue light from phototherapy lamps in the presence of solutions of 160 microM bilirubin supplemented with serum albumin. HPLC analysis showed that the bilirubin solution was photooxidised as a function of increasing light dose. The cells were stained with trypan blue to score necrosis, and apoptosis was assayed by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase assay (TdT) or by studying the nuclear structure in cells stained with propidium iodide. A rapidly developing apoptosis was observed after light doses killing 60-80% of the cells as judged from the trypan blue exclusion test. The fraction of apoptotic cells was smaller than the fraction of necrotic cells. Exposure of the cells to fractions of light at a high dose rate was compared to the effect of the same total dose at a lower dose rate given as a single fraction. No large differences were found, however, there was a tendency of a higher degree of necrosis as well as apoptosis in the cells receiving the light in fractions at a high dose rate. PMID:11233646

  16. Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in non–small cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with increased caspase-3 activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey L. Weigel; Michael T. Lotze; Peter K. Kim; Andrew A. Amoscato; James D. Luketich; Christine Odoux

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine whether paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells is Fas dependent. Methods: Human lung cancer cell lines were evaluated for morphologic evidence of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positivity), and caspase-3 activation after paclitaxel treatment. Human lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated lung carcinoma, and bronchoalveolar carcinoma cell lines were each cultured in 10 ?mol\\/L

  17. Characterization of PICM-19H porcine liver stem cell line for potential use in a bioartificial liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hepatocyte cell line is needed as the biological component of a bioartificial liver (BAL). One candidate is the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line. These cells have many normal hepatocyte functions often lacking in tumor-derived liver cell lines. The study characterized a PICM-19 derivative cell ...

  18. Whole-exome characterization of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cell lines BON-1 and QGP-1.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Timon; Peeters, Marc; Dogan, Fadime; Pauwels, Patrick; Van Assche, Elvire; Beyens, Matthias; Mortier, Geert; Vandeweyer, Geert; de Herder, Wouter; Van Camp, Guy; Hofland, Leo J; Op de Beeck, Ken

    2015-04-01

    The human BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines are two frequently used models in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) research. Data on the whole-exome genetic constitution of these cell lines is largely lacking. This study presents, to our knowledge, the first whole-exome profile of the BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines. Cell line identity was confirmed by short tandem repeat profiling. Using GTG-banding and a CytoSNP-12v2 Beadchip array, cell line ploidy and chromosomal alterations were determined in BON-1 and QGP-1. The exomes of both cell lines were sequenced on Ilumina's HiSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions and deletions (indels) were detected using the Genome Analysis ToolKit. SNVs were validated by Sanger sequencing. Ploidy of BON-1 and QGP-1 was 3 and 4 respectively, with long stretches of loss of heterozygosity across multiple chromosomes, which is associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In BON-1, 57 frameshift indels and 1725 possible protein-altering SNVs were identified in the NGS data. In the QGP-1 cell line, 56 frameshift indels and 1095 SNVs were identified. ATRX, a PNET-associated gene, was mutated in both cell lines, while mutation of TSC2 was detected in BON-1. A mutation in NRAS was detected in BON-1, while KRAS was mutated in QGP-1, implicating aberrations in the RAS pathway in both cell lines. Homozygous mutations in TP53 with possible loss of function were identified in both cell lines. Various MUC genes, implicated in cell signaling, lubrication and chemical barriers, which are frequently expressed in PNET tissue samples, showed homozygous protein-altering SNVs in the BON-1 and QGP-1 cell lines. PMID:25612765

  19. Comparative properties of untreated and N-nitrosobenzylmethyl-amine-transformed rat esophageal epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stoner, G D; Babcock, M S; McCorquodale, M M; Gunning, W T; Jamasbi, R; Budd, N; Hukku, B

    1989-10-01

    A culture system utilizing rat esophageal epithelial cells has been developed. Four normal and eight N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine-treated lines were compared with respect to chromosome number, anchorage-independent growth in agarose, and tumorigenic potential in syngeneic rats. All cell lines were aneuploid with nine in the near-tetraploid range and three in the near-diploid range. No relation between tumorigenic potential and chromosome number or structure was apparent. Similarly, anchorage-independent growth in agarose did not correlate with tumorigenic potential. Three of the 12 immortalized lines (two carcinogen-treated and 1 untreated) induced well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas in syngeneic rats. These tumors had weak metastatic potentials suggesting that tumorigenic potential and metastatic ability are separately controlled. These cell lines will be useful for the investigation of factors involved in the conversion of immortalized rat esophageal epithelial cell lines to lines of high metastatic potential. PMID:2808222

  20. Openness and the governance of human stem cell lines: a conceptual approach 

    E-print Network

    George, Carol Charlene

    2013-07-03

    My research examines the extent to which features of ‘openness’ might usefully contribute to mechanisms of governance of human stem cell lines, with a view to the production of therapeutic stem cell treatments for the ...

  1. New Helicoverpa armigera Hbn cell line from larval hemocyte for baculovirus studies.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, A B; Shouche, Y S; Mourya, D T; Pant, U

    2002-01-01

    A new cell line from the larval hemocytes of H. armigera was established in Grace's medium modified by adding lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeastolate (3.3g/l), and supplemented with fetal bovine serum (20%). The cell line was designated as NIV-HA-1195. The cell population at P-78 consisted mainly of epithelial-like cells (89.36%), fibroblast-like cells (8.31%) and giant cells (2.13%). The population doubling time was 96hr at P-8, 60hr at P-43. The chromosome number ranged from 45 to 200. The cell line is susceptible to the baculoviruses, Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV), Spodoptera litura NPV and the homologous HaNPV. Isoenzyme profile and results of 16S rRNA heteroduplex analysis clearly indicated the species specificity of the new cell line. PMID:12561972

  2. Autophagy Protects Against Aminochrome-Induced Cell Death in Substantia Nigra-Derived Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Huenchuguala, Sandro; Couve, Eduardo; Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, John Timothy; Caviedes, Pablo; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, has been proposed to be involved in the neurodegeneration neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. We aimed to study the mechanism of aminochrome-dependent cell death in a cell line derived from rat substantia nigra. We found that aminochrome (50?M), in the presence of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2 (DT)-diaphorase inhibitor dicoumarol (DIC) (100?M), induces significant cell death (62 ± 3%; p < 0.01), increase in caspase-3 activation (p < 0.001), release of cytochrome C, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.01), damage of mitochondrial DNA, damage of mitochondria determined with transmission electron microscopy, a dramatic morphological change characterized as cell shrinkage, and significant increase in number of autophagic vacuoles. To determine the role of autophagy on aminochrome-induced cell death, we incubated the cells in the presence of vinblastine and rapamycin. Interestingly, 10?M vinblastine induces a 5.9-fold (p < 0.001) and twofold (p < 0.01) significant increase in cell death when the cells were incubated with 30?M aminochrome in the absence and presence of DIC, respectively, whereas 10?M rapamycin preincubated 24 h before addition of 50?M aminochrome in the absence and the presence of 100?M DIC induces a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in cell death. In conclusion, autophagy seems to be an important protective mechanism against two different aminochrome-induced cell deaths that initially showed apoptotic features. The cell death induced by aminochrome when DT-diaphorase is inhibited requires activation of mitochondrial pathway, whereas the cell death induced by aminochrome alone requires inhibition of autophagy-dependent degrading of damaged organelles and recycling through lysosomes. PMID:21427056

  3. Development and characterization of a cell line WAF from freshwater shark Wallago attu.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Akhilesh; Goswami, Mukunda; Yadav, Kamalendra; Sharma, Bhagwati S

    2014-02-01

    A new epithelial cell line, WAF was developed from caudal fin of freshwater shark, Wallago attu. The cell line was optimally maintained at 28 °C in Leibovitz-15 (L-15) medium supplemented with 20 % fetal bovine serum. The cell line was characterized by various cytogenetic and molecular markers. The cytogenetic analysis revealed a diploid count of 86 chromosomes at different passages. The origin of the cell lines was confirmed by the amplification of 547 and 654 bp sequences of 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes of mitochondrial DNA, respectively. WAF cells were characterized for their growth characteristics at different temperature and serum concentration. Epithelial morphology of the cell line was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. Further cell plating efficiency, transfection efficiency and viability of cryopreserved WAF cells was also determined. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of cadmium salts on WAF cells by MTT, NR and comet assay illustrated the utility of this cell line as an in vitro model for aquatic toxicological studies. The cell line will be further useful for studying oxidative stress markers against aquatic pollutants. PMID:24381102

  4. Lymphocyte Migration Through Monolayers of Endothelial Cell Lines Involves VCAM-1 Signaling Via Endothelial Cell NADPH Oxidase1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather E. Matheny; Tracy L. Deem; Joan M. Cook-Mills

    Lymphocytes migrate from the blood across endothelial cells to reach foreign substances sequestered in peripheral lymphoid organs and inflammatory sites. To study intracellular signaling in endothelial cells during lymphocyte migration, we used murine endothelial cell lines that promote lymphocyte migration and constitutively express VCAM-1. The maximum rate of resting splenic lymphocyte migration across monolayers of the endothelial cells occurred at

  5. Proteome characterization of melanoma exosomes reveals a specific signature for metastatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Ikrame; Clement, Emily; Ducoux-Petit, Manuelle; Denat, Laurence; Soldan, Vanessa; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Balor, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Larue, Lionel; Muller, Catherine; Nieto, Laurence

    2015-07-01

    Exosomes are important mediators in cell-to-cell communication and, recently, their role in melanoma progression has been brought to light. Here, we characterized exosomes secreted by seven melanoma cell lines with varying degrees of aggressivity. Extensive proteomic analysis of their exosomes confirmed the presence of characteristic exosomal markers as well as melanoma-specific antigens and oncogenic proteins. Importantly, the protein composition differed among exosomes from different lines. Exosomes from aggressive cells contained specific proteins involved in cell motility, angiogenesis, and immune response, while these proteins were less abundant or absent in exosomes from less aggressive cells. Interestingly, when exposed to exosomes from metastatic lines, less aggressive cells increased their migratory capacities, likely due to transfer of pro-migratory exosomal proteins to recipient cells. Hence, this study shows that the specific protein composition of melanoma exosomes depends on the cells' aggressivity and suggests that exosomes influence the behavior of other tumor cells and their microenvironment. PMID:25950383

  6. CD133 positive cells isolated from A549 cell line exhibited high liver metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Yang, N; Sun, B; Jiang, Y; Hou, C; Ji, C; Zhang, Y; Liu, Y; Zuo, P

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapy. In present study, we identified a subpopulation of cells isolated from the A549 cell line with marker CD133. In vivo results showed that A549 CD133+ cells displayed high liver metastatic potential. Severe liver cell damage with tumor cell invasion revealed by pathological examination and these changes were consistent with the results of serological tests where the plasma GPT and GOT level are significantly higher than that of the control group. Compared with A549 cells, A549 CD133+ cells expressed high levels of VEGF and exhibited high migration and invasion capability. In conclusion, we first reported that A549 CD133+ cells exhibited characteristic of high liver metastatic potential which makes it be a suitable model for further study of liver metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma and provide a potential platform for anti-metastatic drug discovery or evaluation. PMID:24299311

  7. Sceptrin, a marine natural compound, inhibits cell motility in a variety of cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cipres, Angel; O'Malley, Daniel P; Li, Ke; Finlay, Darren; Baran, Phil S; Vuori, Kristiina

    2010-02-19

    Sceptrin, a natural compound produced by various marine sponges, was tested for its effect on cell motility. We report for the first time that sceptrin inhibits cell motility in several cancer cell lines. The compound shows no toxicity at concentrations that are double the amount of sceptrin required for maximal inhibitory effect. Both random and factor-induced migration were impaired, suggesting that sceptrin targets a central process of cell motility machinery. Activity of de novo synthesized sceptrin was indistinguishable from sceptrin purified from Agelas nakamurai, and the inhibitory activity was found to be, at least partially, due to sceptrin's capability to inhibit cell contractility. Additionally, sceptrin was found to bind to monomeric actin, further suggesting a mechanism involving the actin cytoskeleton. Close analogues of sceptrin were synthesized, tested for their effect on cell motility, and found to be either equimolar or less potent compared to the parental compound. Inadvertent cell motility is a key contributing factor in various human diseases, including cancer and chronic inflammation. Marine compounds isolated from sponges have been proven to be an excellent source of metabolites that show biological activities. Given the recently achieved total synthesis of sceptrin in multigram quantities, sceptrin could prove to be an attractive lead molecule for further preclinical testing and development for therapeutic purposes, as well as a useful research tool to elucidate the mechanisms involved in cell motility. PMID:20030414

  8. Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen; Nautiyal, Shivani; Flaucher, Diane; Carlton, Victoria EH; Moorhead, Martin; Lu, Yontao; Gray, Joe W; Faham, Malek; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-05-04

    Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fxed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically signifcant negative correlation between methylation profles and gene expression in the panel of breast cancer cell lines. Subnetwork enrichment of these genes has identifed 35 common regulators with 6 or more predicted markers. In addition to identifying epigenetically regulated genes, we show evidence of differentially expressed methylation patterns between the basal and luminal subtypes. Our results indicate that the proposed computational protocol is a viable platform for identifying epigenetically regulated genes. Our protocol has generated a list of predictors including COL1A2, TOP2A, TFF1, and VAV3, genes whose key roles in epigenetic regulation is documented in the literature. Subnetwork enrichment of these predicted markers further suggests that epigenetic regulation of individual genes occurs in a coordinated fashion and through common regulators.

