These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Engineering Vero cells to secrete human insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell therapy may have the potential for the treatment of Type I diabetes. To date, cells suitable for this purpose have not been developed. This study investigates the feasibility of modifying Vero, a cell line that may be considered safe to implant into humans, for this purpose. Stable Vero transfectants containing full-length human preproinsulin complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) were generated

Lorraine O’Driscoll; Patrick Gammell; Martin Clynes

2002-01-01

2

Cytotoxicity of butylated hydroxyanisole in Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is perhaps the most extensively used synthetic antioxidant in the food and cosmetic industry,\\u000a although considerable controversy exists in the literature regarding the safety of this compound. Most in vitro studies describing the effects of BHA have been performed in cancer cells, but it is unclear whether normal cells are equally\\u000a susceptible to BHA exposure.\\u000a \\u000a The present

V. Labrador; P. Fernández Freire; J. M. Pérez Martín; M. J. Hazen

2007-01-01

3

Improved poliovirus D-antigen yields by application of different Vero cell cultivation methods.  

PubMed

Vero cells were grown adherent to microcarriers (Cytodex 1; 3 g L(-1)) using animal component free media in stirred-tank type bioreactors. Different strategies for media refreshment, daily media replacement (semi-batch), continuous media replacement (perfusion) and recirculation of media, were compared with batch cultivation. Cell densities increased using a feed strategy from 1×10(6) cells mL(-1) during batch cultivation to 1.8, 2.7 and 5.0×10(6) cells mL(-1) during semi-batch, perfusion and recirculation, respectively. The effects of these different cell culture strategies on subsequent poliovirus production were investigated. Increased cell densities allowed up to 3 times higher D-antigen levels when compared with that obtained from batch-wise Vero cell culture. However, the cell specific D-antigen production was lower when cells were infected at higher cell densities. This cell density effect is in good agreement with observations for different cell lines and virus types. From the evaluated alternative culture methods, application of a semi-batch mode of operations allowed the highest cell specific D-antigen production. The increased product yields that can easily be reached using these higher cell density cultivation methods, showed the possibility for better use of bioreactor capacity for the manufacturing of polio vaccines to ultimately reduce vaccine cost per dose. Further, the use of animal-component-free cell- and virus culture media shows opportunities for modernization of human viral vaccine manufacturing. PMID:24583004

Thomassen, Yvonne E; Rubingh, Olaf; Wijffels, René H; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M

2014-05-19

4

VERO cells (cercopithecus aethiops kidney) — growth characteristics and viral susceptibility for use in diagnostic virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An investigation of some of the characteristics of the VERO cell line (Cercopithecus aethiops kidney) is reported, in which the suitability of the cells for use in routine diagnostic virology was examined. VERO cells will:1.grow to monolayers as rapidly as other heteroploid cell lines, but will maintain as usable monolayers in conventional maintenance medium for a significantly longer time;2.grow

D. E. Macfarlane; R. G. Sommerville

1969-01-01

5

Proteomic Analysis of Membrane Proteins of Vero Cells: Exploration of Potential Proteins Responsible for Virus Entry  

PubMed Central

Vero cells are highly susceptible to many viruses in humans and animals, and its membrane proteins (MPs) are responsible for virus entry. In our study, the MP proteome of the Vero cells was investigated using a shotgun LC-MS/MS approach. Six hundred twenty-seven proteins, including a total of 1839 peptides, were identified in MP samples of the Vero cells. In 627 proteins, 307 proteins (48.96%) were annotated in terms of biological process of gene ontology (GO) categories; 356 proteins (56.78%) were annotated in terms of molecular function of GO categories; 414 proteins (66.03%) were annotated in terms of cellular components of GO categories. Of 627 identified proteins, seventeen proteins had been revealed to be virus receptor proteins. The resulting protein lists and highlighted proteins may provide valuable information to increase understanding of virus infection of Vero cells. PMID:24286161

Guo, Donghua; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

6

The Genome Landscape of the African Green Monkey Kidney-Derived Vero Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes were identified in the 2.97-Gb genome sequence. A homozygous ?9-Mb deletion on chromosome 12 caused the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in Vero cells. In addition, an ?59-Mb loss of heterozygosity around this deleted region suggested that the homozygosity of the deletion was established by a large-scale conversion. Moreover, a genomic analysis of Vero cells revealed a female Chlorocebus sabaeus origin and proviral variations of the endogenous simian type D retrovirus. These results revealed the genomic basis for the non-tumourigenic permanent Vero cell lineage susceptible to various pathogens and will be useful for generating new sub-lines and developing new tools in the quality control of Vero cells. PMID:25267831

Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

2014-01-01

7

The genome landscape of the african green monkey kidney-derived vero cell line.  

PubMed

Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes were identified in the 2.97-Gb genome sequence. A homozygous ?9-Mb deletion on chromosome 12 caused the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in Vero cells. In addition, an ?59-Mb loss of heterozygosity around this deleted region suggested that the homozygosity of the deletion was established by a large-scale conversion. Moreover, a genomic analysis of Vero cells revealed a female Chlorocebus sabaeus origin and proviral variations of the endogenous simian type D retrovirus. These results revealed the genomic basis for the non-tumourigenic permanent Vero cell lineage susceptible to various pathogens and will be useful for generating new sub-lines and developing new tools in the quality control of Vero cells. PMID:25267831

Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

2014-12-01

8

Development of a Vero cell DNA reference standard for residual DNA measurement in China  

PubMed Central

This collaborative study developed a Vero cell DNA reference for standardizing dot blot hybridization, an assay widely employed to measure residual DNA contents of viral vaccines prepared with Vero cells. High purity of Vero cell DNA was extracted and characterized by Hind III enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Then, with a cooperative calibration, the concentration of Vero cell DNA reference bulk solution was determined (64.0 ± 1.9 ?g/mL, OD260/OD280 = 1.87) and diluted (40 ng/mL) with Tris-EDTA buffer containing bovine serum albumin as freeze-dried excipients. With industrial filling apparatus, the diluted bulk was loaded into ampoules (0.5 mL each) which were heat sealed after nitrogen filling. Finally, a collaborative study showed that the Vero cell DNA reference could reach a sensitivity of 1 to 5 pg/dot and maintained good stability after accelerated destruction test. The successful establishment of the Vero cell DNA quantitative reference will facilitate the standardization of dot blot hybridization for testing residual host cell DNA. PMID:23291952

Cao, Shouchun; Dong, Guanmu; Tang, Jianrong; Li, Jia; Liu, Jinghua; Shi, Leitai; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi

2013-01-01

9

Purification of diphtheria toxin receptor from Vero cells.  

PubMed

Diphtheria toxin receptor has been solubilized from Vero cell membranes with octyl beta-D-glucoside. CRM197, the product of a mutated diphtheria toxin gene, was used for the identification of the receptor. The binding activity of the solubilized receptor was assayed by precipitating the receptor with acetone in the presence of phospholipids and carrier proteins. The solubilized receptor was purified by the combination of several chromatographic steps in the presence of the detergent, resulting in about a 10(6)-fold purification of the receptor. The purified receptor showed essentially a single band of 14.5 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When partially purified receptor fractions were subjected to ligand blotting analysis using 125I-CRM197 as the probe, the 14.5-kDa protein and a few minor protein bands were identified as diphtheria toxin-binding molecules. These results show clearly that the 14.5-kDa protein is the diphtheria toxin receptor, or at least the major diphtheria toxin-binding molecule. When partially purified receptor was applied to a Sephacryl S-300 column in the presence of detergent, the receptor was eluted in the fractions corresponding to the 60-90-kDa size range. This suggests that the protein forms a complex with itself or with another protein. PMID:1939100

Mekada, E; Senoh, H; Iwamoto, R; Okada, Y; Uchida, T

1991-10-25

10

A Vero-cell-adapted vaccine donor strain of influenza A virus generated by serial passages.  

PubMed

A cell culture-based vaccine production system is preferred for the large-scale production of influenza vaccines and has advantages for generating vaccines against highly pathogenic influenza A viruses. Vero cells have been widely used in human vaccine manufacturing, and the safety of these cells has been well demonstrated. However, the most commonly used influenza-vaccine donor virus, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) virus, does not grow efficiently in Vero cells. Therefore, we adapted the PR8 virus to Vero cells by continuous passaging, and a high-growth strain was obtained after 20 passages. Sequence analysis and virological assays of the adapted strain revealed that mutations in four viral internal genes (NP, PB1, PA and NS1) were sufficient for adaptation. The recombinant virus harboring these mutations (PR8-4mut) displayed accelerated viral transport into the nucleus and increased RNP activity. Importantly, the PR8-4mut could serve as a backbone donor virus to support the growth of the H7N1, H9N2 and H5N1 avian viruses and the H1N1 and H3N2 human viruses in Vero cells without changing its pathogenicity in either chicken embryos or mice. Thus, our work describes the generation of a Vero-adapted, high-yield PR8-4mut virus that may serve as a promising candidate for an influenza-vaccine donor virus. PMID:25448099

Hu, Weibin; Zhang, Hong; Han, Qinglin; Li, Li; Chen, Yixin; Xia, Ningshao; Chen, Ze; Shu, Yuelong; Xu, Ke; Sun, Bing

2015-01-01

11

Changes in antiviral susceptibility to entry inhibitors and endocytic uptake of dengue-2 virus serially passaged in Vero or C6/36 cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of virus origin, mammalian or mosquito cell-derived, on antiviral susceptibility of DENV-2 to entry inhibitors and the association of this effect with any alteration in the mode of entry into the cell. To this end, ten serial passages of DENV-2 were performed in mosquito C6/36 cells or monkey Vero cells and the antiviral susceptibility of each virus passage to sulfated polysaccharides (SPs), like heparin and carrageenans, was evaluated by a virus plaque reduction assay. After serial passaging in Vero cells, DENV-2 became increasingly resistant to SP inhibition whereas the antiviral susceptibility was not altered in virus propagated in C6/36 cells. The change in antiviral susceptibility was associated to a differential mode of entry into the host cell. The route of endocytic entry for productive Vero cell infection was altered from a non-classical clathrin independent pathway for C6/36-grown virus to a clathrin-mediated endocytosis when the virus was serially propagated in Vero cells. Our results show the impact of the cellular system used for successive propagation of DENV on the initial interaction between the host cell and the virion in the next round of infection and the relevant consequences it might have during the in vitro evaluation of entry inhibitors. PMID:24583230

Acosta, Eliana G; Piccini, Luana E; Talarico, Laura B; Castilla, Viviana; Damonte, Elsa B

2014-05-12

12

Leucine affects the fibroblastic Vero cells stimulating the cell proliferation and modulating the proteolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, exert regulatory influences on protein and carbohydrate metabolism, ribosome\\u000a biogenesis and gene expression. This study investigated the effects of leucine in fibroblastic cells analysing viability,\\u000a proliferation, morphology, proteolysis enzymes activities and protein turnover. After exposure to culture medium enriched\\u000a with 25 or 50 ?M leucine for 24, 48 and 72 h, Vero cells have no alterations on

Estela Maria Gonçalves; Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes

2010-01-01

13

Isolation and propagation of Dengue virus in Vero and BHK-21 cells expressing human DC-SIGN stably.  

PubMed

The "standard" methods of isolating dengue virus (DENV) utilize the mosquito cell line C6/36, monkey kidney LLC-MK2 cells, Vero cells, or baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. However, these cells lines lack a particular DENV receptor, known as dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which is expressed on immature dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages. This may result in less efficient virus isolation and propagation. The present study used a lentivirus vector to establish Vero and BHK-21 cell lines (Vero-DC and BHK-DC) that express human DC-SIGN stably. Five DENV strains, each passaged several times in C6/36 cells, replicated more efficiently in Vero-DC and BHK-DC than in the parental Vero or BHK-21 cells. Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC were used to isolate virus from buffy coats and plasma samples derived from 13 patients infected with DENV. Most of the viruses showed increased production in cell lines expressing DC-SIGN. However, the isolation rate was lower (15.4-46.2%) than that from C6/36 cells (84.6%). Interestingly, when the viruses were isolated in C6/36 cells prior to infecting Vero/Vero-DC and BHK-21/BHK-DC, the rate of virus production increased markedly, reaching levels higher than those initially achieved in C6/36 cells. These data suggest that Vero-DC and BHK-DC could be useful tools for virus propagation, and that human specimens may contain a factor that interferes with virus growth in mammalian cells. PMID:25205264

Phanthanawiboon, Supranee; A-nuegoonpipat, Atchareeya; Panngarm, Narawan; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Anantapreecha, Surapee; Kurosu, Takeshi

2014-12-01

14

Cytotoxic effects of etephon and maleic hydrazide in Vero, Hep2, HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

The toxicity of etephon and maleic hydrazide, used as plant growth regulators in agriculture, were reported as low in mammals in previous studies. However, in vitro cytotoxicity studies in mammalian cells are currently missing to understand their toxicity at molecular level. In the current study, the cytotoxicity of these compounds, were studied in Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelium), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), Hep2 (human epidermoid cancer) cells by MTT ((3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromure) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays. Maleic hydrazide had lower IC50 values for all cell lines compared to ethephon. Least cytotoxic effect treated by ethephon were observed in Vero, followed by HepG2 and Hep2. Similarly maleic hydrazide also showed least cytotoxicity on Vero cells, followed by Hep2 and HepG2 cells (p?Vero cells, followed by HepG2 and Hep2 cells (p?0.868 (p?cells to be supplemented by further studies. PMID:24495230

Yurdakok, Begum; Baydan, Emine; Okur, Hamza; Gurcan, Ismayil Safa

2014-10-01

15

Establishment of an analyzing method for a Japanese encephalitis virus neutralization test in Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established a 50% plaque reduction analyzing method of neutralizing antibody for human serum to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in Vero cells, called the ‘3 points least-squares regression method’ (3LSRM). Our method shows a high correlation with the chick embryo cell method (the current standard method for human serum), using the chart method established by the National Institute of Infectious

Motoharu Abe; Syoji Kuzuhara; Yoichiro Kino

2003-01-01

16

Oral efficacy of Vero cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus DR13 strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Vero cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, DR13, was distinguished from wild-type PEDV using restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Cell attenuated DR13 was orally or intramuscularly (IM) administered to late-term pregnant sows, and mortality resulting from the highly virulent PEDV challenge was investigated in passively immunized suckling piglets of the two different groups. The mortality rate

D. S. Song; J. S. Oh; B. K. Kang; J. S. Yang; H. J. Moon; H. S. Yoo; Y. S. Jang; B. K. Park

2007-01-01

17

Oral efficacy of Vero cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus DR13 strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Vero cell attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strain, DR13, was distinguished from wild-type PEDV using restric- tion enzyme fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Cell attenuated DR13 was orally or intramuscularly (IM) administered to late-term pregnant sows, and mortality resulting from the highly virulent PEDV challenge was investigated in passively immunized suckling piglets of the two different groups. The mortality

D. S. Song; J. S. Oh; B. K. Kang; J. S. Yang; H. J. Moon; H. S. Yoo; Y. S. Jang; B. K. Park

2006-01-01

18

Formation of varicella-zoster virus antigens in infected Vero cells.  

PubMed

The formation of varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus-associated antigens was studied in V-Z virus-infected Vero cells by means of indirect immunofluorescence. Early antigen (EA) was first detected inside V-Z virus-infected Vero cells 4 to 6 hr after infection, whereas surface membrane antigen (SMA) was expressed on the outer surface of infected cells 2 to 3 hr later than EA, and intranuclear late antigen (LA) was detected several hours later than SMA antigen. EA expression was not inhibited by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) treatment, whereas LA formation was completely blocked by Ara-C. The presence of two components of SMA early SMA (ESMA) and late SMA (LSMA), was suggested by this difference in susceptibility to Ara-C. The formation of all viral antigens, EA, SMA, and LA, was blocked by inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis. PMID:3003545

Takayama, M; Oya, A

1985-01-01

19

Equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) infection induces alterations in the cytoskeleton of vero cells but not apoptosis.  

PubMed

Effects of infection with two different strains of equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1; Piber 178/83, Kentucky D) on the cytoskeleton of Vero cells were investigated immunohistochemically, and evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Twenty four hours post EHV-1 infection the assembly of the microtubulus system of Vero cells was heavily disturbed. The Golgi region was dispersed into vesicles spread throughout the cytoplasm as demonstrated by WGA lectin binding. Other cytoskeletal elements such as cytokeratin, vimentin, and filamentous actin (F-actin) were not affected by EHV-1 infection. The nature of Vero cell death after EHV-1 infection was investigated by three different methods to include all possible stages of apoptosis. All methods failed to demonstrate characteristic apoptotic features, therefore, it seems likely that necrosis is the predominant way of cell death in EHV-1 infected Vero cells. PMID:10542029

Walter, I; Nowotny, N

1999-01-01

20

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates with different virulence genes content exhibit similar pathologic influence on Vero cells.  

PubMed

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli are the major causative agent of urinary tract infection--they may simultaneously express a number of virulence factors to cause disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between virulence factors content of fifteen UPEC isolates and their pathogenic potential. The isolates belonged to the five serotypes O78:K80, O114:K90, O142:K86, O164 and O157. Nine of the virulence factors have been explored, ibeA, pap, sfa/foc, cnfl, hly, fyuA, pil, ompT and traT. Virulence factors profiling of the isolates revealed a different content ranging from 22% to 100% of the virulence genes explored. The pathogenic capacity of all fifteen isolates when tested on Vero cells showed that the cytotoxicity for all tested strains on Vero cells was approximately equal and enhanced after growth in syncase broth, leading mainly to cell lysis. The toxic effects reduced slightly after heat treatment of the toxin, and greatly after formalin detoxification, but not all the deleterious effect was abolished. Endotoxin also has cytotoxic effects on Vero cells, but longer time is needed for cytolysis which is greatly diminished with formalin treatment. In conclusion, our study revealed that pathogenic strains of UPEC can exert their pathogenic effect on live cells or system with limited virulence factors gene content. PMID:25033661

Obaid, Jamil M A S; Mansour, Samira R; Elshahedy, Mohammed S; Rabie, Tarik E; Azab, Adel M H

2014-01-01

21

Vero cell assay validation of an alternative to the Ph. Eur. diphtheria potency tests.  

PubMed

In the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission, in 1993 a collaborative study was organised for the validation of an alternative to the diphtheria in vivo challenge tests required by the Ph.Eur. monograph V.2.2.7. The alternative assay is based on the detection of neutralising antibodies in the sera from mice immunised with the vaccines to be tested (Vero cell assay). In the study this assay method was validated against intradermal and lethal challenge in guinea-pigs, performed in conformity with Ph.Eur. Therefore the potency currently on the European market, was assayed in parallel by the different assay methods. Seventeen laboratories, from eleven different countries, participated in the study. Three laboratories performed the intradermal challenge assay, while three other laboratories performed the lethal challenge assay. All seventeen laboratories performed the Vero cell assay. The results of the study suggest that the potency of the diphtheria component of both monovalent diphtheria vaccines and combined diphtheria-tetanus vaccines can be estimated adequately by means of the Vero cell assay. It does not yet seem possible for all combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines to replace a potency assay based on the protective capacity of a vaccine in guinea-pigs by the Vero cell assay. This may be due to an adjuvant effect of the pertussis component of the vaccine, in combination with the adsorbent used, which may be more pronounced in mice than in guinea-pigs and may also differ between different strains of mice. PMID:8785952

Gommer, A M

1996-01-01

22

Equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV1) infection induces alterations in the cytoskeleton of Vero cells but not apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Effects of infection with two different strains of equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1; Piber 178\\/83, Kentucky D) on the cytoskeleton\\u000a of Vero cells were investigated immunohistochemically, and evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Twenty four hours\\u000a post EHV-1 infection the assembly of the microtubulus system of Vero cells was heavily disturbed. The Golgi region was dispersed\\u000a into vesicles spread

I. Walter; N. Nowotny

1999-01-01

23

Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal Vero cells  

E-print Network

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields aren't considered as a real carcinogenic agent despite the fact that some studies have showed impairment of the DNA integrity in different cells lines. The aim of this study was evaluation of the late effects of a 100 Hz and 5.6 mT electromagnetic field, applied continuously or discontinuously, on the DNA integrity of Vero cells assessed by alkaline Comet assay and by cell cycle analysis. Normal Vero cells were exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (100 Hz, 5.6 mT) for 45 minutes. The Comet assay and cell cycle analysis were performed 48 hours after the treatment. Exposed samples presented an increase of the number of cells with high damaged DNA as compared with non-exposed cells. Quantitative evaluation of the comet assay showed a significantly ($cells. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase of the frequency of the cells in S phase, proving the occurrence of single strand breaks. The most probable mechanism of induction of the registered effects is the production of different types of reactive oxygen species.

Cosmin Teodor Miha; Gabriela Vochita; Florin Brinza; Pincu Rotinberg

2013-01-23

24

[A study of the antiherpetic activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts in the Vero cells infected with the herpes simplex virus].  

PubMed

The chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) contains a wide range of excellent bioactive compounds. However, limited information exists on the antiviral activity of the compounds extracted from chaga. A number of subfractions of chaga were obtained using different solvents and different procedures. The subfractions of chaga extracted with water, alcohol, alkali were tested for their toxicity for the Vero cell culture and antiviral effect in the Vero cells infected with the Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Type 1. It was shown that most of the subfractions were not toxic for the Vero cells and had protective effect on the Vero cells infected with HSV. The subfraction IV in the concentration 5 microg/ml protected the Vero cells from cytodestructive action of HSV and no viral DNA was detected in infected cells treated with chaga extracts. Best protective effect was observed when compound was added before or within one hour after the Vero cells were infected with HSV. PMID:25069286

Polkovnikova, M V; Nosik, N N; Garaev, T M; Kondrashina, N G; Finogenova, M P; Shibnev, V A

2014-01-01

25

Adaptation and growth kinetics study of an Indian isolate of virulent duck enteritis virus in Vero cells.  

PubMed

Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is a viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of the disease is mainly done by vaccination with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the embryo propagated vaccine virus pose a threat of harboring other infectious agents. Seeing these limitations, the present study reports for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of a virulent Indian isolate of duck enteritis virus in Vero cell line. In this study isolation of an outbreak virus from Kerala state was done in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF). Then adapted the DEV isolate in the Vero cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of Vero cells were observed starting from the 7th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in Vero cells was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA and antigen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immuno fluorescent assay (IIFA), respectively. PCR detection of DEV using self designed primers for US4 (gD) and UL30 (DNA Polymerase) gene has been reported for the in the present study. The kinetics of DEV in Vero cells revealed a maximum infectivity titer of 10(5.6) TCID 50/ml after 48hr of viral infection. Compared to chicken embryo adapted DVE vaccine virus, the Vero cell culture system is free from other infectious agents. So it will be a good candidate for cultivation and propagation of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain. Further research studies are suggested to explore the feasibility of utilizing this Vero cell culture adapted DEV isolate for developing an attenuated vaccine virus against duck virus enteritis. PMID:25450886

Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin M; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

2015-01-01

26

Removing residual DNA from Vero-cell culture-derived human rabies vaccine by using nuclease.  

PubMed

The clearance of host cell DNA is a critical indicator for Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine. In this study, we evaluated the clearance of DNA in Vero-cell culture-derived rabies vaccine by purification process utilizing ultrafiltration, nuclease digestion, and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the bioprocess of using nuclease decreased residual DNA. Dot-blot hybridization analysis showed that the residual host cell DNA was <100 pg/ml in the final product. The residual nuclease in rabies vaccine was less than 0.1 ng/ml protein. The residual nuclease could not paly the biologically active role of digestion of DNA. Experiments of stability showed that the freeze-drying rabies virus vaccine was stable and titers were >5.0 IU/ml. Immunogenicity test and protection experiments indicated mice were greatly induced generation of neutralizing antibodies and invoked protective effects immunized with intraperitoneal injections of the rabies vaccine. These results demonstrated that the residual DNA was removed from virus particles and nuclease was removed by gel filtration chromatography. The date indicated that technology was an efficient method to produce rabies vaccine for human use by using nuclease. PMID:25108516

Li, Si-Ming; Bai, Fu-Liang; Xu, Wen-Juan; Yang, Yong-Bi; An, Ying; Li, Tian-He; Yu, Yin-Hang; Li, De-Shan; Wang, Wen-Fei

2014-09-01

27

Hantaviruses and TNF-alpha act synergistically to induce ERK1\\/2 inactivation in Vero E6 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that the apathogenic Tula hantavirus induces apoptosis in Vero E6 epithelial cells. To assess the molecular mechanisms behind the induced apoptosis we studied the effects of hantavirus infection on cellular signaling pathways which promote cell survival. We previously also observed that the Tula virus-induced cell death process is augmented by external TNF-?. Since TNF-? is

Tomas Strandin; Jussi Hepojoki; Hao Wang; Antti Vaheri; Hilkka Lankinen

2008-01-01

28

Development of a Vero cell-derived influenza whole virus vaccine.  

PubMed

Influenza vaccine production is dependent on the availability of embryonated hen eggs for virus growth. This is an extremely cumbersome system with many disadvantages with respect to selection of virus variants and the presence of adventitious viruses. We have developed an alternative cell culture system which allows rapid production of large volumes of vaccine. The WHO-approved Vero cell line was used in serum-free culture to grow many influenza strains to high titre. This system could be scaled-up to allow vaccine production with a 1200 litre fermenter. A purification scheme was developed which resulted in a high purity whole virus vaccine. This was demonstrated to be at least as immunogenic as a conventional egg-derived preparation. PMID:10494963

Kistner, O; Barrett, P N; Mundt, W; Reiter, M; Schober-Bendixen, S; Eder, G; Dorner, F

1999-01-01

29

Development of a mammalian cell (Vero) derived candidate influenza virus vaccine.  

PubMed

Influenza vaccine production is dependent on the availability of embryonated hen eggs for virus growth. This is an extremely cumbersome system with many disadvantages with respect to selection of virus variants and presence of adventitious viruses. We have developed an alternative cell culture system which allows rapid production of large volumes of vaccine. The World Health Organisation (WHO) approved Vero cell line was used in serum-free culture to grow a multitude of influenza strains to high titre. This system could be scaled-up to allow vaccine production with a 1200 litre fermenter volume. A purification scheme was developed which resulted in a high purity whole virus vaccine. This was demonstrated to be at least as immunogenic as a conventional egg-derived preparation in a mouse model. PMID:9682344

Kistner, O; Barrett, P N; Mundt, W; Reiter, M; Schober-Bendixen, S; Dorner, F

1998-01-01

30

Photoirradiation study of gold nanospheres and rods in Vero and Hela cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoirradiation effect of gold nanospheres in conjucation with green light and rods in conjugation with red light corresponds to their absorption wavelength range found to be appreciable. In this present work concentration of nanomaterial and light dose were optimized. Gold nanospheres were synthesized by reduction technique using Sodium Borohydrate as reducing agent and Trisodium Citrate as capping agent. Au nanorods having 680-900nm absorption were synthesized using reduction techniques with CTAB and BDAC polymers. From UV-Vis absorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy the size of nanoparticles were confirmed. 30nm Gold nanospheres and green light source of 530nm wavelength with power 30mW were applied to Vero and Hela cell lines shows higher toxicity for Hela cells. Nanorods were applied and irradiated with 680nm wavelength light source with light intensity 45mW. Post irradiation effect for 24hrs, 48hrs confirms cell proliferation in normal rate in viable cells. The morphological changes in irradiated spot leads to apoptotoic cell death was confirmed with microscopic imaging. The LD50 value was also calculated.

Gananathan, Poorani; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Elanchezhiyan, Manickan

2014-03-01

31

VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt  

PubMed Central

Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Kun, Alejandra

2014-01-01

32

Evaluation of antiviral activities of curcumin derivatives against HSV-1 in Vero cell line.  

PubMed

Antiviral drug resistance is one of the most common problems in medicine, and, therefore, finding new antiviral agents, especially from natural resources, seems to be necessary. This study was designed to assay the antiviral activity of curcumin and its new derivatives like gallium-curcumin and Cu-curcumin on replication of HSV-1 in cell culture. The research was performed as an in vitro study in which the antiviral activity of different concentrations of three substances including curcumin, Gallium-curcumin and Cu-curcumin were tested on HSV-1. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds was also evaluated on the Vero cell line. The CC50 values for curcumin, gallium-curcumin and Cu-curcumin were 484.2 microg/mL, 255.8 microg/mL and 326.6 microg/mL, respectively, and the respective IC50 values 33.0 microg/mL, 13.9 microg/mL and 23.1 microg/mL. The calculated SI values were 14.6, 18.4 and 14.1, respectively. The results showed that curcumin and its new derivatives have remarkable antiviral effects on HSV-1 in cell culture. PMID:21299124

Zandi, Keivan; Ramedani, Elissa; Mohammadi, Khosro; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Deilami, Iman; Rastian, Zahra; Fouladvand, Moradali; Yousefi, Forough; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

2010-12-01

33

The 3a Protein of SARS-coronavirus Induces Apoptosis in Vero E6 Cells.  

PubMed

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China and the first case emerged in mid November 2002. The etiologic agent of this disease was found to be a previously unknown coronavirus, SARS-CoV. The detailed pathology of SARS-CoV infection and the host response to the viral infection are still not known. The 3a gene encodes a non-structural viral protein which is predicted to be a transmembrane protein. In this study, we showed that the 3a protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in 3a-transfected monkey kidney Vero E6 cells. In vitro experiments of chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation suggest that the 3a protein may trigger apoptosis. Our data show that over-expression of a single SARS-CoV protein can induce apoptosis in vitro. Thus GFP-3a fusion protein could also be used as a biosensor for monitoring the cytopathic features of SARS infection, e.g. lymphopenia, in animal model systems, similar to nucleocapsid and 7a proteins. PMID:17282011

Y Waye, Mary; W Law, Patrick; Wong, Chi-Hang; C Au, Thomas; Chuck, Chi-Pang; Kong, Siu-Kai; S Chan, Paul; To, Ka-Fai; I Lo, Anthony; W Chan, Judy; Suen, Yick-Keung; Edwin Chan, H Y; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Y Sung, Joseph; Lo, Y M; W Tsui, Stephen

2005-01-01

34

Comparison of herpes simplex (HSV) proteins synthesized in Vero, HEP-2 and human megakaryocyte-like cell lines  

SciTech Connect

The natural human host blood cell capable of supporting herpes virus replication has yet to be defined. They found that a recently cultured human megakaryocyte-like (Meg) cell line can support HSV 1 and 2 replication as demonstrated by growth inhibition, CPE, virus production and HSV DNA synthesis. The HSV proteins synthesized and post-translationally modified in Vero and HEp-2 infected cells were compared to the protein species produced in the infected Meg cell since differences may influence antigenic properties and host range. Host cell protein synthesis was greatly reduced in all three cell lines within hours post infection (pi). However, maximum viral protein synthesis occurs between 4 and 24 hrs pi with the Meg cells as compared to 24-48 hrs pi with the other cell lines. The immunoprecipitated /sup 35/S-methionine labeled HSV protein gel patterns for each infected cell line are qualitatively and quantitatively very different from each other. Dramatic differences were also observed when infected cells were labeled with /sup 32/P-ATP (in vitro method) or /sup 32/Pi (in vivo method). Finally, analysis of /sup 3/H-mannose labeled HSV glycoproteins demonstrates that the post-translational modifications of these proteins are significantly altered in the Meg cell as compared to the Vero and HEp-2 cells.

Soslau, G.; Pastorino, M.B.; Morgan, D.A.; Brodsky, I.; Howett, M.K.