  9. Human B cell activating factor (BCAF): production by a human T cell tumor line.

    PubMed

    Fevrier, M; Diu, A; Mollier, P; Abadie, A; Olive, D; Mawas, C; Theze, J

    1989-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that supernatants from human T cell clones stimulated by a pair of anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies cause resting human B cells to become activated and to proliferate in the absence of any other signals. The activity responsible for these effects was shown to be different from already characterized lymphokines and in particular from IL-2 and IL-4, and was named B Cell Activating Factor or BCAF. In this paper, we describe the production of BCAF by a human T cell tumor line T687 after phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation; this production can be potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). We further show that the stimulatory phase can be separated from the secretory phase thereby avoiding contamination of BCAF-containing supernatant by PMA and PHA. Supernatants produced under these conditions do not contain either IL-4 or IFN but contain traces of lymphotoxin and 2 to 10 ng/ml of IL-2. The T687 cell line will allow us to obtain a large volume of supernatant for biochemical study and purification of the molecule(s) responsible for BCAF activity. PMID:2497279

  10. The Ah Receptor Regulates Growth Factor Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    John, Kaarthik; Lahoti, Tejas S.; Wagner, Kelly; Hughes, Jarod M.; Perdew, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines have revealed that the Ah receptor (AHR) plays a significant role in mediating the ‘aggressive’ phenotype of these cells, which includes enhanced inflammatory signaling (e.g. IL6) and migratory potential. Here we sought to identify putative novel targets of the AHR associated with enhanced tumor invasiveness. Global gene expression analysis identified a number of genes that are repressed upon treatment of OSC-19 or HN30 cells with an AHR antagonist. Three growth factors were targets of AHR activity; amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG) and platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGFA) were repressed by an AHR antagonist and further examined. Quantitative PCR analysis, ELISA and siRNA-mediated knock down of AHR revealed an attenuation of basal and/or induced levels of expression of these growth factors in two HNSCC lines, following AHR antagonism. In silico analysis revealed that these growth factors possess dioxin-like response elements. Two other AHR ligands, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole and benzo(a)pyrene also elicited similar responses. In conclusion, this study identified AREG, EREG and PDGFA as growth factor targets of AHR activity associated with metastatic phenotype of HNSCC cells, suggesting that attenuation of AHR activity may be a therapeutic strategy. PMID:23625689

  11. The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W.; Beeman, Richard W.; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100?pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions. PMID:25354547

  12. The Ah receptor regulates growth factor expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    John, Kaarthik; Lahoti, Tejas S; Wagner, Kelly; Hughes, Jarod M; Perdew, Gary H

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines have revealed that the Ah receptor (AHR) plays a significant role in mediating the "aggressive" phenotype of these cells, which includes enhanced inflammatory signaling (e.g., IL6) and migratory potential. Here we sought to identify putative novel targets of the AHR associated with enhanced tumor invasiveness. Global gene expression analysis identified a number of genes that are repressed upon treatment of OSC-19 or HN30 cells with an AHR antagonist. Three growth factors were targets of AHR activity; amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGFA) were repressed by an AHR antagonist and further examined. Quantitative PCR analysis, ELISA, and siRNA-mediated knock down of AHR revealed an attenuation of basal and/or induced levels of expression of these growth factors in two HNSCC lines, following AHR antagonism. In silico analysis revealed that these growth factors possess dioxin-like response elements. Two other AHR ligands, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) also elicited similar responses. In conclusion, this study identified AREG, EREG, and PDGFA as growth factor targets of AHR activity associated with metastatic phenotype of HNSCC cells, suggesting that attenuation of AHR activity may be a therapeutic strategy. PMID:23625689

  13. Okadaic Acid Toxin at Sublethal Dose Produced Cell Proliferation in Gastric and Colon Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Miguel; Toledo, Héctor; Lagos, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Okadaic Acid (OA) on the proliferation of gastric and colon epithelial cells, the main target tissues of the toxin. We hypothesized that OA, at sublethal doses, activates multiple signaling pathways, such as Erk and Akt, through the inhibition of PP2A. To demonstrate this, we carried out curves of doses and time response against OA in AGS, MKN-45 and Caco 2 cell lines, and found an increase in the cell proliferation at sublethal doses, at 24 h or 48 h exposure. Indeed, cells can withstand high concentrations of the toxin at 4 h exposure, the time chosen considering the maximum time before total gastric emptying. We have proved that this increased proliferation is due to an overexpression of Cyclin B, a cyclin that promotes the passage from G2 to mitosis. In addition, we have demonstrated that OA induces activation of Akt and Erk in the three cells lines, showing that OA can activate pathways involved in oncogenesis. In conclusion, this study contributes to the knowledge about the possible effects of chronic OA consumption. PMID:24317467

  14. Okadaic acid toxin at sublethal dose produced cell proliferation in gastric and colon epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Miguel; Toledo, Héctor; Lagos, Néstor

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Okadaic Acid (OA) on the proliferation of gastric and colon epithelial cells, the main target tissues of the toxin. We hypothesized that OA, at sublethal doses, activates multiple signaling pathways, such as Erk and Akt, through the inhibition of PP2A. To demonstrate this, we carried out curves of doses and time response against OA in AGS, MKN-45 and Caco 2 cell lines, and found an increase in the cell proliferation at sublethal doses, at 24 h or 48 h exposure. Indeed, cells can withstand high concentrations of the toxin at 4 h exposure, the time chosen considering the maximum time before total gastric emptying. We have proved that this increased proliferation is due to an overexpression of Cyclin B, a cyclin that promotes the passage from G2 to mitosis. In addition, we have demonstrated that OA induces activation of Akt and Erk in the three cells lines, showing that OA can activate pathways involved in oncogenesis. In conclusion, this study contributes to the knowledge about the possible effects of chronic OA consumption. PMID:24317467

  15. Regulation of natriuretic peptide (urodilatin) release in a human kidney cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WOLFGANG LENZ; MONIKA HERTEN; RUPERT GERZER; CHRISTIAN DRUMMER

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of natriuretic peptide (urodilatin) release in a human kidney cell line.BackgroundTo identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the release of a renal natriuretic peptide (NP) we selected a human kidney cell line (HEK 293) that displays several characteristics of distal tubular cells.MethodsCells were exposed to different extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and the effect on NP release was measured with a

  16. Trichostatin A induces cell death at the concentration recommended to differentiate the RGC-5 cell line.

    PubMed

    Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Hofmann, Johanna; Szurman, Peter; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Spitzer, Martin S

    2012-05-01

    Supplementation with Trichostatin A (TSA) has been described as the method of choice for differentiating the RGC-5 cell line into cells with neuronal properties. However, TSA is known to induce apoptosis. We therefore investigated whether TSA at the recommended concentration for differentiation (500 nM) and at three additional concentrations (40, 150 and 2000 nM) induces apoptosis or cell death in the RGC-5 cell line. Morphological changes of the RGC-5 cells occurred after 24 and 48 hours (h) of treatment with 500 and 2000 nM TSA. Differentiation of RGC-5 cell began at 150 nM. A decrease in the cell count was observed from 150 nM TSA onwards compared to controls. Five hundred nanomolar of TSA reduced the amount of cells to 51% (p<0.005) after 24h and to 24% (p<0.005) after 48 h compared to controls on crystal violet staining. At 500 nM TSA a massive induction of apoptosis after 24 and 48 h was noted. Supplementation of 500 nM TSA increased caspase 3/7 activity 5.0-fold (p<0.005). Furthermore, 27× more TUNEL-positive cells were found and the cleaved caspase 3/caspase 3 ratio was 1.8-fold (p<0.1) higher 24h after the addition of 500 nM TSA. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was 3.4-fold (p<0.05) higher after 48 h. Cell viability decreased to 70% (p<0.005) and to 35% (p<0.005) after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Moreover, 103× (p<0.05) more dead cells (via propidium iodide staining) were found after 48 h of treatment with 500 nM TSA. In conclusion, TSA induces cell death and apoptosis at the concentration recommended for differentiation. The induction of apoptosis occurred dose and time dependently and already at even lower concentrations of TSA which did not lead to differentiation induced apoptosis. Thus, studies with RGC-5 cells should not be performed within the first 48 h after supplementation with TSA. PMID:22391323

  17. Isolation of Cancer Stem Cells from Three Human Glioblastoma Cell Lines: Characterization of Two Selected Clones

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, Roberto; Biamonte, Filippo; Mangiola, Annunziato; Maira, Giulio; Grassi, Claudio; Sica, Gigliola

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) were isolated via a non-adherent neurosphere assay from three glioma cell lines: LI, U87, and U373. Using a clonal assay, two clones (D2 and F11) were selected from spheres derived from LI cells and were characterized for the: expression of stem cell markers (CD133, Nestin, Musashi-1 and Sox2); proliferation; differentiation capability (determined by the expression of GalC, ?III-Tubulin and GFAP); Ca2+ signaling and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Both D2 and F11 clones expressed higher levels of all stem cell markers with respect to the parental cell line. Clones grew more slowly than LI cells with a two-fold increase in duplication time. Markers of differentiation (?III-Tubulin and GFAP) were expressed at high levels in both LI cells and in neurospheres. The expression of Nestin, Sox2, and ?III-Tubulin was down-regulated in D2 and F11 when cultured in serum-containing medium, whereas Musashi-1 was increased. In this condition, duplication time of D2 and F11 increased without reaching that of LI cells. D2, F11 and parental cells did not express voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels but they exhibited increased intracellular Ca2+ levels in response to ATP. These Ca2+ signals were larger in LI cells and in spheres cultured in serum-containing medium, while they were smaller in serum-free medium. The ATP treatment did not affect cell proliferation. Both D2 and F11 induced the appearance of tumors when ortotopically injected in athymic nude mice at a density 50-fold lower than that of LI cells. All these data indicate that both clones have characteristics of CSC and share the same stemness properties. The findings regarding the expression of differentiation markers and Ca2+-channels show that both clones are unable to reach the terminal differentiation. Both D2 and F11 might represent a good model to improve the knowledge on CSC in glioblastoma and to identify new therapeutic approaches. PMID:25121761

  18. Identification and verification of rodent cell lines by polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Koelz, Anne-Leena; Drexler, Hans G.

    2007-01-01

    Cell lines represent valuable tools for basic research and diagnostic applications as well as for the production of biological products such as antibodies or vaccines. For all cell culturists, a well-identified origin of their cell lines as well as the periodic re-examination of their identity should be a basic requirement. We established a simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to verify or identify rodent and human cell lines. Since mouse-, rat-, Chinese hamster- and Syrian hamster-derived cell lines represent the most frequently used rodent cell lines, our investigations were focused on these species. Our assay used oligonucleotide primers annealing to sequences within the ?-actin and the ?-globin gene and to repetitive DNA. Primers were designed mostly from intron sequences of the genes aiming to amplify only one specific DNA segment and thus enabling to exclude easily false DNA. More than 130 cells lines originating from the five species were analyzed in that study. Our PCR revealed specific profiles for all species investigated. No further methods like DNA sequencing or fragment length polymorphism analysis were needed to differentiate these species. The results introduce our PCR-assay as a rapid, specific and routinely feasible tool in order to identify or distinguish rodent cell lines from each other and from human cell lines. PMID:19002841

  19. Expression of Tropomyosin 1 Gene Isoforms in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Syamalima; Yalamanchili, Santhi; Lachant, Joseph; Abbott, Lynn; Benz, Patricia; Mitschow, Charles; Dube, Dipak K.; Poiesz, Bernard J.

    2015-01-01

    Nine malignant breast epithelial cell lines and 3 normal breast cell lines were examined for stress fiber formation and expression of TPM1 isoform-specific RNAs and proteins. Stress fiber formation was strong (++++) in the normal cell lines and varied among the malignant cell lines (negative to +++). Although TPM1? and TPM1? were the dominant transcripts of TPM1, there was no clear evidence for TPM1? protein expression. Four novel human TPM1 gene RNA isoforms were discovered (?, ?, ?, and ?), which were not identified in adult and fetal human cardiac tissues. TPM1? was the most frequent isoform expressed in the malignant breast cell lines, and it was absent in normal breast epithelial cell lines. By western blotting, we were unable to distinguish between TPM1?, ?, and ? protein expression, which were the only TPM1 gene protein isoforms potentially expressed. Some malignant cell lines demonstrated increased or decreased expression of these isoforms relative to the normal breast cell lines. Stress fiber formation did not correlate with TPM1? RNA expression but significantly and inversely correlated with TPM1? and TPM1? expression, respectively. The exact differences in expression of these novel isoforms and their functional properties in breast epithelial cells will require further study. PMID:26171250

  20. Experimental impact of aspirin exposure on rat intestinal bacteria, epithelial cells and cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj K Upreti; A. Kannan; AB Pant

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin, a commonly used therapeutic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is known to cause gastric mucosal damage. Intestinal bacteria having a regulatory effect on intestinal homeostasis play significant role in NSAID-induced intestinal injury. Bacteria and specific cell lines are considered to be suitable for toxicity screening and testing of chemicals. Therefore, to evaluate and compare in vitro toxicity, cultures of rat

  1. A tumorigenic murine Sertoli cell line that is temperature-sensitive for differentiation.

    PubMed

    Boekelheide, K; Lee, J W; Hall, S J; Rhind, N R; Zaret, K S

    1993-10-01

    The Sertoli cell is the epithelial cell within the seminiferous tubule responsible for supporting germ cells. Most current in vitro studies of Sertoli cell function use primary cultures because of the limited number of available Sertoli cell lines. In addition, few in vivo models of Sertoli cell malignancy have been described. In this study, a tumorigenic Sertoli cell line was developed by infection of isolated murine Sertoli cells by simian virus 40 tsA255; the ts mutation causes the inactivation of the large T antigen at elevated temperatures. A cloned Sertoli cell line, called S14-1, demonstrated temperature-dependent growth in soft agar and formed tumors in nude mice. Electron microscopy of the S14-1-derived tumor revealed extensive basal intercellular junctions and tubulobulbarlike processes supporting its Sertoli cell origin. Cytogenetic analysis showed that S14-1 cells were aneuploid with an average of 70 chromosomes per cell. At the nonpermissive (40 C) temperature, S14-1 cells in vitro demonstrated a reduced growth rate, enhanced secretion of transferrin, and increased expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 messenger RNA, indicating the cells manifested increased differentiation following large T antigen inactivation. The murine S14-1 Sertoli cell line should be useful for both in vitro studies of Sertoli cell function and in vivo studies of Sertoli cell malignancy. PMID:8214009

  2. ECC-1 cells: a well-differentiated steroid-responsive endometrial cell line with characteristics of luminal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mo, Bilan; Vendrov, Aleksandr E; Palomino, Wilder A; DuPont, Barbara R; Apparao, K B C; Lessey, Bruce A

    2006-09-01

    Endometrial cancer cell lines have provided a valuable model to study endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Since the first development of HEC1B over 35 yr ago, many different cell lines have been isolated and described. One valuable cell line that maintains hormone responsiveness and unique stability over time is the ECC-1 cell line, developed originally by the late P.G. Satyaswaroop. In this study, we investigated some of the properties of these cells and present their salient characteristics. Like Ishikawa cells, ECC-1 cells maintain both estrogen receptors (ESR1 [ER alpha] and ESR2 [ER beta]), progesterone receptors (PR A and B; PGRs), and androgen receptors (ARs), along with the p160 steroid receptor coactivators NCOA1 (formerly SRC1), NCOA2 (formerly TIF2), and NCOA3 (formerly AIB1). The karyotype of these cells is abnormal, with multiple structural rearrangements in all cells analyzed. Unlike Ishikawa cells that express glandular epithelial antigens, ECC-1 cells maintain a luminal phenotype, with expression of KRT13 (cytokeratin 13) and KRT18 (cytokeratin 18). Apparent differences in the regulation of ESR2 also were evident in ECC-1 cells compared to Ishikawa cells. Like other endometrial cell lines, ECC-1 cells express the steroid receptor coactivators and exhibit epidermal growth factor-stimulated expression of known luminal proteins thought to be involved in implantation, including the hyaluronate receptor CD44 and SPP1 (formerly osteopontin) and CD55 (decay-accelerating factor). These characteristics appear to be stable and persistent over multiple cell passages, making this well-differentiated cell line an excellent choice to study endocrine and paracrine regulation of endometrial epithelium in vitro. PMID:16707768

  3. Functional differences between two morphologically distinct cell subpopulations within a human colorectal carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Solimene, A C; Carneiro, C R; Melati, I; Lopes, J D

    2001-05-01

    The LISP-I human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line was isolated from a hepatic metastasis at the Ludwig Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. The objective of the present study was to isolate morphologically different subpopulations within the LISP-I cell line, and characterize some of their behavioral aspects such as adhesion to and migration towards extracellular matrix components, expression of intercellular adhesion molecules and tumorigenicity in vitro. Once isolated, the subpopulations were submitted to adhesion and migration assays on laminin and fibronectin (crucial proteins to invasion and metastasis), as well as to anchorage-independent growth. Two morphologically different subpopulations were isolated: LISP-A10 and LISP-E11. LISP-A10 presents a differentiated epithelial pattern, and LISP-E11 is fibroblastoid, suggesting a poorly differentiated pattern. LISP-A10 expressed the two intercellular adhesion molecules tested, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and desmoglein, while LISP-E11 expressed only low amounts of CEA. On the other hand, adhesion to laminin and fibronectin as well as migration towards these extracellular matrix proteins were higher in LISP-E11, as expected from its poorly differentiated phenotype. Both subpopulations showed anchorage-independent growth on a semi-solid substrate. These results raise the possibility that the heterogeneity found in the LISP-I cell line, which might have contributed to its ability to metastasize, was due to at least two different subpopulations herein identified. PMID:11323753

  4. The avian cell line AGE1.CR.pIX characterized by metabolic flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human vaccine manufacturing some pathogens such as Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara, measles, mumps virus as well as influenza viruses are still produced on primary material derived from embryonated chicken eggs. Processes depending on primary cell culture, however, are difficult to adapt to modern vaccine production. Therefore, we derived previously a continuous suspension cell line, AGE1.CR.pIX, from muscovy duck and established chemically-defined media for virus propagation. Results To better understand vaccine production processes, we developed a stoichiometric model of the central metabolism of AGE1.CR.pIX cells and applied flux variability and metabolic flux analysis. Results were compared to literature dealing with mammalian and insect cell culture metabolism focusing on the question whether cultured avian cells differ in metabolism. Qualitatively, the observed flux distribution of this avian cell line was similar to distributions found for mammalian cell lines (e.g. CHO, MDCK cells). In particular, glucose was catabolized inefficiently and glycolysis and TCA cycle seem to be only weakly connected. Conclusions A distinguishing feature of the avian cell line is that glutaminolysis plays only a minor role in energy generation and production of precursors, resulting in low extracellular ammonia concentrations. This metabolic flux study is the first for a continuous avian cell line. It provides a basis for further metabolic analyses to exploit the biotechnological potential of avian and vertebrate cell lines and to develop specific optimized cell culture processes, e.g. vaccine production processes. PMID:25077436

  5. Classification of potassium and chlorine ionic currents in retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5) by whole-cell patch clamp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Jie; Xie, Lai-Hua; Heng, Bin; Liu, Yan-Qiang

    2012-11-01

    Retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5) has been widely used as a valuable model for studying pathophysiology and physiology of retinal ganglion cells in vitro. However, the electrophysiological characteristics, especially a thorough classification of ionic currents in the cell line, remain to be elucidated in details. In the present study, we determined the resting membrane potential (RMP) in RGC-5 cell line and then identified different types of ionic currents by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The RMP recorded in the cell line was between -30 and -6 mV (-17.6 ± 2.6 mV, n = 10). We observed the following voltage-gated ion channel currents: (1) inwardly rectifying Cl- current (I Cl,ir), which could be blocked by Zn2+; (2) Ca2+-activated Cl- current (I Cl,Ca), which was sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ and could be inhibited by disodium 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate; (3) inwardly rectifying K+ currents (I K1), which could be blocked by Ba2+; (4) a small amount of delayed rectifier K+ current (I K). On the other hand, the voltage-gated sodium channels current (I Na) and transient outward potassium channels current (I A) were not observed in this cell line. These results further characterize the ionic currents in the RGC-5 cell line and are beneficial for future studies especially on ion channel (patho)physiology and pharmacology in the RGC-5 cell line. PMID:23110755

  6. A genetically engineered human pancreatic ? cell line exhibiting glucose-inducible insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ravassard, Philippe; Hazhouz, Yasmine; Pechberty, Séverine; Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Armanet, Mathieu; Czernichow, Paul; Scharfmann, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Despite intense efforts over the past 30 years, human pancreatic ? cell lines have not been available. Here, we describe a robust technology for producing a functional human ? cell line using targeted oncogenesis in human fetal tissue. Human fetal pancreatic buds were transduced with a lentiviral vector that expressed SV40LT under the control of the insulin promoter. The transduced buds were then grafted into SCID mice so that they could develop into mature pancreatic tissue. Upon differentiation, the newly formed SV40LT-expressing ? cells proliferated and formed insulinomas. The resulting ? cells were then transduced with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), grafted into other SCID mice, and finally expanded in vitro to generate cell lines. One of these cell lines, EndoC-?H1, expressed many ? cell–specific markers without any substantial expression of markers of other pancreatic cell types. The cells secreted insulin when stimulated by glucose or other insulin secretagogues, and cell transplantation reversed chemically induced diabetes in mice. These cells represent a unique tool for large-scale drug discovery and provide a preclinical model for cell replacement therapy in diabetes. This technology could be generalized to generate other human cell lines when the cell type–specific promoter is available. PMID:21865645

  7. Identification of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Side Population Cells in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; Li-Ping Guo; Li-Zhen Chen; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Side population (SP) cells have been isolated from several solid tumors. They lack distinct molecular markers for cancer stem cells (CSC) and increasing evidence suggests that they may play an important role in tumorigenesis and cancer therapy. However, there are no reports about the existence and function of SP cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells thus far. In this study,

  8. Establishment of an immortal chicken embryo liver-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongyoon; Foster, Douglas N; Bottje, Walter G; Jang, Hyeon-Min; Chandra, Yohanna G; Gentles, Lauren E; Kong, Byung-Whi

    2013-06-01

    A continuously growing immortal cell substrate can be used for virus propagation, diagnostic purposes, and vaccine production. The aim of this study was to develop an immortal chicken cell line for efficient propagation of avian infectious viruses. From the various chicken embryo cells that were tested for life span extension, an immortalized chicken embryo liver (CEL) cell line, named CEL-im, was derived spontaneously without either oncogenic viruses or carcinogenic chemical treatment. Currently, CEL-im cells are growing 0.8 to 1.1 population doublings per day and have reached 120 passages. The CEL-im cell line is permissive for poultry infectious viruses, including avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1), and infectious laryngotracheitis virus. The CEL-im cells produced high AMPV titer (>10(5) pfu/mL), whereas very low titers (~10 pfu/mL) for MDV-1 and infectious laryngotracheitis virus were produced. To identify genetic alterations in the immortal CEL-im cell line, telomerase activity and mRNA expression for major cell cycle regulatory genes were determined during the immortalizing process. The CEL-im cell line has negative telomerase activity, and when compared with the primary passage 2 CEL cell counterpart, mRNA expression of tumor suppressor protein p53, mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2), cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 (p21(WAF)), and CDK inhibitor p16 (p16(INK4)) were downregulated in the CEL-im cell line, whereas retinoblastoma (Rb), transcription factor E2F, member 1 (E2F-1), and alternative reading frame of p16(INK4) (ARF) were upregulated. These results are similar to genetic alterations found previously in immortal chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell lines that showed efficient propagation of MDV-1. Therefore, this newly established CEL-im cell line can serve as an alternative cell substrate for the propagation of poultry viruses, such as AMPV. PMID:23687157

  9. Similar biological characteristics of human embryonic stem cell lines with normal and abnormal karyotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofang; Long, Xiaolin; Yin, Yifei; Jiang, Yonghua; Chen, Xinjie; Liu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Wenhong; Du, Hongzi; Li, Shaoying; Zheng, Yuhong; Kong, Shu; Pang, Qianying; Shi, Yu; Huang, Yulin; Huang, Shengchan; Liao, Baoping; Xiao, Guohong; Wang, Weihua