1986-05-01

35

Serum-free microcarrier based production of replication deficient Influenza vaccine candidate virus lacking NS1 using Vero cells  

PubMed Central

Background Influenza virus is a major health concern that has huge impacts on the human society, and vaccination remains as one of the most effective ways to mitigate this disease. Comparing the two types of commercially available Influenza vaccine, the live attenuated virus vaccine is more cross-reactive and easier to administer than the traditional inactivated vaccines. One promising live attenuated Influenza vaccine that has completed Phase I clinical trial is deltaFLU, a deletion mutant lacking the viral Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) gene. As a consequence of this gene deletion, this mutant virus can only propagate effectively in cells with a deficient interferon-mediated antiviral response. To demonstrate the manufacturability of this vaccine candidate, a batch bioreactor production process using adherent Vero cells on microcarriers in commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media is described. Results Five commercially available animal-component free, serum-free media (SFM) were evaluated for growth of Vero cells in agitated Cytodex 1 spinner flask microcarrier cultures. EX-CELL Vero SFM achieved the highest cell concentration of 2.6 × 10^6 cells/ml, whereas other SFM achieved about 1.2 × 10^6 cells/ml. Time points for infection between the late exponential and stationary phases of cell growth had no significant effect in the final virus titres. A virus yield of 7.6 Log10 TCID50/ml was achieved using trypsin concentration of 10 ?g/ml and MOI of 0.001. The Influenza vaccine production process was scaled up to a 3 liter controlled stirred tank bioreactor to achieve a cell density of 2.7 × 10^6 cells/ml and virus titre of 8.3 Log10 TCID50/ml. Finally, the bioreactor system was tested for the production of the corresponding wild type H1N1 Influenza virus, which is conventionally used in the production of inactivated vaccine. High virus titres of up to 10 Log10 TCID50/ml were achieved. Conclusions We describe for the first time the production of Influenza viruses using Vero cells in commercially available animal-component free, serum-free medium. This work can be used as a basis for efficient production of attenuated as well as wild type Influenza virus for research and vaccine production. PMID:21835017

2011-01-01

36

Accumulation of defective interfering viral particles in only a few passages in Vero cells attenuates mumps virus neurovirulence.  

PubMed

Immunization programs have implemented live attenuated mumps vaccines which reduced mumps incidence ?97%. Some of the vaccine strains were abandoned due to unwanted side effects and the genetic marker of attenuation has not been identified so far. Our hypothesis was that non-infectious viral particles, in particular defective interfering particles (DIPs), contribute to neuroattenuation. We showed that non-infectious particles of the mumps vaccine L-Zagreb attenuated neurovirulence of wild type mumps virus 9218/Zg98. Then, we attenuated recent wild type mumps virus MuVi/Zagreb.HRV/28.12 in Vero cells through 16 passages but already the fifth passage (p5) showed accumulation of DIPs and attenuated neurovirulence in a newborn rat model when compared to the second passage (p2). Sequence analysis of the p2 and p5 revealed a single mutation in the 5' untranslated region of the HN gene. Analysis of the expression level of the HN protein showed that this mutation does not affect the expression of the protein. We conclude that the passages of MuVi/Zagreb.HRV/28.12 in Vero cells for only three passages accumulated DIPs which attenuate neurovirulence. These findings reveal DIPs as a very promising and general neuroattenuating factor which should be considered in the rational design of the new mumps vaccine. PMID:25479555

Šantak, Maja; Markuši?, Maja; Balija, Maja Lang; Kopa?, Sandra Ke?; Jug, Renata; Örvell, Claes; Tomac, Jelena; For?i?, Dubravko

2015-03-01

37

Chemical Synthesis, Characterisation, and Biocompatibility of Nanometre Scale Porous Anodic Aluminium Oxide Membranes for Use as a Cell Culture Substrate for the Vero Cell Line: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

In this preliminary study we investigate for the first time the biomedical potential of using porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes as a cell substrate for culturing the Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkey) Kidney (Vero) epithelial cell line. One advantage of using the inorganic AAO membrane is the presence of nanometre scale pore channels that allow the exchange of molecules and nutrients across the membrane. The size of the pore channels can be preselected by adjusting the controlling parameters of a temperature controlled two-step anodization process. The cellular interaction and response of the Vero cell line with an in-house synthesised AAO membrane, a commercially available membrane, and a glass control were assessed by investigating cell adhesion, morphology, and proliferation over a 72?h period. The number of viable cells proliferating over the respective membrane surfaces revealed that the locally produced in-house AAO membrane had cells numbers similar to the glass control. The study revealed evidence of focal adhesion sites over the surface of the nanoporous membranes and the penetration of cellular extensions into the pore structure as well. The outcome of the study has revealed that nanometre scale porous AAO membranes have the potential to become practical cell culture scaffold substrates with the capability to enhance adhesion and proliferation of Vero cells. PMID:24579077

Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Le, Xuan Thi; Becker, Thomas; Fawcett, Derek

2014-01-01

38

Growth and poliovirus production of Vero cells on a novel microcarrier with artificial cell adhesive protein under serum-free conditions.  

PubMed

A microcarrier is used for the three-dimensional (3D) culture of adhesion-dependent mammalian cells. We developed a novel microcarrier by binding ProNectin F, an artificial cell adhesive protein synthesized by genetically engineered Escherichia coli to a polyacrylic superabsorbent polymer. The microcarrier is characterized by containing no animal-derived components. The serum-free culture of Vero cells for vaccine production using the microcarrier increased the number of Vero cells by approximately 30% compared with the existing dextran beads coated with porcine Type I collagen, which resulted in approximately a 30% to 40% increase in the infectivity titer of the Sabin 2 strain of poliovirus. These results suggested that the developed microcarrier should be unprecedented in permitting high-yield vaccine production by means of a serum-free culture. PMID:21262586

Kurokawa, Masato; Sato, Shigehiro

2011-05-01

39

Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells  

PubMed Central

Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs) accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP) assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed. PMID:23949006

Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

2013-01-01

40

Differentiation of a Vero cell adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea virus from Korean field strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of ORF 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) designated DR13 was isolated in Vero cells and serially passaged by level 100. The virus was titrated at regular intervals of the passage level. Open reading frame (ORF) 3 sequences of the virus at passage levels 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 were aligned and compared using a computer software program. Suitability of the

D. S Song; J. S Yang; J. S Oh; J. H Han; B. K Park

2003-01-01

41

High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People's Republic of China (China)] [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People's Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue, E-mail: euy-tokyo@umin.ac.jp [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People's Republic of China (China)] [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People's Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang, E-mail: liaogy@21cn.com [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People's Republic of China (China)] [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People's Republic of China (China)

2012-05-18

42

MDCK and Vero cells for influenza virus vaccine production: a one-to-one comparison up to lab-scale bioreactor cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, adherent MDCK (Madin Darby canine kidney) and Vero cells have attracted considerable attention for production\\u000a of cell culture-derived influenza vaccines. While numerous publications deal with the design and the optimization of corresponding\\u000a upstream processes, one-to-one comparisons of these cell lines under comparable cultivation conditions have largely been neglected.\\u000a Therefore, a direct comparison of influenza virus production

Yvonne Genzel; Christian Dietzsch; Erdmann Rapp; Jana Schwarzer; Udo Reichl

2010-01-01

43

Transport of an external Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) protein from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum: studies with cholera toxin in Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The A2 chain of cholera toxin (CTX) contains a COOH-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) se- quence. We have, therefore, analyzed by immunofluo- rescence and by subcellular fractionation in Vero cells whether CTX can be used to demonstrate a retrograde transport of KDEL proteins from the Golgi to the ER. Immunofluorescen ce studies reveal that after a pulse treatment with CTX, the CTX-A

Irina V. Majoul; Philippe I. H. Bastiaens; Hans-Dieter SSling

1996-01-01

44

Analysis of protein expression changes of the Vero E6 cells infected with classic PEDV strain CV777 by using quantitative proteomic technique.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) have caused widespread concern. The identification of proteins associated with PEDV infection might provide insight into PEDV pathogenesis and facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies. We analyzed the differential protein profile of PEDV-infected Vero E6 cells using mass spectrometry and an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification. A total of 126 proteins were identified that were differentially expressed between the PEDV-infected and mock-infected groups (P<0.05, quantitative ratio ?1.2), among which the expression of 58 proteins was up-regulated and that of 68 proteins was down-regulated in the PEDV-infected Vero E6 cells, involving in integrin ?2/?3, cystatin-C. The Gene Ontology analysis indicated that the molecular function of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) was primarily related to binding and catalytic activity, and that the biological functions in which the DEPs are involved included metabolism, organismal systems, cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, and diseases. Among the disease-related functions, certain anti-viral pathways and proteins, such as the RIG-I-like receptor, Rap1, autophagy, mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K-Akt and Jak-STAT signaling pathways, and integrin ?2/?3 and cystatin-C proteins, represented potential factors in PEDV infection. Our findings provide valuable insight into PEDV-Vero E6 cell interactions. PMID:25783682

Sun, Dongbo; Shi, Hongyan; Guo, Donghua; Chen, Jianfei; Shi, Da; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Li

2015-06-15

45

Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH  

SciTech Connect

The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/. Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na/sup +/ was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na/sup +/. At a constant external concentration of HCO/sub 3/-, the amount of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO/sub 3/- decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO/sub 3/- is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ both in the absence and presence of Na/sup +/. At alkaline internal pH, HCO/sub 3/- stimulated the efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na/sup +/ and HCO/sub 3/- were required to induce /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.

Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.

1987-08-01

46

Apoptosis induced by duck reovirus p10.8 protein in primary duck embryonated fibroblast and Vero E6 cells.  

PubMed

Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) is an important poultry pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality in ducklings. The mechanisms by which viruses kill susceptible cells, and ultimately produce diseases, in Muscovy duck remain poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the biologic functions of the MDRV p10.8 protein in vitro. The p10.8 protein is a small protein of MDRV that is encoded by the first open reading frame of the S4 segment. In our study, the p10.8-encoding gene was individually cloned and expressed in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. The p10.8 protein had no potential transmembrane domain; it shared no sequence similarity to other known fusion-associated small transmembrane proteins encoded by the avian reovirus, Nelson Bay virus or baboon reovirus; and it did not show any syncytium formation activity. The p10.8 protein induced apoptosis when expressed by itself in transfected primary Muscovy duck embryonic fibroblasts or in Vero E6 cells. Four assays were used to analyze the apoptosis induced by p10.8: DNA ladder formation; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments; and nuclear staining with propidium iodide. Two deletion products, p10.8delta1 (1-63aa; amino acid position) and p10.8delta2 (64-96aa), were constructed. Deletion analysis suggests that p10.8delta1 (1-63aa) is important in mediating p10.8-induced apoptosis because its deletion abolishes induction of apoptosis. PMID:19848085

Geng, Hongwei; Zhang, Yun; Liu-Partanen, Yin; Vanhanseng; Guo, Dongchun; Wang, Yu; Liu, Ming; Tong, Guangzhi

2009-09-01

47

Reduction of spiked porcine circovirus during the manufacture of a Vero cell-derived vaccine.  

PubMed

Porcine circovirus-1 (PCV1) was recently identified as a contaminant in live Rotavirus vaccines, which was likely caused by contaminated porcine trypsin. The event triggered the development of new regulatory guidance on the use of porcine trypsin which shall ensure that cell lines and porcine trypsin in use are free from PCV1. In addition, manufacturing processes of biologicals other than live vaccines include virus clearance steps that may prevent and mitigate any potential virus contamination of product. In this work, artificial spiking of down-scaled models for the manufacturing process of an inactivated pandemic influenza virus vaccine were used to investigate inactivation of PCV1 and the physico-chemically related porcine parvovirus (PPV) by formalin and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment as well as removal by the purification step sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. A PCV1 infectivity assay, using a real-time PCR infectivity readout was established. The formalin treatment (0.05% for 48h) showed substantial inactivation for both PCV1 and PPV with reduction factors of 3.0log10 and 6.8log10, respectively, whereas UV-C treatment resulted in complete PPV (?5.9log10) inactivation already at a dose of 13mJ/cm but merely 1.7log10 at 24mJ/cm(2) for PCV1. The UV-C inactivation results with PPV were confirmed using minute virus of mice (MVM), indicating that parvoviruses are far more sensitive to UV-C than PCV1. The sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation also contributed to PCV1 clearance with a reduction factor of 2log10. The low pH treatment during the production of procine trypsin was investigated and showed effective inactivation for both PCV1 (4.5log10) and PPV (6.4log10). In conclusion, PCV1 in general appears to be more resistant to virus inactivation than PPV. Still, the inactivated pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing process provides for robust virus reduction, in addition to the already implemented testing for PCV1 to avoid any contaminations. PMID:24560672

Lackner, Cornelia; Leydold, Sandra M; Modrof, Jens; Farcet, Maria R; Grillberger, Leopold; Schäfer, Birgit; Anderle, Heinz; Kreil, Thomas R

2014-04-11

48

Transcriptional profiling of Vero E6 cells over-expressing SARS-CoV S2 subunit: Insights on viral regulation of apoptosis and proliferation  

SciTech Connect

We have previously demonstrated that over-expression of spike protein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or its C-terminal subunit (S2) is sufficient to induce apoptosis in vitro. To further investigate the possible roles of S2 in SARS-CoV-induced apoptosis and pathogenesis of SARS, we characterized the host expression profiles induced upon S2 over-expression in Vero E6 cells by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Possible activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in S2 expressing cells was suggested, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cytochrome c and down-regulation of the Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic members. Inhibition of Bcl-2-related anti-apoptotic pathway was further supported by the diminution of S2-induced apoptosis in Vero E6 cells over-expressing Bcl-xL. In addition, modulation of CCN E2 and CDKN 1A implied the possible control of cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase. This study is expected to extend our understanding on the pathogenesis of SARS at a molecular level.

Yeung, Y.-S. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: ysyeung@graduate.hku.hk; Yip, C.-W. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h0024004@hkusua.hku.hk; Hon, C.-C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h9826299@hkusua.hku.hk; Chow, Ken Y.C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: chow@pasteur.fr; Ma, Iris C.M. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: h0105962@hkusua.hku.hk; Zeng Fanya [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: fzeng@hkucc.hku.hk; Leung, Frederick C.C. [Department of Zoology, Kadoorie Biological Science Building, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: fcleung@hkucc.hku.hk

2008-02-05

49

Purified Vero cell rabies vaccine and human diploid cell strain vaccine: comparison of neutralizing antibody responses to post-exposure regimens  

PubMed Central

Neutralizing antibody responses to conventional rabies post-exposure regimens of human diploid cell strain vaccine (HDCSV) and the new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) were compared in 58 healthy Thai veterinary students. The geometric mean titres (GMTs) of the group given HDCSV were slightly higher than those given PVRV, but on day 28 the peak GMTs of the two groups were statistically similar. The early antibody response to PVRV was unaffected by the addition of passive immunization, whereas the level of HDCSV response was reduced on day 14, so that there was no difference on that day between the GMTs of the two vaccine groups given HRIG. However, by day 91 the GMT of those given PVRV and HRIG was lower than in those given HDCSV alone or with HRIG. The appearance of antibody was less rapid than was observed in previous studies using multiple-site intradermal vaccination. Side effects were trivial. Our results confirm the promise of this new, potentially more economical tissue culture vaccine, but they suggest that the regimen could be improved. PMID:3734433

Suntharasamai, Pravan; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Warrell, M. J.; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Karbwang, Juntra; Supanaranond, Wichai; Phillips, R. E.; Jansawan, Weerapol; Xueref, C.; Pouradier-Duteil, X.; Warrell, D. A.

1986-01-01

50

Preparation and characterization of an anti-inflammatory agent based on a zinc-layered hydroxide-salicylate nanohybrid and its effect on viability of Vero-3 cells  

PubMed Central

A new organic-inorganic nanohybrid based on zinc-layered hydroxide intercalated with an anti-inflammatory agent was synthesized through direct reaction of salicylic acid at various concentrations with commercially available zinc oxide. The basal spacing of the pure phase nanohybrid was 15.73 Å, with the salicylate anions arranged in a monolayer form and an angle of 57 degrees between the zinc-layered hydroxide interlayers. Fourier transform infrared study further confirmed intercalation of salicylate into the interlayers of zinc-layered hydroxide. The loading of salicylate in the nanohybrid was estimated to be around 29.66%, and the nanohybrid exhibited the properties of a mesoporous-type material, with greatly enhanced thermal stability of the salicylate compared with its free counterpart. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that free salicylic acid, pure zinc oxide, and the nanohybrid have a mild effect on viability of African green monkey kidney (Vero-3) cells. PMID:23345976

Ramli, Munirah; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Yusoff, Khatijah

2013-01-01

51

Vero/CHOK1, a novel mixture of cell lines that is optimal for the rescue of influenza A vaccine seeds.  

PubMed

Seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing is challenged with a tight production schedule. Reverse genetics constitutes a rapid method for creating viruses. Vero and CHOK1 cells were found to be an appropriate cell mixture for the generation of influenza reassortants by reverse genetics under the constraints of vaccine production, such as the use of regulatory-compliant cells and culture media devoid of components of animal origin. In addition, no further amplification in cell or egg substrates was required, thus reducing the time needed to obtain reassortant seed virus. In parallel, the cloning step was shown to be dramatically improved, permitting the rapid vRNA expression of influenza viruses. In addition, nucleoporation of the cells was conducted to more efficiently target the nucleus and avoid the use of chemical reagents containing proteins of animal origin. In conclusion, the reverse genetics system for influenza A viruses reported in this study was shown to be rapid, simple to perform and totally animal component-free to best comply with the requirements of health authorities for the production of a vaccine seed. PMID:24161812

Medina, Julie; Guillot, Vincent; Totain, Emmanuelle; Rouleau, Marie; Sodoyer, Régis; Moste, Catherine; Legastelois, Isabelle

2014-02-01

52

Protective effect of methanol extract from citrus press cakes prepared by far-infrared radiation drying on H2O2-mediated oxidative damage in Vero cells  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a suitable drying method was developed for citrus press cakes (CPCs), which are produced as a by-product in citrus juice plants, and the protective effect of methanol extract of CPCs prepared by far-infrared radiation (FIR) drying against H2O2-induced DNA damage was evaluated versus that of freeze-dried CPCs. Methanol extract of FIR-dried CPCs exhibited comparatively good ROS scavenging activity versus the freeze-dried CPCs at the concentration of 100 µg/mL. The extract strongly enhanced the cell viability against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in Vero cells. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity of the extract from FIR-dried CPCs was comparable to that of the extract from freeze-dried CPCs. This sample also exhibited good protective effects against H2O2-mediated cell apoptosis as demonstrated by decreased apoptotic body formation in the nuclear staining with Hoechst 33342. In the comet assay, the CPC extracts exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this study demonstrated that FIR drying effectively preserves CPC as a functionally important natural antioxidant source and the FIR drying can be adapted for drying CPCs and is more economical for massive production than freeze drying. PMID:22125675

Wijesinghe, W.A.J.P.; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Oh, Myung-Cheol

2011-01-01

53

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

54

Selection of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) inhibitors using both the GM1-ELISA and the cAMP vero cell assay.  

PubMed

Weaned piglets are very susceptible to diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. In the past, various natural components were proposed to have beneficial effects by reducing the effects of diarrheal infectious diseases in humans and animals, and thus may represent an alternative for the use of (prophylactic) antibiotics. Alternatives may inactivate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) by interfering with toxin binding to the cellular receptor GM1. In this study, various plants and other natural substances were tested for inhibitory properties, in the GM1 binding assay, and in the LT-induced cAMP production in Vero cells. The toxic dose of each compound was determined in a cell viability assay, and the highest nontoxic concentrations were used in the GM1 and cAMP assays. Results demonstrated that only d-(+)-galactose, lactose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, and two tea extracts were able to inhibit the binding of LT to its GM1 receptor. In the cAMP assay, only the two tea extracts showed inhibitory activity. This shows that d-(+)-galactose, lactose, and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine can indeed inhibit LT binding to GM1 based on structural homology with GM1 in the absence of living cells. However, in the cAMP assay, d-(+)-galactose, and lactose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine are apparently metabolized to below their effective inhibitory concentration, likely predicting limited practical applicability in vivo. Both tea extracts maintained their activity in the presence of cells. The active compounds in both are probably polyphenols, which are not easily metabolized, and most likely work by aggregating the toxin. In conclusion, the combination of methods used here is a convenient and fast method for preselecting natural substances containing potentially toxin-binding compounds. Furthermore, if antidiarrhea activity is attributed to compounds found inactive here, their activity is unlikely based on interference with toxin binding. PMID:23692076

Verhelst, Roderick; Schroyen, Martine; Buys, Nadine; Niewold, Theo

2013-07-01

55

A herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein D mutant generated by bacterial artificial chromosome mutagenesis is severely impaired for infecting neuronal cells and infects only Vero cells expressing exogenous HVEM.  

PubMed

We constructed a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone, bHSV2-BAC38, which contains full-length HSV-2 inserted into a BAC vector. Unlike previously reported HSV-2 BAC clones, the virus genome inserted into this BAC clone has no known gene disruptions. Virus derived from the BAC clone had a wild-type phenotype for growth in vitro and for acute infection, latency, and reactivation in mice. HVEM, expressed on epithelial cells and lymphocytes, and nectin-1, expressed on neurons and epithelial cells, are the two principal receptors used by HSV to enter cells. We used the HSV-2 BAC clone to construct an HSV-2 glycoprotein D mutant (HSV2-gD27) with point mutations in amino acids 215, 222, and 223, which are critical for the interaction of gD with nectin-1. HSV2-gD27 infected cells expressing HVEM, including a human epithelial cell line. However, the virus lost the ability to infect cells expressing only nectin-1, including neuronal cell lines, and did not infect ganglia in mice. Surprisingly, we found that HSV2-gD27 could not infect Vero cells unless we transduced the cells with a retrovirus expressing HVEM. High-level expression of HVEM in Vero cells also resulted in increased syncytia and enhanced cell-to-cell spread in cells infected with wild-type HSV-2. The inability of the HSV2-gD27 mutant to infect neuronal cells in vitro or sensory ganglia in mice after intramuscular inoculation suggests that this HSV-2 mutant might be an attractive candidate for a live attenuated HSV-2 vaccine. PMID:22993162

Wang, Kening; Kappel, Justin D; Canders, Caleb; Davila, Wilmer F; Sayre, Dean; Chavez, Mayra; Pesnicak, Lesley; Cohen, Jeffrey I

2012-12-01

56

Complete Genome Sequence of a Vero Cell-Adapted Isolate of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Eastern China  

PubMed Central

In early 2012, a widespread porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) occurred in eastern China. A cell-adapted isolate, SD-M, was at the four-passage level of virulent field strain SD, which was isolated from a 2-day-old dead suckling piglet that had suffered from severe diarrhea in Shandong Province, China. We report here the complete genome sequence of SD-M. This sequence will promote a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PEDV. PMID:23166259

Zhao, Mengjiao; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Guisheng; Wang, Hui; Yang, Fangfang

2012-01-01

57

Comparative study on the cytotoxicity of different Myrtaceae essential oils on cultured vero and RC-37 cells.  

PubMed

Medicinally and commercially important essential oils from the family Myrtaceae, i.e. cajuput, clove, kanuka and manuka were phytochemically analysed by GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of these essential oils was evaluated in a standard neutral red assay. Maximum noncytotoxic concentrations for cajuput oil and clove oil were determined at 0.006%, kanuka oil and manuka oil were more cytotoxic with a maximum noncytotoxic concentration of 0.001%. The compounds alpha-pinene, eugenol and leptospermone demonstrated maximum noncytotoxic concentrations at dilutions of 0.001%, 0.003% and 0.001%, respectively. However, the terpene 1,8-cineole was about 100 times less toxic to cultured cells with a maximum noncytotoxic concentration of 0.1% and a TC50 value of 0.44%. Manuka essential oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 as well against drug-resistant HSV-1 isolates in viral suspension tests. Determination of cytotoxicity of natural products is an important prerequisite for application in cosmetic and health care products and in antiviral tests. PMID:19069246

Schnitzler, P; Wiesenhofer, K; Reichling, J

2008-11-01

58

Flake size-dependent cyto and genotoxic evaluation of graphene oxide on in vitro A549, CaCo2 and vero cell lines.  

PubMed

This study was carried out by varying both graphene oxide (GO) concentration (10 ?g/mL, 50 ?g/mL, 100 ?g/mL) and flakes sizes of 1320 nm and 130 nm. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate that the area of GO flakes varies of one order of magnitude but their chemical structure remains unmodified. A 24-h cytotoxicity test showed, for A549, a loss in the viability, while the test exhibits overall a positive increase in the viability for CaCo2 and Vero. A 24-h comet assay shows a marked GO genotoxicity: for micrometer-sized GO flakes the genotoxicity is in positive correlation with the concentration, while for nanometer-sized GO flakes there was a high degree of genotoxicity at the lowest concentration tested. PMID:25001660

De Marzi, L; Ottaviano, L; Perrozzi, F; Nardone, M; Santucci, S; De Lapuente, J; Borras, M; Treossi, E; Palermo, V; Poma, A

2014-01-01

59

Quantitative Proteomics Using Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture Reveals Changes in the Cytoplasmic, Nuclear, and Nucleolar Proteomes in Vero Cells Infected with the Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus*  

PubMed Central

Virus-host interactions involve complex interplay between viral and host factors, rendering them an ideal target for proteomic analysis. Here we detail a high throughput quantitative proteomics analysis of Vero cells infected with the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a positive strand RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used in conjunction with LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify 1830 cellular and two viral proteins from IBV-infected cells. Fractionation of cells into cytoplasmic, nuclear, and nucleolar extracts was used to reduce sample complexity and provide information on the trafficking of proteins between the different compartments. Each fraction showed a proportion of proteins exhibiting ?2-fold changes in abundance. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that proteins that changed in response to infection could be grouped into different functional categories. These included proteins regulated by NF-?B- and AP-1-dependent pathways and proteins involved in the cytoskeleton and molecular motors. A luciferase-based reporter gene assay was used to validate the up-regulation of AP-1- and NF-?B-dependent transcription in IBV-infected cells and confirmed using immunofluorescence. Immunofluorescence was used to validate changes in the subcellular localization of vimentin and myosin VI in IBV-infected cells. The proteomics analysis also confirmed the presence of the viral nucleocapsid protein as localizing in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and nucleolus and the viral membrane protein in the cytoplasmic fraction. This research is the first application of SILAC to study total host cell proteome changes in response to positive sense RNA virus infection and illustrates the versatility of this technique as applied to infectious disease research. PMID:20467043

Emmott, Edward; Rodgers, Mark A.; Macdonald, Andrew; McCrory, Sarah; Ajuh, Paul; Hiscox, Julian A.

2010-01-01

60

Comparison of the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts of nine salvia species grown in Jordan against breast cancer cell line models  

PubMed Central

Background: The antiproliferative activity of Salvia species grown in Jordan has not been fully evaluated yet. The aim of this work was to study the antiproliferative activity of crude ethanol extracts from nine Salvia species grown in Jordan against a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in human tumor models of breast cancer; MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, and BT 474 by the sulforhodamine B assay. In addition, the extracts were evaluated using a non-transformed cell line (Vero) and normal fibroblast cells in order to demonstrate their selectivity and safety. Results: From the nice ethanol extracts under investigation, those of S. dominica and S. fruticosa showed an inhibitory concentration of 50% of cells (IC50) in concentrations less than 30?g/mL against the four cell lines under investigation. S. syriaca and S. hormium showed an IC50 below 30?g/ml for two out of the four cell lines. S. fruticosa, S. hormium and S. syriaca showed selectivity in their antiproliferative activity against estrogen receptor positive cell lines with minimal toxicity against normal human periodontal fibroblasts. Phytochemical screening using thin layer chromatography indicated the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and coumarins in all examined extracts. Conclusion: Three of the plant extracts under investigation exhibited antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cells and were shown to be safe and selective. These could be considered as a potential source for novel anticancer therapy. PMID:24082637

Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma; Kasabri, Violet; Majdalawi, Lara; Naffa, Randa

2012-01-01

61

OM-VPE grown materials for high efficiency solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Organometallic sources are available for all the III-V elements and a variety of dopants; thus it is possible to use the technique to grow a wide variety of semiconductor compounds. AlGaAsSb and AlGaInAs alloys for multijunction monolithic solar cells were grown by OM-VPE. While the effort concentrated on terrestrial applications, the success of OM-VPE grown GaAs/AlGaAs concentrator solar cells (23% at 400 suns) demonstrates that OM-VPE is suitable for growing high efficiency solar cells in large quantities for space applications. In addition, OM-VPE offers the potential for substantial cost reduction of photovoltaic devices with scale up and automation and due to high process yield from reproducible, uniform epitaxial growths with excellent surface morphology.

Saxena, R.; Cooper, B., III; Ludowise, M.; Borden, P.; Gregory, P.

1980-01-01

62

Photosynthetic ability in dark-grown Reboulia hemisphaerica and Barbula unguiculata cells in suspension culture.  

PubMed

Suspension cultured cells of the liverwort, Reboulia hemisphaerica and of the moss, Barbula unguiculata were independently subcultured in the medium containing 2% glucose in the dark or in the light for more than one year, and the photosynthetic activities of the final cultures were determined. Throughout the culture period light-grown cells of both species contained high amount of chlorophyll (4 to 34 ?g mg(-1) dry weight) and showed a high photosynthetic activity (10 to 84 ?mol O2 mg(-1) chlorophyll h(-1)). Dark-grown cells of R. hemisphaerica showed the same level of chlorophyll content and photosynthetic O2 evolving activity as light-grown cells. Although chlorophyll content in dark-grown B. unguiculata cells was ten-fold lower than that in light-grown cells, the photosynthetic activity of these dark-grown cells was higher than that of light-grown cells based on chlorophyll content. PMID:24232674

Takio, S; Akita, C; Ngumi, V W; Takami, S

1990-03-01

63

Role of Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella in adhesion, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induction in T24 and Vero cells.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis is frequently associated with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). It is proposed that several virulence factors are associated with P. mirabilis uropathogenicity. The aim of this work was to elucidate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects mediated by MR/P fimbriae and flagella in eukaryotic cells in vitro. Two cell lines (kidney- and bladder-derived) were infected with a clinical wild-type P. mirabilis strain and an MR/P and a flagellar mutant. We evaluated adhesion, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by microscopy, comet assay and triple staining technique, respectively. Mutant strains displayed lower adhesion rates than the P. mirabilis wild-type strain and were significantly less effective to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic effects compared to the wild type. We report for the first time that P. mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella mediate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells, at least in in vitro conditions. These results could contribute to design new strategies for the control of UTI. PMID:25724892

Scavone, Paola; Villar, Silvia; Umpiérrez, Ana; Zunino, Pablo

2015-06-01

64

Cation Metabolism in Relation to Cell Size in Synchronously Grown Tissue Culture Cell  

PubMed Central

In randomly grown tissue culture cells (mouse leukemic lymphoblast, L5178Y) the number, volume, and Na+ and K+ content increase as an exponential function with a doubling time of 11.3 hr. In synchronously grown cells the volume increase of the population and of single cells follows the same exponential function as in randomly grown cells. In contrast, the cation content fluctuates during a single cell cycle. About 1½ hr after the cell division burst (at the beginning of the S period), a net loss of K+ occurs for a period of about 1 hr amounting to about 20% of the total K. Over the next 5 to 6 hr, the deficit in K+ is eliminated. The Na+ content shows a double fluctuation. It falls during the cell division burst, rises when the K+ content decreases, falls again when K+ content rises, and then increases again before the next cell division burst. The net fluxes of both Na+ and K+ are very small compared to the unidirectional fluxes (less than 5%), thus small changes in the balance of influx and efflux account for the changes in cation content during the growth cycle. Both unidirectional fluxes increase dramatically (by a factor of two) about 2 hr after the cell division burst, and then remain constant until after the next cell division. The pattern of electrolyte regulation during cell division does not follow a simple function such as cell number, cell surface, or cell volume, but must be related to specific internal events in the cell. PMID:6034509

Jung, Chan; Rothstein, Aser

1967-01-01

65

Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.

Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo

2014-01-01

66

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault*  

E-print Network

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault Abstract: Polymer fuel cell electrode growth using vapor deposition techniques is reviewed. The supports temperature Solid Polymer Fuel Cells, as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Direct alcohol Fuel Cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Assessment of immunogenic potential of Vero adapted formalin inactivated vaccine derived from novel ECSA genotype of Chikungunya virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent resurgence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in India and Indian Ocean Islands with unusual clinical severity is a matter of great public health concern. Despite the fact that CHIKV resurgence is associated with epidemic of unprecedented magnitude, no approved licensed vaccine is currently available. In the present study, a Vero cell adapted purified formalin inactivated prototype vaccine candidate was

Mugdha Tiwari; Manmohan Parida; S. R. Santhosh; Mohsin Khan; Paban Kumar Dash; P. V. Lakshmana Rao

2009-01-01

68

MBE grown GaInNAs solar cells for multijunction applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triple-junction cells composed of III-V materials currently hold the world record for photovoltaic efficiency. In order to further increase cell efficiency in the future 4- and 5-junction cells incorporating a sub-cell with a bandgap of roughly 1.0 eV will be required. In this study 1.0 eV bandgap GaInNAs devices grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy are investigated in terms

David Jackrel; Homan Yuen; Junxian Fu; Seth Bank; Xiaojun Yu; Zhilong Rao; James S. Harris

2005-01-01

69

Aligned Cell Sheets Grown on Thermo-Responsive Substrates with Microcontact Printed Protein Patterns  

E-print Network

tissue organization on PIPAAm-grafted substrates. Microcontact printing is a straightforwardAligned Cell Sheets Grown on Thermo-Responsive Substrates with Microcontact Printed Protein and inexpensive technique to precisely control cell shape, organization, and function on a variety of surfaces.[19

70

Photosynthetic ability in dark-grown Reboulia hemisphaerica and Barbula unguiculata cells in suspension culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension cultured cells of the liverwort, Reboulia hemisphaerica and of the moss, Barbula unguiculata were independently subcultured in the medium containing 2% glucose in the dark or in the light for more than one year, and the photosynthetic activities of the final cultures were determined. Throughout the culture period light-grown cells of both species contained high amount of chlorophyll (4

Susumu Takio; Chikako Akita; Victoria Wambui Ngumi; Shinji Takami

1990-01-01

71

Single cell protein production by photosynthetic bacteria grown on the clarified effluents of biogas plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobically digested cow dung was separated by centrifugation into solid residue and liquid supernatant fractions. Clarified supernatant fraction, rich in volatile fatty acids, supported the growth of photosynthetic bacteria. Single cell protein from different photosynthetic bacteria, grown on clarified supernatant, was found to be rich in essential and sulphur amino acids. Rhodopseudomonas capsulata produced the best single cell protein.

Sudhanshu Vrati; G. B. Pant

1984-01-01

72

The Accumulation and Degradation Dynamics of Cyanophycin in Cyanobacterial Cells Grown in Symbiotic Associations with Plant Tissues and Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different artificial associations of cyanobacterial cells with the cells or tissues of nightshade and rauwolfia were studied. The associations grown on nitrogen-containing media produced heterocysts. Cyanobacterial cells in the associations retained their ability to take up combined nitrogen from the medium, to store it in the form of cyanophycin granules, and to use them in the process of symbiotic

O. A. Gorelova; S. Yu. Kleimenov

2003-01-01

73

Stimulation of hydrogen production in algal cells grown under high CO 2 concentration and low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cells ofChlamydomonas sp. MGA 161, a marine green alga, were cultivated at a high CO2 concentration (15% CO2) and low temperature (15°C), the growth lag time was much longer, but the starch accumulated was two times higher than under\\u000a the basal conditions (5% CO2 30°C). When the cells grown in the high-CO2\\/low-temperature conditions were incubated under dark anaerobic conditions,

Y. Miura; W. Yamada; K. Hirata; K. Miyamoto; M. Kiyohara

1993-01-01

74

Analysis of methylglyoxal metabolism in CHO cells grown in culture Sarocha Kingkeohoi and Frank W.R. Chaplen*  

E-print Network

Analysis of methylglyoxal metabolism in CHO cells grown in culture Sarocha Kingkeohoi and Frank W: CHO cell, Inhibitor, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methylglyoxal Abstract Recent evidence suggests. Isolating these factors is necessary in order to maximize culture productivities. Methylglyoxal (MG

Tullos, Desiree

75

Commissioning and initial stereotactic ablative radiotherapy experience with Vero.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to describe the comprehensive commissioning process and initial clinical performance of the Vero linear accelerator, a new radiotherapy device recently installed at UT Southwestern Medical Center specifically developed for delivery of image-guided stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). The Vero system utilizes a ring gantry to integrate a beam delivery platform with image guidance systems. The ring is capable of rotating ± 60° about the vertical axis to facilitate noncoplanar beam arrangements ideal for SABR delivery. The beam delivery platform consists of a 6 MV C-band linac with a 60 leaf MLC projecting a maximum field size of 15 × 15 cm² at isocenter. The Vero planning and delivery systems support a range of treatment techniques, including fixed beam conformal, dynamic conformal arcs, fixed gantry IMRT in either SMLC (step-and-shoot) or DMLC (dynamic) delivery, and hybrid arcs, which combines dynamic conformal arcs and fixed beam IMRT delivery. The accelerator and treatment head are mounted on a gimbal mechanism that allows the linac and MLC to pivot in two dimensions for tumor tracking. Two orthogonal kV imaging subsystems built into the ring facilitate both stereoscopic and volumetric (CBCT) image guidance. The system is also equipped with an always-active electronic portal imaging device (EPID). We present our commissioning process and initial clinical experience focusing on SABR applications with the Vero, including: (1) beam data acquisition; (2) dosimetric commissioning of the treatment planning system, including evaluation of a Monte Carlo algorithm in a specially-designed anthropomorphic thorax phantom; (3) validation using the Radiological Physics Center thorax, head and neck (IMRT), and spine credentialing phantoms; (4) end-to-end evaluation of IGRT localization accuracy; (5) ongoing system performance, including isocenter stability; and (6) clinical SABR applications. PMID:24710458

Solberg, Timothy D; Medin, Paul M; Ramirez, Ezequiel; Ding, Chuxiong; Foster, Ryan D; Yordy, John

2014-01-01

76

A shift to 50°C provokes death in distinct ways for glucose- and oleate-grown cells of Yarrowia lipolytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the observation that shocks provoked by heat or amphiphilic compounds present some similarities, this work aims at\\u000a studying whether cells grown on oleate (amphiphilic pre-stress) acquire a tolerance to heat shock. In rich media, changing\\u000a glucose for oleate significantly enhanced the cell resistance to the shock, however, cells grown on a minimal oleate medium\\u000a lost their ability to

Thi Minh Ngoc Ta; Lan Cao-Hoang; Cynthia Romero-Guido; Morgane Lourdin; Hanh Phan-Thi; Sébastien Goudot; Pierre-André Marechal; Yves Waché

77

Sensitivity of Candida Albicans Biofilm Cells Grown on Denture Acrylic to Antifungal Proteins and Chlorhexidine  

PubMed Central

Objectives Candida albicans cells form biofilms on polymeric surfaces of dentures and other prostheses introduced into the oral cavity. Many biofilm microorganisms exhibit resistance to antimicrobial agents; C. albicans cells may also develop resistance to naturally-occurring antifungal peptides in human saliva including histatins (Hsts) and defensins (hBDs). Therefore, we evaluated Hst 5 activity on C. albicans biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells and measured whether surface treatment of denture acrylic with Hst 5, hBD-3, or chlorhexidine gluconate could inhibit in vitro biofilm development. Methods Acrylic disks were preconditioned with 500 ?l saliva for 30 min, and inoculated with C. albicans cells (106 cells/ml) for 1 h, at 37 °C. Non-adherent cells were removed by washing and disks and were incubated in YPD growth medium for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37 °C. Candidacidal assays were performed on 48-hour-biofilms and on planktonically-grown cells using Hst 5 (15.5 ?M, 31.25 ?M, 62 ?M). Cell adhesion was compared on disks pre-coated with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 50 ?M Hst 5, or 0.6 ?M hBD-3 after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h growth. Results No significant difference was observed in sensitivity to Hst 5 of biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells (p > 0.05). Pre-coating disks with hBD-3 did not inhibit biofilm development; however, Hst 5 significantly inhibited biofilm development at 72 h, while 0.12% chlorhexidine significantly inhibited biofilm development at all time intervals (p < 0.05). Conclusions C. albicans biofilm cells grown on denture acrylic are sensitive to killing by Hst 5. Surface coating acrylic with chlorhexidine or Hst 5 effectively inhibits biofilm growth and has potential therapeutic application. PMID:19249746

Pusateri, Christopher R.; Monaco, Edward A.; Edgerton, Mira

2009-01-01

78

Examination of retail chickens and sausages in Britain for vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Samples from chickens and pork sausages were examined for the presence of Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli by using DNA probes for the Vero cytotoxin genes. Hybridization was detected in 25% of the 184 sausage samples, but none of the chickens was positive. No E. coli O157:H7 strains were isolated, and serotyping showed that the Vero cytotoxin-producing E. coli strains belonged to eight different O serogroups and that six strains had an unidentifiable O antigen. PMID:1892398

Smith, H R; Cheasty, T; Roberts, D; Thomas, A; Rowe, B

1991-07-01

79

Performance of silicon solar cells fabricated from multiple Czochralski ingots grown by using a single crucible  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results on the performance of solar cells fabricated on wafers from multiple silicon ingots of large diameter, grown by using a single crucible and a sequential melt replenishment Czochralski (CZO) technique are presented. Samples were analyzed for resistivity, dislocation density and impurity content. Solar cells were fabricated from the seed, center and tang end of each ingot to evaluate the growth reproducibility and material quality. The cell efficiency within a given wafer varies by no more than plus or minus 5% of the average value. A small but consistent decrease in the cell efficiency is observed from the first to the fourth ingot grown from a single crucible. This decrease may be related to an increase in impurity content or dislocation density or a combination of both. The efficiency of the cells fabricated from the tang end of the fourth ingot is about 10% lower than that of the control cell. An impurity effects model is employed to correlate this decrease in efficiency with the impurity build-up in the residual melt.

Kachare, A. H.; Uno, F. M.; Miyahira, T.; Lane, R. L.

1980-01-01

80

Evaluation of different yeast cell wall mutants and microalgae strains as feed for gnotobiotically grown brine shrimp Artemia franciscana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional value of isogenic yeast strains and two microalgal species for gnotobiotically grown Artemia was examined. Yeast cell wall mutants were always better feed for Artemia than their respective wild type. Yeast cells harbouring null mutants for enzymes involved early in the biochemical pathway for cell wall mannoproteins synthesis performed best as feed for Artemia. Yeast cells defective in

Antonio Marques; Jean Dhont; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

2004-01-01

81

Cyclic-radiation response of murine fibrosarcoma cells grown as pulmonary nodules  

SciTech Connect

The radiation age response of murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells grown as pulmonary nodules in C/sub 3/Hf/Kam mice was determined. FSa cells were irradiated in vivo either with 10 Gy as 14 day-old lung tumors (i.e., artificial macrometastases) prior to cell separation or with 5 Gy as single cells trapped in the lungs of recipient mice (i.e., artificial micrometastases) following cell separation and synchronization by centrifugal elutriation. Flow microfluorometry (FMF) was used to determine cell-cycle parameters and the relative synchrony of the separated populations, as well as the percent contamination of normal diploid cells in each of the tumor cell populations. Tumor populations containing up to 90% G/sub 1/, 60% S-, and 75% G/sub 2/+M-phase tumor cells were obtained. Cell clonogenicity, determined using a lung colony assay, ranged from 0.7 to 6% for control FSa cells from the various elutriator fractions. The radiation sensitivity of these separated cell populations varied by a factor of 6, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated as artificial micro or macro-metastases. In each experiment, tumor populations most enriched in s-phase cells exhibited the greatest radiation sensitivity. To confirm that these populations were highly enriched in S-phase cells and to demonstrate that they were more radiosensitive than FSa cells in other parts of the cell cycle, the elutriated tumor populations were exposed to either suicide labeling by high specific activity tritiated thymidine or hydroxyurea. The resultant age response curves were qualitatively similar to those obtained following irradiation and reflected the S-phase sensitivity of FSa cells to these agents.

Grdina, D.J.; Hunter, N.

1982-10-01

82

Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, Voc and Jsc than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

Li, Wei; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

2014-09-01

83

Cyclic-radiation response of murine fibrosarcoma cells grown as pulmonary nodules  

SciTech Connect

The radiation age response of murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells grown as pulmonary nudules in C/sub 3/Hf/Kam mice was determined. FSa cells were irradiated in vivo either with 10 Gy as 14 day-old lung tumors (i.e., artifical micrometastases) following cell separation and synchronization by centrifugal elutriation. Flow microfluorometry (FMF) was used to determine cell-cycle parameters and the relative synchrony of the separated populations, as well as the percent contamination of normal diploid cells in each of the tumor cells populations. Tumor populations containing up to 90% G/sub 1/-, 60% S-, and 75% G/sub 2/+M-phase tumor cells were obtained. Cell clonogenicity, determined using a lung colony assay, ranged from 0.7 to 6% for control FSa cells from the various elutriator fractions. The radiation sensitivity of these separated cell populations varied by a factor of 6, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated as artifical micro or macro-metastases. In each experiment, tumor population most enriched in S-phase cells exhibited the greatest radiation sensitivity. To confirm that these populations were highly enriched in S-phase cells and to demonstrate that they were more radiosensitive than FSa cells in other parts of the cell cycle, the elutriated tumor population were exposed to either suicide labeling by high specific activity tritated thymidine or hydroxyurea. The resultant age response curves were qualitatively similar to those obtained following irradiation and reflected the S-phase sensitivity of FSa cells to these agents.

Grdina, D.J.; Hunter, N.

1982-10-01

84

Influence of chronological aging on the survival and nucleotide content of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in different conditions: occurrence of a high concentration of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in stationary cells grown in 2% glucose.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (strain W303) grown in a minimal medium (containing 2% or 0.1% glucose) until exponential or stationary phase, were subjected to chronological aging in water, and yeast viability and nucleotide content were analyzed along several days of nutrient starvation. Cells collected in exponential phase (whether grown in the presence of 0.1% or 2% glucose) were viable up to five days and thereafter the viability decreased linearly with a half-survival rate of around eight days. ATP and other nucleoside triphosphates decreased similarly in both cases. Cells collected in stationary phase, and transferred to water, behaved differently whether grown in 0.1% or in 2% glucose, with a half-survival life of around nine and 28 days respectively. A double mutant in glycogen synthase (gsy1delta gsy2delta) and its isogenic wild-type strain, grown to stationary phase in 2% glucose, presented a similar half-survival life of around eight days. The W303 cells grown to stationary phase in the presence of 2% glucose showed a 7-fold increase of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) as compared with the level present in the cells grown in any of the other three metabolic situations. The nature of UDP-GlcNAc was established by MALDI-TOF ionization analysis. It is also worth noting that the rate of decay of NAD+ was lower than that of ATP in any of the situations here considered. PMID:15691744

Osório, Hugo; Silles, Eduardo; Maia, Rita; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Günther Sillero, María A; Sillero, Antonio

2005-02-01

85

Ferrous iron production mediated by tetrathionate hydrolase in tetrathionate-, sulfur-, and iron-grown Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 cells.  

PubMed

When tetrathionate-grown Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 cells were incubated with ferric ions and tetrathionate at pH 3.0, ferrous ions were produced enzymatically. Fe(3+)-reductase, which catalyzes Fe(3+) reduction with tetrathionate, was purified to homogeneity not only from tetrathionate-grown, but also from sulfur- and iron-grown A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 cells. The results for apparent molecular weight measured by SDS-PAGE (52.3 kD) and the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified enzymes from iron-, sulfur, and tetrathionate-grown cells (AVAVPMDSTG) indicate that Fe(3+)-reductase corresponds to tetrathionate hydrolase. The evidence that tetrathionate-grown A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 cells have high iron-oxidizing activity at the early log phase, comparable to that of iron-grown ATCC 23270 cells, is supported by our finding that tetrathionate hydrolase produces Fe(2+) from tetrathionate during growth on tetrathionate. This is the first report on ferric reductase activity associated with tetrathionate hydrolase. PMID:19502725

Sugio, Tsuyoshi; Taha, Taher M; Takeuchi, Fumiaki

2009-06-01

86

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2013-07-01

87

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2010-07-01

88

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2014-07-01

89

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2011-07-01

90

33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable...Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a) Area A. Beginning at a point located on the...

2012-07-01

91

SYNTHESIS OF CELLULOSE FROM PYRUVATE BY SUCCINATE-GROWN CELLS OF ACETOBACTER XYLINUM  

PubMed Central

Benziman, Moshe (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel) and H. Burger-Rachamimov. Synthesis of cellulose from pyruvate by succinate-grown cells of Acetobacter xylinum. J. Bacteriol. 84:625–630. 1962.—Pyruvate was converted into cellulose by succinate-grown cells of Acetobacter xylinum. With pyruvate-1-, 2-, or 3-C14 as substrate, the upper half of the cellulose monomer mirrored the lower half, both as to total content and distribution of C14. In each case, about 75% of the total radioactivity of the cellulose monomer was found in two carbon atoms (carbon pairs 3:4, 2:5, and 1:6, derived from pyruvate-1-, 2-, and 3-C14, respectively). The carbonyl carbon of pyruvate contributed 2 equivalents to the cellulose monomer, compared with 1.4 and 2.8 equivalents contributed by the pyruvate carboxyl and methyl carbons, respectively. Cellulose formed in the presence of pyruvate and C14O2 was nonradioactive. The results suggest that the carbon chain of the cellulose monomer is formed in these cells via a condensation involving two molecules of a three-carbon compound. Reactions involving pyruvate which could account for the observed distribution of C14 in cellulose are discussed. PMID:13967586

Benziman, Moshe; Burger-Rachamimov, H.

1962-01-01

92

Genetic transformation and cell morphology of Bacillus subtilis grown in Mg+(+)-limited chemostat culture.  

PubMed

The rate and frequency of genetic transformation of Bacillus subtilis grown in Mg+(+)-limited chemostat culture are dependent on the dilution rate (D) of the system and achieved maximum values at D = 0.23 h-1. Mg+(+)-limitation induced a morphological change in the cells from their normal rod shape to extended helices. Although this change in shape was a transient phenomenon, under some conditions it persisted for several days and resulted in an apparent increase in the transformation frequency. PMID:2110611

Sevinc, M S; Bainbridge, B W; Bazin, M J

1990-01-01

93

Proliferation and differentiation potential of human adipose-derived stem cells grown on chitosan hydrogel.  

PubMed

Applied tissue engineering in regenerative medicine warrants our enhanced understanding of the biomaterials and its function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) grown on chitosan hydrogel. The stability of this hydrogel is pH-dependent and its swelling property is pivotal in providing a favorable matrix for cell growth. The study utilized an economical method of cross linking the chitosan with 0.5% glutaraldehyde. Following the isolation of hADSCs from omentum tissue, these cells were cultured and characterized on chitosan hydrogel. Subsequent assays that were performed included JC-1 staining for the mitochondrial integrity as a surrogate marker for viability, cell proliferation and growth kinetics by MTT assay, lineage specific differentiation under two-dimensional culture conditions. Confocal imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and flow cytometry were used to evaluate these assays. The study revealed that chitosan hydrogel promotes cell proliferation coupled with > 90% cell viability. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated safety profile. Furthermore, glutaraldehyde cross linked chitosan showed < 5% cytotoxicity, thus serving as a scaffold and facilitating the expansion and differentiation of hADSCs across endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm lineages. Additional functionalities can be added to this hydrogel, particularly those that regulate stem cell fate. PMID:25746846

Debnath, Tanya; Ghosh, Sutapa; Potlapuvu, Usha Shalini; Kona, Lakshmi; Kamaraju, Suguna Ratnakar; Sarkar, Suprabhat; Gaddam, Sumanlatha; Chelluri, Lakshmi Kiran

2015-01-01

94

Proliferation and Differentiation Potential of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Grown on Chitosan Hydrogel  

PubMed Central

Applied tissue engineering in regenerative medicine warrants our enhanced understanding of the biomaterials and its function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) grown on chitosan hydrogel. The stability of this hydrogel is pH-dependent and its swelling property is pivotal in providing a favorable matrix for cell growth. The study utilized an economical method of cross linking the chitosan with 0.5% glutaraldehyde. Following the isolation of hADSCs from omentum tissue, these cells were cultured and characterized on chitosan hydrogel. Subsequent assays that were performed included JC-1 staining for the mitochondrial integrity as a surrogate marker for viability, cell proliferation and growth kinetics by MTT assay, lineage specific differentiation under two-dimensional culture conditions. Confocal imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and flow cytometry were used to evaluate these assays. The study revealed that chitosan hydrogel promotes cell proliferation coupled with > 90% cell viability. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated safety profile. Furthermore, glutaraldehyde cross linked chitosan showed < 5% cytotoxicity, thus serving as a scaffold and facilitating the expansion and differentiation of hADSCs across endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm lineages. Additional functionalities can be added to this hydrogel, particularly those that regulate stem cell fate. PMID:25746846

Debnath, Tanya; Ghosh, Sutapa; Potlapuvu, Usha Shalini; Kona, Lakshmi; Kamaraju, Suguna Ratnakar; Sarkar, Suprabhat; Gaddam, Sumanlatha; Chelluri, Lakshmi Kiran

2015-01-01

95

Human norovirus infection of caco-2 cells grown as a three-dimensional tissue structure.  

PubMed

Human norovirus (hNoV) infectivity was studied using a three-dimensional model of large intestinal epithelium. Large intestine Caco-2 cells were grown in rotating wall vessel bioreactors for 18-21 days at 37 degrees C and then transferred to 24-well tissue culture plates where they were infected with GI.1 and GII.4 human noroviruses collected from human challenge trials and various outbreak settings, respectively. Compared with uninfected cells, transmission micrographs of norovirus-infected cells displayed evidence of shortening or total loss of apical microvilli, and vacuolization. Quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated an approximate 2-3 log10 increase in viral RNA copies for the infected cells. A passage experiment examined both the ability for continued viral RNA and viral antigen detection. In the passaged samples 1.01x10(6) copies ml(-1) were detected by qRT-PCR. Immune electron microscopy using primary antibody to hNoV GI.1 capsids in conjunction with 6 nm gold-labelled secondary antibodies was performed on crude cellular lysates. Localization of antibody was observed in infected but not for uninfected cells. Our present findings, coupled with earlier work with the three-dimensional small intestinal INT407 model, demonstrate the utility of 3-D cell culture methods to develop infectivity assays for enteric viruses that do not readily infect mammalian cell cultures. PMID:21942189

Straub, Timothy M; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Valdez, Catherine O; Valentine, Nancy B; Dohnalkova, Alice; Ozanich, Richard M; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J; Call, Douglas R

2011-06-01

96

Phase III Clinical Trials Comparing the Immunogenicity and Safety of the Vero Cell-Derived Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Encevac with Those of Mouse Brain-Derived Vaccine by Using the Beijing-1 Strain  

PubMed Central

The immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis vaccine (CC-JEV) were compared with those of an inactivated mouse brain-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (MB-JEV) in phase III clinical multicenter trials conducted in children. The vaccines contain the same Japanese encephalitis virus strain, the Beijing-1 strain. Two independent clinical trials (trials 1 and 2) were conducted. Trial 1 was conducted in 468 healthy children. Each subject was injected with 17 ?g per dose of either CC-JEV or MB-JEV, and the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccines were investigated. Trial 1 showed that CC-JEV was more immunogenic and reactive than MB-JEV at the same dose. Therefore, to adjust the immunogenicity of CC-JEV to that of MB-JEV, a vaccine that has had a good track record regarding its efficacy for a long time, trial 2 was conducted in 484 healthy children. To improve the stability, CC-JEV was converted from a liquid type to a freeze-dried type of vaccine. Each subject was injected subcutaneously with either 4 ?g per dose of CC-JEV, 8 ?g per dose of CC-JEV, or 17 ?g per dose of MB-JEV twice, at an interval of 2 to 4 weeks, followed by an additional booster immunization 1 to 15 months after the primary immunization. Based on the results of trial 2, 4 ?g per dose of the freeze-dried CC-JEV (under the label Encevac) was selected as a substitute for the MB-JEV. Encevac was approved and launched in 2011 and has since been in use as a 2nd-generation Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Japan. (These studies have been registered at the JapicCTI under registration no. JapicCTI-132063 and JapicCTI-080586 for trials 1 and 2, respectively.) PMID:24334689

Miyazaki, Chiaki; Okada, Kenji; Ozaki, Takao; Hirose, Mizuo; Iribe, Kaneshige; Ishikawa, Yuji; Togashi, Takehiro; Ueda, Kohji

2014-01-01

97

77 FR 42425 - Amendment of Air Traffic Service (ATS) Routes in the Vicinity of Vero Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ATS) Routes in the Vicinity of Vero Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...and V-537, in the vicinity of Vero Beach, FL. The FAA is taking this action because the name of the Vero Beach, FL, VOR Tactical Air Navigation...

2012-07-19

98

Characterization of Epitaxial Film Silicon Solar Cells Grown on Seeded Display Glass: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We report characterizations of epitaxial film crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells with open-circuit voltages (Voc) above 560 mV. The 2-um absorber cells are grown by low-temperature (<750 degrees C) hot-wire CVD (HWCVD) on Corning EAGLE XG display glass coated with a layer-transferred (LT) Si seed. The high Voc is a result of low-defect epitaxial Si (epi-Si) growth and effective hydrogen passivation of defects. The quality of HWCVD epitaxial growth on seeded glass substrates depends on the crystallographic quality of the seed and the morphology of the epitaxial growth surface. Heterojunction devices consist of glass/c-Si LT seed/ epi n+ Si:P/epi n- Si:P/intrinsic a-Si:H/p+ a-Si:H/ITO. Similar devices grown on electronically 'dead' n+ wafers have given Voc {approx}630 mV and {approx}8% efficiency with no light trapping features. Here we study the effects of the seed surface polish on epi-Si quality, how hydrogenation influences the device character, and the dominant junction transport physics.

Young, D. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C.; Stradins, P.; LaSalvia, V.; Chuang, T. K.; Couillard, J. G.; Branz, H. M.

2012-06-01

99

Electron-cytochemical study of Ca2+ in cotyledon cells of soybean seedlings grown in microgravity.  

PubMed

Microgravity and horizontal clinorotation are known to cause the rearrangement of the structural-functional organization of plant cells, leading to accelerated aging. Altered gravity conditions resulted in an increase in the droplets volume in cells and the destruction of chloroplast structure in Arabidopsis thaliana plants, an enhancement of cytosolic autophagaous processes, an increase in the respiration rate and a greater number of multimolecular forms of succinate- and malate dehydrogenases in cells of the Funaria hygrometrica protonema and Chlorella vulgaris, and changes in calcium balance of cells. Because ethylene is known to be involved in cell aging and microgravity appears to speed the process, and because soybean seedlings grown in space produce higher ethylene levels we asked: 1) does an acceleration of soybean cotyledon cell development and aging occur in microgravity? 2) what roles do Ca2+ ions and the enhanced ethylene level play in these events? Therefore, the goal of our investigation was to examine of the interaction of microgravity and ethylene on the localization of Ca2+ in cotyledon mesophyll of soybean seedlings. PMID:11542987

Nedukha, O; Brown, C S; Kordyum, E; Piastuch, W C

1999-07-01

100

Electron-cytochemical study of Ca2+ in cotyledon cells of soybean seedlings grown in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity and horizontal clinorotation are known to cause the rearrangement of the structural-functional organization of plant cells, leading to accelerated aging. Altered gravity conditions resulted in an increase in the droplets volume in cells and the destruction of chloroplast structure in Arabidopsis thaliana plants, an enhancement of cytosolic autophagaous processes, an increase in the respiration rate and a greater number of multimolecular forms of succinate- and malate dehydrogenases in cells of the Funaria hygrometrica protonema and Chlorella vulgaris, and changes in calcium balance of cells. Because ethylene is known to be involved in cell aging and microgravity appears to speed the process, and because soybean seedlings grown in space produce higher ethylene levels we asked: 1) does an acceleration of soybean cotyledon cell development and aging occur in microgravity? 2) what roles do Ca2+ ions and the enhanced ethylene level play in these events? Therefore, the goal of our investigation was to examine of the interaction of microgravity and ethylene on the localization of Ca2+ in cotyledon mesophyll of soybean seedlings.

Nedukha, O.; Brown, C. S.; Kordyum, E.; Piastuch, W. C.; Guikema, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

101

Differential Response in Downstream Processing of CHO Cells Grown Under Mild Hypothermic Conditions  

PubMed Central

The manufacture of complex therapeutic proteins using mammalian cells is well established, with several strategies developed to improve productivity. The application of sustained mild hypothermic conditions during culture has been associated with increases in product titer and improved product quality. However, despite associated cell physiological effects, very few studies have investigated the impact on downstream processing (DSP). Characterization of cells grown under mild hypothermic conditions demonstrated that the stationary phase was prolonged by delaying the onset of apoptosis. This enabled cells to maintain viability for extended periods and increase volumetric productivity from 0.74 to 1.02 g L?1. However, host cell proteins, measured by ELISA, increased by ?50%, attributed to the extended time course and higher peak and harvest cell densities. The individual components making up this impurity, as determined by SELDI-TOF MS and 2D-PAGE, were shown to be largely comparable. Under mild hypothermic conditions, cells were less shear sensitive than those maintained at 37°C, enhancing the preliminary primary recovery step. Adaptive changes in membrane fluidity were further investigated by adopting a pronounced temperature shift immediately prior to primary recovery and the improvement observed suggests that such a strategy may be implementable when shear sensitivity is of concern. Early and late apoptotic cells were particularly susceptible to shear, at either temperature, even under the lowest shear rate investigated. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the impact of cell culture strategies and cell physiology on DSP, by implementing a range of experimental methods for process characterization. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 29:688–696, 2013 PMID:23636936

Tait, Andrew S; Tarrant, Richard D R; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Spencer, Daniel I R; Bracewell, Daniel G

2013-01-01

102

Enterotoxin production by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus grown in continuous culture with microbial cell recycle.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the effect of complete cell recycle on the production of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae and CT-like toxin by Vibrio mimicus in continuous culture fermentations. Complete cell recycle was obtained by filtering culture fluids through Amicon hollow fibers with an exclusion limit of 100,000 daltons (H1P100-20) and returning the concentrated cell slurry to the fermentor. A single 1-liter laboratory fermentor system modified with this recycle loop was capable of producing over 20 liters of cell-free culture filtrate per day. Toxin production in this system was compared with yields obtained in traditional continuous cultures and in shake flask cultures. Yields of CT from V. cholerae 569B in the recycle fermentor were highest at the highest dilution rate employed (1.0 vol/vol per h). The use of complete cell recycle dramatically increased yields over those obtained in continuous culture and equaled those obtained in shake flasks. The concentration of CT in the filtrate was slightly less than half of that measured in culture fluids sampled at the same time. Similarly, V. mimicus 61892 grown in the presence of 50 micrograms of lincomycin per ml produced 280 ng of CT per ml in the recycle fermentor, compared with 210 ng/ml in shake flasks under optimal conditions. The sterile filtrate from this fermentation contained 110 ng/ml. PMID:6357081

Spira, W M; Fedorka-Cray, P J

1983-01-01

103

Investigation of Indium Gallium Nitride Grown via Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition in Various Crystallographic Orientations for Solar Cell Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar cell technology has long relied upon Si and GaAs based materials. While this industry is mature, it has approached a plateau in the push to increase efficiency. It has been proposed that the InGaN ternary materials system is ideal for this purpose. In this work we report on the growth, fabrication and testing of photovoltaic properties of InGaN based solar cells grown via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In order for solar cells to work effectively, a minimum active region thickness is necessary for sufficient absorption of photons for conversion. At low In content compositions, high quality material has been grown and a simple p-i-n type solar cell with a single absorbing layer can be produced. However, at high In content compositions critical thickness limits for the thin films are well below the thickness requirements for full absorption. High In compositions are necessary to efficiently match the solar spectrum when designing multijunction solar cells. Solar cells require a thickness of 100-200 nm for sufficient absorption. Growth optimization and results for p-i-n type: single double heterostructures, multiple double heterostructure (MDH), and MQW, solar cells will be reported for InGaN grown on sapphire in the +c [0001] orientation as well as InGaN grown on bulk m-plane (10-10) substrates. Non-polar oriented growth of InGaN was investigated since as In content increases in typical c-plane growth, the polarization fields in the double heterostructure design of the p-i-n solar cell oppose the built in field of the junction and could potentially hinder carrier collection. At low In content, m-plane InGaN solar cells outperform c-plane solar cells with the same composition due to the higher quality material grown homoepitaxially on bulk GaN substrates.