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines derived from poor quality embryos usually have either normal or abnormal karyotypes. However, it is still unclear whether their biological characteristics are similar. METHODS Seven new hESC lines were established using discarded embryos. Five cell lines had normal karyotype, one was with an unbalanced Robertsonian translocation and one had a triploid karyotype. Their biological characteristics, short tandem repeat loci, HLA typing, differentiation capability and imprinted gene, DNA methylation and X chromosome inactivation status were compared between different cell lines. RESULTS All seven hESC lines had similar biological characteristics regardless of karyotype (five normal and two abnormal), such as expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4, tumor-rejection antigen (TRA)-1-81 and TRA-1-60 proteins, transcription factor octamer binding protein 4 mRNA, no detectable expression of SSEA-1 protein and high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. All cell lines were able to undergo differentiation. Imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation were also similar among these cell lines. Non-random X chromosome inactivation patterns were found in XX cell lines. CONCLUSIONS The present results suggest that hESC lines with abnormal karyotype are also useful experimental materials for cell therapy, developmental biology and genetic research. PMID:18611919

  10. Robust regeneration of adult zebrafish lateral line hair cells reflects continued precursor pool maintenance.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ivan A; Kappedal, Ryan; Mackenzie, Scott M; Hailey, Dale W; Hoffman, Trevor L; Schilling, Thomas F; Raible, David W

    2015-06-15

    We have examined lateral line hair cell and support cell maintenance in adult zebrafish when growth is largely complete. We demonstrate that adult zebrafish not only replenish hair cells after a single instance of hair cell damage, but also maintain hair cells and support cells after multiple rounds of damage and regeneration. We find that hair cells undergo continuous turnover in adult zebrafish in the absence of damage. We identify mitotically-distinct support cell populations and show that hair cells regenerate from underlying support cells in a region-specific manner. Our results demonstrate that there are two distinct support cell populations in the lateral line, which may help explain why zebrafish hair cell regeneration is extremely robust, retained throughout life, and potentially unlimited in regenerative capacity. PMID:25869855

  11. Good manufacturing practice and clinical-grade human embryonic stem cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Unger; Heli Skottman; Pontus Blomberg; M. Sirac Dilber; Outi Hovatta

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, after directed differentiation, hold the greatest potential for cell transplantation treatment in many severe diseases. Good manufacturing practice (GMP) quality, defined by both the European Medicines Agency and the Food and Drug Administration, is a requirement for clinical- grade cells, offering optimal defined quality and safety in cell transplantation. Using animal substance-free culture media,

  12. Establishment of Immortalized Human Glomerular Endothelial Cell Lines and Their Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Harada; Stephen Batsford; Tetsuo Morioka; Jian Yao; Masaaki Arakawa; Fumitake Gejyo; Takashi Oite

    2005-01-01

    Background: The experimental use of cultured endothelial cells derived from the microvasculature such as glomerular endothelial cells possesses many problems, including limited growth rates, heterogeneity and loss of specific cell properties dependent on culture passage. In this study, we attempted to establish immortalized, human glomerular endothelial cell (HGEC) lines. Methods: HGECs of up to 5 passages were transformed by infection

  13. An Ixodes scapularis cell line with a predominantly neuron-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan D; Chávez, Adela S Oliva; Felsheim, Roderick F; Kurtti, Timothy J; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-07-01

    The Ixodes scapularis embryo-derived cell line ISE6 is the most widely utilized tick-derived cell line due to its susceptibility to a wide variety of tick- and non-tick-vectored pathogens. Little is known about its tissue origin or biological background. Protein expression of ISE6 cells was compared with that of another I. scapularis-derived cell line, IDE12, and dissected tick synganglia. Results demonstrated the presence of a neuronal marker protein, type 3 ?-tubulin, in all three samples, as well as other shared and unique neuronal and immune response-associated proteins. Of neuronal proteins shared between the two cell lines, ISE6 expressed several in significantly greater quantities than IDE12. Stimulation of ISE6 cells by in vivo exposure to the hemocoel environment in unfed larval and molting nymphal ticks, but not unfed nymphal ticks, resulted in the development of neuron-like morphologic characteristics in the implanted cells. PMID:25894426

  14. Establishment of an agamid cell line and isolation of adenoviruses from central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Ball, Inna; Hoferer, Marc; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-03-01

    A cell line was established from whole 6-8-week-old central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) embryos. Cells were mid-sized and showed an elongated and polymorphic form. The cell line grew in a monolayer and has been serially passaged for 17 passages at time of publication. This cell line has been used with samples from adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive bearded dragons, and 2 virus isolates have been obtained so far. The isolates show a clear cytopathic effect in inoculated cells. Both virus isolates have been serially passaged on this cell line, and have been identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and show 100% nucleotide identity to the corresponding region of an agamid adenovirus. Electron microscopic examination of supernatant from infected cells demonstrated the presence of nonenveloped particles, with a diameter of approximately 80 nm in both virus isolates. PMID:24569225

  15. Comparing the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni, Mohammad T Toossi

    2012-04-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to radiation responses which occur in non-irradiated cells. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines (QU-DB and MRC5). To induce bystander effect, cells were irradiated with 0.5, 2, and 4 Gy of (60)Co gamma rays and their media were transferred to non-irradiated (bystander) cells of the same type. Cells containing micronuclei were counted in bystander subgroups, non-irradiated, and 0.5 Gy irradiated cells. Frequencies of cells containing micronuclei in QU-DB bystander subgroups were higher than in bystander subgroups of MRC5 cells (P < 0.001). The number of micronucleated cells counted in non-irradiated and 0.5 Gy irradiated QU-DB cells was also higher than the corresponding values for MRC5 cells (P < 0.001). Another difference between the two cell lines was that in QU-DB bystander cells, a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated cells was observed as the dose increased, but at all doses the number of micronucleated cells in MRC5 bystander cells was constant. It is concluded that QU-DB cells are more susceptible than MRC5 cells to be affected by bystander effect, and in the two cell lines there is a positive correlation between DNA damages induced directly and those induced due to bystander effect. PMID:22557800

  16. Comparing the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni, Mohammad T. Toossi

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to radiation responses which occur in non-irradiated cells. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of bystander effect in a couple of tumor and normal cell lines (QU-DB and MRC5). To induce bystander effect, cells were irradiated with 0.5, 2, and 4 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and their media were transferred to non-irradiated (bystander) cells of the same type. Cells containing micronuclei were counted in bystander subgroups, non-irradiated, and 0.5 Gy irradiated cells. Frequencies of cells containing micronuclei in QU-DB bystander subgroups were higher than in bystander subgroups of MRC5 cells (P < 0.001). The number of micronucleated cells counted in non-irradiated and 0.5 Gy irradiated QU-DB cells was also higher than the corresponding values for MRC5 cells (P < 0.001). Another difference between the two cell lines was that in QU-DB bystander cells, a dose-dependent increase in the number of micronucleated cells was observed as the dose increased, but at all doses the number of micronucleated cells in MRC5 bystander cells was constant. It is concluded that QU-DB cells are more susceptible than MRC5 cells to be affected by bystander effect, and in the two cell lines there is a positive correlation between DNA damages induced directly and those induced due to bystander effect. PMID:22557800

  17. Short communication Antiproliferative activity of fish protein hydrolysates on human breast cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Picot; S. Bordenave; S. Didelot; I. Fruitier-Arnaudin; F. Sannier; G. Thorkelsson; F. Guerard; A. Chabeaud; J. M. Piot

    Antiproliferative activity of 18 fish protein hydrolysates was measured on 2 human breast cancer cell lines grown in vitro. Three blue whiting, three cod, three plaice and one salmon hydrolysates were identified as significant growth inhibitors on the two cancer cell lines. Preliminary analysis of hydrolysates composition evidenced they contained a complex mixture of free amino acids, peptides with various

  18. Identification of a germ line transcript from the unrearranged kappa gene in human B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D J; Van Ness, B G

    1989-01-01

    A novel kappa immunoglobulin-hybridizing mRNA in cell lines derived from human B cells arrested at several stages of development has been identified. Hybridization studies demonstrate that this 1.5-kilobase mRNA species is the spliced product of a precursor germ line transcript initiating upstream of the unrearranged JKappa locus. Images PMID:2573834

  19. Expression Profiles of Cloned Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Lymphoid Cell Lines and Mixed Lymphocyte Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clonal channel catfish lymphoid cell lines and mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) have proven extremely useful in examining immune responses at the cellular and molecular levels. To date clonal catfish cell lines and MLC have been biologically and phenotypically characterized using a variety of techniq...

  20. Stable Alphavirus Packaging Cell Lines for Sindbis Virus-and Semliki Forest Virus-Derived Vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Polo; Barbara A. Belli; David A. Driver; Ilya Frolov; Scott Sherrill; Mangala J. Hariharan; Kay Townsend; Silvia Perri; Steven J. Mento; Douglas J. Jolly; Stephen M. W. Chang; Sondra Schlesinger; Thomas W. Dubensky Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alpha-virus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA

  1. An ecosystem of cancer cell line factories to support a cancer dependency map.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Jesse S; Golub, Todd R

    2015-07-01

    Jesse Boehm and Todd Golub call for an international effort to establish >10,000 cancer cell line models as a community resource. Cancer cell line factories will facilitate the creation of a cancer dependency map, connecting cancer genomics to therapeutic dependencies. PMID:26077369

  2. Development of Fibroblast Cell Lines From the Cow Used to Sequence the Bovine Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.BGCF.2 and MARC.BGCF.1-3, were initiated from skin biopsies obtained from the Hereford cow whose DNA was used in sequencing the bovine genome. These cell lines were submitted to American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) and will be made publicly avai...

  3. RESEARCH Open Access Proteomic analysis of an Aedes albopictus cell line

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Proteomic analysis of an Aedes albopictus cell line infected with Dengue in an Aedes albopictus cell line. The potential of these viruses to cause severe disease at primary infection worldwide [1]. Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) is a less effi- cient vector for this virus, although

  4. Integrated classification of lung tumors and cell lines by expression profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Virtanen; Yuichi Ishikawa; Daisuke Honjoh; Mami Kimura; Miyuki Shimane; Tatsu Miyoshi; Hitoshi Nomura; Michael H. Jones

    2002-01-01

    The utility of cancer cell lines depends largely on their accurate classification, commonly based on histopathological diagnosis of the cancers from which they were derived. However, because cancer is often heterogeneous, the cell line, which also has the opportunity to alter in vitro, may not be representative. Yet without the overall architecture used in histopathological diagnosis of fresh samples, reclassification

  5. Development of a new human breast cancer cell line Ia270

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pao-Min Loh; Gerald Clamon; John MacIndoe; Mark White; Luis Urdaneta; Bharati Hukku; Ward D. Peterson

    1985-01-01

    Summary A new human breast cancer cell line (Ia-270) has been isolated from a malignant pleural effusion from a woman with metastatic infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. This cell line contains cytoplasmic estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. Following estradiol (E2) administration, PR synthesis is augmented and a higher level of saturation density is reached. In an athymic mouse,

  6. Establishment and characterization of insect cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C L; El Sayed, G N; McIntosh, A H; Grasela, J J; Stiles, B

    2001-06-01

    Cell lines from selected lepidopteran species were established for the overall purpose of use in baculovirus production. A total of 36 new cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species were generated, including cell lines from a pyralid, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a plutellid, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, as well as eight noctuids: the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Tissues used for cell line establishment included fat bodies, ovaries, testes, or whole embryos/larvae/pupae. All the cell lines were subcultured numerous times, characterized by isoenzyme analysis and/or deoxyribonucleic acid amplification fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Many of the cell lines were adapted to grow in serum-free medium, with cell lines from A. ipsilon and H. virescens being adapted to suspension culture using shaker flasks. The potential use for these cell lines in baculovirus production is discussed. PMID:11515970

  7. ARPE-19, A Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line with Differentiated Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. DUNN; A. E. AOTAKI-KEEN; F. R. PUTKEY; L. M. HJELMELAND

    1996-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of adjacent photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina. This study describes the development and characterization of ARPE-19, a spontaneously arising human RPE cell line with normal karyology which forms polarized epithelial monolayers on porous filter supports. The cell line was established by selective trypsinization of a primary

  8. Pediatric pancreatoblastoma: histopathologic and cytogenetic characterization of tumor and derived cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Barenboim-Stapleton; Xuezhong Yang; Maria Tsokos; Jon M. Wigginton; Hesed Padilla-Nash; Thomas Rieda; Carol J. Thiele

    Little is known of the molecular events underlying the genesis of pancreatoblastoma tumors in the pediatric population. Such studies have been limited by the rare nature of the disease, infrequent reports detailing cytogenetic alterations, and the lack of availability of cell lines for biologic studies. We present the isolation of a cell line from a 14-year-old boy with malignant pancreatoblastoma,

  9. Karyotype stability of the DT40 chicken B cell line: Macrochromosome variation and cytogenetic mosaicism

    E-print Network

    Delany, Mary E.

    Karyotype stability of the DT40 chicken B cell line: Macrochromosome variation and cytogenetic for publication by Herbert Macgregor 23 January 2004 Key words: aneuploidy, chicken, chromosomes, cytogenetics, DT40, karyotype, mosaicism Abstract The DT40 transformed chicken B-cell line is an important and widely

  10. Finding splitting lines for touching cell nuclei with a shortest path algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiangzhi; Wang, Peng; Sun, Changming; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Fugen; Meng, Cai

    2014-10-22

    A shortest path-based algorithm is proposed in this paper to find splitting lines for touching cell nuclei. First, an initial splitting line is obtained through the distance transform of a marker image and the watershed algorithm. The initial splitting line is then separated into different line segments as necessary, and the endpoint positions of these line segments are adjusted to the concave points on the contour. Finally, a shortest path algorithm is used to find the accurate splitting line between the starting-point and the end-point, and the final split can be achieved by the contour of the touching cell nuclei and the splitting lines. Comparisons of experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective for segmentation of different types of touching cell nuclei. PMID:25458811

  11. Highly passage of Spodoptera litura cell line causes its permissiveness to baculovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuping; Lan, Wenjie; Deng, Yujie; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Kaiyu; Peng, Jianxin; Li, Yi; Hong, Huazhu

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the characteristics of cell lines possibly alter when cell lines are at high-passage number because of the environmental selection. We do not know whether non-permissive or low-permissive cell lines could become permissive or more permissive to virus infection after over-high passage. In the present studies, the alteration of the permissiveness of Spodoptera litura cell line Sl-zsu-1 to three baculovirus infection was investigated after over-high passage, and the possible mechanisms are also investigated. Vigorous apoptosis in Sl-zsu-1 cells was induced by both the recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus AcMNPV-GFP-actin and the celery looper Anagrapha falcifera multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus AfMNPV, suggesting the replication of the two viruses was blocked by apoptosis. However, the cells infected by S. litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus SpltMNPV did not undergo apoptosis, but the SpltMNPV titre of the supernatant was not detectable, suggesting this cell line was low-permissive for this virus infection and other factor(s) involved in blockage of the virus replication except apoptosis. However, when Sl-zsu-1 cells had been subcultured continuously for more than 4 years (high-passage cell), which was named as Sl-HP cell line afterwards, no significant apoptosis was induced by the three baculovirus in Sl-HP cells, and many replicated virions or nucleocapsids were observed in the cells. But the permissiveness of Sl-HP cells to the three viruses was very different according to the titre of viruses in the cell cultures. Interestingly, the DNA extracted from SpltMNPV could induce vigorous apoptosis of Sl-HP cells. Altogether, Sl-zsu-1 cell line becomes more permissive to baculovirus infection after over-high passage and multiple paths can block the baculovirus infectivity. PMID:19003180

  12. Highly passage of Spodoptera litura cell line causes its permissiveness to baculovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuping; Lan, Wenjie; Deng, Yujie; Ma, Yuan; Peng, Jianxin; Li, Yi; Hong, Huazhu

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the characteristics of cell lines possibly alter when cell lines are at high-passage number because of the environmental selection. We do not know whether non-permissive or low-permissive cell lines could become permissive or more permissive to virus infection after over-high passage. In the present studies, the alteration of the permissiveness of Spodoptera litura cell line Sl-zsu-1 to three baculovirus infection was investigated after over-high passage, and the possible mechanisms are also investigated. Vigorous apoptosis in Sl-zsu-1 cells was induced by both the recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus AcMNPV-GFP-actin and the celery looper Anagrapha falcifera multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus AfMNPV, suggesting the replication of the two viruses was blocked by apoptosis. However, the cells infected by S. litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus SpltMNPV did not undergo apoptosis, but the SpltMNPV titre of the supernatant was not detectable, suggesting this cell line was low-permissive for this virus infection and other factor(s) involved in blockage of the virus replication except apoptosis. However, when Sl-zsu-1 cells had been subcultured continuously for more than 4 years (high-passage cell), which was named as Sl-HP cell line afterwards, no significant apoptosis was induced by the three baculovirus in Sl-HP cells, and many replicated virions or nucleocapsids were observed in the cells. But the permissiveness of Sl-HP cells to the three viruses was very different according to the titre of viruses in the cell cultures. Interestingly, the DNA extracted from SpltMNPV could induce vigorous apoptosis of Sl-HP cells. Altogether, Sl-zsu-1 cell line becomes more permissive to baculovirus infection after over-high passage and multiple paths can block the baculovirus infectivity. PMID:19003180

  13. Casticin inhibits self-renewal of liver cancer stem cells from the MHCC97 cell line

    PubMed Central

    HE, GUICHENG; CAO, XIAOCHENG; HE, MENG; SHENG, XIFENG; WU, YOUHUA; AI, XIAOHONG

    2014-01-01

    Casticin exerts anticarcinogenic activity in several types of cancers, including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of casticin, which is derived from Fructus Viticis Simplicifoliae, on the self-renewal capacity of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) derived from the HCC MHCC97 cell line. The present study demonstrated that casticin significantly inhibited the proliferation of LCSCs from the MHCC97 cell line in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), the half maximal inhibitory concentration of the parental cells and LCSCs was 17.9 and 0.5 ?mol/l, respectively. Furthermore, casticin reduced the sphere-forming capacity of LCSCs and downregulated ?-catenin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Lithium chloride, an agonist known to activate the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, attenuated the casticin-induced downregulation of ?-catenin protein expression and inhibited the self-renewal capacity. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that casticin effectively eradicates LCSCs and ?-catenin was identified as the potential target. Thus, casticin may offer a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of HCC. PMID:24932283

  14. In vitro culture of human osteosarcoma cell lines: a comparison of functional characteristics for cell lines cultured in medium without and with fetal calf serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Øystein Bruserud; Karl Johan Tronstad; Rolf Berge

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Experimental in vitro models including well-characterised cell lines can be used to identify possible new therapeutic targets for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Culture media including inactivated serum is often recommended for in vitro culture of osteosarcoma cells, but the serum compo- nent then represents a nonstandardised parameter including a wide range of unidentified mediators. To improve the standardisation we

  15. Animal model of naturally occurring bladder cancer: Characterization of four new canine transitional cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development and further characterization of animal models for human cancers is important for the improvement of cancer detection and therapy. Canine bladder cancer closely resembles human bladder cancer in many aspects. In this study, we isolated and characterized four primary transitional cell carcinoma (K9TCC) cell lines to be used for future in vitro validation of novel therapeutic agents for bladder cancer. Methods Four K9TCC cell lines were established from naturally-occurring canine bladder cancers obtained from four dogs. Cell proliferation rates of K9TCC cells in vitro were characterized by doubling time. The expression profile of cell-cycle proteins, cytokeratin, E-cadherin, COX-2, PDGFR, VEGFR, and EGFR were evaluated by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and Western blotting (WB) analysis and compared with established human bladder TCC cell lines, T24 and UMUC-3. All tested K9TCC cell lines were assessed for tumorigenic behavior using athymic mice in vivo. Results Four established K9TCC cell lines: K9TCC#1Lillie, K9TCC#2Dakota, K9TCC#4Molly, and K9TCC#5Lilly were confirmed to have an epithelial-cell origin by morphology analysis, cytokeratin, and E-cadherin expressions. The tested K9TCC cells expressed UPIa (a specific marker of the urothelial cells), COX-2, PDGFR, and EGFR; however they lacked the expression of VEGFR. All tested K9TCC cell lines confirmed a tumorigenic behavior in athymic mice with 100% tumor incidence. Conclusions The established K9TCC cell lines (K9TCC#1Lillie, K9TCC#2Dakota, K9TCC#4Molly, and K9TCC#5Lilly) can be further utilized to assist in development of new target-specific imaging and therapeutic agents for canine and human bladder cancer. PMID:24964787

  16. Morphologic, immunologic, biochemical, and cytogenetic characteristics of the human glioblastoma-derived cell line, SNB-19

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Welch; Richard S. Morrison; Janet L. Gross; Susanne M. Gollin; Richard B. Kitson; Ronald H. Goldfarb; Kenneth A. Giuliano; Margaret K. Bradley; Paul L. Kornblith

    1995-01-01

    Summary  Human glioma-derived cell cultures and lines have proven to be of significant value in the study of the basic properties that\\u000a contribute to the highly malignant, invasive and angiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. It is frequently\\u000a difficult to establish lines that retain glial tumor properties in long term culture. The SNB-19 cell line has maintained\\u000a and exhibited properties of

  17. Propagation of arthropod-borne Rickettsia spp. in two mosquito cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Joyce M; Azad, Abdu F

    2007-10-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular alphaproteobacteria that include pathogenic species in the spotted fever, typhus, and transitional groups. The development of a standardized cell line in which diverse rickettsiae can be grown and compared would be highly advantageous to investigate the differences among and between pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of rickettsiae. Although several rickettsial species have been grown in tick cells, tick cells are more difficult to maintain and they grow more slowly than insect cells. Rickettsia-permissive arthropod cell lines that can be passaged rapidly are highly desirable for studies on arthropod-Rickettsia interactions. We used two cell lines (Aedes albopictus cell line Aa23 and Anopheles gambiae cell line Sua5B) that have not been used previously for the purpose of rickettsial propagation. We optimized the culture conditions to propagate one transitional-group rickettsial species (Rickettsia felis) and two spotted-fever-group rickettsial species (R. montanensis and R. peacockii) in each cell line. Both cell lines allowed the stable propagation of rickettsiae by weekly passaging regimens. Stable infections were confirmed by PCR, restriction digestion of rompA, sequencing, and the direct observation of bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridization. These cell lines not only supported rickettsial growth but were also permissive toward the most fastidious species of the three, R. peacockii. The permissive nature of these cell lines suggests that they may potentially be used to isolate novel rickettsiae or other intracellular bacteria. Our results have important implications for the in vitro maintenance of uncultured rickettsiae, as well as providing insights into Rickettsia-arthropod interactions. PMID:17766452

  18. CD133 positive progenitor endothelial cell lines from human cord blood.

    PubMed

    Paprocka, Maria; Krawczenko, Agnieszka; Dus, Danuta; Kantor, Aneta; Carreau, Aude; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-08-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) modulate postnatal vascularization and contribute to vessel regeneration in adults. Stem cells and progenitor cells were found in umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and mobilized peripheral blood cells, from where they were isolated and cultured. However, the yield of progenitor cells is usually not sufficient for clinical application and the quality of progenitor cells varies. The aim of the study was the immortalization of early progenitor cells with high proliferative potential, capable to differentiate to EPCs and, further, toward endothelial cells. Two cell lines, namely HEPC-CB.1 and HEPC-CB.2 (human endothelial progenitor cells-cord blood) were isolated. As assessed by specific antibody labeling and flow cytometric analysis, they express a panel of stem cell markers: CD133, CD13, CD271, CD90 and also endothelial cell markers: CD202b, CD309 (VEGFR2), CD146, CD105, and CD143 but they do not present markers of finally differentiated endothelial cells: CD31, vWf, nor CD45 which is a specific hematopoietic cell marker. Using the multiplex Cytometric Bead Assay, the simultaneous production of proangiogenic cytokines IL8, angiogenin, and VEGF was demonstrated in normoxia and was shown to be increased by hypoxia. Both cell lines, similarly as mature endothelial cells, underwent in vitro pre-angiogenic process, formed pseudovessel structures and present an accelerated angiogenesis in hypoxic conditions. To date, these are the first CD133 positive established cell lines from human cord blood cells. PMID:21710642

  19. A Comparative Study of the FcεRI Molecule on Human Mast Cell and Basophil Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Jensen; S. Dissing; P. S. Skov; L. K. Poulsen

    2005-01-01

    Background: Mast cells and basophils express the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI. We have analysed the human mast cell line LAD2 and four subclones of the basophil cell line KU812 in order to reveal possible differences concerning the FcεRI surface regulation, anti-IgE-triggered activation, FcεRI? protein stability and the mRNA level of FcεRI?-, ?- and the truncated ?-chain (?T), and thereby determine

  20. Earliest art in the Americas: incised image of a proboscidean on a mineralized extinct animal bone from Vero Beach, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Purdy; Kevin S. Jones; John J. Mecholsky; Gerald Bourne; Richard C. Hulbert; Bruce J. MacFadden; Krista L. Church; Michael W. Warren; Thomas F. Jorstad; Dennis J. Stanford; Melvin J. Wachowiak; Robert J. Speakman

    2011-01-01

    A fragmented fossil bone incised with the figure of a proboscidean was recently found at Vero Beach, Florida near the location where Late Pleistocene fauna and human bones were recovered from 1913 to 1916. This engraving may represent the oldest and only existing example of Terminal Pleistocene art depicting a proboscidean in the Americas. Because of the uniqueness, rarity, and

  1. Derivation, characterization, and gene expression profile of two new human ES cell lines from India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Arundhati; Bhowmik, Subhanjan; Patki, Ameet; Viswanathan, Chandra; Majumdar, Anish Sen