Cruz, Samantha Christine

104

Apical and basolateral endocytosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown on nitrocellulose filters.  

PubMed Central

Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells (strain I) grown on 0.45 micron pore size nitrocellulose filters formed monolayers which were highly polarized and had high transepithelial electrical resistance (greater than 3000 ohm X cm2). Morphometric analysis showed that the area of the basolateral surface domain was 7.6 times larger than that of the apical. The uptake of fluid-phase markers [3H]inulin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied from the apical and the basal side of the monolayer. Uptake of [3H]inulin was biphasic and the rate during the first 40 min corresponded to a fluid phase uptake of 20.5 X 10(-8) nl/min per cell from the basolateral side, and 1.0 X 10(-8) nl/min per cell from the apical side. Electron micrographs of the monolayers after HRP uptake showed that the marker was rapidly delivered into endosome-like vesicles and into multivesicular bodies. No labelling of the Golgi complex could be observed during 2 h of uptake. Evidence was obtained for the transport of fluid phase markers across the cell. HRP and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran crossed the monolayers in either direction at a rate corresponding to approximately 3 X 10(-8) nl of fluid/min/cell. Adding the transcytosis rate to the rate of fluid accumulation into the cell yielded a total basolateral endocytic rate which was 6-fold greater than the apical rate. When the uptake rates were normalized for membrane area the apical and basolateral endocytic rates were about equal per unit cell surface area. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 1. PMID:4065093

von Bonsdorff, C H; Fuller, S D; Simons, K

1985-01-01

105

Inhibition by salbutamol of the proliferation of human airway smooth muscle cells grown in culture.  

PubMed Central

1 beta 2-Adrenoceptor agonists may exacerbate asthma by reducing the release of the anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory molecule, heparin from mast cells in the airway. In this study, the direct effects of the clinically used bronchodilator, salbutamol, on the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells grown in culture and stimulated with a range of mitogens have been examined. 2 In mitogen-stimulated cells, salbutamol (0.1-100 nM) inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner. Salbutamol (100 nM) pretreatment reduced the mitogenic responses to thrombin (0.3 u ml-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF) (300 pM) and U46619 (100 nM) by 61.7 +/- 6.1%, 46.9 +/- 13.9% and 57.6 +/- 12.7%, respectively. However, salbutamol pretreatment did not appear to reduce the small mitogenic response to endothelin-1. 3 Increases in [3H]-leucine incorporation in thrombin (0.3 u ml-1)-stimulated cells were reduced by salbutamol (100 nM) by 27.7 +/- 2.8%. Similarly, thrombin (0.3 u ml-1)-stimulated increases in cell number were also inhibited by salbutamol (100 nM) pretreatment. Thus, the effect of salbutamol in decreasing thrombin-induced [3H]-leucine incorporation may, at least in part, be explained by inhibition of cell proliferation. 4 The inhibition of cell proliferation by salbutamol was prevented by pretreatment with either the non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (0.3 microM) or the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118551 (50 nM). 5 These results indicate that salbutamol, through activation of a beta 2-adrenoceptor, has a direct inhibitory effect on proliferation elicited by the mitogens thrombin, EGF, and U46619.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7911722

Tomlinson, P. R.; Wilson, J. W.; Stewart, A. G.

1994-01-01

106

Improved lentiviral gene transfer into human embryonic stem cells grown in co-culture with murine feeder and stroma cells.  

PubMed

Genetic modification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) using biophysical DNA transfection methods are hampered by the very low single cell survival rate and cloning efficiency of hESCs. Lentiviral gene transfer strategies are widely used to genetically modify hESCs but limited transduction efficiencies in the presence of feeder or stroma cells present problems, particularly if vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped viral particles are applied. Here, we investigated whether the recently described semen derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) and alternative viral envelope proteins derived from either Gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GALV) or feline leukaemia virus (RD114) are applicable for transducing hESCs during co-culture with feeder or stroma cells. Our first set of experiments demonstrates that SEVI has no toxic effect on murine or hESCs and that exposure to SEVI does not interfere with the pluripotency-associated phenotype. Focusing on hESCs, we were able to further demonstrate that SEVI increases the transduction efficiencies of GALV and RD114 pseudotyped lentiviral vectors. More importantly, aiming at targeted differentiation of hESCs into functional somatic cell types, GALV pseudotyped lentiviral particles could efficiently and exclusively transduce hESCs grown in co-culture with OP9-GFP stroma cells (which were often used to induce differentiation into haematopoietic derivatives). PMID:21812756

Wurm, Melanie; Gross, Benjamin; Sgodda, Malte; Ständker, Ludger; Müller, Thomas; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Horn, Peter A; Blasczyk, Rainer; Cantz, Tobias

2011-10-01

107

Membrane-DNA attachment sites in Streptococcus faecalis cells grown at different rates.  

PubMed Central

The M-band technique was used to assess the number of attachment points of DNA to the cell membrane of Streptococcus faecalis grown at three different rates. Cells were X irradiated in liquid nitrogen and then analyzed simultaneously for the introduction of double-strand breaks into the chromosome and the degree of removal of DNA from the cell membrane (M band). Consideration of the data from these experiments and of the topology of the bacterial chromosome resulted in a reevaluation of former quantitative models. Our results are consistent with a semiquantitative model in which the bacterial chromosome is organized around a core structure. We interpret our data to mean that the core is attached to the membrane and that the complexity of the core changes more drastically with growth rate than does the number of membrane-DNA attachment points. An alternative model in which RNA hybridizes with DNA containing single- and double-strand breaks is also discussed. In any event, the complexity of these interactions precludes a reliable estimate of the number of membrane-DNA attachment sites. PMID:6811550

Parks, L C; Rigney, D; Daneo-Moore, L; Higgins, M L

1982-01-01

108

Carriers transport properties in GaInP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport properties of carriers in GaInP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated by temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) measurements. In contrast to GaInP/AlGaInP heterostructure, a long PL decay time is observed in GaInP/AlInP, which is ascribed to a lower interface recombination due to an improved carriers' confinement in the case of the high-energy barrier. However, the series resistance induced by the high potential barrier at GaInP/AlInP interface due to a big valence band offset prevents the improvement of solar cell's performance. An S-shape like I-V characteristic observed at low temperatures indicates that the transport of major carriers is limited by the barrier. A calculation based on the combination of a normal photovoltaic device with a barrier-affected thermal carriers transport explicitly explains this abnormal I-V characteristic. Our study demonstrates the critical role of the barrier-induced series resistance in the determination of solar cell's performance.

Dai, P.; Lu, S. L.; Arimochi, M.; Uchida, S.; Watanabe, T.; Luo, X. D.; Yang, H.

2014-12-01

109

GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy using interfacial misfit arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a long-term need for foreign substrates on which to grow GaSb-based optoelectronic devices. We address this need by using interfacial misfit arrays to grow GaSb-based thermophotovoltaic cells directly on GaAs (001) substrates and demonstrate promising performance. We compare these cells to control devices grown on GaSb substrates to assess device properties and material quality. The room temperature dark current densities show similar characteristics for both cells on GaAs and on GaSb. Under solar simulation the cells on GaAs exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.121 V and a short-circuit current density of 15.5 mA/cm2. In addition, the cells on GaAs substrates maintain 10% difference in spectral response to those of the control cells over a large range of wavelengths. While the cells on GaSb substrates in general offer better performance than the cells on GaAs substrates, the cost-savings and scalability offered by GaAs substrates could potentially outweigh the reduction in performance. By further optimizing GaSb buffer growth on GaAs substrates, Sb-based compound semiconductors grown on GaAs substrates with similar performance to devices grown directly on GaSb substrates could be realized.

Juang, Bor-Chau; Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Foggo, Brandon J.; Simmonds, Paul J.; Lin, Andrew; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana L.

2015-03-01

110

Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanoparticles grown by Sonochemistry over Graphene/PET substrates.  

E-print Network

Flexible dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanoparticles grown by Sonochemistry over Graphene/PET (PET)) has been widely used as substrate for flexible electrodes. However ITO is expensive report on fabrication of ZnO nanostructure over Graphene/PET substrates to be used as photoelectrodes

Pala, Nezih

111

GaAs tunnel junction grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy for multigap cascade solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaAs tunnel p-n junctions with peak current densities up to 45 A cm-2 were grown by metallorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. These tunnel diodes are suitable for intercell ohmic contacts between the case of integrated tandem photovoltaic subcells in solar cells based on GaAs. The peak current is high enough for concentration up to C=1000.

Basmaji, P.; Guittard, M.; Rudra, A.; Carlin, J. F.; Gibart, P.

1987-09-01

112

A549 lung epithelial cells grown as three-dimensional aggregates: alternative tissue culture model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenesis.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional (3-D) lung aggregate model was developed from A549 human lung epithelial cells by using a rotating-wall vessel bioreactor to study the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and lung epithelial cells. The suitability of the 3-D aggregates as an infection model was examined by immunohistochemistry, adherence and invasion assays, scanning electron microscopy, and cytokine and mucoglycoprotein production. Immunohistochemical characterization of the 3-D A549 aggregates showed increased expression of epithelial cell-specific markers and decreased expression of cancer-specific markers compared to their monolayer counterparts. Immunohistochemistry of junctional markers on A549 3-D cells revealed that these cells formed tight junctions and polarity, in contrast to the cells grown as monolayers. Additionally, the 3-D aggregates stained positively for the production of mucoglycoprotein while the monolayers showed no indication of staining. Moreover, mucin-specific antibodies to MUC1 and MUC5A bound with greater affinity to 3-D aggregates than to the monolayers. P. aeruginosa attached to and penetrated A549 monolayers significantly more than the same cells grown as 3-D aggregates. Scanning electron microscopy of A549 cells grown as monolayers and 3-D aggregates infected with P. aeruginosa showed that monolayers detached from the surface of the culture plate postinfection, in contrast to the 3-D aggregates, which remained attached to the microcarrier beads. In response to infection, proinflammatory cytokine levels were elevated for the 3-D A549 aggregates compared to monolayer controls. These findings suggest that A549 lung cells grown as 3-D aggregates may represent a more physiologically relevant model to examine the interactions between P. aeruginosa and the lung epithelium during infection. PMID:15664956

Carterson, A J; Höner zu Bentrup, K; Ott, C M; Clarke, M S; Pierson, D L; Vanderburg, C R; Buchanan, K L; Nickerson, C A; Schurr, M J

2005-02-01

113

Radial junction amorphous silicon solar cells on PECVD-grown silicon nanowires.  

PubMed

Constructing radial junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells on top of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) represents a promising approach towards high performance and cost-effective thin film photovoltaics. We here develop an all-in situ strategy to grow SiNWs, via a vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism on top of ZnO-coated glass substrate, in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) reactor. Controlling the distribution of indium catalyst drops allows us to tailor the as-grown SiNW arrays into suitable size and density, which in turn results in both a sufficient light trapping effect and a suitable arrangement allowing for conformal coverage of SiNWs by subsequent a-Si:H layers. We then demonstrate the fabrication of radial junction solar cells and carry on a parametric study designed to shed light on the absorption and quantum efficiency response, as functions of the intrinsic a-Si:H layer thickness and the density of SiNWs. These results lay a solid foundation for future structural optimization and performance ramp-up of the radial junction thin film a-Si:H photovoltaics. PMID:22539188

Yu, Linwei; O'Donnell, Benedict; Foldyna, Martin; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

2012-05-17

114

Antioxidant activity of Haematococcus pluvialis cells grown in continuous culture as a function of their carotenoid and fatty acid content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of culture conditions on the quality of Haematococcus pluvialis biomass is assessed. Continuously grown cells have been characterised with respect to their astaxanthin, fatty acid content,\\u000a and antioxidant activity and compared with those of non-growing haematocysts. Moderate limitation of nitrate availability\\u000a (1.7 mM) under continuous growth conditions favoured the production of reddish palmelloid cells whose extracts possessed antioxidant\\u000a activity

M. C. Cerón; M. C. García-Malea; J. Rivas; F. G. Acien; J. M. Fernandez; E. Del Río; M. G. Guerrero; E. Molina

2007-01-01

115

Stimulation of hydrogen production in algal cells grown under high CO[sub 2] concentration and low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cells of Chlamydomonas sp. MGA 161, a marine green alga, were cultivated at a high CO[sub 2] concentration (15% CO[sub 2]) and low temperature (15[degrees]C), the growth lag time was much longer, but the starch accumulated was two times higher than under the basal conditions (5% CO[sub 2] 30[degrees]C). When the cells grown in the high-CO[sub 2]\\/low-temperature conditions were

Y. Miura; W. Yamada; K. Hirata; K. Miyamoto; M. Kiyohara

2009-01-01

116

Targeting FAK Radiosensitizes 3-Dimensional Grown Human HNSCC Cells Through Reduced Akt1 and MEK1/2 Signaling  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a main regulator of integrin signaling and cell migration, is frequently overexpressed and hyperphosphorylated in human head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We have previously shown that pharmacologic FAK inhibition leads to radiosensitization of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cell lines. To further evaluate the role of FAK in radioresistance and as a potential cancer target, we examined FAK and FAK downstream signaling in HNSCC cell lines grown in more physiologic extracellular matrix-based 3-dimensional cell cultures. Methods and Materials: Seven HNSCC cell lines were grown in 3-dimensional extracellular matrix and the clonogenic radiation survival, expression, and phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin, Akt1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and MEK1/2 were analyzed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of FAK, Akt1, MEK1, FAK+Akt1, or FAK+MEK1 compared with controls or stable overexpression of FAK. The role of MEK1/2 for clonogenic survival and signaling was investigated using the MEK inhibitor U0126 with or without irradiation. Results: FAK knockdown moderately or significantly enhanced the cellular radiosensitivity of 3-dimensionally grown HNSCC cells. The FAK downstream targets paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 were substantially dephosphorylated under FAK depletion. FAK overexpression, in contrast, increased radiation survival and paxillin, Akt1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The degree of radiosensitization upon Akt1, ERK1/2, or MEK1 depletion or U0126 was superimposable to FAK knockdown. Combination knockdown conditions (ie, Akt1/FAK, MEK1/FAK, or U0126/FAK) failed to provide additional radiosensitization. Conclusions: Our data provide further evidence for FAK as important determinant of radiation survival, which acts in the same signaling axis as Akt1 and ERK1/2. These data strongly support our hypothesis that FAK is a relevant molecular target for HNSCC radiotherapy.

Hehlgans, Stephanie [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany) [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Eke, Iris [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)] [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Cordes, Nils, E-mail: Nils.Cordes@OncoRay.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany) [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital and Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

2012-08-01

117

Proteomic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells grown under physiologically relevant fluid shear stress conditions  

PubMed Central

Background The biofilm forming bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for maladies ranging from severe skin infection to major diseases such as bacteremia, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. A flow displacement system was used to grow S. aureus biofilms in four physiologically relevant fluid shear rates (50, 100, 500 and 1000 s-1) to identify proteins that are associated with biofilm. Results Global protein expressions from the membrane and cytosolic fractions of S. aureus biofilm cells grown under the above shear rate conditions are reported. Sixteen proteins in the membrane-enriched fraction and eight proteins in the cytosolic fraction showed significantly altered expression (p?

2014-01-01

118

Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration  

SciTech Connect

In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does not influence any of the investigated parameters under hypoxia.

Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de

2012-04-15

119

GaAs tunnel junction grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy for multigap cascade solar cells  

SciTech Connect

GaAs tunnel p-n junctions with peak current densities up to 45 A cm/sup -2/ were grown by metallorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. These tunnel diodes are suitable for intercell ohmic contacts between the case of integrated tandem photovoltaic subcells in solar cells based on GaAs. The peak current is high enough for concentration up to C = 1000.

Basmaji, P.; Guittard, M.; Rudra, A.; Carlin, J.F.; Gibart, P.

1987-09-01

120

1 Rectangular Bunched Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Grown on Carbon 2 Fiber for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-print Network

1 Rectangular Bunched Rutile TiO2 Nanorod Arrays Grown on Carbon 2 Fiber for Dye-Sensitized Solar desirable for this 44 technology. 45 Here we introduce a fiber-shaped solar cell based on carbon 46 fibers a study of rectangular bunched 13 TiO2 nanorod (NR) arrays grown on carbon fibers (CFs) 14 from titanium

Wang, Zhong L.

121

Accumulation of a novel glycolipid and a betaine lipid in cells of Rhodobacter sphaeroides grown under phosphate limitation.  

PubMed

Cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides grown under phosphate-limiting conditions accumulated nonphosphorous glycolipids and lipids carrying head groups derived from amino acids. Concomitantly, the relative amount of phosphoglycerolipids decreased from 90 to 22 mol% of total polar lipids in the membranes. Two lipids, not detectable in cells grown under standard conditions, were synthesized during phosphate-limited growth. Fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, exact mass measurements, 1H NMR spectroscopy, sugar composition analysis, and methylation analysis of the predominant glycolipid led to the identification of the novel compound 1,2-di-O-acyl-3-O-[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-galactopyr anosyl]glycerol. The second lipid was identified as the betaine lipid 1,2-di-O-acyl-[4'-(N,N,N-trimethyl)-homoserine]glycerol by cochromatography employing an authentic standard from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, exact mass measurements, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Prior to this observation, the occurrence of this lipid was thought to be restricted to lower plants and algae. Apparently, these newly synthesized nonphosphorous lipids, in addition to the sulfo- and the ornithine lipid also found in R. sphaeroides grown under optimal conditions, take over the role of phosphoglycerolipids in phosphate-deprived cells. PMID:7872771

Benning, C; Huang, Z H; Gage, D A

1995-02-20

122

High targeted migration of human mesenchymal stem cells grown in hypoxia is associated with enhanced activation of RhoA  

PubMed Central

Introduction A feature which makes stem cells promising candidates for cell therapy is their ability to migrate effectively into damaged or diseased tissues. Recent reports demonstrated the increased motility of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) grown under hypoxic conditions compared to normoxic cells. However, the directional migration of hMSC cultured in hypoxia has not been investigated. In this study we examined the in vitro transmembrane migration of hMSC permanently cultured in hypoxia in response to various cytokines. We also studied the involvement of RhoA, a molecule believed to play an essential role in the migration of MSC via reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Methods We compared the directional migration of human hMSCs grown permanently under normal (21%, normoxic) and low O2 (5%, hypoxic) conditions until passage 4 using an in vitro transmembrane migration assay. A series of 17 cytokines was used to induce chemotaxis. We also compared the level of GTP-bound RhoA in the cell extracts of calpeptin-activated hypoxic and normoxic hMSC. Results We found that hMSC cultured in hypoxia demonstrate markedly higher targeted migration activity compared to normoxic cells, particularly towards wound healing cytokines, including those found in ischemic and myocardial infarction. We also demonstrated for the first time that hMSC are dramatically more sensitive to activation of RhoA. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that high directional migration of hMSCs permanently grown in hypoxia is associated with the enhanced activation of RhoA. The enhanced migratory capacity of hypoxic hMSC would further suggest their potential advantages for clinical applications. PMID:23295150

2013-01-01

123

VIPARnd - GeVero® tool in planning of TPS scheduled brain tumour radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, VIPARnd - GeVero® tool is presented for the first time in an application to a brain tumour radiotherapy. Whereas usefulness of VIPARnd polymer gel in various radiotherapy techniques has recently been confirmed, GeVero® software for calculation of MRI polymer gel data and comparison with TPS dose distribution simulation is now examined. The results demonstrate satisfactory agreement between polymer gel dosimetry-MRI and TPS dose distributions and prove helpfulness of the software and VIPARnd polymer gel in radiotherapy dosimetry. It is also believed that the software facilitates data processing and therefore should be of further support in po-gel dosimetry studies.

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr; Rybka, Krzysztof; Biega?ski, Tadeusz

2009-05-01

124

Growth and characterization of Czochralski-grown n and p-type GaAs for space solar cell substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in LEC (liquid encapsulated Czochralski) crystal growth techniques for producing high-quality, 3-inch-diameter, n- and p-type GaAs crystals suitable for solar cell applications is described. The LEC crystals with low dislocation densities and background impurities, high electrical mobilities, good dopant uniformity, and long diffusion lengths were reproducibly grown through control of the material synthesis, growth and doping conditions. The capability for producing these large-area, high-quality substrates should positively impact the manufacturability of highly efficiency, low cost, radiation-hard GaAs solar cells.

Chen, R. T.

1983-01-01

125

Epitaxial Crystal Silicon Absorber Layers and Solar Cells Grown at 1.8 Microns per Minute: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We have grown device-quality epitaxial silicon thin films at growth rates up to 1.8 ?m/min, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition from silane at substrate temperatures below 750 degrees C. At these rates, which are more than 30 times faster than those used by the amorphous and nanocrystalline Si industry, capital costs for large-scale solar cell production would be dramatically reduced, even for cell absorber layers up to 10 ?m thick. We achieved high growth rates by optimizing the three key parameters: silane flow, depletion, and filament geometry, based on our model developed earlier. Hydrogen coverage of the filament surface likely limits silane decomposition and growth rate at high system pressures. No considerable deterioration in PV device performance is observed when grown at high rate, provided that the epitaxial growth is initiated at low rate. A simple mesa device structure (wafer/epi Si/a-Si(i)/a-Si:H(p)/ITO) with a 2.3 um epitaxial silicon absorber layer was grown at 700 nm/min. The finished device had an open-circuit voltage of 0.424 V without hydrogenation treatment.

Bobela, D. C.; Teplin, C. W.; Young, D. L.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P.

2011-07-01

126

Study of a 1?eV GaNAsSb photovoltaic cell grown on a silicon substrate  

SciTech Connect

We report the performance of a 1?eV GaNAsSb photovoltaic cell grown on a Si substrate with a SiGe graded buffer grown using molecular beam epitaxy. For comparison, the performance of a similar 1?eV GaN{sub 0.018}As{sub 0.897}Sb{sub 0.085} photovoltaic cell grown on a GaAs substrate was also reported. Both devices were in situ annealed at 700?°C for 5?min, and a significant performance improvement over our previous result was observed. The device on the GaAs substrate showed a low open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.42?V and a short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 23.4?mA/cm{sup 2} while the device on the Si substrate showed a V{sub OC} of 0.39?V and a J{sub SC} of 21.3?mA/cm{sup 2}. Both devices delivered a quantum efficiency of 50%–55% without any anti-reflection coating.

Tan, K. H.; Loke, W. K.; Wicaksono, S.; Li, D.; Leong, Y. R.; Yoon, S. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)] [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sharma, P.; Milakovich, T.; Bulsara, M. T.; Fitzgerald, E. A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-03-10

127

[The accumulation and degradation dynamics of cyanophycin in cyanobacteria grown in symbiotic associations with plant tissues and cells].  

PubMed

Five different artificial associations of cyanobacterial cells with the cells or tissues of nightshade and rauwolfia were studied. The associations grown on nitrogen-containing media produced heterocysts. Cyanobacterial cells in the associations retained their ability to take up bound nitrogen from the medium, to store it in the form of cyanophycin granules, and to use them in the process of symbiotic growth. The synthesis and degradation of cyanophycin granules in cyanobacterial cells were more active in the associations than in monocultures. In the symbiotic associations of Chlorogloeopsis fritschii ATCC 27193 with Solanum laciniatum cells and of Nostoc muscorum CALU 304 with the Rauwolfia serpentina callus, heterocysts were produced at 3- to 30-fold higher cyanophycin contents than in cyanobacterial monocultures. In contrast, in the association of N. muscorum CALU 304 with the Solanum dulcamara callus, heterocysts were produced at lower cyanophycin contents than in the N. muscorum CALU 304 monoculture. The degradation of cyanophycin granules in N. muscorum CALU 304 cells grown in associations with plant tissues or cells was subjected to mathematical analysis. The activation of cyanophycin degradation and heterocyst production in the associations N. muscorum CALU 304-R. serpentina and C. fritschii-S. laciniatum was accompanied by an enhanced synthesis of the nitrogen-containing alkaloids in plant cells. The data obtained suggest that an integrated system of nitrogen homeostasis can be formed in symbiotic associations. Depending on the growth stage of an association, its plant member can either stimulate the accumulation of bound nitrogen in vegetative cyanobacterial cells in the form of cyanophycin granules, or activate their degradation, or initiate the formation of heterocysts independently of the cyanobacterial sensory-signalling system. PMID:12901011

Gorelova, O A; Kle?menov, S Iu

2003-01-01

128

Single Junction InGaP/GaAs Solar Cells Grown on Si Substrates using SiGe Buffer Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single junction InGaP/GaAs solar cells displaying high efficiency and record high open circuit voltage values have been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on Ge/graded SiGe/Si substrates. Open circuit voltages as high as 980 mV under AM0 conditions have been verified to result from a single GaAs junction, with no evidence of Ge-related sub-cell photoresponse. Current AM0 efficiencies of close to 16% have been measured for a large number of small area cells, whose performance is limited by non-fundamental current losses due to significant surface reflection resulting from greater than 10% front surface metal coverage and wafer handling during the growth sequence for these prototype cells. It is shown that at the material quality currently achieved for GaAs grown on Ge/SiGe/Si substrates, namely a 10 nanosecond minority carrier lifetime that results from complete elimination of anti-phase domains and maintaining a threading dislocation density of approximately 8 x 10(exp 5) per square centimeter, 19-20% AM0 single junction GaAs cells are imminent. Experiments show that the high performance is not degraded for larger area cells, with identical open circuit voltages and higher short circuit current (due to reduced front metal coverage) values being demonstrated, indicating that large area scaling is possible in the near term. Comparison to a simple model indicates that the voltage output of these GaAs on Si cells follows ideal behavior expected for lattice mismatched devices, demonstrating that unaccounted for defects and issues that have plagued other methods to epitaxially integrate III-V cells with Si are resolved using SiGe buffers and proper GaAs nucleation methods. These early results already show the enormous and realistic potential of the virtual SiGe substrate approach for generating high efficiency, lightweight and strong III-V solar cells.

Ringel, S. A.; Carlin, J. A.; Andre, C. L.; Hudait, M. K.; Gonzalez, M.; Wilt, D. M.; Clark, E. B.; Jenkins, P.; Scheiman, D.; Allerman, A.

2002-01-01

129

Effects of growth temperature and device structure on GaP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium phosphide (GaP) is an attractive candidate for wide-bandgap solar cell applications, possessing the largest bandgap of the III-arsenide/phosphides without aluminum. However, GaP cells to date have exhibited poor internal quantum efficiency (IQE), even for photons absorbed by direct transitions, motivating improvements in material quality and device structure. In this work, we investigated GaP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy over a range of substrate temperatures, employing a much thinner emitter than in prior work. Higher growth temperatures yielded the best solar cell characteristics, indicative of increased diffusion lengths. Furthermore, the inclusion of an AlGaP window layer improved both open-circuit voltage and short wavelength IQE.

Vaisman, M.; Tomasulo, S.; Masuda, T.; Lang, J. R.; Faucher, J.; Lee, M. L.

2015-02-01

130

75 FR 65581 - Proposed Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace, Vero Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport...Class E airspace designated as surface area to remove any reference to the...designated as an extension to Class D surface area to eliminate controlled...

2010-10-26

131

75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport...Class E airspace designated as surface areas, Class E airspace areas designated as an extension to a Class D surface area, and Class E airspace areas...

2010-12-20

132

Biotransformation of d-Limonene to (+) trans-Carveol by Toluene-Grown Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 Cells  

PubMed Central

The toluene-degrading strain Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 was found to hydroxylate d-limonene exclusively in the 6-position, yielding enantiomerically pure (+) trans-carveol and traces of (+) carvone. This biotransformation was studied using cells cultivated in chemostat culture with toluene as a carbon and energy source. The maximal specific activity of (+) trans-carveol formation was 14.7 U (g of cells [dry weight])?1, and the final yield was 94 to 97%. Toluene was found to be a strong competitive inhibitor of the d-limonene conversion. Glucose-grown cells did not form any trans-carveol from d-limonene. These results suggest that one of the enzymes involved in toluene degradation is responsible for this allylic monohydroxylation. Another toluene degrader (Rhodococcus globerulus PWD8) had a lower specific activity but was found to oxidize most of the formed trans-carveol to (+) carvone, allowing for the biocatalytic production of this flavor compound. PMID:11375201

Duetz, Wouter A.; Fjällman, Ann H. M.; Ren, Shuyu; Jourdat, Catherine; Witholt, Bernard

2001-01-01

133

High-efficiency GaAs and GaInP solar cells grown by all solid-state molecular-beam-epitaxy  

PubMed Central

We report the initial results of GaAs and GaInP solar cells grown by all solid-state molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) technique. For GaAs single-junction solar cell, with the application of AlInP as the window layer and GaInP as the back surface field layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 26% at one sun concentration and air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5G) is realized. The efficiency of 16.4% is also reached for GaInP solar cell. Our results demonstrate that the MBE-grown phosphide-contained III-V compound semiconductor solar cell can be quite comparable to the metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition-grown high-efficiency solar cell. PMID:22040124

2011-01-01

134

Temperature coefficients and radiation induced DLTS spectra of MOCVD grown n(+)p InP solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of temperature and radiation on n(+)p InP solar cells and mesa diodes grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were studied. It was shown that MOCVD is capable of consistently producing good quality InP solar cells with Eff greater than 19 percent which display excellent radiation resistance due to minority carrier injection and thermal annealing. It was also shown that universal predictions of InP device performance based on measurements of a small group of test samples can be expected to be quite accurate, and that the degradation of an InP device due to any incident particle spectrum should be predictable from a measurement following a single low energy proton irradiation.