    2010-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer new avenues for studying human development and disease progression in addition to their tremendous potential toward development of cell-replacement therapies for various cellular disorders. We have earlier reported the derivation and characterization of Relicell(®) hES1, the first fully characterized hESC line generated from the Indian subcontinent. Recent studies have demonstrated discrete differences among hESC lines, in terms of both their growth properties and their differentiation propensity. To address some of these issues in the context of hESC research in India, we have recently generated two new hESC lines: Relicell(®) hES2 and Relicell(®)hES3. Both these cell lines were derived using a combinatorial approach of immunosurgery followed by mechanical surgery for inner cell mass isolation. The cell lines exhibit the usual hESC characteristics including their ability to differentiate both in vitro and in vivo to yield the three germinal layers. Whole genome microarray analysis of these cell lines was compared with Relicell(®)hES1 and it showed that approximately 9000 genes were expressed by these lines. As expected the expression pattern of these new cell lines bore close resemblance to that of Relicell(®)hES1. A majority of the pluripotency genes and the genes known to inhibit various differentiation pathways were also expressed by these cell lines. We also observed that each of these cell lines expressed a unique set of genes that are mutually exclusive from each other. These results represent the first detailed characterization of a set of hESC lines originating from India. PMID:20826120

  2. An eIF4E-interacting peptide induces cell death in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masse, M; Glippa, V; Saad, H; Le Bloas, R; Gauffeny, I; Berthou, C; Czjzek, M; Cormier, P; Cosson, B

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E is essential for cap-dependent initiation of translation in eukaryotes. Abnormal regulation of eIF4E has been implicated in oncogenic transformation. We developed an eIF4E-binding peptide derived from Angel1, a partner of eIF4E that we recently identified. We show here that this peptide fused to a penetratin motif causes drastic and rapid cell death in several epithelial cancer cell lines. This necrotic cell death was characterized by a drop in ATP levels with F-actin network injury being a key step in extensive plasma membrane blebbing and membrane permeabilization. This synthetic eIF4E-binding peptide provides a candidate pharmacophore for a promising new cancer therapy strategy. PMID:25356869

  3. Development, characterization and use of a porcine epiblast-derived liver stem cell line: ARS-PICM-19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Totipotent embryonic stem cell lines have not been established from ungulates, however, we have developed several somatic cell lines from the in vitro culture of pig epiblast cells. One such cell line, PICM-19, was isolated via colony-cloning and was found to spontaneously differentiate into hepati...

  4. Behavior of Disclination Lines Induced by a Nonuniform Electric Field in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nose; T. Sato; S. Sato

    1996-01-01

    The disclination lines appearing in the liquid crystal cell with a slit-patterned electrode structure are investigated in detail. Behaviors of disclination lines depend directly upon the motion of the reverse tilted molecular orientation domain, and there seem to be multi-stable molecular orientation states related to the disclination lines. Moreover, it is interesting that the disclination line has a zig-zag structure

  5. Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

  6. Prodigiosin activates endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathway in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Mu-Yun [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Yuh-Chiang [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chien-Hsing [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shu-Yi [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ho, Tsing-Fen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Peng, Yu-Ta [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che, E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent cytotoxicity against diverse human cancer cell lines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is initiated by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen and may induce cell death when irremediable. In this study, the role of ER stress in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity was elucidated for the first time. Comparable to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin, prodigiosin up-regulated signature ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP in addition to activating the IRE1, PERK and ATF6 branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in multiple human breast carcinoma cell lines, confirming prodigiosin as an ER stress inducer. Prodigiosin transcriptionally up-regulated CHOP, as evidenced by its promoting effect on the CHOP promoter activity. Of note, knockdown of CHOP effectively lowered prodigiosin's capacity to evoke PARP cleavage, reduce cell viability and suppress colony formation, highlighting an essential role of CHOP in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxic ER stress response. In addition, prodigiosin down-regulated BCL2 in a CHOP-dependent manner. Importantly, restoration of BCL2 expression blocked prodigiosin-induced PARP cleavage and greatly enhanced the survival of prodigiosin-treated cells, suggesting that CHOP-dependent BCL2 suppression mediates prodigiosin-elicited cell death. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK by SP600125 or dominant-negative blockade of PERK-mediated eIF2? phosphorylation impaired prodigiosin-induced CHOP up-regulation and PARP cleavage. Collectively, these results identified ER stress-mediated cell death as a mode-of-action of prodigiosin's tumoricidal effect. Mechanistically, prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2? branches of the UPR signaling to up-regulate CHOP, which in turn mediates BCL2 suppression to induce cell death. Highlights: ? Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent anticancer effect. ? Prodigiosin is herein identified as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer. ? Prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity involves ER stress-mediated cell death. ? Prodigiosin transcriptionally induces CHOP to suppress BCL2 for evoking cell death. ? Prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2? pathways to up-regulate CHOP.

  7. Detection of anti-liver cell membrane antibody using a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo-Yeo, A.; McSorley, C.; McFarlane, B.M.; Mieli-Vergani, G.; Mowat, A.P.; Vergani, D.

    1989-02-01

    A radioimmunometric technique for the detection of autoantibodies to liver membrane antigens has been developed using Alexander cells, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. After incubation of Alexander cells with serum, antimembrane antibodies were detected by addition of /sup 125/I-labeled Protein A. Binding ratios in 15 children with uncontrolled autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and in seven children with primary sclerosing cholangitis were significantly higher than in 18 age-matched normal controls. Nine patients with inactive autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, 13 with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and five with fulminant hepatic failure had ratios similar to controls. In nine patients with Wilson's disease, there was a modest but significant increase in binding ratio. In four children with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, binding ratios fell during effective immunosuppressive therapy. Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis gave normal results, excluding that binding derives from Fc-mediated immune complex capture. A positive correlation was found between Alexander cell binding values and anti-liver-specific protein antibody titers, suggesting that the two assays detect antibodies against shared antigenic determinants. The Alexander cell assay is a simple, rapid and sensitive technique to detect antibody to liver cell membrane antigens.

  8. Molecular characterization of 7 new established cell lines from high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kreuzinger, Caroline; Gamperl, Magdalena; Wolf, Andrea; Heinze, Georg; Geroldinger, Angelika; Lambrechts, Diether; Boeckx, Bram; Smeets, Dominiek; Horvat, Reinhard; Aust, Stefanie; Hamilton, Gerhard; Zeillinger, Robert; Cacsire Castillo-Tong, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Cancer cell lines are good in vitro models to study molecular mechanisms underlying chemoresistance and cancer recurrence. Recent works have demonstrated that most of the available ovarian cancer cell lines are most unlikely high grade serous (HGSOC), the major type of epithelial ovarian cancer. We aimed at establishing well characterized HGSOC cell lines, which can be used as optimal models for ovarian cancer research. We successfully established seven cell lines from HGSOC and provided the major genomic alterations and the transcriptomic landscapes of them. They exhibited different gene expression patterns in the key pathways involved in cancer resistance. Each cell line harbored a unique TP53 mutation as their corresponding tumors and expressed cytokeratins 8/18/19 and EpCAM. Two matched lines were established from the same patient, one at diagnosis and being sensitive to carboplatin and the other during chemotherapy and being resistant. Two cell lines presented respective BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. To conclude, we have established seven cell lines and well characterized them at genomic and transcriptomic levels. They are optimal models to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression, chemo resistance and recurrence of HGSOC. PMID:25862976

  9. Application of McCoy Cell Line for Propagation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.

    PubMed

    Nabavinia, Maryam Sadat; Rostami, Sina; Ghasemi, Faezeh; Meshkat, Zahra

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are members of the Herpesviridae family. About 40% to 80% of the world populations are infected with HSV and its prevalence is high in Iran. The high prevalence of this virus in the community and the ability of the virus in causing fatal diseases among immunocompromised patients, have encouraged studies to be performed on HSV and suitable cell lines which supports the propagation of HSV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of McCoy cell line in the isolation and propagation of HSV. An isolated wild-type HSV-1 was obtained from the labial vesicles of a 29-year-old patient who was referred to Ghaem Hospital (Mashhad, Iran). The virus was inoculated in McCoy cell monolayer cells and its titer was calculated by 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) method. Cytopathic effects (CPE) of HSV on McCoy cells appeared about 20 hours after the infection of cells. Titer of the virus was 10(-5.25) TCID50/ml. Our data showed that the McCoy cell line supported the propagation of HSV in high titer. This was the first study that used McCoy cell line for the isolation and propagation of HSV-1. McCoy cell line could be used, as a proper cell line of HSV, for various studies in the future. PMID:25999628

  10. Parallel Evolution under Chemotherapy Pressure in 29 Breast Cancer Cell Lines Results in Dissimilar Mechanisms of Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bálint Tegze; Zoltán Szállási; Irén Haltrich; Zsófia Pénzváltó; Zsuzsa Tóth; István Likó; Balázs Gy?rffy

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundDeveloping chemotherapy resistant cell lines can help to identify markers of resistance. Instead of using a panel of highly heterogeneous cell lines, we assumed that truly robust and convergent pattern of resistance can be identified in multiple parallel engineered derivatives of only a few parental cell lines.MethodsParallel cell populations were initiated for two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7)

  11. Regulation of T cell-dependent autoantibody production by a ?? T cell line derived from lupus-prone mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Fujii; Masato Okada; Joe Craft

    2002-01-01

    Lupus-prone (MRL×C57BL\\/6) F1 mice lacking ?? T cells show more severe lupus than their T cell-intact counterparts, suggesting that ?? T cells down-modulate murine lupus. To determine the mechanisms for this effect, we assessed the capacity of ?? T cell lines derived from spleens of ?? T cell-deficient MRL\\/Mp-Faslpr (MRL\\/Faslpr) mice to down-regulate anti-dsDNA production generated by CD4+?? T helper

  12. Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines temperature conditional for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Hearing; Eric Hunter; Linda Rodgers; Mary-Jane Gething; Joe Sambrookll

    1989-01-01

    A procedure is described to select mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells that are conditionally defective for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins, including the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. Using a combination of cell sorting and biochemical screening, seven cell lines were obtained that express more cell-surface HA at 32°C than at 39°C. The production of infectious vesic-

  13. Genetic variation in C57BL\\/6 ES cell lines and genetic instability in the Bruce4 C57BL\\/6 ES cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth D. Hughes; Yun Yan Qu; Suzanne J. Genik; Robert H. Lyons; Christopher D. Pacheco; Andrew P. Lieberman; Linda C. Samuelson; Igor O. Nasonkin; Sally A. Camper; Margaret L. Van Keuren; Thomas L. Saunders

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified mouse strains derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells are powerful tools for gene function analysis. ES\\u000a cells from the C57BL\\/6 mouse strain are not widely used to generate mouse models despite the advantage of a defined genetic\\u000a background. We assessed genetic variation in six such ES cell lines with 275 SSLP markers. Compared to C57BL\\/6, Bruce4 differed\\u000a at

  14. Presence of dopamine D-2 receptors in human tumoral cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, P.; Riou, J.F.; Martres, M.P.; Schwartz, J.C. (Centre Paul Broca, Paris (France))

    1989-07-31

    ({sup 125}I) Iodosulpride binding was examined on eight human cell lines derived from lung, breast and digestive tract carcinomas, neuroblastomas and leukemia. Specific binding was detected in five of these cell lines. In the richest cell line N417, derived from small cell lung carcinoma, ({sup 125}I) iodosulpride bound with a high affinity (Kd = 1.3 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding site (Bmax = 1,606 sites per cell). These sites displayed a typical D-2 specificity, established with several dopaminergic agonists and antagonists selective of either D-1 or D-2 receptor subtypes. In addition, dopamine, apomorphine and RU 24926 distinguished high- and low-affinity sites, suggesting that the binding sites are associated with a G-protein. The biological significance and the possible diagnostic implication of the presence of D-2 receptors on these cell lines are discussed.