Walters, Robert J.; Statler, Richard L.; Summers, Geoffrey P.

1991-01-01

135

Adipose-derived stromal cells grown on a hydroxyapatite scaffold can support hematopoiesis in regenerated bone marrow in vivo.  

PubMed

Osteoblastic cells are a key component of the bone marrow (BM) stem cell niche and help regulate hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We have previously demonstrated that adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) can differentiate into both osteogenic and chondrogenic cells in vitro. The current study examined whether the anatomical architecture of the BM could be regenerated in vivo by using ADSCs cultured on a hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold. ADSCs from GFP transgenic mice were cultured in vitro on an HA scaffold. The scaffold with the attached cells was implanted subcutaneously onto the backs of C57/BL6 (Ly5.2) recipient mice. Lineage-negative (Lin-) Ly5.1 BM cells transduced with a lentiviral vector containing the luciferase (Luc) gene were intravenously administered to the recipient mice after lethal irradiation. Eight weeks after BM transplantation, the scaffolds were removed from the first recipient mice and subcutaneously implanted into lethally irradiated second recipient mice. The biodistribution and kinetics of Luc(+) Ly5.1 cells were monitored by bioluminescence imaging and flow cytometry. Luc(+) hematopoietic cells were present in the scaffolds of the secondary implanted mice for at least 8 months. Subcutaneous injection of G-CSF resulted in wide distribution of bioluminescence signals from the original scaffolds to the whole body. Therefore, BM regenerated using ADSCs grown on an HA scaffold can support HSC populations in vivo, suggesting that a functional BM niche is reconstituted. These results may have a significant impact on the development of therapeutic strategies for various hematopoietic diseases. PMID:24474575

Ueda, Takahiro; Fujita, Atsushi; Ogawa, Rei; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Takashi; Migita, Makoto

2014-06-01

136

High efficiency monolithic GaAs/Si tandem solar cells grown by MOCVD  

SciTech Connect

A monolithic high-efficiency GaAs/Si cascade solar cell fabricated by MOCVD is demonstrated. It consists of the GaAs top cell and the Si bottom cell. Using a buffer layer of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As, the conversion efficiency of the GaAs top cell is described from 15.1% from 14.2%, but it makes the efficiency of the Si bottom cell increased from 4.3% to 5.3%. The theoretical analyses of the Si bottom cell are carried out. The suitable resistivity of p-Si substrate for the Si bottom cell is founded to be 10 {Omega}{center_dot}cm, which corresponded with the experimental results. The total conversion efficiency of the GaAs/Si tandem solar cell is 19.5% (1 sun, AM0) which has been achieved in a three-terminal configuration.

Yang, Mingju; Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi; Umeno, Masayoshi [Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

1994-12-31

137

Antigenic Protein In Microgravity-Grown Human Mixed Mullerian Tumor (LN1) Cells Preserved In RNA Stabilizing Agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells treated with RNAlater(TradeMark) have previously been shown to contain antigenic proteins that can be visualized using Western blot analysis. These proteins seem to be stable for several months when stored in RNA stabilizer at 4 C. Antigenic protein can be recovered from cells that have been processed using an Ambion RNAqueous(Registered TradeMark) kit to remove RNA. In this set of experiments, human mixed Mullerian tumor (LNI) cells grown on the International Space Station during Expedition 3 were examined for antigenic stability after removal of RNA. The cells were stored for three months in RNAlater(TradeMark) and RNA was extracted. The RNA filtrate containing the protein was precipitated, washed, and suspended in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples containing equal concentrations of protein were loaded onto SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were separated by electrophoresis and transferred by Western blot to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Western blots were stained with an enhanced chemiluminescent ECL(Registered Trademark) Plus detection kit (Amersham) and scanned using a Storm 840 gel image analyzer (Amersham, Molecular Dynamics). ImageQuant(Registered TradeMark) software was used to quantify the densities of the protein bands. The ground control and flight LN1 cell samples showed a similar staining pattern over time with antibodies to vimentin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and epithelial membrane antigens.

Hammond, Dianne K.; Becker, Jeanne; Elliott, T. F.; Holubec, K.; Baker, T. L.; Love, J. E.

2004-01-01

138

Antigenic Protein In Microgravity-Grown Human Mixed Mullerian Tumor (LN1) Cells Preserved In RNA Stabilizing Agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells treated with RNAlater(TradeMark) have previously been shown to contain antigenic proteins that can be visualized using Western blot analysis. These proteins seem to be stable for several months when stored in RNA stabilizer at 4 C. Antigenic protein can be recovered from cells that have been processed using an Ambion RNAqueous(Registered TradeMark) kit to remove RNA. In this set of experiments, human mixed Mullerian tumor (LN1) cells grown on the International Space Station during Expedition 3 were examined for antigenic stability after removal of RNA. The cells were stored for three months in RNAlater(TradeMark) and RNA was extracted. The RNA filtrate Containing the protein was precipitated, washed, and suspended in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples containing equal concentrations of protein were loaded onto SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were separated by electrophoresis and transferred by Western blot to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The Western blots were stained with an enhanced chemiluminescent ECL(Registered TradeMark)Plus detection kit (Amersham) and scanned using a Storm 840 gel image analyzer (Amersham, Molecular Dynamics). ImageQuant(Registered TradeMark)a software was used to quantify the densities of the protein bands. The ground control and flight LN1 cell samples showed a similar staining pattern over time with antibodies to vimentin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and epithelial membrane antigens.

Hammond, Dianne K.; Becker, Jeanne; Holubec, K.; Baker, T. L.; Love, J. E.

2004-01-01

139

Enzymatic Detachment of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Grown on Glass Carriers in a Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Cell therapies require the in vitro expansion of adherent cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in bioreactor systems or other culture environments, followed by cell harvest. As hMSCs are strictly adherent cells, cell harvest requires cell detachment. The use of hMSCs for cell therapy requires GMP production in accordance with the guidelines for advanced therapeutic medical products. Therefore, several GMP-conform available proteolytic enzymes were investigated for their ability to promote hMSC detachment. An allogeneic hMSC cell line (hMSC-TERT) that is used in clinical trials in the form of alginate cell capsules was chosen as a model. This study investigated the influence of several factors on the outcome of proteolytic hMSC-TERT detachment. Therefore, hMSC-TERT detachment was analyzed in different cultivation systems (static, dynamic) and in combination with further cell processing including encapsulation. Only two of the commercially available enzymes (AccutaseTM, TrypZeanTM) that fulfill all process requirements (commercial availability, cost, GMP conditions during manufacturing and non-animal origin) are found to be generally suitable for detaching hMSC-TERT. Combining cell detachment with encapsulation demonstrated a high impact of the experimental set up on cell damage. It was preferable to reduce the temperature during detachment and limit the detachment time to a maximum of 20 minutes. Cell detachment in static systems was not comparable with detachment in dynamic systems. Detachment yields in dynamic systems were lower and cell damage was higher for the same experimental conditions. Finally, only TrypZeanTM seemed to be suitable for the detachment of hMSC-TERT from dynamic reactor systems. PMID:24478807

Salzig, Denise; Schmiermund, Alexandra; P. Grace, Pablo; Elseberg, Christiane; Weber, Christian; Czermak, Peter

2013-01-01

140

Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells.  

PubMed

A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, as well as in HeLa cells grown in tissue culture flasks. Microscopy analysis revealed no difference in chlamydial attachment/entry patterns or in inclusion development throughout the developmental cycle between cell lines. Very comparable growth curves in both cell lines were also found using real-time PCR analysis, with increases in chlamydial DNA content of 400-500-fold between 2 and 36 h post-inoculation. Similar progeny yields with comparable infectivity were recovered from HEC-1B and HeLa cell bead cultures, and no difference in chlamydial growth was found in polarized vs. non-polarized HeLa cells. In conclusion, unlike other C. trachomatis strains such as urogenital serovar E, invasive serovar L2 grows equally well in physiologically different endometrial and endocervical environments, regardless of the host cell polarization state. PMID:18396437

Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

2008-04-01

141

Thyrotropin dependent and independent thyroid cell lines selected from FRTL-5 derived tumors grown in nude mice  

SciTech Connect

FRTL-5 cells were used to set up a thyroid tumor model system in C3H nu/nu mice. FRTL-5 tumors could be grown in nude mice provided serum TSH levels were elevated. Persistent TSH elevation was obtained by administration of Na131I, rendering the mice hypothyroid. After 4 weeks FRTL-5 cells were injected sc resulting in tumor growth within 2 weeks in eight out of eight mice. Although the tumors showed an apparently undifferentiated histology, lacking normal follicular structures, they were functional since the tumors were capable of concentrating (131)iodine, as demonstrated by nuclear imaging. From one of the tumors a new cell line was isolated (FRTL-5/T) that, like the parental FRTL-5 cell line, was TSH dependent for growth. In a control group of six euthyroid nude mice FRTL-5 tumor growth could not be obtained with one exception. After 3 months one animal developed a small tumor that grew rapidly thereafter. This tumor was easily transplantable in other euthyroid nude mice, showed an undifferentiated histology, and was nonfunctional, as it could not concentrate (131)iodine. From this tumor two cell lines were derived: one cultured in the presence of TSH (FRTL-5/TP) and one in the absence of TSH (FRTL-5/TA). The cell lines were analyzed for TSH responsive functions and TSH receptor expression. Responsiveness to TSH in FRTL-5/T and the parental FRTL-5 cell line were similar for most thyroid specific functions tested. However, FRTL-5/T was less sensitive than FRTL-5 for TSH induced (3H)thymidine incorporation. Both cell lines had two classes of TSH binding sites with high and low affinity respectively. FRTL-5/TP and FRTL-5/TA were both able to grow in TSH free medium and were nonresponsive to TSH in vitro, as tested for (3H)thymidine and (3H)uridine incorporation, iodine uptake, thyroglobulin iodination, and thyroglobulin secretion.

Ossendorp, F.A.; Bruning, P.F.; Schuuring, E.M.; Van Den Brink, J.A.; van der Heide, D.; De Vijlder, J.J.; De Bruin, T.W. (Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1990-07-01

142

The surveillance of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in Wales, 1990 to 1998.  

PubMed Central

Population-based surveillance for Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 has been carried out in Wales since 1990. The annual incidence has remained stable during the 9-year period (mean: 1.6 cases per 100,000 population); the rate is highest in children younger than 5 years of age. Blood in the stool is reported in fewer than half the cases, indicating the importance of screening all fecal specimens for VTEC O157. PMID:10458968

Chalmers, R. M.; Parry, S. M.; Salmon, R. L.; Smith, R. M.; Willshaw, G. A.; Cheasty, T.

1999-01-01

143

Effects of substrate conductivity on cell morphogenesis and proliferation using tailored, atomic layer deposition-grown ZnO thin films.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be employed as a substrate to explore the effects of electrical conductivity on cell adhesion, proliferation, and morphogenesis. ZnO substrates with precisely tunable electrical conductivity were fabricated on glass substrates using ALD deposition. The electrical conductivity of the film increased linearly with increasing duration of the ZnO deposition cycle (thickness), whereas other physical characteristics, such as surface energy and roughness, tended to saturate at a certain value. Differences in conductivity dramatically affected the behavior of SF295 glioblastoma cells grown on ZnO films, with high conductivity (thick) ZnO films causing growth arrest and producing SF295 cell morphologies distinct from those cultured on insulating substrates. Based on simple electrostatic calculations, we propose that cells grown on highly conductive substrates may strongly adhere to the substrate without focal-adhesion complex formation, owing to the enhanced electrostatic interaction between cells and the substrate. Thus, the inactivation of focal adhesions leads to cell proliferation arrest. Taken together, the work presented here confirms that substrates with high conductivity disturb the cell-substrate interaction, producing cascading effects on cellular morphogenesis and disrupting proliferation, and suggests that ALD-grown ZnO offers a single-variable method for uniquely tailoring conductivity. PMID:25897486

Choi, Won Jin; Jung, Jongjin; Lee, Sujin; Chung, Yoon Jang; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Young Kuk; Lee, You-Seop; Park, Joung Kyu; Ko, Hyuk Wan; Lee, Jeong-O

2015-01-01

144

Role of Shiga/Vero toxins in pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin (Stx) is the primary cause of severe host responses including renal and central nervous system (CNS) disease in Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. The interaction of Stx with different eukaryotic cell types is described. Host responses to Stx and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are compared as related to the features of the STEC-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). Data derived from animal models of HUS and CNS disease, in vivo, and eukaryotic cells, in vitro, are evaluated in relation to HUS disease of humans. PMID:25530918

Obata, Fumiko; Obrig, Tom

2014-01-01

145

Hall Effect Studies of AlGaAs Grown by Liquid-Phase Epitaxy for Tandem Solar Cell Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from Hall effect studies on Al x Ga1- x As ( x = 0.23-0.24) with bandgap energies of 1.76 ± 0.01 eV grown by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). Room-temperature Hall measurements on unintentionally doped AlGaAs revealed p-type background doping for concentrations in the range 3.7-5.2 × 1016 cm-3. Sn, Te, Ge, and Zn-doped AlGaAs were also characterized to study the relationship between doping concentrations and the atomic fractions of the dopants in the melt. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements were performed to determine the activation energies of the four dopants. Deep donor levels (DX centers) were dominant for Sn-doped Al0.24Ga0.76As, but not for Te-doped Al0.24Ga0.76As. Comparison of the temperature-dependent Hall effect results for unintentionally and intentionally doped Al0.24Ga0.76As indicated that the impurity contributing to the p-type background doping had the same activation energy as Mg. We thus suggest a Te-doped emitter and an undoped or Ge-doped base to maximize the efficiency of Al x Ga1- x As ( x ˜ 0.23) solar cells grown by LPE.

Zhao, Xin; Montgomery, Kyle H.; Woodall, Jerry M.

2014-11-01

146

Positioning effects on quantum dot solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

We report current-voltage and spectral response characteristics of high density InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) solar cells with different positions where dots are located. The short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), and external quantum efficiency of these cells under air mass 1.5 are presented and compared with a GaAs reference cell. An extended photoresponse in contrast to the GaAs reference cell was confirmed for all these cells. The effect of inserting QD layers into emitter and base region on device performance is shown. The J{sub sc} is reduced, while the V{sub oc} is maintained. The cell with QDs located toward the base side shows better performance, confirmed by both current-voltage and spectral response measurements.

Zhou, D.; Sharma, G.; Fimland, B. O. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Vullum, P. E.; Thomassen, S. F.; Holmestad, R.; Reenaas, T. W. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2010-02-22

147

Method of measuring nitric oxide release by vascular endothelial cells grown in microfluidic channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a simple and versatile method is presented which enables detection of nitric oxide (NO) released from vascular endothelial cells (ECs) cultured in microfluidic structures. The culturing system and NO measurement method allow cell shape to be controlled in a non-invasive manner using microfluidic structures while NO release is monitored for cell shape versus function studies. The culturing system consists of arrays of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluidic channels 120 micrometers in depth and ranging from 100 micrometers to 3 mm in width. The number of channels in each array is varied to yield a constant cell culture surface area (75 mm2) independent of channel width. The channel surfaces are collagen-coated and ECs are cultured to confluence within the channels. A cell scraper is then used to scrape extraneous cells cultured between channels, and NO measurements are made 18 to 24 hours later. A chemiluminescence-based sensor system (NOA 280i, Sievers NO Analyzer) is utilized to measure sample NO. Initial results indicate that NO concentrations can be measured from different microfluidic channel-containing samples using this method. It is shown that there is no significant difference in NO concentration derived from channels of different widths even though the degree of cell elongation varies due to physical constraint by microfluidic channel walls. However, cells treated with TNF? release more NO than untreated cells in fluidic channels, which is comparable to the function of ECs cultured in conventional culturing systems such as culturing dishes.

Hosseinpour, S.; Liu, A. C.; Barakat, A. I.; Choy, J. C.; Gray, B. L.

2014-03-01

148

An Easy-To-Handle Microfluidic Device Suitable for Immunohistochemical Procedures in Mammalian Cells Grown Under Flow Conditions  

PubMed Central

Microfluidics, the technology that manipulates small amount of fluids in microscale complex devices, has undergone a remarkable development during the last decade, by targeting a significant range of applications, including biological tests and single-cell analysis, and by displaying many advantages such as reduced reagent consumption, decreased costs and faster analysis. Furthermore, the introduction of microfluidic tools has revolutionized the study of vascular functions, because the controlled three-dimensional environment and the continuous perfusion provided by the microdevice allow simulating the physiological characteristics of the circulatory system. Researchers interested in the study of vascular physiology, however, are often hampered by the difficulty in handling reduced number of cells after growth in these devices. This work shows how to apply different protocols commonly used in biology, such as the immunofluorescence technique, to cells grown in reversibly-bound microfluidic devices, obtaining results comparable to those retrieved under static conditions in multiwells. In this way, we are able to combine the advantages of microfluidic, i.e., application of continuous flow and shear stress, with classical protocols for the study of endothelial cells. PMID:24998924

Fede, C.; Fortunati, I.; Petrelli, L.; Guidolin, D.; De Caro, R.; Ferrante, C.; Albertin, G.

2014-01-01

149

Transcriptome profiling in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems grown under hypergravity in terms of cell walls and plant hormones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land plants rely on lignified secondary cell walls in supporting their body weight on the Earth. Although gravity influences the formation of the secondary cell walls, the regulatory mechanism of their formation by gravity is not yet understood. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana L. using microarray (22 K) to identify genes whose expression is modulated under hypergravity condition (300 g). Total RNA was isolated from the basal region of inflorescence stems of plants grown for 24 h at 300 g or 1 g. Microarray analysis showed that hypergravity up-regulated the expression of 403 genes to more than 2-fold. Hypergravity up-regulated the genes responsible for the biosynthesis or modification of cell wall components such as lignin, xyloglucan, pectin and structural proteins. In addition, hypergravity altered the expression of genes related to the biosynthesis of plant hormones such as auxin and ethylene and that of genes encoding hormone-responsive proteins. Our transcriptome profiling indicates that hypergravity influences the formation of secondary cell walls by modulating the pattern of gene expression, and that auxin and/or ethylene play an important role in signaling hypergravity stimulus.

Tamaoki, D.; Karahara, I.; Nishiuchi, T.; De Oliveira, S.; Schreiber, L.; Wakasugi, T.; Yamada, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kamisaka, S.

2009-07-01

150

MDR-1-overexpression in HT 29 colon cancer cells grown in SCID mice.  

PubMed

The multidrug-resistance 1 (MDR-1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a transmembrane transporter system, which actively pumps cytotoxic drugs out of the cell. MDR-1 acquired in vitro differs from MDR-1 acquired in vivo, but has important consequences on the cellular phenotype and metastatic behavior. Here we report that the human colonic cancer cell line HT29 (MDR-1 negative) is more malignant than its MDR-1 overexpressing variant (HT29 MDR-1 positive). HT29 MDR-1 negative cells produce undifferentiated signet ring carcinomas when implanted subcutaneously into SCID mice, while HT29 MDR-1 positive cells form tumors with tubular structures, but without signet ring cells. Immunohistochemical proliferation marker analysis revealed that the MDR-1 positive cells proliferate much more slowly than the MDR-1 negative cells. MDR-1 overexpression results in a less differentiated phenotype at the cellular level (absence of mucin producing cells) but in a more differentiated phenotype at the tissue level (tubule formation). In addition, lectin binding patterns including that of Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), an indicator of metastatic potential, differed between the two cell lines. HT29 MDR-1 positive cells had less HPA binding sites than HT29 MDR-1 negative counterparts and metastasized less frequently in SCID mice. As slow proliferation, low degree of differentiation and multidrug-resistance is a hallmark of cancer stem cells and all were present in MDR-1 positive tumors, it is attractive to speculate that they represent a stem cell rich tumor. As shown by global gene expression analyses, genes involved, e.g. in cell adhesion, glycosylation and signal transduction, were deregulated in MDR-1 positive tumors compared to MDR-negative tumors. Overexpression of E-cadherin and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules 1 (CEACAM1) may provide clues to the mechanisms responsible for the reduced metastatic potential of MDR-1 overexpressing tumors. Since drug treatment shifted the cells towards a less metastatic phenotype in this in vivo model, it seems conceivable to achieve this using drug treatment also in a clinical situation. PMID:22154301

Schumacher, Udo; Nehmann, Nina; Adam, Elizabeth; Mukthar, Dhia; Slotki, Itzchak N; Horny, Hans-Peter; Flens, Marcel J; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Steinemann, Doris

2012-10-01

151

Changes in levels of cell wall constituents in wheat seedlings grown under continuous hypergravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of continuous hypergravity stimuli on the amounts and composition of cell wall constituents were investigated in wheat shoots. Hypergravity (300 g) treatment for three days after germination increased the net amount of cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicellulose and cellulose, but reduced the shoot elongation. As a result, the amount of cell wall polysaccharides per unit length of shoot increased under hypergravity. The hemicellulose fraction contained polysaccharides in the middle and low molecular mass range (5 kDa-1 MDa) and increased in response to hypergravity. Also, the amounts of arabinose (Ara) and xylose (Xyl), the major sugar components of the hemicellulose fraction, increased under hypergravity conditions. In addition to wall polysaccharides, hypergravity increased the amounts of cell wall-bound phenolic acids, such as ferulic acid (FA) and diferulic acid (DFA). Furthermore, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) was enhanced under hypergravity conditions. These results suggest that continuous hypergravity stimulates the synthesis of cell wall constituents, especially hemicellulosic arabinoxylans and cell wall-bound FA and DFA in wheat shoots. The increased PAL activity may promote the formation of FA and DFA. These changes in cell wall architecture may be involved in making rigid and tough cell walls under hypergravity conditions and thereby contribute to the ability of plant to sustain their structures against gravitational stimuli.

Wakabayashi, K.; Soga, K.; Kamisaka, S.; Hoson, T.

152

Lattice-matched ZnTe and CdZnTe\\/ZnTe heterostructures grown on GaSb for multijunction solar cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monolithically integrated high-efficiency multijunction solar cells are highly desirable for both space and terrestrial applications. This paper reports recent experimental work on newly proposed multijunction solar cell designs that utilize lattice-matched II\\/VI CdZnSeTe and III\\/V AlGaAsSb materials grown on GaSb substrates. Single ZnTe layers and thin CdZnTe\\/ZnTe quantum wells have been grown on GaSb substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. Reflection

S. Wang; X. Liu; D. Ding; S.-N. Wu; S. R. Johnson; S.-Q. Yu; J. K. Furdyna; Y.-H. Zhang

2008-01-01

153

Identification of morphological differences between avian influenza A viruses grown in chicken and duck cells.  

PubMed

Although wild ducks are considered to be the major reservoirs for most influenza A virus subtypes, they are typically resistant to the effects of the infection. In contrast, certain influenza viruses may be highly pathogenic in other avian hosts such as chickens and turkeys, causing severe illness and death. Following in vitro infection of chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts (CEF and DEF) with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses, duck cells die more rapidly and produce fewer infectious virions than chicken cells. In the current study, the morphology of viruses produced from CEF and DEF cells infected with low pathogenic avian H2N3 was examined. Transmission electron microscopy showed that viruses budding from duck cells were elongated, while chicken cells produced mostly spherical virions; similar differences were observed in viral supernatants. Sequencing of the influenza genome of chicken- and duck-derived H2N3 LPAI revealed no differences, implicating host cell determinants as responsible for differences in virus morphology. Both DEF and CEF cells produced filamentous virions of equine H3N8 (where virus morphology is determined by the matrix gene). DEF cells produced filamentous or short filament virions of equine H3N8 and avian H2N3, respectively, even after actin disruption with cytochalasin D. These findings suggest that cellular factors other than actin are responsible for the formation of filamentous virions in DEF cells. The formation of elongated virions in duck cells may account for the reduced number of infectious virions produced and could have implications for virus transmission or maintenance in the reservoir host. PMID:25613009

Al-Mubarak, Firas; Daly, Janet; Christie, Denise; Fountain, Donna; Dunham, Stephen P

2015-03-01

154

Rectangular bunched rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on carbon fiber for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Because of their special application in photovoltaics, the growth of one-dimensional single-crystalline TiO(2) nanostructures on a flexible substrate is receiving intensive attention. Here we present a study of rectangular bunched TiO(2) nanorod (NR) arrays grown on carbon fibers (CFs) from titanium by a "dissolve and grow" method. After a corrosion process in a strong acid solution, every single nanorod is etched into a number of small nanowires. Tube-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells are fabricated by using etched TiO(2) NRs-coated CFs as the photoanode. An absolute energy conversion efficiency of 1.28% has been demonstrated under 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination. This work demonstrates an innovative method for growing bunched TiO(2) NRs on flexible substrates that can be applied in flexible devices for energy harvesting and storage. PMID:22300521

Guo, Wenxi; Xu, Chen; Wang, Xue; Wang, Sihong; Pan, Caofeng; Lin, Changjian; Wang, Zhong Lin

2012-03-01

155

Effect of cell density and irradiance on growth, proximate composition and eicosapentaenoic acid production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown in a tubular photobioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) productivity of the diatomPhaeodactylum tricornutum grown semicontinuously in a helical tubular photobioreactor were examined under a range of irradiances (approximately 56 to 1712 µmol photons m-2 s-1) and cell densities (?3 × 106 to 18 × 106 cells mL-1). Self shading sets the upper limit of operational maximum cell density. Higher irradiance increases this upper

Tjandra Chrismadha; Michael A. Borowitzka

1994-01-01

156

Effects of thiourea concentration on CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition for CdTe solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of thiourea concentration on CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), submitted to post-thermal treatments of CdCl2, and its effect on the characteristics of CdS\\/CdTe solar cells. We compare these cells with similar ones fabricated with CdS-films grown by Close Space Vapor Transport (CSVT). The CBD-CdS cells shows higher open circuit voltage (Voc) and

R. Mendozaperez; G. Santanarodriguez; J. Sastrehernandez; A. Moralesacevedo; A. Ariascarbajal; O. Vigilgalan; J. C. Alonso; G. Contreraspuente

2005-01-01

157

The action of 5-fluorouracil on human HT29 colon cancer cells grown in SCID mice: mitosis, apoptosis and cell differentiation.  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the effects of the anti-metabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the human colon cancer line HT29 (10(7) cells per dose) grown subcutaneously in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The efficacy of 5-FU was quantitatively evaluated by comparing the tumour weight, mitotic and apoptotic tumour cell indices and the expression of the Ki-67 nuclear antigen in drug-treated animals and control animals. The tumour cell carbohydrates were assessed using a lectin panel. A significant reduction in the tumour weight was found 4 days after initial 5-FU treatment. 5-FU treatment reduced the percentages of mitoses but increased the apoptotic index in the tumour cells. In addition, 5-FU induced an increase in the signet ring cell population and an increased binding for lectins specific for N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose. However, the vast majority of signet ring cells were negative for Ki-67. The results of this study indicate that continuous treatment with 5-FU for 4 days targets metabolic processes relevant for both cell division and apoptosis. The relative increase in the signet ring population can be explained by the fact that the more proliferation-active stem cell population of the tumour is the primary target of the therapy. The lectin-binding patterns reflect these changes and are therefore differentiation linked. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:9376259

Sharma, R.; Adam, E.; Schumacher, U.

1997-01-01

158

A market analysis for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells grown on SiGe  

E-print Network

Applications, markets and a cost model are presented for III-V multi-junction solar cells built on compositionally graded SiGe buffer layers currently being developed by professors Steven Ringell of Ohio State University ...

Judkins, Zachara Steele

2007-01-01

159

Cryopreservation of Dendritic Cells Grown in Vitro from Monocytes for Their Future Clinical Use.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells which are being used as adjuvants in tumor vaccination trials. Most clinical protocols currently include 4 to 10 weekly infusions of doses > 10(6) cells, each inoculum coming from a simple culture of blood monocytes. In the present study, several millions of dendritic cells from a single leukapheresis were produced; monocytes were isolated by elutriation and then cultured in Teflon bags in presence of 800 U/ml GM-CSF + 100 micro g/ml IL-13 + 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). The dendritic cells from this single batch were aliquoted in many doses for potential multiple infusions and cryopreserved in 10% DMSO + 2% human albumin in Teflon-kapton Fresenius bags either at -1 degrees C/min using a controlled rate freezer, or putting the bags directly in a -80 degrees C mechanical freezer without controlling the temperature rate. Six experiments were carried out. After one month of cryopreservation, the cells were thawed in a 40 degrees C water bath. Before and after freezing, cells were evaluated for immunophenotype (CD1a, CD14, CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD54, CD58, CD16, CD32, CD64 and HLA-DR) and for their capacity to stimulate allogenic (MLR) or autologous (antigen presentation tests) lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that the mean recovery rates after freezing in liquid nitrogen or at -80 degrees C were (67 +/- 14)% and (71 +/- 13)% respectively, without any significant difference between the two techniques. The immunophenotype was not modified by the freezing-thawing procedure, as well as the lymphocyte stimulating capacities. In conclusion, our study showed that substantial numbers of functional DCs can be derived from peripheral blood monocytes using Teflon bags. DCs can be cryopreserved in a good laboratory practice setting for further clinical trials with an acceptable loss of cells and without modification of their functions. PMID:12578659

Cao, Hua; Verg, Véronique; Martinache, Chantal; Leon, Anne; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Bernard, Jacky; Lopez, Manuel

2000-12-01

160

Water relations of individual leaf cells of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants grown at low and high salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of saline conditions on the water relations of cells in intact leaf tissue of the facultative CAM plantMesembryanthemum crystallinum were studied using the pressure probe technique. During a 12-hr light\\/dark regime a maximum in turgor pressure was recorded for the mesophyll cells of salttreated (CAM) plants at the beginning of the light period followed 6 hr later

Joachim Rygol; Ulrich Zimmermann; Angelika Balling

1989-01-01

161

On the lattice Boltzmann method simulation of a two-phase flow bioreactor for artificially grown cartilage cells.  

PubMed

Owing to the growing demand of cartilage tissue repair and transplants, engineered cartilage cells have emerged as a prospective solution. Several bioreactors were built for artificially grown cartilage cells. In this work, a recently designed flow bed bioreactor is numerically investigated and compared with experimental results. The flow field inside the bioreactor was modelled using the lattice Boltzmann method. The flow consists of two phases which are the liquid component (nutrition supply) and gas component (oxygen supply). The flow field is simulated using the multi-phase lattice Boltzmann method, whilst the cell activity is modelled using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The oxygen diffusion level at the exit of the nutrition phase is used as an evaluation process between the numerical and experimental results reporting the possibility of using the proposed model to fully simulate such bioreactors, though greatly saving time and money. Shear stress and pressure distributions are as well compared with published human cartilage load measurements to estimate the dynamic similarity between the bioreactor and the human knee. The predicted oxygen levels proved consistent trends with the experimental work with a 7% difference after 1h measuring time. The shear stress levels recorded 10-11 orders of magnitude lower than in humans and also one order of magnitude lower in the pressure distribution. PMID:19019373

Hussein, M A; Esterl, S; Pörtner, R; Wiegandt, K; Becker, T

2008-12-01

162

Optimization towards high density quantum dots for intermediate band solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

We report high density quantum dots (QDs) formation with optimized growth temperature and V/III ratio. At lower growth temperature, QD density is increased, due to smaller surface migration length of In adatoms. With higher V/III, the QD density is higher but it results in large clusters formation and decreases the QD uniformity. The QD solar cell was fabricated and examined. An extended spectral response in contrast to the GaAs reference cell was presented but the external quantum efficiency at energies higher than GaAs band gap is reduced, resulting from the degradation for the emitter above the strained QD layers.