  15. Prevalence and Characterization of Murine Leukemia Virus Contamination in Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Uphoff, Cord C.; Lange, Sandra; Denkmann, Sabine A.; Garritsen, Henk S. P.; Drexler, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminations of cell cultures with microbiological organisms are well documented and can be managed in cell culture laboratories applying reliable detection, elimination and prevention strategies. However, the presence of viral contaminations in cell cultures is still a matter of debate and cannot be determined with general detection methods. In the present study we screened 577 human cell lines for the presence of murine leukemia viruses (MLV). Nineteen cell lines were found to be contaminated with MLV, including 22RV1 which is contaminated with the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus variant of MLV. Of these, 17 cell lines were shown to produce active retroviruses determined by product enhanced reverse transcriptase PCR assay for reverse transcriptase activity. The contaminated cell lines derive from various solid tumor types as well as from leukemia and lymphoma types. A contamination of primary human cells from healthy volunteers could not be substantiated. Sequence analyses of 17 MLV PCR products and five complete MLV genomes of different infected cell lines revealed at least three groups of related MLV genotypes. The viruses harvested from the supernatants of infected cell cultures were infectious to uninfected cell cultures. In the course of the study we found that contamination of human genomic DNA preparations with murine DNA can lead to false-positive results. Presumably, xenotransplantations of the human tumor cells into immune-deficient mice to determine the tumorigenicity of the cells are mainly responsible for the MLV contaminations. Furthermore, the use of murine feeder layer cells during the establishment of human cell lines and a cross-contamination with MLV from infected cultures might be sources of infection. A screening of cell cultures for MLV contamination is recommended given a contamination rate of 3.3%. PMID:25927683

  16. Western blotting and isoform analysis of cathepsin D from normal and malignant human breast cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa D. Laury-Kleintop; Elizabeth C. Coronel; Marianne K. Lange; Thomas Tachovsky; Santo Longo; Sandra Tucker; Jack A. Alhadeff

    1995-01-01

    Cathepsin D from normal (Hs578Bst) and malignant (MCF7, MDA-MB-231) breast cell lines has been characterized with regard to its kinetic properties, activity levels, precursor and processed Mr forms, and isoform composition. Normal cell cathepsin D appears to have a more neutral pH optimum (pH 3.5) than the cancer cell line (pH 3.0–3.2) and greater activity between pH values of 4.0

  17. HK-2: An immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J Ryan; Gretchen Johnson; Judy Kirk; Sally M Fuerstenberg; Richard A Zager; Beverly Torok-Storb

    1994-01-01

    HK-2: An immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney. Studies assessing mechanisms of proximal tubular cell (PTC) physiology and pathophysiology increasingly utilize cell culture systems to avoid the complexity of whole organ\\/whole animal experiments. However, no well-differentiated PTC line derived from adult human kidney currently exists. Therefore, the goal of this research was to establish such

  18. Establishment and Characterization of Cell Lines Derived from Uterine Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Yuan; Woo-Ho Kim; Hye Seung Han; Jae-Ho Lee; Hyun-Sook Park; June-Key Chung; Soon-Beom Kang; Jae-Gahb Park

    1997-01-01

    Objective.We report the establishment and characterization of three new cell lines derived from uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT).Methods.Three uterine MMMT cell lines from primary tumors of Korean patients were cultured and the involved cell morphology, growth properties, DNA profiles, immunohistochemical properties, tumor-associated antigen secretion, and genetic alterations of related oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were studied as well.Results.Three MMMT

  19. Sequential Numerical Changes of Chromosomes 7 and 18 in Diffuse-Type Stomach Cancer Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuji Okada; Hiroyuki Sugihara; Masamichi Bamba; Tadao Bamba; Takanori Hattori

    2000-01-01

    Sequential changes of chromosomal copy number were analyzed retrospectively in five diffuse-type gastric cancer cell lines by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), DNA cytometry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromeric and painting probes. By CGH, we found loss of 18q21 in all of the cell lines and gains of 7p11–q31, 20q, and 22 in four of the five cell

  20. A new human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (KYN-1) with a transformation to adenocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohisa Yano; Masamichi Kojiro; Toshiro Nakashima

    1986-01-01

    Summary  A human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line (KYN-1) has been established from a resected HCC of a 58-yr-old Japanese,\\u000a male patient with HCC. Original resected HCC was moderately differentiated and proliferated in a solid pattern with vague\\u000a trabecular structure in part. This cell line has been maintained for 10 mo. through 50 passages. Morphological features of\\u000a KYN-1 cells demonstrated one

  1. Genomic Instability of Osteosarcoma Cell Lines in Culture: Impact on the Prediction of Metastasis Relevant Genes

    PubMed Central

    Muff, Roman; Rath, Prisni; Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan; Husmann, Knut; Born, Walter; Baudis, Michael; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages. Principal Findings The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines. Conclusions Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture. PMID:25992885

  2. Ammonia Accumulation as an Index of Glufosinate-Tolerant Soybean Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tosapon Pornprom; Srisom Surawattananon; Peerasak Srinives

    2000-01-01

    Selection of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. SJ 4) cell lines tolerant to glufosinate was attempted using cell suspension cultures induced from hypocotyls of young seedlings. The cell suspension was cultured on MS basic medium supplemented with B5 vitamins, 0.3% sucrose, and 10 mg\\/L NAA. Using a stepwise selection with increasing concentration of herbicide, a soybean line tolerant to 10?7

  3. Cell line-specific oxidative stress in cellular toxicity: A toxicogenomics-based comparison between liver and colon cell models.

    PubMed

    Deferme, L; Briedé, J J; Claessen, S M H; Cavill, R; Kleinjans, J C S

    2015-08-01

    Imbalance between high reactive oxygen species formation and antioxidant capacity in the colon and liver has been linked to increased cancer risk. However, knowledge about possible cell line-specific oxidative stress-mechanisms is limited. To explore this further, gene expression data from a human liver and colon cell line (HepG2/Caco-2), both exposed to menadione and H2O2 at six time points (0.5-1-2-4-8 and 24h) were compared in association with cell cycle distribution. In total, 3164 unique- and 1827 common genes were identified between HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Despite the higher number of unique genes, most oxidative stress-related genes such as CAT, OGG1, NRF2, NF-?B, GCLC, HMOX1 and GSR were differentially expressed in both cell lines. However, cell-specific regulation of genes such as KEAP1 and GCLM, or of the EMT pathway, which are of pathophysiological importance, indicates that oxidative stress induces different transcriptional effects and outcomes in the two selected cell lines. In addition, expression levels and/or -direction of common genes were often different in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, and this led to very diverse downstream effects as confirmed by correlating pathways to cell cycle changes. Altogether, this work contributes to obtaining a better molecular understanding of cell line-specific toxicity upon exposure to oxidative stress-inducing compounds. PMID:25800948

  4. Characterization of the A549 Cell Line as a Type II Pulmonary Epithelial Cell Model for Drug Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Foster; Christine G. Oster; Mary M. Mayer; Michael L. Avery; Kenneth L. Audus

    1998-01-01

    Multiple cell types contribute to the pulmonary barrier including Type I and Type II alveolar epithelium. The objective of this research was to establish and characterize anin vitromodel of Type II alveolar epithelium using the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. A549 cells form confluent monolayers with Type II characteristic morphology and tannic acid staining for typical lamellar bodies. A549

  5. Expression analysis of secreted and cell surface genes of five transformed human cell lines and derivative xenograft tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A Stull; Roya Tavassoli; Scot Kennedy; Steve Osborn; Rachel Harte; Yan Lu; Cheryl Napier; Arie Abo; Daniel J Chin

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the early stages of tumorigenesis involve adhesion, escape from immune surveillance, vascularization and angiogenesis, we devised a strategy to study the expression profiles of all publicly known and putative secreted and cell surface genes. We designed a custom oligonucleotide microarray containing probes for 3531 secreted and cell surface genes to study 5 diverse human transformed cell lines and

  6. Induction of apoptosis by spermine-metabolites in primary human blood cells and various tumor cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schiller; N. Blank; P. Heyder; M. Herrmann; J. R. Kalden; H. M. Lorenz

    2005-01-01

    Polyamines are involved in the regulation of cellular growth and survival by interacting with processes like translation, transcription or ion transport. The aim of our study was to analyze whether polyamines induce apoptosis in hematopoetic cells and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. We found an induction of apoptosis by spermine in primary human cells and malignant tumor cell lines.

  7. A new continuous cell line from larval ovaries of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Khurad, Arun M; Zhang, Min-Juan; Deshmukh, Chanchal G; Bahekar, Ravindra S; Tiple, Ashish D; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2009-09-01

    A new continuous cell line from ovarian tissue of commercial variety "Kolar Gold" of silkworm, Bombyx mori, was established and designated as DZNU-Bm-12. The tissue was grown in MGM-448 insect cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 3% heat-inactivated B. mori hemolymph at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. The migration of partially attached small round refractive cells from the fragments of ovarioles began from the beginning of explantation. The cells multiplied partially attached in the primary culture initially, and some of them become freely suspended after 20 passages. The cells were adapted to MGM-448 and TNM-FH media each with 10% FBS and the population doubling time of cell line was about 36 and 24 hr, respectively. The chromosome number was near diploid at initial passages and slightly increased at 176th passage, but a few tetraploids and hexaploids were also observed. DNA profiles using simple sequence repeat loci established the differences between DZNU-Bm-12 and DZNU-Bm-1 and most widely used Bm-5 and BmN cell lines. The cell line was found susceptible to B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) with 85-90% of the cells harboring BmNPV and having an average of 3-17 OBs/infected cell. We suggest the usefulness of this cell line in BmNPV-based baculoviral expression system and also for studying in vitro virus replication. PMID:19357932

  8. Reliable generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Robert; Ornelas, Loren; Yeager, Nicole; Mandefro, Berhan; Sahabian, Anais; Lenaeus, Lindsay; Targan, Stephan R; Svendsen, Clive N; Sareen, Dhruv

    2014-12-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for many applications, including disease modeling to elucidate mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis, drug screening, and ultimately regenerative medicine therapies. A frequently used starting source of cells for reprogramming has been dermal fibroblasts isolated from skin biopsies. However, numerous repositories containing lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) generated from a wide array of patients also exist in abundance. To date, this rich bioresource has been severely underused for iPSC generation. We first attempted to create iPSCs from LCLs using two existing methods but were unsuccessful. Here we report a new and more reliable method for LCL reprogramming using episomal plasmids expressing pluripotency factors and p53 shRNA in combination with small molecules. The LCL-derived iPSCs (LCL-iPSCs) exhibited identical characteristics to fibroblast-derived iPSCs (fib-iPSCs), wherein they retained their genotype, exhibited a normal pluripotency profile, and readily differentiated into all three germ-layer cell types. As expected, they also maintained rearrangement of the heavy chain immunoglobulin locus. Importantly, we also show efficient iPSC generation from LCLs of patients with spinal muscular atrophy and inflammatory bowel disease. These LCL-iPSCs retained the disease mutation and could differentiate into neurons, spinal motor neurons, and intestinal organoids, all of which were virtually indistinguishable from differentiated cells derived from fib-iPSCs. This method for reliably deriving iPSCs from patient LCLs paves the way for using invaluable worldwide LCL repositories to generate new human iPSC lines, thus providing an enormous bioresource for disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:25298370

  9. Role of DNA Methylation in Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Cr (VI) in Two Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jianlin; Wang, Yu; Yao, Chunji; Jin, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xiao, Yun; Wu, Nanxiang; Song, Peng; Song, Yang; Tan, Yufeng; Gao, Ming; Liu, Kecheng; Zhang, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(IV)], a well-known industrial waste product and an environmental pollutant, is recognized as a human carcinogen. But its mechanisms of carcinogenicity remain unclear, and recent studies suggest that DNA methylation may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of Cr(IV). The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of Cr(IV) on cell cycle progress, global DNA methylation, and DNA methylation of p16 gene. A human B lymphoblastoid cell line and a human lung cell line A549 were exposed to 5–15 µM potassium dichromate or 1.25–5 µg/cm2 lead chromate for 2–24 hours. Cell cycle was arrested at G1 phase by both compounds in 24 hours exposure group, but global hypomethylation occurred earlier than cell cycle arrest, and the hypomethylation status maintained for more than 20 hours. The mRNA expression of p16 was significantly up-regulated by Cr(IV), especially by potassium dichromate, and the mRNA expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6) was significantly down-regulated. But protein expression analysis showed very little change of p16 gene. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that DNA methylation status of p16 remained unchanged. Collectively, our data suggested that global hypomethylation was possibly responsible for Cr(IV) - induced G1 phase arrest,but DNA methylation might not be related to up-regulation of p16 gene by Cr(IV). PMID:23940686

  10. Physical View on the Interactions Between Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cell Lining During Cancer Cell Transmigration and Invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia T.

    2015-10-01

    There exist many reviews on the biological and biochemical interactions of cancer cells and endothelial cells during the transmigration and tissue invasion of cancer cells. For the malignant progression of cancer, the ability to metastasize is a prerequisite. In particular, this means that certain cancer cells possess the property to migrate through the endothelial lining into blood or lymph vessels, and are possibly able to transmigrate through the endothelial lining into the connective tissue and follow up their invasion path in the targeted tissue. On the molecular and biochemical level the transmigration and invasion steps are well-defined, but these signal transduction pathways are not yet clear and less understood in regards to the biophysical aspects of these processes. To functionally characterize the malignant transformation of neoplasms and subsequently reveal the underlying pathway(s) and cellular properties, which help cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression, the biomechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment come into focus in the physics-of-cancer driven view on the metastasis process of cancers. Hallmarks for cancer progression have been proposed, but they still lack the inclusion of specific biomechanical properties of cancer cells and interacting surrounding endothelial cells of blood or lymph vessels. As a cancer cell is embedded in a special environment, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix also cannot be neglected. Therefore, in this review it is proposed that a novel hallmark of cancer that is still elusive in classical tumor biological reviews should be included, dealing with the aspect of physics in cancer disease such as the natural selection of an aggressive (highly invasive) subtype of cancer cells displaying a certain adhesion or chemokine receptor on their cell surface. Today, the physical aspects can be analyzed by using state-of-the-art biophysical methods. Thus, this review will present current cancer research in a different light from a physical point of view with respect to cancer cell mechanics and the special and unique role of the endothelium on cancer cell invasion. The physical view on cancer disease may lead to novel insights into cancer disease and will help to overcome the classical views on cancer. In addition, in this review it will be discussed how physics of cancer can help to reveal and propose the functional mechanism which cancer cells use to invade connective tissue and transmigrate through the endothelium to finally metastasize. Finally, in this review it will be demonstrated how biophysical measurements can be combined with classical analysis approaches of tumor biology. The insights into physical interactions between cancer cells, the endothelium and the microenvironment may help to answer some "old," but still important questions in cancer disease progression.