Zhou, D.; Sharma, G.; Fimland, B. O. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Thomassen, S. F.; Reenaas, T. W. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2010-02-08

163

Branched respiratory chain in aerobically grown Staphylococcus aureus —oxidation of ethanol by cells and protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addition of ethanol and some other primary alcohols, except methanol, to cells and protoplasts (but not membrane particles) considerably stimulated the rate of oxygen consumption. This additional respiration was strongly inhibited by 0.1 mM KCN. The cyanide inhibition curve of endogenous substrate oxidation was slightly biphasic while in the presence of ethanol it became clearly biphasic having Ki values of

Vladislav Yu. Artzatbanov; Valery V. Petrov

1990-01-01

164

Survival and development of ciliary ganglion neurones grown alone in cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

NEURONAL cell death is a conspicuous part of development for many neuronal populations in the vertebrate nervous system1,2. Although little is known about the mechanisms that control neurone death, it seems that interactions with the postsynaptic target tissue are important. Thus, for the chick ciliary ganglion (CG), Landmesser and Pilar showed that half of the neurones present die between days

Rae Nishi; Darwin K. Berg

1979-01-01

165

Clonal vaccinia virus grown in cell culture as a new smallpox vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the smallpox virus was eradicated over 20 years ago, its potential release through bioterrorism has generated renewed interest in vaccination. To develop a modern smallpox vaccine, we have adapted vaccinia virus that was derived from the existing Dryvax vaccine for growth in a human diploid cell line. We characterized six cloned and one uncloned vaccine candidates. One clone, designated

Jian Liu; Konstantin V Pugachev; Gwendolyn A Myers; Brie Coughlin; Paul S Blum; Richard Nichols; Casey Johnson; John Cruz; Jeffrey S Kennedy; Francis A Ennis; Richard Weltzin; Thomas P Monath

2003-01-01

166

Proteomic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 reveals the upregulation of an alternative transhydrogenase-malate pathway and nitrogen assimilation in cells grown on cellulose.  

PubMed

Clostridium thermocellum is a Gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium with the ability to directly convert cellulosic biomass into useful products such as ethanol and hydrogen. In this study, a quantitative comparative proteomic analysis of the organism was performed to identify proteins and biochemical pathways that are differentially utilized by the organism after growth on cellobiose or cellulose. The cytoplasmic and membrane proteomes of C. thermocellum grown on cellulose or cellobiose were quantitatively compared using a metabolic (15)N isotope labelling method in conjunction with nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry). In total, 1255 proteins were identified in the study, and 129 of those were able to have their relative abundance per cell compared in at least one cellular compartment in response to the substrate provided. This study reveals that cells grown on cellulose increase their abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase while decreasing the abundance of pyruvate dikinase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase, suggesting that the organism diverts carbon flow into a transhydrogenase-malate pathway that can increase the production of the biosynthetic intermediates NADPH and GTP. Glutamate dehydrogenase was also found to have increased abundance in cellulose-grown cells, suggesting that the assimilation of ammonia is upregulated in cells grown on the cellulosic substrates. The results illustrate a mechanism by which C. thermocellum can divert carbon into alternative pathways for the purpose of producing biosynthetic intermediates necessary to respond to growth on cellulose, including transhydrogenation of NADH to NADPH and increased nitrogen assimilation. PMID:23210995

Burton, Euan; Martin, Vincent J J

2012-12-01

167

Genotoxic Effects of Low- and High-LET Radiation on Human Epithelial Cells Grown in 2-D Versus 3-D Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Risk estimation for radiation-induced cancer relies heavily on human epidemiology data obtained from terrestrial irradiation incidents from sources such as medical and occupational exposures as well as from the atomic bomb survivors. No such data exists for exposures to the types and doses of high-LET radiation that will be encountered during space travel; therefore, risk assessment for space radiation requires the use of data derived from cell culture and animal models. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. This work compares the genotoxic effects of radiation on normal human epithelial cells grown in standard 2-D monolayer culture compared to 3-D organotypic co-culture conditions. These 3-D organotypic models mimic the morphological features, differentiation markers, and growth characteristics of fully-differentiated normal human tissue and are reproducible using defined components. Cultures were irradiated with 2 Gy low-LET gamma rays or varying doses of high-LET particle radiation and genotoxic damage was measured using a modified cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. Our results revealed a 2-fold increase in residual damage in 2 Gy gamma irradiated cells grown under organotypic culture conditions compared to monolayer culture. Irradiation with high-LET particle radiation gave similar results, while background levels of damage were comparable under both scenarios. These observations may be related to the phenomenon of "multicellular resistance" where cancer cells grown as 3-D spheroids or in vivo exhibit an increased resistance to killing by chemotherapeutic agents compared to the same cells grown in 2-D culture. A variety of factors are likely involved in mediating this process, including increased cell-cell communication, microenvironment influences, and changes in cell cycle kinetics that may promote survival of damaged cells in 3-D culture that would otherwise die or be rendered reproductively inactive in 2-D culture.

Patel, Z. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Huff, J. L.

2011-01-01

168

Inverted polymer solar cells based on thin ZnO films grown by Mist chemical vapor deposition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive investigations have been conducted in order to synthesize high quality Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films for numerous applications. These methods are either expensive to make or result polycrystalline thin films with low optoelectronic properties. Here we demonstrated a simple and inexpensive method to grow high quality ZnO thin films by a mist chemical vapor assisted depositing (Mist-CVD) system for inverted polymer solar cell (IPSC) application. The IPSC performance fabricated by Mist-CVD grown ZnO thin films were compared with two different Zn precursors (Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate and Zinc acetate dehydrate). Variations in IPSC performance on the growth temperature and growth time of the ZnO thin films were prominently demonstrated. The surface morphology of the ZnO films was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and correlated with IPSC performance. The IPSC performance using two different precursors has been compared thoroughly. A 24% increase in solar cell efficiency (contributed from 21% increase in fill factor and 151% increase in shunt resistance) was achieved using Zinc acetate dehydrate compare to Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate precursor. The transmittance of ZnO thin films was evaluated by transmission spectroscopy. High performance IPSC can be fabricated using this simple and inexpensive method by synthesizing high quality thin ZnO films.

Biswas, Chandan; Ma, Zhu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kang L.

2014-10-01

169

Dissociated cells of foetal rat pallium grown in culture medium supplemented with noradrenaline: effects on the expression of neuron-specific enolase and cell adhesion molecule L1.  

PubMed

The possible influence of noradrenaline (NA) upon cell differentiation has been studied by comparing NA-supplemented cultures of foetal pallial cells with control cultures grown in normal medium. Two days after plating, the cultures were processed for immunocytochemical detection of either an adhesion molecule and marker of early stages of neuronal differentiation (L1) or a marker expressed at relatively late stages (gamma-enolase). In both cases, the NA supplement reduced the expression of the antigen. The effects were more clear-cut for the late than for the early marker. In conclusion, the NA supplement to the culture medium, in our model, seemed to have a 'differentiation regulating' rather than a 'neurotrophic' function sensu stricto. It remains to be clarified, however, to which extent this finding can be generalized to in vivo situations. PMID:3714115

König, N; Drian, M J; Privat, A; Lamandé, N; Parés-Herbuté, N; Schachner, M

1986-05-01

170

Heteroepitaxial Film Silicon Solar Cell Grown on Ni-W Foils  

SciTech Connect

Heteroepitaxial semiconductor films on low-cost, flexible metal foil templates are a potential route to inexpensive, high-efficiency solar cells. Here, we report epitaxial growth of Si films on low-cost, flexible, biaxially-textured Ni-W substrates. A robust buffer architecture comprised of multiple epitaxial oxide layers has been developed to grow high quality, heteroepitaxial Si films without any undesired reaction between the Si film and the metal substrate and with a single biaxial texture. XRD analysis including {omega}-scans, {phi}-scans, and pole figures confirms that the buffers and silicon are all epitaxial, with excellent cube-on-cube epitaxy. A photo-conversion efficiency of 1.1% is demonstrated from a proof-of-concept heteroepitaxial film Si solar cell.

Wee, S. H.; Cantoni, C.; Fanning, T. R.; Teplin, C. W.; Bogorin, D. F.; Bornstein, J.; Bowers, K.; Schroeter, P.; Hasoon, F.; Branz, H. M.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Goyal, A.

2012-03-01

171

Method for Determination of Free Intracellular and Extracellular Methylglyoxal in Animal Cells Grown in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylglyoxal is present at low levels in most cells as a by-product of glycolysis and a product of lipid and amino acid catabolism. The most widely accepted method for measurement of methylglyoxal involves the derivatization of methylglyoxal with 1,2-diaminobenzene derivatives, such aso-phenylenediamine, followed by quantification of the resulting quinoxaline with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Here we describe the modification of

Frank W. R. Chaplen; William E. Fahl; Douglas C. Cameron

1996-01-01

172

Thermal stability and inactivation of hepatitis C virus grown in cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne flavivirus that infects many millions of people worldwide. Relatively little is known, however, concerning the stability of HCV and reliable procedures for inactivating this virus. METHODS: In the current study, the thermostability of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc, JFH-1 strain) under different environmental temperatures (37°C, room temperature, and 4°C) and the ability of

Hongshuo Song; Jin Li; Shuang Shi; Ling Yan; Hui Zhuang; Kui Li

2010-01-01

173

Rapid differentiation of NT2 cells in Sertoli–NT2 cell tissue constructs grown in the rotating wall bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell replacement therapy is of great interest as a long-term treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously shown that Sertoli cells (SC) provide neurotrophic support to transplants of dopaminergic fetal neurons and NT2N neurons, derived from the human clonal precursors cell line NTera2\\/D1 (NT2), which differentiate into dopaminergic NT2N neurons when exposed to retinoic acid.

Samuel Saporta; Alison E. Willing; Rania Shamekh; Paula Bickford; Daniel Paredes; Don F. Cameron

2004-01-01

174

Use of cyanobacterial gas vesicles as oxygen carriers in cell culture.  

PubMed

The gas vesicles isolated from the cells of filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae were treated and sterilized with glutaraldehyde and then evaluated for their effectiveness as gas carriers in cell culture. Anchorage-dependent Vero cells were grown in a packed bed of microcarrier beads under the perfusion of Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with 1% serum. The culture medium supplemented with 1.8% (v/v) gas vesicles was found to support a 30% higher maximum glucose utilization rate than the same medium without gas vesicles. The gas vesicle suspension was confirmed to have no apparent effects on cell metabolism in T-flask cultures. The study results indicated that the gas vesicles, with high oxygen carrying capacity, can be used to increase the oxygen supply in cell culture systems. PMID:19002872

Sundararajan, Anand; Ju, Lu-Kwang

2006-10-01

175

Evidence for Autoregulation of Cell Division and Cell Transit in Keratinocytes Grown on Collagen at an Air-Liquid Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral and epidermal rat keratinocytes when cultured on a matrix of type I collagen fibrils at the interface between the gaseous and liquid phases of a culture form a highly ordered stratified squamous epithelium. Autoradiographic studies of cells labeled by tritiated thymidine indicate that the keratinocytes are capable of autoregulating cell division. Early confluent cultures exhibit 51 % of basal

Donald K. MacCallum; John H. Lillie

1990-01-01

176

Development of a dose verification system for Vero4DRT using Monte Carlo method.  

PubMed

Vero4DRT is an innovative image-guided radiotherapy system employing a C-band X-ray head with gimbal mechanics. The purposes of this study were to propose specific MC models of the linac head and multileaf collimator (MLC) for the Vero4DRT and to verify their accuracy. For a 6 MV photon beam delivered by the Vero4DRT, a simulation code was implemented using EGSnrc. The linac head model and the MLC model were simulated based on its specification. Next, the percent depth dose (PDD) and beam profiles at depths of 15, 100, and 200 mm were simulated under source-to-surface distance of 900 and 1000 mm. Field size was set to 150 × 150 mm2 at a depth of 100 mm. Each of the simulated dosimetric metrics was then compared with the corresponding measurements by a 0.125 cc ionization chamber. After that, intra- and interleaf leakage, tongue-and-groove, and rounded-leaf profiles were simulated for the static MLC model. Meanwhile, film measurements were performed using EDR2 films under similar conditions to simulation. The measurement for the rounded-leaf profile was performed using the water phantom and the ionization chamber. The leaf physical density and abutting leaf gap were adjusted to obtain good agreement between the simulated intra- and interleaf leakage profiles and measurements. For the MLC model in step-and-shoot cases, a pyramid and a prostate IMRT field were simulated, while film measurements were performed using EDR2. For the linac head, exclusive of MLC, the difference in PDD was < 1.0% after the buildup region. The simulated beam profiles agreed to within 1.3% at each depth. The MLC model has been shown to reproduce dose measurements within 2.5% for static tests. The MLC is made of tungsten alloy with a purity of 95%. The leaf gap of 0.015 cm and the MLC physical density of 18.0 g/ cm3, which provided the best agreement between the simulated and measured leaf leakage, were assigned to our MC model. As a result, the simulated step-and-shoot IMRT dose distributions agreed with the film measurements to within 3.3%, with exception of the penumbra region. We have developed specific MC models of the linac head and the MLC in the Vero4DRT system. The results have demonstrated that our MC models have high accuracy.  PMID:25493521

Ishihara, Yoshitomo; Sawada, Akira; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyabe, Yuki; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Shuji; Takayama, Kenji; Mizowaki, Takashi; Kokubo, Masaki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

2014-01-01

177

VeroScience: applying nature's genius to help improve the human condition.  

PubMed

VeroScience is a biotechnology company in Tiverton, Rhode Island, focused on the development of therapies and products to improve human health. The company has a strong pipeline of metabolic disease products and therapies for immunological disorders. A major platform technology of the company, Circadian Neuroendocrine Resetting Therapy, is utilized as a generator of multiple therapeutic strategies to treat a variety of disease states. The circadian timed daily (morning) administration of Cycloset®, a quick release formulation of bromocriptine mesylate, a dopamine agonist, was developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes using this platform technology. PMID:23641424

2013-02-01

178

Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells  

PubMed Central

Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05) antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05) reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles. PMID:22557922

Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E.; Kolapo, Adelodun L.; Folarin, Akintomiwa O.

2012-01-01

179

Expression of putative pathogenicity-related genes in Xylella fastidiosa grown at low and high cell density conditions in vitro.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of economically important plant diseases, including citrus variegated chlorosis and Pierce's disease. Hitherto, there has been no information on the molecular mechanisms controlling X. fastidiosa-plant interactions. To determine whether predicted open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative pathogenicity-related factors were expressed by X. fastidiosa 9a5c cells grown at low (LCD) and high cell density (HCD) conditions in liquid modified PW medium, reverse Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments were performed. Our results indicated that ORFs XF2344, XF2369, XF1851 and XF0125, encoding putative Fur, GumC, a serine-protease and RsmA, respectively, were significantly suppressed at HCD conditions. In contrast, ORF XF1115, encoding putative RpfF, was significantly induced at HCD conditions. Expressions of ORFs XF2367, XF2362 and XF0290, encoding putative GumD, GumJ and RpfA, respectively, were detected only at HCD conditions, whereas expression of ORF XF0287, encoding putative RpfB was detected only at LCD conditions. Bioassays with an Agrobacterium traG::lacZ reporter system indicated that X. fastidiosa does not synthesize N-acyl-homoserine lactones, whereas bioassays with a diffusible signal factor (DSF)-responsive Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris mutant indicate that X. fastidiosa synthesizes a molecule similar to DSF in modified PW medium. Our data also suggest that the synthesis of the DSF-like molecule and fastidian gum by X. fastidiosa is affected by cell density in vitro. PMID:12757950

Scarpari, Leandra M; Lambais, Marcio R; Silva, Denise S; Carraro, Dirce M; Carrer, Helaine

2003-05-16

180

In vitro study of endothelial cells lining vascular grafts grown within the recipient's peritoneal cavity.  

PubMed

A living-tissue conduit with strong mechanical properties was used to produce small-diameter vessels. To improve blood compatibility, a shear-resistant confluent monolayer endothelium was formed on the luminal surface of the conduit. Under mechanical stimulation induced by pulsatile flow in a bioreactor, abrupt high-flow shear stress of 15.3 +/- 4.6 dynes/cm2 was applied to endothelial cells (ECs) seeded onto the lumen of a living-tissue conduit after 2 days of static culture. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that most of the ECs were washed off after 3 days of dynamic culture. When shear stress was increased stepwise from 1.5 +/- 0.8 to 15.3 +/- 4.6 dynes/cm2 and applied to the ECs, scanning electron microscopy images of the luminal surface revealed that the confluent monolayer ECs were highly elongated and oriented to the flow direction, similar to findings in natural arteries in vivo. The results indicated that in vitro flow conditions played a key role in determining the durability of the EC layer. Careful design of the bioreactor and careful selection of the culture conditions will greatly improve the chances of producing a useful anti-thrombogenic surface for tissue-engineered small-diameter vessels. PMID:18498218

Zhang, Zhi-Xiong; Xi, Ting-Fei; Wang, Ying-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Song; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chun-Ren; Gu, Yong-Quan; Chen, Liang; Li, Jian-Xin; Chen, Bing

2008-06-01

181

Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 gastroenteritis in farm visitors, North Wales.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) gastroenteritis in visitors to an open farm in North Wales resulted in 17 primary and 7 secondary cases of illness. E. coli O157 Vero cytotoxin type 2, phage type 2 was isolated from 23 human cases and environmental animal fecal samples. A case-control study of 16 primary case-patients and 36 controls (all children) showed a significant association with attendance on the 2nd day of a festival, eating ice cream or cotton candy (candy floss), and contact with cows or goats. On multivariable analysis, only the association between illness and ice cream (odds ratio [OR]=11.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 137.76) and cotton candy (OR=51.90, 95% CI 2.77 to 970.67) remained significant. In addition to supervised handwashing, we recommend that foods on open farms only be eaten in dedicated clean areas and that sticky foods be discouraged. PMID:12737734

Payne, Christopher J I; Petrovic, Marko; Roberts, Richard J; Paul, Ashish; Linnane, Eithne; Walker, Mark; Kirby, David; Burgess, Anthony; Smith, Robert M M; Cheasty, Thomas; Willshaw, Geraldine; Salmon, Roland L

2003-05-01

182

Interaction between submicron COD crystals and renal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to investigate the adhesion characteristics between submicron calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) with a size of 150 ± 50 nm and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero cells) before and after damage, and to discuss the mechanism of kidney stone formation. Methods Vero cells were oxidatively injured by hydrogen peroxide to establish a model of injured cells. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe Vero–COD adhesion. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry was used to quantitatively measure the amount of adhered COD microcrystals. Nanoparticle size analyzer and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to measure the change in the zeta potential on the Vero cell surface and the change in osteopontin expression during the adhesion process, respectively. The level of cell injury was evaluated by measuring the changes in malonaldehyde content, and cell viability during the adhesion process. Results The adhesion capacity of Vero cells in the injury group to COD microcrystals was obviously stronger than that of Vero cells in the control group. After adhesion to COD, cell viability dropped, both malonaldehyde content and cell surface zeta potential increased, and the fluorescence intensity of osteopontin decreased because the osteopontin molecules were successfully covered by COD. Submicron COD further damaged the cells during the adhesion process, especially for Vero cells in the control group, leading to an elevated amount of attached microcrystals. Conclusion Submicron COD can further damage injured Vero cells during the adhesion process. The amount of attached microcrystals is proportional to the degree of cell damage. The increased amount of microcrystals that adhered to the injured epithelial cells plays an important role in the formation of early-stage kidney stones. PMID:22973095

Peng, Hua; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Yang, Ru-E

2012-01-01

183

Variable temperature carrier dynamics in bulk (In)GaAsNSb materials grown by MOVPE for multi-junction solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

III-V multi-junction solar cells are typically based on a triple-junction design that consists of an InGaP top junction, a GaAs middle junction, and a bottom junction that employs a 1 - 1.25 eV material grown on GaAs substrates. The most promising 1 - 1.25 eV material that is currently under extensive investigation is bulk dilute nitride such as (In)GaAsNSb lattice matched to GaAs substrates. The approach utilizing dilute nitrides has a great potential to achieve high performance triple-junction solar cells as recently demonstrated by Wiemer, et al., who achieved a record efficiency of 43.5% from multi-junction solar cells including MBE-grown dilute nitride materials [1]. Although MOVPE is a preferred technique over MBE for III-V multi-junction solar cell manufacturing, MOVPEgrown dilute nitride research is at its infancy compared to MBE-grown dilute nitride. In particular, carrier dynamics studies are indispensible in the optimization of MOVPE materials growth parameters to obtain improved solar cell performance. For the present study, we employed time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) techniques to study carrier dynamics in MOVPE-grown bulk dilute nitride InGaAsN materials (Eg = 1 - 1.25 eV at RT) lattice matched to GaAs substrates. In contrast to our earlier samples that showed high background C doping densities, our current samples grown using different metalorganic precursors at higher growth temperatures showed a significantly reduced background doping density of ~ 1017 /cm3. We studied carrier dynamics in (In)GaAsNSb double heterostructures (DH) with different N compositions at room temperature. Post-growth annealing yielded significant improvements in carrier lifetimes of (In)GaAsNSb double heterostructure (DH) samples. Carrier dynamics at various temperatures between 10 K and RT were also studied from (In)GaAsNSb DH samples including those samples grown on different orientation substrates.

Sin, Yongkun; Lingley, Zachary; LaLumondiere, Stephen; Wells, Nathan; Lotshaw, William; Moss, Steven C.; Kim, Tae Wan; Mawst, Luke J.; Kuech, Thomas F.

2014-03-01

184

Expression Profile of Drug and Nutrient Absorption Related Genes in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) Cells Grown under Differentiation Conditions  

PubMed Central

The expression levels of genes involved in drug and nutrient absorption were evaluated in the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) in vitro drug absorption model. MDCK cells were grown on plastic surfaces (for 3 days) or on Transwell® membranes (for 3, 5, 7, and 9 days). The expression profile of genes including ABC transporters, SLC transporters, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was determined using the Affymetrix® Canine GeneChip®. Expression of genes whose probe sets passed a stringent confirmation process was examined. Expression of a few transporter (MDR1, PEPT1 and PEPT2) genes in MDCK cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall gene expression profile was strongly influenced by the type of support the cells were grown on. After 3 days of growth, expression of 28% of the genes was statistically different (1.5-fold cutoff, p < 0.05) between the cells grown on plastic and Transwell® membranes. When cells were differentiated on Transwell® membranes, large changes in gene expression profile were observed during the early stages, which then stabilized after 5–7 days. Only a small number of genes encoding drug absorption related SLC, ABC, and CYP were detected in MDCK cells, and most of them exhibited low hybridization signals. Results from this study provide valuable reference information on endogenous gene expression in MDCK cells that could assist in design of drug-transporter and/or drug-enzyme interaction studies, and help interpret the contributions of various transporters and metabolic enzymes in studies with MDCK cells. PMID:24300234

Quan, Yong; Jin, Yisheng; Faria, Teresa N.; Tilford, Charles A.; He, Aiqing; Wall, Doris A.; Smith, Ronald L.; Vig, Balvinder S.

2012-01-01

185

Changes of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content, ribulose bisphosphate concentration, and photosynthetic activity during adaptation of high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells to low-CO/sub 2/ conditions in Chlorella pyrenoidosa  

SciTech Connect

Changes of some photosynthetic properties of high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells of Chlorella pyrenoidosa during adaptation to low-CO/sub 2/ conditions have been investigated. The K/sub m/ value of photosynthesis of the high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells for dissolved inorganic carbon was 3.3 millimolar and decreased to 25 to 30 micromolar within 4 hours after transferring to air. In the presence of saturating CO/sub 2/ concentrations the photosynthetic activity of the high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells was 1.5 times as high as that of the low-CO/sub 2/ grown cells. There was a significant rise of the photosynthetic activity during adaptation of the high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells to air, followed by a steady decrease. The activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in both the high and low-CO/sub 2/ grown cells was close to the photosynthetic activity of the cells. The concentration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) was higher in the low-CO/sub 2/ adapting and low-CO/sub 2/ grown celsl than in the high-CO/sub 2/ grown cells regardless of the photosynthetic rate. This seems to be due to an increased RuBP regeneration activity during adaptation followed by maintenance of the new higher concentration. The RuBP level always exceeded the concentration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase RuBP binding sites in both the high- and low-CO/sub 2/ grown cells at any dissolved inorganic carbon concentration.

Yokota, A.; Canvin, D.T.

1986-02-01

186

Properties of an nC:P\\/pSi carbon-based photovoltaic cell grown by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphorus-doped amorphous carbon (n-C:P) films were grown by radiofrequency (RF) power-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at room temperature using a solid phosphorus target. The influence of phosphorus doping on the material properties of n-C:P based on the results of simultaneous characterization are reported. Moreover, solar cell properties such as series resistance, short-circuit current density, open-circuit current voltage, fill

M. Rusop; T. Soga; T. Jimbo

2006-01-01

187

Porous, single crystalline titanium nitride nanoplates grown on carbon fibers: excellent counter electrodes for low-cost, high performance, fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

An excellent, platinum free fiber counter electrode (CE) was successfully fabricated, consisting of porous, single crystalline titanium nitride (TiN) nanoplates grown on carbon fibers (CF). The fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the TiN-CF CE show a high conversion efficiency of 7.20%, comparable or even superior to that of the Pt wire (6.23%). PMID:25068835

Chen, Liang; Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Hu, Yingjie; Yu, Tao; Liu, Jianguo; Zou, Zhigang

2014-11-28

188

Bioremoval and recovery of Cd(II) by Pseudoalteromonas sp. SCSE709-6: Comparative study on growing and grown cells.  

PubMed

Comparison of the bioremoval and recovery of Cd(II) by growing and grown marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SCSE709-6 was performed in batch systems. Bioremoval with growing cells (Sorption I) showed better performance at low Cd(II) concentrations, whereas bioremoval with grown cells (Sorption II) had significant advantages in both removal efficiency and time consumption at high Cd(II) concentrations. The optimal pH was higher for Sorption I than for Sorption II for achieving the maximum Cd(II) removal efficiency. Complete desorption was achieved using either Na2EDTA or HNO3 as eluent. Cd(II) adsorbed on grown cells had higher tendency to be desorbed. Na2EDTA was a preferable eluent for the recycling biomaterials, whereas HNO3 performed better for the final security disposal of sludge. For Sorption II, both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms well explained the biosorption behavior, and the pseudo-second-order model better expressed biosorption and desorption kinetics. PMID:24565875

Zhou, Weizhi; Liu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Hai'ou; Kong, Wenqian; Zhang, Yuzhong

2014-08-01

189

Magnesium doping of efficient GaAs and Ga(0.75)In(0.25)As solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnesium has been substituted for zinc in GaAs and Ga(0.75)In(0.25)As solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium (Cp2Mg) is used as the MOCVD transport agent for Mg. Full retention of excellent material quality and efficient cell performance results. The substitution of Mg for Zn would enhance the abruptness and reproducibility of doping profiles, and facilitate high temperature processing and operation, due to the much lower diffusion coefficient of Mg, relative to Zn, in these materials.

Lewis, C. R.; Ford, C. W.; Werthen, J. G.

1984-01-01

190

High-efficiency (AlGa)As\\/GaAs solar cells grown by MOVPE using TBAs at low-temperatures and low V\\/III-ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative As-precursor tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs) is used to grow (AlGa)As–GaAs heteroface solar cell structures. In a horizontal reactor (AIX200) a low growth temperature of 625°C and a low V\\/III-ratio of 10 was used. Solar cell structures using a arsine (AsH3)-based MOVPE process were grown in a multi-wafer reactor (AIX2600G3) using growth temperatures of 700°C and a V\\/III-ratio of 31. The

C Agert; F Dimroth; U Schubert; A. W Bett; S Leu; W Stolz

2001-01-01

191

InGaAs/GaAsP superlattice solar cells with reduced carbon impurity grown by low-temperature metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using triethylgallium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigated the effects of carbon incorporation on photovoltaic performance of InGaAs/GaAsP superlattice (SL) solar cells grown by low-temperature MOVPE (LT-MOVPE), which is required for stable SL growth on vicinal substrates. Using trimethylgallium (TMGa) as the gallium precursor, methyl radicals formed by its pyrolysis tend to be absorbed on the surface at low temperature, causing severe carbon incorporation and p-type background doping. High background carrier concentration flattens the band-lineup of the intrinsic region and blocks the carrier transport across the SLs, and resulted in serious degradation of photocurrent. Intentional sulfur doping to cancel out the background doping and hence to recover the built-in field greatly improved the cell performance, but was found to require very precise control of doping level to achieve an exact compensation doping condition. Use of triethylgallium (TEGa) instead of TMGa much reduced the carbon incorporation at low temperature and significantly enhanced the photocurrent extraction without sulfur doping treatment. By thinning GaAsP barriers to 3 nm to facilitate efficient tunneling transport, a 50-period SL cell with bandgap of 1.22 eV grown on 6°-miscut substrates achieved 1.13 times higher efficiency with 31% current enhancement as middle cell performance than a GaAs reference cell.

Fujii, Hiromasa; Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

2014-11-01

192

SU-E-J-129: A Strategy to Consolidate the Image Database of a VERO Unit Into a Radiotherapy Management System  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present a strategy to integrate the imaging database of a VERO unit with a treatment management system (TMS) to improve clinical workflow and consolidate image data to facilitate clinical quality control and documentation. Methods: A VERO unit is equipped with both kV and MV imaging capabilities for IGRT treatments. It has its own imaging database behind a firewall. It has been a challenge to transfer images on this unit to a TMS in a radiation therapy clinic so that registered images can be reviewed remotely with an approval or rejection record. In this study, a software system, iPump-VERO, was developed to connect VERO and a TMS in our clinic. The patient database folder on the VERO unit was mapped to a read-only folder on a file server outside VERO firewall. The application runs on a regular computer with the read access to the patient database folder. It finds the latest registered images and fuses them in one of six predefined patterns before sends them via DICOM connection to the TMS. The residual image registration errors will be overlaid on the fused image to facilitate image review. Results: The fused images of either registered kV planar images or CBCT images are fully DICOM compatible. A sentinel module is built to sense new registered images with negligible computing resources from the VERO ExacTrac imaging computer. It takes a few seconds to fuse registered images and send them to the TMS. The whole process is automated without any human intervention. Conclusion: Transferring images in DICOM connection is the easiest way to consolidate images of various sources in your TMS. Technically the attending does not have to go to the VERO treatment console to review image registration prior delivery. It is a useful tool for a busy clinic with a VERO unit.

Yan, Y; Medin, P; Yordy, J; Zhao, B; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

2014-06-01

193

Power recovery of radiation damaged MOCVD grown indium phosphide on silicon solar cells through argon-ion laser annealing. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis reports the results of a laser annealing technique used to remove defect sites from radiation damaged indium phosphide on silicon MOCVD grown solar cells. This involves the illumination of damaged solar cells with a continuous wave laser to produce a large forward-biased current. The InP/Si cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons to a given fluence, and tested for degradation. Light from an argon laser was used to illuminate four cells with an irradiance of 2.5 W/sq cm, producing a current density 3 to 5 times larger than AMO conditions. Cells were annealed at 19 deg C with the laser and at 25 deg C under AMO conditions. Annealing under laser illumination of n/p-type cells resulted in recovery of 48%. P/n type cells lost 4 to 12% of the assumed degradaton. Annealing under AMO conditions resulted in power recovery of 70% in n/p type cells. P/n-type cells recovered approximately 16% of lost power. Results indicate that significant power recovery results from the annealing of defects within n/p type InP/Si solar cells.