  11. The use of lymphomatous and lymphoblastoid cell lines in the study of Burkitt's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, G M; Vuillaume, M; Bonnardel, C

    1985-01-01

    To better characterize the virological and cytogenetic features of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) occurring in so-called low-incidence areas, biopsy specimens were collected from BL patients diagnosed and treated in France, and attempts were made to cultivate malignant cells in vitro in order to provide large amounts of tumour material for further laboratory investigations. Sixty new BL-derived lymphomatous cell lines have been established from 43 individuals: 24 Caucasians, 14 North Africans and five Africans. Of these, 27 lines (from 18 individuals) were established from non-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated BL tumours, indicating that the relative ease in cultivating BL malignant cells in vitro is not limited to EBV genome-containing BL tumours. Cytogenetic investigations showed that all the BL cell lines had one of the three 'BL translocations' - t(8;14), t(8;22) or t(2;8). An estimate of the frequency of each translocation, based on the analysis of 51 independent IARC BL cell lines gave the following results: t(8;14), 76%; t(8;22), 16%; t(2;8), 8%. This large panel of cell lines is now a valuable tool for analysing the various phenotypic characteristics of BL cells. Comparisons can be made between multiple lines of BL from high-, intermediate- and low-incidence areas; significant numbers of EBV genome-negative and -positive lines and of tumour cells taken at diagnosis and at various stages of the disease can also be compared. For molecular and immunological investigations, EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) were also established from non-malignant lymphocytes of BL patients. The 24 paired BL and LCL cell lines obtained so far will allow precise, controlled studies of the molecular consequences of chromosomal translocations and of the comparative susceptibility of BL and LCL to immune effectors. PMID:3934070

  12. Detection and identification of putative bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous viruses in tick cell lines?

    PubMed Central

    Alberdi, M. Pilar; Dalby, Matthew J.; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Fazakerley, John K.; Kohl, Alain; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    As well as being vectors of many viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, ticks harbour a variety of microorganisms which are not known to be pathogenic for vertebrate hosts. Continuous cell lines established from ixodid and argasid ticks could be infected with such endosymbiotic bacteria and endogenous viruses, but to date very few cell lines have been examined for their presence. DNA and RNA extracted from over 50 tick cell lines deposited in the Roslin Wellcome Trust Tick Cell Biobank (http://tickcells.roslin.ac.uk) were screened for presence of bacteria and RNA viruses, respectively. Sequencing of PCR products amplified using pan-16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of DNA sequences from bacterial endosymbionts in several cell lines derived from Amblyomma and Dermacentor spp. ticks. Identification to species level was attempted using Rickettsia- and Francisella-specific primers. Pan-Nairovirus primers amplified PCR products of uncertain specificity in cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Carios, and Ornithodoros spp. ticks. Further characterisation attempted with primers specific for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus segments confirmed the absence of this arbovirus in the cells. A set of pan-Flavivirus primers did not detect endogenous viruses in any of the cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of endogenous reovirus-like viruses in many of the cell lines; only 4 of these lines gave positive results with primers specific for the tick Orbivirus St Croix River virus, indicating that there may be additional, as yet undescribed ‘tick-only’ viruses inhabiting tick cell lines. PMID:22743047

  13. Permissivity of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines to oncolytic Vaccinia Virus GLV-1h68

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oncolytic viral therapy represents an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. We previously described GLV-1h68, a modified Vaccinia Virus with exclusive tropism for tumor cells, and we observed a cell line-specific relationship between the ability of GLV-1h68 to replicate in vitro and its ability to colonize and eliminate tumor in vivo. Methods In the current study we surveyed the in vitro permissivity to GLV-1h68 replication of the NCI-60 panel of cell lines. Selected cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain. In order to identify correlates of permissity to viral infection, we measured transcriptional profiles of the cell lines prior infection. Results We observed highly heterogeneous permissivity to VACV infection amongst the cell lines. The heterogeneity of permissivity was independent of tissue with the exception of B cell derivation. Cell lines were also tested for permissivity to another Vaccinia Virus and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) strain and a significant correlation was found suggesting a common permissive phenotype. While no clear transcriptional pattern could be identified as predictor of permissivity to infection, some associations were observed suggesting multifactorial basis permissivity to viral infection. Conclusions Our findings have implications for the design of oncolytic therapies for cancer and offer insights into the nature of permissivity of tumor cells to viral infection. PMID:22011439

  14. Identity of tumorigenic human urothelial cell lines and 'spontaneously' transformed sublines.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, B.; Hansen, C.; Debiec-Rychter, M.; Kieler, J.; Ottensen, S.; Schmidt, J.

    1993-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, comparative marker chromosome analysis, and polymorphic enzyme analysis was carried out on a total of eight human urothelial cell lines and sublines selected according to our knowledge of their HLA-A,B phenotype. RFLP analysis and cytogenetic analysis showed that the cell lines Hu1703He, Hu1922, and T24 are genuine cell lines of different origin. The identity of Hu1703He could not be confirmed by its isozyme phenotype which was identical to the T24 phenotype. RFLP analysis and isozyme analysis revealed that three cell lines, Hu456, Hu549, and Hu961a, and two transformed sublines, HCV-29Tmv and Hu609Tmv, are sublines of T24. A common origin of Hu456, Hu549, Hu961a, HCV-29Tmv, and Hu609Tmv was confirmed by marker chromosome analysis. However, the T24 origin of these cytogenetically related cell lines was not supported by chromosome analysis of T24. RFLP analysis and HLA phenotyping of two tumorigenic and invasive sublines isolated from a culture of non-tumorigenic Hu609 cells showed that non-tumorigenic Hu609 cells can transform 'spontaneously' in vitro into tumorigenic Hu609T cells. The results emphasise the need for careful monitoring and screening of cell lines for their identity using more than one identification parameter. PMID:8105864

  15. A low-cost method to test cytotoxic effects of Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom on kidney cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Girón, María E; Aguilar, Irma; Romero, Lisandro; Sánchez, Elda E; Pérez, John C; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the renal lesion upon envenomation by snakebite has been related to myolysis, hemolysis, hypotension and/or direct venom nephrotoxicity caused by the venom. Both primary and continuous cell culture systems provide an in vitro alternative for quantitative evaluation of the toxicity of snake venoms. Crude Crotalus vegrandis venom was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. The toxicity of C. vegrandis crude venom, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic fractions were evaluated on mouse primary renal cells and a continuous cell line of Vero cells maintained in vitro. Cells were isolated from murine renal cortex and were grown in 96 well plates with Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium (DMEM) and challenged with crude and venom fractions. The murine renal cortex cells exhibited epithelial morphology and the majority showed smooth muscle actin determined by immune-staining. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the tetrazolium colorimetric method. Cell viability was less for crude venom, followed by the hemorrhagic and neurotoxic fractions with a CT50 of 4.93, 18.41 and 50.22 microg/mL, respectively. The Vero cell cultures seemed to be more sensitive with a CT50 of 2.9 and 1.4 microg/mL for crude venom and the hemorrhagic peak, respectively. The results of this study show the potential of using cell culture system to evaluate venom toxicity. PMID:16021288

  16. Mucins secreted by a transformed cell line derived from human tracheal gland cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lo-Guidice, J M; Merten, M D; Lamblin, G; Porchet, N; Houvenaghel, M C; Figarella, C; Roussel, P; Perini, J M

    1997-01-01

    High-molecular-mass glycoconjugates are secreted by the continuous cell line MM-39, which has been obtained from cultured human tracheal gland cells transformed by simian virus 40. They were purified on Sepharose(R) CL-4B and then by two steps of density-gradient centrifugation. High-molecular-mass glycoproteins resistant to digestion by hyaluronidase, chondroitin ABC lyase and heparitinase were obtained, in addition to hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans. They were susceptible to beta-elimination. They contained polylactosaminoglycan chains as well as carbohydrate chains with a terminal sialic acid in the NeuAc alpha2-3 sequence. Most of them have a buoyant density of 1.45 g/ml in CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation, except for MUC1. The MM-39 cells were also characterized by a high expression of MUC1 and MUC4 genes, but they did not express MUC2, MUC3, MUC5B and MUC5AC. Therefore the MM-39 cells synthesized mucin-like glycoproteins as well as lysozyme and mucous proteinase inhibitor [Merten, Kammouni, Renaud, Birg, Mattéi and Figarella (1996) Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 15, 520-528]; they should be considered as having a mixed, both serous and mucous, phenotype. PMID:9291115

  17. MicroRNA-126 inhibits invasion in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, M.; Brawner, E.; Batte, K. [Ohio State University Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, DHLRI 473 West 12th Avenue Room 201, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yu, L. [Ohio State University Center for Biostatistics, 320 West 10th Avenue, M410 Starling Loving Hall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hunter, M.G. [Ohio State University Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, DHLRI 473 West 12th Avenue Room 201, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Otterson, G.A. [Ohio State University Medical Center, Division of Hematology and Oncology, 320 West 10th Avenue, B415 Starling Loving hall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nuovo, G.; Marsh, C.B. [Ohio State University Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, DHLRI 473 West 12th Avenue Room 201, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nana-Sinkam, S.P. [Ohio State University Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, DHLRI 473 West 12th Avenue Room 201, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: Patrick.Nana-Sinkam@osumc.edu

    2008-09-05

    Crk is a member of a family of adaptor proteins that are involved in intracellular signal pathways altering cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Increased expression of Crk has been described in lung cancer and associated with increased tumor invasiveness. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs (approximately 21-25 nt long) that are capable of targeting genes for either degradation of mRNA or inhibition of translation. Crk is a predicted putative target gene for miR-126. Over-expression of miR126 in a lung cancer cell line resulted in a decrease in Crk protein without any alteration in the associated mRNA. These lung cancer cells exhibit a decrease in adhesion, migration, and invasion. Decreased cancer cell invasion was also evident following targeted knockdown of Crk. MiR-126 alters lung cancer cell phenotype by inhibiting adhesion, migration, and invasion and the effects on invasion may be partially mediated through Crk regulation.

  18. Analysis of P53 mutations and their expression in 56 colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Bodmer, Walter F.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the TP53 gene and its protein status was carried out on a panel of 56 colorectal cancer cell lines. This analysis was based on a combination of denaturing HPLC mutation screening of all exons of the p53 gene, sequencing the cDNA, and assessing the function of the p53 protein by assaying the induced expression of phosphorylated p53 and p21 after exposing cells to ?-rays. In a few cases where there was no production of p53 message nor evidence of functional p53 protein, all of the p53 exons were sequenced directly. Thirteen of the 56 cell lines had functional p53, 21 lines had missense mutations (one of which made no detectable protein), 4 lines produced no p53 transcripts, and the remaining 18 lines carried truncating TP53 mutations. Thus, our results showed a relatively high frequency of TP53 mutations (76.8%) in our cell lines, with almost half of the mutations being truncating mutations. This is a rather higher frequency of such mutations than usually reported. Of the 18 cell lines with truncating mutations, 12 had detectable truncated protein based on Western blot analysis, whereas no protein was detected in the remaining 6 cell lines. Our data provide a valuable source of TP 53 mutations for further studies and raise the question of the extent to which truncating mutations may have dominant negative effects, even when no truncated protein can be detected by standard methods. PMID:16418264

  19. Cell kill kinetics and cell cycle effects of taxol on human and hamster ovarian cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narima M. Lopes; Earl G. Adams; Thomas W. Pitts; Bijoy K. Bhuyan

    1993-01-01

    Taxol is a clinically active anticancer drug, which exerts its cytotoxicity by the unique mechanism of polymerizing tubulin monomers into microtubules and stabilizing microtubules. Our studies with ovarian (hamster CHO and human A2780) cells showed that taxol is a phase-specific agent that is much more cytotoxic to mitotic cells than interphase cells. First, the dose-survival pattern of taxol resembled that

  20. New cell lines from Ephestia kuehniella: characterization and susceptibility to baculoviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwight E. Lynn; Stephen M. Ferkovich

    New cell lines from embryos of Ephestia kuehniella