Boyer, L.L.

1996-06-01

194

PROCUSTE1 Encodes a Cellulose Synthase Required for Normal Cell Elongation Specifically in Roots and Dark-Grown Hypocotyls of Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Mutants at the PROCUSTE1 (PRC1) locus show decreased cell elongation, specifically in roots and dark-grown hypocotyls. Cell elongation defects are correlated with a cellulose deficiency and the presence of gapped walls. Map-based cloning of PRC1 reveals that it encodes a member (CesA6) of the cellulose synthase catalytic subunit family, of which at least nine other members exist in Arabidopsis. Mutations in another family member, RSW1 (CesA1), cause similar cell wall defects in all cell types, including those in hypocotyls and roots, suggesting that cellulose synthesis in these organs requires the coordinated expression of at least two distinct cellulose synthase isoforms. PMID:11148287

Fagard, Mathilde; Desnos, Thierry; Desprez, Thierry; Goubet, Florence; Refregier, Guislaine; Mouille, Gregory; McCann, Maureen; Rayon, Catherine; Vernhettes, Samantha; Höfte, Herman

2000-01-01

195

Synthesis and application of TiO2 single-crystal nanorod arrays grown by multicycle hydrothermal for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 is a wide band gap semiconductor with important applications in photovoltaic cells. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRs) are grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a multicycle hydrothermal synthesis process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). It is found that dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled by the as-prepared TiO2 single-crystal NRs exhibit different trends under the condition of different nucleation and growth concentrations. Optimum cell performance is obtained with high nucleation concentration and low growth cycle concentration. The efficiency enhancement is mainly attributed to the improved specific surface area of the nanorod.

Zhu, Jian-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Long; Zhu, Lei; Gu, Xiu-Quan; Qiang, Ying-Huai

2014-04-01

196

Differences in excitation energy transfer of Arthrospira platensis cells grown in seawater medium and freshwater medium, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitation energy transfer of Arthrospira platensis cells grown in f/2 medium (a high salinity medium) and SOT medium (a control) was investigated by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies. Growth in f/2 medium induced changes in absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as in the energy transfer pathways. Excitation energy captured by phycobilisome (PBS) was transferred directly to photosystem (PS) I, instead of being first transferred to an intermediate (PBS ? PSII ? PSI), as observed in SOT medium. The respiration rate increased while photosynthetic rate reduced in f/2 medium. Possible causes of the differences in light-harvesting and energy-transfer processes between the two media are discussed.

Arba, Muhammad; Aikawa, Shimpei; Niki, Kenta; Yokono, Makio; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

2013-11-01

197

Sensitive and rapid detection of Vero toxin-producing Escherichia coli using loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect Vero toxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli rapidly (within 60 min). The 24 strains of VT-producing E. coli were successfully amplified, but 6 strains of non-VT-producing E. coli and 46 bacterial species other than E. coli were not. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was found to be >0.7 c.f.u. per test

Yukiko Hara-Kudo; Jiro Nemoto; Kayoko Ohtsuka; Yuko Segawa; Kosuke Takatori; Tadashi Kojima; Masanari Ikedo

2007-01-01

198

Comparison of single junction AlGaInP and GaInP solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated ˜2.0 eV (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P and ˜1.9 eV Ga0.51In0.49P single junction solar cells grown on both on-axis and misoriented GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Although lattice-matched (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P solar cells are highly attractive for space and concentrator photovoltaics, there have been few reports on the MBE growth of such cells. In this work, we demonstrate open circuit voltages (Voc) ranging from 1.29 to 1.30 V for Ga0.51In0.49P cells, and 1.35-1.37 V for (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P cells. Growth on misoriented substrates enabled the bandgap-voltage offset (Woc = Eg/q - Voc) of Ga0.51In0.49P cells to decrease from ˜575 mV to ˜565 mV, while that of (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P cells remained nearly constant at 620 mV. The constant Woc as a function of substrate offcut for (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P implies greater losses from non-radiative recombination compared with the Ga0.51In0.49P devices. In addition to larger Woc values, the (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P cells exhibited significantly lower internal quantum efficiency (IQE) values than Ga0.51In0.49P cells due to recombination at the emitter/window layer interface. A thin emitter design is experimentally shown to be highly effective in improving IQE, particularly at short wavelengths. Our work shows that with further optimization of both cell structure and growth conditions, MBE-grown (AlxGa1-x)0.51In0.49P will be a promising wide-bandgap candidate material for high-efficiency, lattice-matched multi-junction solar cells.

Masuda, Taizo; Tomasulo, Stephanie; Lang, Jordan R.; Lee, Minjoo Larry

2015-03-01

199

Significant changes in cell and chloroplast development in young wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) grown in elevated CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Cell and chloroplast development were characterized in young Triticum aestivum cv Hereward leaves grown at ambient (350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) or at elevated (650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) CO{sub 2}. In elevated CO{sub 2}, cell and chloroplast expansion was accelerated by 10 and 25%, respectively, in the first leaf of 7-d-old wheat plants without disruption to the leaf developmental pattern. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the number of chloroplasts in relation to mesophyll cell size or the linear relationship between chloroplast number or size and mesophyll cell size. No major changes in leaf anatomy or in chloroplast ultrastructure were detected as a result of growth in elevated CO{sub 2}, but there was a marked reduction in starch accumulation. In leaf sections fluorescently tagged antisera were used to visualize and quantitate the amount of cytochrome f, the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits of the coupling factor 1 in ATP synthase, D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center, the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex, subunit II of photosystem I, and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. A significant finding was that in 10 to 20% of the mesophyll cells grown in elevated CO{sub 2} the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and cytochrome f were deficient by 75%, but the other proteins accumulated normally. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Robertson, E.J.; Leech, R.M. [Univ. of York, Heslington (United Kingdom)

1995-01-01

200

A vero cell derived combined vaccine against sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants for sheep.  

PubMed

The combined sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine was prepared in lyophilized form containing recommended doses of both vaccine viruses. Safety and immunogenicity of this combined vaccine was evaluated in sheep. Sheep immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of live attenuated vaccine consisting of 10(3)TCID(50) each of sheep pox virus (SPV) Romanian Fanar (RF) strain and Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV-Sungri/96 strain) were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of four weeks post immunization (pi) and two week post challenge (pc). Specific antibodies directed to sheep pox virus could be demonstrated by indirect ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT). Competitive ELISA and SNT were used for demonstration of antibodies to PPR virus. All the immunized animals resisted challenge with virulent SPV or PPRV on day 30pi, while control animals developed characteristic signs of disease. Specific virus could be detected in the unvaccinated control animals after challenge but not from any of the immunized sheep. Combined vaccine was found to be safe and potent as evident from sero conversion as well as challenge studies in sheep. This indicates that component vaccines did not interfere each other and can be used in target population for economic vaccination strategies. PMID:19428860

Chaudhary, S S; Pandey, K D; Singh, R P; Verma, P C; Gupta, P K

2009-04-28

201

A vero cell derived combined vaccine against sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine was prepared in lyophilized form containing recommended doses of both vaccine viruses. Safety and immunogenicity of this combined vaccine was evaluated in sheep. Sheep immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of live attenuated vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 each of sheep pox virus (SPV) Romanian Fanar (RF) strain and Peste des Petits

S. S. Chaudhary; K. D. Pandey; R. P. Singh; P. C. Verma; P. K. Gupta

2009-01-01

202

Lactoferrin inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 adsorption to Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ability of human and bovine lactoferrins (HLf; BLf), iron-binding proteins belonging to the non-immune defense system, to interfere with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Since lactoferrins are known to bind to heparan sulphate proteoglycans and to low density lipoprotein receptor, which in turn act as binding sites for the initial interaction of HSV-1 with

Magda Marchetti; Catia Longhi; Maria Pia Conte; Silvia Pisani; Piera Valenti; Lucilla Seganti

1996-01-01

203

Genetic analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL9 gene: isolation of a LacZ insertion mutant and expression in eukaryotic cells.  

PubMed

HSV-1 host range mutants in complementation group 1-36 (hr27 and hr156) whose mutations map in the UL9 gene, encoding the origin binding protein, are unable to form plaques or synthesize viral DNA or late viral proteins when grown in nonpermissive Vero cells (Carmichael, E. P., Kosovsky, M. J., Weller, S. K., 1988, J. Virol. 62, 91-99). These defects are complemented efficiently by growth in the permissive cell line, S22, which contains the wild type version of several HSV genes including UL9. In this report the precise nature and location of the lesions in host range mutants hr27 and hr156 were determined by DNA sequencing; both mutants were found to contain identical single-base-pair substitutions at codons 309 and 311 in the UL9 open reading frame. This region lies within the putative helicase domain of the UL9 protein. The UL9 gene was disrupted by the insertion of an insertional mutagen ICP6::lacZ in which the Escherichia coli lacZ gene is expressed under control of the viral ICP6 promoter. Hr94, a viral mutant containing this insertion, does not form plaques or synthesize viral DNA when grown in Vero cells, although both defects are complemented efficiently on permissive cell lines. These results confirm that the UL9 gene product is essential for viral growth and DNA replication. Furthermore, since no detectable UL9 protein is synthesized in hr94-infected cells, this virus provides a useful genetic background for further structure-function analysis since no potentially interfering nonfunctional UL9 protein will be expressed. We have expressed the UL9 open reading frame under the control of the strong and inducible HSV-1 ICP6 promoter and have derived Vero cell lines containing variable copy numbers of the ICP6::UL9 construct. Cells whose copy number of this construct exceeded approximately 120 are unable to support efficient plaque formation by wild-type virus. Cell lines with low copy numbers of this construct are able to complement hr27, hr156, and hr94. PMID:1325702

Malik, A K; Martinez, R; Muncy, L; Carmichael, E P; Weller, S K

1992-10-01

204

The Influence of Oxygen Tension and pH on the Expression of Plateletderived Endothelial Cell Growth Factor\\/Thymidine Phosphorylase in Human Breast Tumor Cells Grown in Vitroand in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that hypoxia regulates and influences the level ofthe angiogenic enzymeplatelet.derivedendothelialcell growth factor (PD-ECGF),also called thymidine phosphorylase, in vitro and in vivo. Levels of PD.ECGF protein increased 6-fold in the breast cancer cell line MDA 231 after 16 h of growth in 0.3% oxygen. A simultaneous increase in enzyme activity was observed.linmunohistochemical staining ofMDA 231tumors grown in nu\\/nu mice

Leigh Griffiths; Gabi U. Dachs; Roy Bicknell; Adrian L. Harris; Ian J. Stratford

205

GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS, MORPHOLOGY, AND PHOSPHOLIPID COMPOSITION OF HUMAN TYPE 2 PULMONARY ALVEOLAR CELLS GROWN IN A COLLAGEN-FREE MICROENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Human lung epithelial cells have been cultured and characterized for phospholipid content. Any residual fibroblasts were removed by selective trypsinization within the first 48 hours in culture. Epithelial cells were serially subpassaged when cultures reached ca. 80% confluency. ...

206

Development of crystalline peroxisomes in methanol-grown cells of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha and its relation to environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of peroxisomes has been studied in cells of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha during growth on methanol in batch and chemostat cultures. During bud formation, new peroxisomes were generated by the separation of small peroxisomes from mature organelles in the mother cells. The number of peroxisomes migrating to the buds was dependent upon environmental conditions. Aging of cells was

M. Veenhuis; J. P. van Dijken; S. A. F. Pilon; W. Harder

1978-01-01

207

Structural Complexity of Non-acid Glycosphingolipids in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Grown under Feeder-free Conditions*  

PubMed Central

Due to their pluripotency and growth capability, there are great expectations for human embryonic stem cells, both as a resource for functional studies of early human development and as a renewable source of cells for use in regenerative medicine and transplantation. However, to bring human embryonic stem cells into clinical applications, their cell surface antigen expression and its chemical structural complexity have to be defined. In the present study, total non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions were isolated from two human embryonic stem cell lines (SA121 and SA181) originating from leftover in vitro fertilized human embryos, using large amounts of starting material (1 × 109 cells/cell line). The total non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions were characterized by antibody and lectin binding, mass spectrometry, and proton NMR. In addition to the globo-series and type 1 core chain glycosphingolipids previously described in human embryonic stem cells, a number of type 2 core chain glycosphingolipids (neo-lactotetraosylceramide, the H type 2 pentaosylceramide, the Lex pentaosylceramide, and the Ley hexaosylceramide) were identified as well as the blood group A type 1 hexaosylceramide. Finally, the mono-, di-, and triglycosylceramides were characterized as galactosylceramide, glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, galabiaosylceramide, globotriaosylceramide, and lactotriaosylceramide. Thus, the glycan diversity of human embryonic stem cells, including cell surface immune determinants, is more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:23404501

Barone, Angela; Benktander, John; ?ngström, Jonas; Aspegren, Anders; Björquist, Petter; Teneberg, Susann; Breimer, Michael. E.

2013-01-01

208

Global gene expression profiles of canine macrophages and canine mammary cancer cells grown as a co-culture in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Solid tumours comprise various cells, including cancer cells, resident stromal cells, migratory haemopoietic cells and other. These cells regulate tumour growth and metastasis. Macrophages constitute probably the most important element of all interactions within the tumour microenvironment. However, the molecular mechanism, that guides tumour environment, still remains unknown. Exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms that orchestrate these phenomena has been the aim of our study. A co-culture of canine mammary cancer cells and macrophages was established and maintained for 72 hrs. Having sorted the cells, gene expression in cancer cells and macrophages, using DNA microarrays, was examined. The results were confirmed using real-time qPCR and confocal microscopy. Moreover, their ability for migration and invasion has been assessed. Results Microarray analysis showed that the up-regulated genes in the cancer cell lines are involved in 15 highly over-manifested pathways. The pathways that drew our diligent attention included: the inflammation pathway mediated by chemokine and cytokine, the Toll receptor signalling pathway and the B cell activation. The up-regulated genes in the macrophages were involved in only 18 significantly over-manifested pathways: the angiogenesis, the p53 pathway feedback loops2 and the Wnt signalling pathway. The microarray analysis revealed that co-culturing of cancer cells with macrophages initiated the myeloid-specific antigen expression in cancer cells, as well as cytokine/chemokine genes expression. This finding was confirmed at mRNA and protein level. Moreover, we showed that macrophages increase cancer migration and invasion. Conclusions The presence of macrophages in the cancer environment induces acquisition of the macrophage phenotype (specific antigens and chemokines/cytokines expression) in cancer cells. We presumed that cancer cells also acquire other myeloid features, such as: capabilities of cell rolling, spreading, migration and matrix invasion (what has also been confirmed by our results). It may, perhaps, be the result of myeloid-cancer cell hybrid formation, or cancer cells mimicking macrophages phenotype, owing to various proteins secreted by macrophages. PMID:22353646

2012-01-01

209

The effect of cytochalasin B on chondrogenesis in chick limb-bud mesoderm cells grown in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cytochalasin B (CB) has been shown to have many biological effects on cultured cells. We report that an initial 48-hr treatment\\u000a of freshly plated chick embryo limb mesoderm cells with CB irreversibly inhibits chondrogenesis. A slight inhibition in the\\u000a amount of matrix is seen when limb cells are allowed to grow in culture for 24 hr prior to treatment for

Curtis L. Parker; Robert A. Finch; W. Craig Hooper

1978-01-01

210

Improved Performance of GaInNAs Solar Cells Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy Using Increased Growth Rate Instead of Surfactants  

SciTech Connect

GaInNAs is potentially useful for increasing the conversion efficiency of multijunction solar cells if low photocurrents and photovoltages can be increased. Wide-depletion width devices generate significant photocurrents using an n-i-p structure grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, but these wide depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Surfactants are effective at reducing the surface roughness, but lead to increased defect densities and changes in the net acceptor or donor concentration. Here, we show that increasing the growth rate of GaInNAs solar cells leads to smooth surfaces without the use of a surfactant, even at high In compositions and substrate temperatures. No degradation in material quality is observed when increasing the growth rate from 1.5 to 3.0 {micro}m/h, but a shunt resistance does appear for the high-growth-rate samples. This shunt is attributed to increased spitting of the Ga cell, leading to an increase in the oval defect density, at the higher effusion cell temperatures used to achieve high growth rates. As with the case of Bi in GaInNAs, increased growth rates also appear to increase the net donor concentration, but it is not clear if these effects have the same cause.

Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C. S.; Romero, M. J.

2009-01-01

211

Density and length of stomatal and epidermal cells in "living fossil" trees grown under elevated CO 2 and a polar light regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Cretaceous and early Tertiary, when the climate was warm and the atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2]) was at least double that of the present-day, polar forests populated high latitude landmasses. We investigated the density and length of stomata and other epidermal cells of two deciduous and three evergreen "living fossil" tree species representative of these ancient forests. These tree species were grown in a simulated Cretaceous high latitude environment at either ambient (400 ppmv) or elevated (800 ppmv) [CO 2] during four years. After 4 years growing at elevated [CO 2], the leaf stomatal density and index (percentage of leaf epidermal cells that are stomata) of these plants were similar to those of their counterparts growing at ambient [CO 2]. While the CO 2 enrichment only modified the stomatal pore length in two of the five studied species, it increased significantly the overall length of the epidermal cells of all the species, reducing their density. These results revealed that leaf epidermal cells of these "living fossil" species were more sensitive than stomata to an experimental doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration.

Ogaya, R.; Llorens, L.; Peñuelas, J.

2011-07-01

212

Hypoxic conditions and iron restriction affect the cell-wall proteome of Candida albicans grown under vagina-simulative conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins that are covalently linked to the skeletal polysaccharides of the cell wall of Candida albicans play a major role in the colonization of the vaginal mucosal surface, which may result in vaginitis. Here we report on the variability of the cell-wall proteome of C. albicans as a function of the ambient O-2 concentration and iron availability. For these studies,

Grazyna J. Sosinska; Groot de P. W. J; M. J. Teixeira De Mattos; H. L. Dekker; Koster de C. G; K. J. Hellingwerf; F. M. Klis

2008-01-01

213

Improved conversion efficiency of as-grown InGaN/GaN quantum-well solar cells for hybrid integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the photovoltaic characteristics of solar cells based on 15 and 30 InxGa1-xN/GaN (x = 0.10 and 0.19) multiquantum wells (MQWs) grown on sapphire. Doubling the number of MQWs increases the peak external quantum efficiency by a factor of 2 for both In contents. Devices with 19% In, with a spectral cutoff at 465 nm, exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 1.7 V and a short-circuit current density of 3.00 mA/cm2 under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination, leading to a conversion efficiency of 2.00%, making them promising for hybrid integration with non-III-nitride photovoltaic devices.

Valdueza-Felip, Sirona; Mukhtarova, Anna; Grenet, Louis; Bougerol, Catherine; Durand, Christophe; Eymery, Joel; Monroy, Eva

2014-03-01

214

Failure of propagation of human norovirus in intestinal epithelial cells with microvilli grown in three-dimensional cultures  

PubMed Central

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. Establishment of a cell culture system for in vitro HuNoV growth remains challenging. Replication of HuNoVs in human intestinal cell lines (INT-407 and Caco-2) that differentiate to produce microvilli in rotation wall vessel (RWV) three-dimensional cultures has been reported (Straub et al., Emerg Infect Dis 13:396–403 2007, J Water Health 9:225–240 2011, and Water Sci Technol 67:863–868 2013). We used a similar RWV system, intestinal cell lines, and the same (Genogroup [G] I.1) plus additional (GII.4 and GII.12) HuNoV strains to test the system’s reproducibility and to expand the earlier findings. Apical microvilli were observed on the surface of both cell lines by light and electron microscopy. However, none of the cell types tested resulted in productive viral replication of any of the HuNoV strains, as confirmed by plateau or declining viral RNA titers in the supernatants and cell lysates of HuNoV-infected cells, determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR. These trends were the same when culture supplements were added that have been reported to be effective for replication of other fastidious enteric viruses in vitro. Additionally, by confocal microscopy and orthoslice analysis, viral capsid proteins were mainly observed above the actin filament signals, which suggested that the majority of viral antigens were on the cell surface. We conclude that even intestinal cells displaying microvilli were not sufficient to support HuNoV replication under the conditions tested. PMID:23974469

Takanashi, Sayaka; Saif, Linda J.; Hughes, John H.; Meulia, Tea; Jung, Kwonil; Scheuer, Kelly A.; Wang, Qiuhong

2013-01-01

215

Upregulation of cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on magnesium alloy surface coating with tricalcium phosphate.  

PubMed

Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been demonstrated to be viable orthopedic implants because of mechanical and biocompatible properties similar to natural bone. In order to improve its osteogenic properties, a porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) was coated on the Mg-3AI-1Zn alloy by alkali-heat treatment technique. The human bone-derived cells (SaOS-2) were cultured on (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn in vitro, and the osteoblast response, the morphology and the elements on this alloy surface were investigated. Also, the regulation of key intracellular signalling proteins was investigated in the SaOS-2 cells cultured on alloy surface. The results from scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn induced significant osteogenesis. SaOS-2 cell proliferation was improved by ?-TCP coating. Moreover, the (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn surface induced activation of key intracellular signalling proteins in SaOS-2 cells. We observed an enhanced activation of Src homology and collagen (Shc), a common point of integration between bone morphogenetic protein 2, and the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation was also upregulated, suggesting a role in mediating osteoblastic cell interactions with biomaterials. The signalling pathway involving c-fos (member of the activated protein-1) was also shown to be upregulated in osteoblasts cultured on the (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn. These results suggest that ?-TCP coating may contribute to successful osteoblast function on Mg alloy surface. (?-TCP)-Mg-3AI-1Zn may upregulate cell proliferation via Shc and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling in SaOS-2 osteoblasts grown on Mg alloy surface. PMID:25783501

Jiang, Tianlong; Guo, Lei; Ni, Shenghui; Zhao, Yuyan

2015-04-01

216

Stability of single and tandem junction a-Si:H solar cells grown using the ECR process  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on the fabrication and stability tests of single junction a-Si:H, and tandem junction a-Si:H/A-Si:H solar cells using the ECR process under high hydrogen dilution (H-ECR process). They show that devices with high fill factors can be made using the H-ECR process. They also report on the stability studies of the solar cells under 1 and 2-sun illumination conditions. The solar cells show very little degradation even after 500 hours of illumination under 2 x sunlight illumination.

Dalal, V.L.; Maxson, T.; Girvan, R.; Haroon, S.

1997-07-01

217

Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

1987-01-01

218

A549 Lung Epithelial Cells Grown as Three-Dimensional Aggregates: Alternative Tissue Culture Model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional (3-D) lung aggregate model was developed from A549 human lung epithelial cells by using a rotating-wall vessel bioreactor to study the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and lung epithelial cells. The suitability of the 3-D aggregates as an infection model was examined by immunohisto- chemistry, adherence and invasion assays, scanning electron microscopy, and cytokine and mucoglycoprotein production. Immunohistochemical characterization

A. J. Carterson; K. Honer zu Bentrup; C. M. Ott; M. S. Clarke; D. L. Pierson; C. R. Vanderburg; K. L. Buchanan; C. A. Nickerson; M. J. Schurr

2005-01-01

219

Differences In Early T-Cell Signaling In Cultures Grown In a Rotating Clinostat vs. Static Controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Altered gravity has previously been demonstrated to be a stress that can influence components of the immune system. Specifically, T-cell activation has been shown to be affected by changes in gravity, exhibiting a decrease in proliferative response to in vitro stimulation in microgravity. Subsequent ground based studies utilizing a rotating clinostat to model some of the effects of microgravity have been consistent with earlier flight based experiments. These ground and flight experiments have examined T-cell activation by measuring various responses including production of cytokines, DNA synthesis and the production of various cell surface activation markers. These indicators of T-cell activation were measured anywhere from 4 to 72 hours after stimulation. Prior to the work described here, the initial signaling events in T-cell activation had not been directly examined. The goal of this project was to determine how the process of early signal transduction was affected by growth in a rotating clinostat. Here we directly show a defect in signaling from TCR to MAPK in purified peripheral T-cells activated in the clinostat by OKT3/antiCD28 coated microbeads as compared to static controls.

Alexamder. M.; Nelman-Gonzales, M.; Penkala, J.; Sams, C.

1999-01-01

220

Entry of diphtheria toxin linked to concanavalin A into primate and murine cells.  

PubMed

Diphtheria toxin linked by a disulfide bridge to concanavalin A was highly toxic to HeLa S3 and Vero cells, as well as to murine L cells. The cells could be protected with alpha-methyl mannoside, indicating that the conjugate binds mainly through its concanavalin A moiety. Treatment of Vero cells with phospholipase C, TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), and vanadate, which strongly reduce the ability of the cells to bind free diphtheria toxin, had little protective effect against the conjugate, whereas SITS (L-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'disulfonic acid), which inhibits diphtheria toxin binding, as well as the subsequent entry, protected Vero cells, but not L cells. Both types of cells are protected against the conjugate by NH4Cl and monensin, indicating that an acidified compartment is necessary for entry into the cytosol. Exposure of cells, bound with surface conjugate, to low pH induced entry of the toxin into Vero cells, but not into L Cells. Phospholipase C, TPA, and vanadate did not protect L cells against the conjugate. It is concluded that toxin in the conjugate enters L cells by a route which involves low pH, but which is not identical to that in Vero cells. PMID:3844014

Guillemot, J C; Sundan, A; Olsnes, S; Sandvig, K

1985-02-01

221

Thin, high quality GaInP compositionally graded buffer layers grown at high growth rates for metamorphic III-V solar cell applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metamorphic growth of lattice-mismatched materials has allowed optimizing the bandgap combination in multijunction solar cells for the solar spectrum under consideration. Buffer structures are used to accommodate the lattice-mismatch by introducing dislocations and relaxing the material in a controlled way. However, the metamorphic buffers typically involve significant growth time and material usage, which increases the cost of these solar cells. In this work, the thinning of buffer structures with continuously, linearly graded misfit is addressed with the goal of increasing the cost-effectiveness of metamorphic multijunction solar cells. The relaxation dynamics and quality of the buffer layers analyzed were assessed by in-situ stress measurements and ex-situ measurements of residual strain, threading dislocation density and surface roughness. Their ultimate quality has been tested using these buffers as templates for the growth of 1 eV Ga0.73In0.27As solar cells. The deleterious effect of thinning the grade layer of these buffer structures from 2 to 1 ?m was investigated. It is shown that prompting the relaxation of the buffer by using a stepwise misfit jump at the beginning of the grade layer improves the quality of the thinned buffer structure. The residual threading dislocation density of the optimized thin buffers, grown at a high growth rate of 7 ?m/h, is 3×106 cm-2, and solar cells on these buffers exhibit near-ideal carrier collection efficiency and a Voc of 0.62 V at 1-sun direct terrestrial spectrum.

Garcia, I.; France, R. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Simon, J.

2014-05-01

222

Does vector-free gravity simulate microgravity? Functional and morphologic attributes of clinorotated nerve and muscle grown in cell culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cocultured Xenopus neurons and myocytes were subjected to non-vectorial gravity by clinostat rotation to determine if microgravity, during space flights, may affect cell development and communications. Clinorotated cells showed changes consistent with the hypothesis that cell differentiation, in microgravity, is altered by interference with cytoskeleton-related mechanisms. We found: increases in the myocyte and its nuclear area, "fragmentation" of nucleoli, appearance of neuritic "aneurysms", decreased growth in the presence of "trophic" factors, and decreased yolk utilization. The effects were most notable at 1-10 rpm and depended on the onset and duration of rotation. Some parameters returned to near control values within 48 hrs after cessation of rotation. Cells from cultures rotated at higher speeds (>50 rpm) appeared comparable to controls. Compensation by centrifugal forces may account for this finding. Our data are consistent, in principle, with effects on other, flighted cells and suggest that "vector-free" gravity may simulate certain aspects of microgravity. The distribution of acetylcholine receptor aggregates, on myocytes, was also altered. This indicates that brain development, in microgravity, may also be affected.

Gruener, R.; Hoeger, G.

1988-01-01

223

The polyGeVero® software for fast and easy computation of 3D radiotherapy dosimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polyGeVero® software package was elaborated for calculations of 3D dosimetry data such as the polymer gel dosimetry. It comprises four workspaces designed for: i) calculating calibrations, ii) storing calibrations in a database, iii) calculating dose distribution 3D cubes, iv) comparing two datasets e.g. a measured one with a 3D dosimetry with a calculated one with the aid of a treatment planning system. To accomplish calculations the software was equipped with a number of tools such as the brachytherapy isotopes database, brachytherapy dose versus distance calculation based on the line approximation approach, automatic spatial alignment of two 3D dose cubes for comparison purposes, 3D gamma index, 3D gamma angle, 3D dose difference, Pearson's coefficient, histograms calculations, isodoses superimposition for two datasets, and profiles calculations in any desired direction. This communication is to briefly present the main functions of the software and report on the speed of calculations performed by polyGeVero®.

Kozicki, Marek; Maras, Piotr

2015-01-01

224

Broad visible emission from GaN nanowires grown on n-Si (1 1 1) substrate by PVD for solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured gallium nitrides (GaNs) were grown on a catalyst-free Si (1 1 1) substrates using physical vapor deposition via thermal evaporation of GaN powder at 1150 °C in the absence of NH3 gas for different deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) results indicated that the growth of GaN nanostructure varies with deposition time. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra reveals a hexagonal GaN with wurtzite structure. Photoluminescence (PL) showed that the UV emission was suppressed, and the visible band emission was enhanced with increasing deposition time. Enhancement of visible band emission from the GaN NWs is due to the increasement of deep level states, which was resulted from growth process. Current-voltage (IV) characteristics of GaN/Si heterostructure were measured and good rectifying behavior was observed for this photodiode (PD). The forward current under illumination was almost three times than that in the dark current at +5 V. Responsivity of the photodetector was 10.5 A/W at range from 350 nm to 500 nm, which rapidly increased to 13.6 A/W at 700 nm. We found that the fabricated photodiode PD has an infra-red (IR) photoresponse behavior. The analysis of optical and electrical properties indications that the grown GaN in the absent of NH3 is a promising optical material and has potential applications in photo voltage solar cell.

Saron, K. M. A.; Hashim, M. R.

2013-04-01

225

Solar cells. Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 ?m in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals.  

PubMed

Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm(-2)) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. The long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source. PMID:25636799

Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong

2015-02-27

226

Does vector-free gravity simulate microgravity? Functional and morphologic attributes of clinorotated nerve and muscle grown in cell culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cocultured Xenopus neurons and myocytes were subjected to nonvectorial gravity by clinostat rotation to determine the effects of microgravity on cell development and communications. Observed effects included increases in the myocyte and its nuclear area, fragmentation of nucleoli, the appearance of neuritic aneurysms, decreased growth in the presence of trophic factors, and decreased yolk utilization. These effects were most notable at 1-10 rpm and depended on the onset and duration of rotation. It is found that, in microgravity, cell differentiation is altered by interference with cytoskeleton-related mechanisms. It is suggested that the alteration of the distribution of acetylcholine receptor aggregates on myocytes which occurs might indicate that microgravity affects brain development.

Gruener, Raphael; Hoeger, Glenn

1988-01-01

227

Changes in phosphatidylinositol metabolism in response to hyperosmotic stress in Daucus carota L. cells grown in suspension culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells plasmolyzed within 30 s after adding sorbitol to increase the osmotic strength of the medium from 0.2 to 0.4 or 0.6 osmolal. However, there was no significant change in the polyphosphorylated inositol phospholipids or inositol phosphates or in inositol phospholipid metabolism within 30 s of imposing the hyperosmotic stress. Maximum changes in phospha- tidylinositol 4-monophosphate

Myeon H. Cho; Stephen B. Shears; Wendy F. BOSS

1993-01-01

228

Production of single cell protein through fermentation of a perennial grass grown on saline lands with Cellulomonas biazotea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial protein from alkali-treated Leptochloa fusca (kaller grass) was produced by growing Cellulomonasbiazoteain shake flasks and in an aerated 6-l fermentor. Single cell protein, produced in the fermentor contained 56.10 ± 4.64, 60.00 ± 5.04, 11.50 ± 1.34, 12.95 ± 1.24, 3.50 ± 0.24 and 1.00 ± 0.44 true protein, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, cellulose and RNA content respectively.

M. Ibrahim Rajoka

2005-01-01

229

Symbiodinium transcriptome and global responses of cells to immediate changes in light intensity when grown under autotrophic or mixotrophic conditions.  

PubMed

Symbiosis between unicellular dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) and their cnidarian hosts (e.g. corals, sea anemones) is the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Dysfunction of this symbiosis under changing environmental conditions has led to global reef decline. Little information is known about Symbiodinium gene expression and mechanisms by which light impacts host-symbiont associations. To address these issues, we generated a transcriptome from axenic Symbiodinium strain SSB01. Here we report features of the transcriptome, including occurrence and length distribution of spliced leader sequences, the functional landscape of encoded proteins and the impact of light on gene expression. Expression of many Symbiodinium genes appears to be significantly impacted by light. Transcript encoding cryptochrome 2 declined in high light while some transcripts for Regulators of Chromatin Condensation (RCC1) declined in the dark. We also identified a transcript encoding a light harvesting AcpPC protein with homology to Chlamydomonas LHCSR2. The level of this transcript increased in high light autotrophic conditions, suggesting that it is involved in photo-protection and the dissipation of excess absorbed light energy. The most extensive changes in transcript abundances occurred when the algae were transferred from low light to darkness. Interestingly, transcripts encoding several cell adhesion proteins rapidly declined following movement of cultures to the dark, which correlated with a dramatic change in cell surface morphology, likely reflecting the complexity of the extracellular matrix. Thus, light-sensitive cell adhesion proteins may play a role in establishing surface architecture, which may in turn alter interactions between the endosymbiont and its host. PMID:25664570

Xiang, Tingting; Nelson, William; Rodriguez, Jesse; Tolleter, Dimitri; Grossman, Arthur R

2015-04-01

230

The role of connexins in the differentiation of NT2 cells in Sertoli-NT2 cell tissue constructs grown in the rotating wall bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural transplantation is developing as a successful treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease.\\u000a The human Ntera-2\\/D1 (NT2) cell line is an attractive alternative to the use of human fetal neurons as a cell source for transplantation.\\u000a We have explored combining NT2 cells, as a neuronal source, and Sertoli cells, which may act as a graft facilitator to enhance

R. Shamekh; D. F. Cameron; A. E. Willing; S. Saporta

2006-01-01

231

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gp130 oligomers protect rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) against the infection with SIVmac32H grown on T-cells or derived ex vivo.  

PubMed

The efficacy of three SIVmac32H gp130 vaccines was compared in rhesus monkeys. Three rhesus monkeys were each immunized over a period of 20 weeks with a total of 600 microgram virion-derived gp130 oligomers (O-gp130) mixed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin and emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three other monkeys were infected with 5 x 10(8) PFU of vaccinia virus wild type (VV-wt) while three additional animals received an equivalent dose of VV expressing the gp130 of SIVmac (VV-gp130). At Week 8, the two VV-wt animals received an additional immunization with 100 microgram O-gp130 each. All VV-infected animals then received booster immunizations at Weeks 12, 16, and 20 with a total of 300 microgram O-gp130 per animal. All animals along with two controls were challenged iv with 50 MID50 of T-cell-grown SIVmac32H at Week 22. Four weeks after the challenge and thereafter, both controls and one animal from either VV group were infected as demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), virus isolation, and antibody response. In contrast, all O-gp130 animals and one animal each from the VV-wt and the VV-gp130 group were completely protected as shown by negative PCR and virus reisolation. One animal of the VV-gp130 group was partially protected, since it remained virus isolation negative but became PCR positive. All protected animals did not develop a secondary antibody response. Six months after the first challenge, the five completely protected animals were reimmunized twice 4 weeks apart with a total of 200 microgram O-gp130 per animal. Two weeks later, all animals were challenged with 5 MID50 of the SIVmac32H/spI prepared from the spleen of an immunized, but unprotected SIV-infected rhesus monkey. After the second challenge, all three control animals and one of the vaccinees become productively infected. In contrast, two animals were completely protected, one from the former O-gp130 and one from the former VV-gp130 group. One animal from the former VV-wt group was only DNA-PCR positive and thus partially protected. Therefore, immunization with virion-derived gp130 oligomers of SIVmac32H can confer protection against the infection with T-cell-grown SIVmac32H as well as the ex vivo isolate SIVmac32H/spI. PMID:8607276

Luke, W; Coulibaly, C; Dittmer, U; Voss, G; Oesterle, R; Makoschey, B; Sauermann, U; Jurkiewicz, E; Stahl-Henning, C; Petry, H; Hunsmann, G

1996-02-15

232

Inhibition of vimentin or B1 integrin reverts morphology of prostate tumor cells grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels and reduces tumor growth in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphologic changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the immortalized, prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in athymic, nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the parental, nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin, or {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via small interfering RNA interference or the expression of {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins by the addition of blocking antibodies, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by s.c. injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in three-dimensional lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1 integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acinus in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(3):499-508].

Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V; Ware, Joy L; Bissell, Mina J; Yacoub, Adly; Zehner, Zendra E

2008-06-12

233

InGaAs/GaAsP strain balanced multi-quantum wires grown on misoriented GaAs substrates for high efficiency solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Quantum wires (QWRs) form naturally when growing strain balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multi-quantum wells (MQW) on GaAs [100] 6° misoriented substrates under the usual growth conditions. The presence of wires instead of wells could have several unexpected consequences for the performance of the MQW solar cells, both positive and negative, that need to be assessed to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In this letter, we study QWR properties from the point of view of their performance as solar cells by means of transmission electron microscopy, time resolved photoluminescence and external quantum efficiency (EQE) using polarised light. We find that these QWRs have longer lifetimes than nominally identical QWs grown on exact [100] GaAs substrates, of up to 1??s, at any level of illumination. We attribute this effect to an asymmetric carrier escape from the nanostructures leading to a strong 1D-photo-charging, keeping electrons confined along the wire and holes in the barriers. In principle, these extended lifetimes could be exploited to enhance carrier collection and reduce dark current losses. Light absorption by these QWRs is 1.6 times weaker than QWs, as revealed by EQE measurements, which emphasises the need for more layers of nanostructures or the use light trapping techniques. Contrary to what we expected, QWR show very low absorption anisotropy, only 3.5%, which was the main drawback a priori of this nanostructure. We attribute this to a reduced lateral confinement inside the wires. These results encourage further study and optimization of QWRs for high efficiency solar cells.

Alonso-Álvarez, D.; Thomas, T.; Führer, M.; Hylton, N. P.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Lackner, D.; Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Sodabanlu, H.; Fujii, H.; Watanabe, K.; Sugiyama, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nasi, L.; Campanini, M. [CNR-IMEM Sezione di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43010 Fontanini-Parma (Italy)

2014-08-25

234

Evaluation of defects generation in crystalline silicon ingot grown by cast technique with seed crystal for solar cells  

PubMed Central

Although crystalline silicon is widely used as substrate material for solar cell, many defects occur during crystal growth. In this study, the generation of crystalline defects in silicon substrates was evaluated. The distributions of small-angle grain boundaries were observed in substrates sliced parallel to the growth direction. Many precipitates consisting of light elemental impurities and small-angle grain boundaries were confirmed to propagate. The precipitates mainly consisted of Si, C, and N atoms. The small-angle grain boundaries were distributed after the precipitation density increased. Then, precipitates appeared at the small-angle grain boundaries. We consider that the origin of the small-angle grain boundaries was lattice mismatch and/or strain caused by the high-density precipitation. PMID:22536006

Tachibana, Tomihisa; Sameshima, Takashi; Kojima, Takuto; Arafune, Koji; Kakimoto, Koichi; Miyamura, Yoshiji; Harada, Hirofumi; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Ogura, Atsushi

2012-01-01

235

The role of connexins in the differentiation of NT2 cells in Sertoli-NT2 cell tissue constructs grown in the rotating wall bioreactor.  

PubMed

Neural transplantation is developing as a successful treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. The human Ntera-2/D1 (NT2) cell line is an attractive alternative to the use of human fetal neurons as a cell source for transplantation. We have explored combining NT2 cells, as a neuronal source, and Sertoli cells, which may act as a graft facilitator to enhance neuronal survival and differentiation, and ameliorate the host immune response, into a tissue construct for use in cell replacement therapy for neurodegenerative disease. This Sertoli-NT2-aggregated cell (SNAC) tissue construct is formed in the high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor. NT2 cells differentiate to dopaminergic NT2N neurons within the SNAC tissue construct without retinoic acid. We report here that the gap junction protein connexin 43 is decreased among differentiated NT2N neurons. Inhibition of connexin 43 with 18beta glycyrrhetinic acid and carbenoxolone, a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative, during formation of the SNAC tissue constructs disrupts the differentiation of NT2 cells. Therefore, connexin 43 is important in the differentiation of NT2 cells in the SNAC tissue construct. PMID:16328273

Shamekh, R; Cameron, D F; Willing, A E; Saporta, S

2006-04-01

236

Facile fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing carbon nanotubes grown over 2D hexagonal bimetallic ordered mesoporous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-surface area and well-ordered mesoporous Fe incorporated SBA-15 (Fe-SBA-15), Fe-Cr incorporated SBA-15 (Fe-Cr-SBA-15) and Cr incorporated SBA-15 (Cr-SBA-15) catalysts are synthesized following a controlled post synthesis grafting process. The activities of all the catalysts are tested systematically and quantitatively towards the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by chemical vapour deposition. In order to obtain CNTs with high quality and quantity, the parameters like temperature, reaction time and gas flow rate are optimized. Under optimum conditions, the Fe-Cr-SBA-15 catalyst is produced with high yield and uniform diameter of CNTs. The transmission electron microscopy result reveals high purity and well-graphitized structure of CNTs. The synthesized CNTs are used as counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The CNTs based counter electrode shows good chemical stability, lower charge-transfer resistance and higher electrocatalytic activity towards I3-/I- redox reaction than that of platinum (Pt) counter electrode. The energy conversion efficiency of the CNTs counter electrode based DSSCs reaches 8.86% under irradiation with a simulated solar light intensity of 100 mW cm-2. The results prove that CNTs are one of the suitable candidates for Pt free counter electrode for DSSCs.

Balamurugan, J.; Thangamuthu, R.; Pandurangan, A.; Jayachandran, M.

2013-03-01

237

Uptake of Cadmium by Rice Grown on Contaminated Soils and Its Bioavailability/Toxicity in Human Cell Lines (Caco-2/HL-7702).  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) enters the food chain from polluted soils via contaminated cereals and vegetables; therefore, an understanding of Cd bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and toxicity in humans through rice grain is needed. This study assessed the Cd bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and toxicity to humans from rice grown on Cd-contaminated soils using an in vitro digestion method combined with a Caco-2/HL-7702 cell model. Cadmium bioaccessibility (18.45-30.41%) and bioavailability (4.04-8.62%) were found to be significantly higher in yellow soil (YS) rice than calcareous soil (CS) rice with the corresponding values of 6.89-11.43 and 1.77-2.25%, respectively. Toxicity assays showed an initial toxicity in YS rice at 6 mg kg(-1) Cd, whereas CS rice did not show any significant change due to low Cd concentrations. The acidic soils of Cd-contaminated areas can contribute to a higher dietary intake of Cd. Therefore, it is imperative to monitor Cd concentration in rice to minimize human health risk. PMID:25738308

Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Li, Tingqiang; Liu, Di; He, Zhenli; Stoffella, P J; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

2015-04-01

238

Optical and electrical characterization of CdS-Glycine thin films with ammonia free buffer grown at different temperatures for solar cells applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report the fabrication and electro-optical characterization of CdS thin films using glycine as complexing agent with ammonia and ammonia free buffer by the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method. The CdS thin films were grown at different temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C in a thermal water bath. The morphology of these films was determined using atomic force microscopy; the resultant films were homogeneous, well adhered to the substrate, and specularly reflecting with a varying color depending on the deposition temperature. Transmittance and reflectance measurements of thermally treated CdS films were carried to study the effect of the ammonia buffer on its optical properties and bandgap. The crystallinity of the CdS thin films was determined by means of X Ray diffraction measurements. Therefore, for this study, an ammonia-free complexing agent has been taken for the deposition of CdS. Among different methods, which are being used for the preparation of CdS films, Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) is the most attractive due to its low cost, easy to handle and large possibilities regarding doping and deposition on various substrates. In particular it can be used to easily obtain field effect devices by depositing CdS thin films over a SiO2/Si substrate. Heterostructures with interesting physical properties can be imagined, realized and tested in this way.. Structures CdS/PbS also were realized and have shown good solar cell characteristics.

Berman-Mendoza, D.; Quiñones-Urías, D.; Ferra-González, S.; Vera-Marquina, A.; Rojas-Hernández, A.; Gómez Fuentes, R.; García-Juárez, A.; Leal-Cruz, A. L.; Ramos-Carrasco, A.

2013-11-01

239

Antioxidant Response to NaCl Stress in a Control and an NaCl-Tolerant Cotton Cell Line Grown in the Presence of Paraquat, Buthionine Sulfoximine, and Exogenous Glutathione.  

PubMed

A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) control and NaCl-tolerant cell line (cv Coker 312) were grown on media with or without NaCl in the presence or absence of paraquat, buthionine sulfoximine, and oxidized glutathione. On medium with 150 mM NaCl the NaCl-tolerant cell line exhibited no reduction in growth, whereas a 96% reduction was observed in the control line. The NaCl-tolerant cell line that was grown on 150 mM NaCl exhibited significantly greater catalase (341%), peroxidase (319%), glutathione reductase (287%), ascorbate peroxidase (450%), [gamma]-glutamylcysteine synthetase (224%), and glutathione S-transferase (500%) activities than the intolerant control. The NaCl-tolerant cell line had a significantly lower dehydroascorbic acid/ascorbic acid ratio. Paraquat reduced growth by 20 and 53.7%, respectively, in the NaCl-tolerant and control cell line. The NaCl-tolerant cell line also showed a slight tolerance to buthionine sulfoximine. In the buthionine sulfoximine experiments reduced glutathione restored growth in both cell lines, whereas oxidized glutathione restored growth only in the NaCl-tolerant cell line. These data indicate that the NaCl-tolerant cell line exhibited a cross-tolerance to a variety of stress variables and had a more active ascorbate-glutathione cycle. PMID:12226422

Gossett, D. R.; Banks, S. W.; Millhollon, E. P.; Lucas, M. C.

1996-10-01

240

Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

2003-01-01

241

Toxoplasma gondii grown in human cells uses GalNAc-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol precursors to anchor surface antigens while the immunogenic Glc-GalNAc-containing precursors remain free at the parasite cell surface.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasite that infects nearly all warm-blooded animals. Developmental switching in T. gondii, from the virulent tachyzoite to the relatively quiescent bradyzoite stage, is responsible for the disease propagation after alteration of the immune status of the carrier. The redifferentiation event is characterized by an over expression of a tachyzoite specific set of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored surface antigens and free GPIs. T. gondii grown in animal cells uses two glycosylphosphatidylinositol precursors to anchor the parasite surface proteins. The first form has an N-acetylgalactosamine residue bound to a conserved three-mannosyl core glycan, while the second structure contains an additional terminal glucose linked to the N-acetylgalactosamine side branch. Sera from persons infected with T. gondii reacted only with the glucose-N-acetylgalactosamine-containing structure. Here we report that T. gondii cultured in human cells uses predominantly the N-acetylgalactosamine-containing structure to anchor the parasite surface antigens. On the other hand, glycosylphosphatidylinositol structures having an additional terminal glucose are found exclusively on the parasite cell surface as free glycolipids participating in the production of cytokines that are implicated in the pathogenesis of T. gondii. We also provide evidence that such free glycosylphosphatidylinositols are restricted mainly to the lipid microdomains in the parasite cell surface membrane and mostly associated with proteins involved in the parasite motility as well as invasion of the host cell. PMID:16822699

Azzouz, Nahid; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Niehus, Sebastian; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Bieker, Ulrike; Schmidt, Jörg; Mercier, Corinne; Delauw, Marie-France; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Smith, Terry K; Schwarz, Ralph T

2006-01-01

242

Carrier dynamics in bulk 1eV InGaAsNSb materials and epitaxial lift off GaAs-InAlGaP layers grown by MOVPE for multi-junction solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

III-V multi-junction solar cells are based on a triple-junction design that consists of an InGaP top junction, a GaAs middle junction, and a bottom junction that employs either a 1eV material grown on the GaAs substrate or InGaAs grown on the Ge substrate. The most promising 1 eV material that is currently under extensive investigation is bulk dilute nitride such as InGaAsN(Sb) lattice matched to GaAs substrates. Both approaches utilizing dilute nitrides and lattice-mismatched InGaAs layers have a potential to achieve high performance triple-junction solar cells. In addition, it will be beneficial for both commercial and space applications if III-V triple-junction solar cells can significantly reduce weight and can be manufactured cost effectively while maintaining high efficiency. The most attractive approach to achieve these goals is to employ full-wafer epitaxial lift off (ELO) technology, which can eliminate the substrate weight and also enable multiple substrate re-usages. For the present study, we employed time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) techniques to study carrier dynamics in MOVPE-grown bulk dilute nitride layers lattice matched to GaAs substrates, where carrier lifetime measurements are crucial in optimizing MOVPE materials growth. We studied carrier dynamics in InGaAsN(Sb) layers with different amounts of N incorporated. Carrier lifetimes were also measured from InGaAsN(Sb) layers at different stages of post-growth thermal annealing steps. Post-growth annealing yielded significant improvements in carrier lifetimes of InGaAsNSb double hetero-structure (DH) samples compared to InGaAsN DH samples possibly due to the surfactant effect of Sb. In addition, we studied carrier dynamics in MOVPE-grown GaAs-InAl(Ga)P layers grown on GaAs substrates. The structures were grown on top of a thin AlAs release layer, which allowed epitaxial layers grown on top of the AlAs layer to be removed from the substrate. The GaAs layers had various doping densities and thicknesses. We present our TR-PL results from both pre- and post-ELO processed GaAs-InAl(Ga)P samples.

Sin, Yongkun; LaLumondiere, Stephen; Lotshaw, William; Moss, Steven C.; Kim, Tae Wan; Forghani, Kamran; Mawst, Luke J.; Kuech, Thomas F.; Tatavarti, Rao; Wibowo, Andree; Pan, Noren

2013-03-01

243

High titer growth of human and avian influenza viruses in an immortalized chick embryo cell line without the need for exogenous proteases.  

PubMed

The current method of growing influenza virus for vaccine production is through the use of embryonated chicken eggs. This manufacturing system yields a low concentration of virus per egg, requires significant downstream production for purification, and demands a considerable amount of time for production. We have demonstrated an immortalized chick embryo cell line, termed PBS-1, is capable of growing unmodified recent isolates of human and avian influenza A and B viruses to extremely high titers. In many cases, PBS-1 cells out perform primary chick embryo kidney (CEK) cells, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) in growth of recent influenza isolates. PBS-1 cells are free of any exogenous agents, are non-tumorigenic, and are readily adaptable to a variety of culture conditions, including growth on microcarrier beads. Influenza viruses grown in PBS-1 cells are released into the culture fluid without the need for exogenous proteases, thus simplifying downstream processing. In addition to offering a significant improvement in vaccine production, PBS-1 cells should prove valuable in diagnostics and as a cell line of choice for influenza virus research. PMID:18524432

Smith, Kristen A; Colvin, Christopher J; Weber, Patty S D; Spatz, Stephen J; Coussens, Paul M

2008-07-01

244

Investigation of anodic and chemical oxides grown on p-type InP with applications to surface passivation for n(+)-p solar cell fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the previously reported InP anodic oxides were grown on a n-type InP with applications to fabrication of MISFET structures and were described as a mixture of In2O3 and P2O5 stoichiometric compounds or nonstoichiometric phases which have properties similar to crystalline compounds In(OH)3, InPO4, and In(PO3)3. Details of the compositional change of the anodic oxides grown under different anodization conditions were previously reported. The use of P-rich oxides grown either by anodic or chemical oxidation are investigated for surface passivation of p-type InP and as a protective cap during junction formation by closed-ampoule sulfur diffusion. The investigation is based on but not limited to correlations between PL intensity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) chemical composition data.

Faur, Maria; Faur, Mircea; Goradia, Manju; Goradia, Chandra; Jenkins, Phillip; Jayne, Douglas; Weinberg, Irving

1991-01-01

245

Investigation of H2/CH4 mixed gas plasma post-etching process for ZnO:B front contacts grown by LP-MOCVD method in silicon-based thin-film solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new plasma post-etching method, H2/CH4 mixed gas plasma, is introduced to modify ZnO:B films grown by LP-MOCVD technique, successfully relaxing the double trade-offs, i.e., transparency/conductivity trade-off and surface texture/Voc and FF trade-off. To deeply evaluate the post-etching process, optical emission spectroscopy technique is applied to diagnose the plasma condition. Upon different etching power, three distinct possible etching mechanisms are identified by analyzing the evolution of H?*, H?*, CH* emission species in the plasma space. It is demonstrated that H?* and CH* species are responsible for the physical etching process and chemical etching process, respectively, from which a new “soft” surface morphology is formed with a combination of micro- and nano-sized texture. Additionally, H?* species can bond with ZnO and also passivate the grains boundaries, thereby making both the carrier concentration and hall mobility increase. This process is defined as chemical bonding process. Finally, pin-type a-Si:H single-junction solar cells with an optimized device structure is grown on the etched ZnO:B substrate. The corresponding electrical parameters, such as Jsc, Voc and FF, are simultaneously improved compared with the solar cell deposited on as-grown ZnO:B substrate with the same fabrication process. As a consequence, a noteworthy 8.85% conversion-efficiency is achieved with an absorber layer thickness only 160 nm.

Wang, Li; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Yamada, Takuto; Naito, Yusuke

2014-10-01

246

Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. 21, 38383852, November 15, 2010  

E-print Network

Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol. 21, 3838­3852, November 15, 2010 The SARS Coronavirus E Protein in mammalian cells and further demonstrate that the last four carboxy-terminal amino acids of E form a novel E accumulates, in SARS-CoV­infected Vero E6 cells. Ectopic expression of E in MDCKII epithelial

Boyer, Edmond

247

The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3(-)CD5(-)CD21(-) NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-?, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-? antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. PMID:25680810

Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

2015-04-17

248

Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells.  

PubMed

Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:25681796

Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun; Lv, Xiaonan; Herrler, Georg; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhou, Xingdong; Qu, Bo; Meng, Fandan; Cong, Chengcheng; Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing

2015-04-01

249

Characterization of the 3a Protein of SARS-associated Coronavirus in Infected Vero E6 Cells and SARS Patients  

E-print Network

1 , Xiao-Sheng Jiang1 , Lv Shi1 , Hu Zhou1 Lei Zhang1 , Xiao-Dong Wu2 , Ying Lin2 , Yong-Yong Ji2 , Lei Xiong2 Yan Jin2 , Er-Hei Dai4 , Xiao-Yi Wang4 , Bin-Ying Si4 , Jin Wang4 Hong-Xia Wang4 , Cui and SARS Patients Rong Zeng1 *, Rui-Fu Yang4 , Mu-De Shi2 , Man-Rong Jiang2 You-Hua Xie3 , Hong-Qiang Ruan

Tian, Weidong

250

Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B1 levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin (AF)-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during preharvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, AF accumulates in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. At least 20 different types of AFs have been identified, and of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most ubiqui...

251

Virological and Serological Findings in Rousettus aegyptiacus Experimentally Inoculated with Vero Cells-Adapted Hogan Strain of Marburg Virus  

PubMed Central

The Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, is currently regarded as a potential reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV). However, the modes of transmission, the level of viral replication, tissue tropism and viral shedding pattern remains to be described. Captive-bred R. aegyptiacus, including adult males, females and pups were exposed to MARV by different inoculation routes. Blood, tissues, feces and urine from 9 bats inoculated by combination of nasal and oral routes were all negative for the virus and ELISA IgG antibody could not be demonstrated for up to 21 days post inoculation (p.i.). In 21 bats inoculated by a combination of intraperitoneal/subcutaneous route, viremia and the presence of MARV in different tissues was detected on days 2–9 p.i., and IgG antibody on days 9–21 p.i. In 3 bats inoculated subcutaneously, viremia was detected on days 5 and 8 (termination of experiment), with virus isolation from different organs. MARV could not be detected in urine, feces or oral swabs in any of the 3 experimental groups. However, it was detected in tissues which might contribute to horizontal or vertical transmission, e.g. lung, intestines, kidney, bladder, salivary glands, and female reproductive tract. Viremia lasting at least 5 days could also facilitate MARV mechanical transmission by blood sucking arthropods and infections of susceptible vertebrate hosts by direct contact with infected blood. All bats were clinically normal and no gross pathology was identified on post mortem examination. This work confirms the susceptibility of R. aegyptiacus to infection with MARV irrespective of sex and age and contributes to establishing a bat-filovirus experimental model. Further studies are required to uncover the mode of MARV transmission, and to investigate the putative role of R. aegyptiacus as a reservoir host. PMID:23029039

Paweska, Janusz T.; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Masumu, Justin; Leman, Patricia A.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Birkhead, Monica; Clift, Sarah; Swanepoel, Robert; Kemp, Alan

2012-01-01

252

Impact of growth temperature and substrate orientation on dilute-nitride-antimonide materials grown by MOVPE for multi-junction solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen incorporation in bulk films of GaAsN, InGaAsN, and GaAsSbN films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on (100) and (311)B GaAs substrates was investigated. These films, nominally lattice-matched to a GaAs substrate, were deposited at relatively higher growth temperature (600 °C) than typically used for MOVPE-grown dilute-nitride materials (~500-530 °C), in order to reduce the background carbon impurity concentration. Even at these higher growth temperatures, sufficient N incorporation is achieved for targeting Eg~1 eV InGaAsN and GaAsN with low background carrier concentration (1-2×1017 cm-3). The presence of Sb is found to significantly inhibit N incorporation, making it challenging to achieve films of GaAsSbN grown at 600 °C with a sufficient N concentration to achieve a 1 eV band gap energy. For GaAsN and InGaAsN on (311)B GaAs substrates, increased N incorporation with lower background carbon concentration is observed, relative to films on (100) GaAs. By contrast, GaAsSbN on (311)B GaAs substrate exhibit lower-N incorporation relative to films on (100) GaAs, presumably due to surface site competition between Sb and N. The background hole carrier concentrations of thermally annealed InGaAsN and GaAsSbN on (311)B are about a factor of two lower than those on (100) GaAs substrate.

Kim, T. W.; Kuech, T. F.; Mawst, L. J.

2014-11-01

253

Bi2S3microspheres grown on graphene sheets as low-cost counter-electrode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

In this work, we synthesized 3D Bi2S3 microspheres comprised of nanorods grown along the (211) facet on graphene sheets by a solvothermal route, and investigated its catalytic activities through I-V curves and conversion efficiency tests as the CE in DSSCs. Although the (211) facet has a large band gap for a Bi2S3 semiconductor, owing to the introduction of graphene into the system, its short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency were Jsc = 12.2 mA cm(-2), Voc = 0.75 V, FF = 0.60, and ? = 5.5%, respectively. By integrating it with graphene sheets, our material achieved the conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is almost triple the best conversion efficiency value of the DSSCs with (211)-faceted 3D Bi2S3 without graphene (1.9%) reported in the latest literature. Since this conversion-efficient 3D material grown on the graphene sheets significantly improves its catalytic properties, it paves the way for designing and applying low-cost Pt-free CE materials in DSSC from inorganic nanostructures. PMID:24509629

Li, Guang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Gao, Guandao

2014-03-21

254

Characterization of peroxisomes in glucose-grown Hansenula polymorpha and their development after the transfer of cells into methanol-containing media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of Hansenula polymorpha growing exponentially on glucose generally contained a single peroxisome of small dimension, irregular in shape and located in close proximity to the cell wall. Crystalline inclusions in the peroxisomal matrix were not observed. Associations of the organelles with one or more strands of endoplasmic reticulum were evident. In stationary phase cells the size of the peroxisomes

M. Veenhuis; I. Keizer; W. Harder

1979-01-01

255

Studies on the Production of Digitalis Cardenolides by Plant Tissue Culture: II. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND PLANT GROWTH SUBSTANCES ON DIGITOXIN FORMATION BY UNDIFFERENTIATED CELLS AND SHOOT-FORMING CULTURES OF DIGITALIS PURPUREA L. GROWN IN LIQUID MEDIA.  

PubMed

Undifferentiated, highly chlorophyllous cell cultures; undifferentiated white cell cultures; green, shoot-forming cultures; and white, shoot-forming cultures of Digitalis purpurea L. were established and subcultured every 3 weeks in liquid media in the light or in the dark. The digitoxin content, the chlorophyll content, and the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity of these cultures were assayed. The light-grown, green, shoot-forming cultures accumulated considerable amounts of digitoxin (about 20 to 40 micrograms per gram dry weight), and the white, shoot-forming cultures without chloroplasts accumulated about one-third that amount of digitoxin. The chlorophyll content and the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity of the undifferentiated green cells were about the same as they were in the green, shoot-forming cultures, but the digitoxin content of the former was extremely low (about 0.05 to 0.2 microgram per gram dry weight), which is about the same as that in undifferentiated white cells without chloroplasts. Thus, it was concluded that the chloroplasts are not essential for the synthesis of digitoxin in Digitalis cells. The optimum concentrations of the tested compounds for accumulation of digitoxin were: benzyladenine, 0.01 to 1 milligram per liter; indoleacetic acid, 0.1 to 1 milligram per liter; alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid; 0.1 milligram per liter; and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.01 milligram per liter. PMID:16662267

Hagimori, M; Matsumoto, T; Obi, Y

1982-03-01

256

Graphic Grown Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

Kim, Ann

2009-01-01

257

Changes in the two-dimensional proteome of the soluble fraction of nuclear proteins from Lepidium sativum root meristematic cells grown under clinorotation.  

PubMed

The changes in the fundamental biological processes of nuclear RNA transcription and splicing under altered gravity conditions are still unclear. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the proteins involved in nuclear RNA metabolism in control and under clinorotation were investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We revealed firstly a decrease in the isoelectric point range of nuclear soluble proteins, which are known to be actively engaged in nuclear RNA metabolism, and a shortening in the molecular weight range of them under clinorotation. Moreover, minor and major proteins in clinorotated samples had decreased optical densities in comparison with control ones. Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that a rearrangement of the pattern of nuclear proteins involved in gene expression processes occurs in seedlings grown and developed in altered gravity. PMID:18372723

Sobol, M A; González-Camacho, F; Kordyum, E L; Medina, F J

2007-07-01

258

Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli, particularly serogroup O157, associated with human infections in England and Wales: 1992-4.  

PubMed Central

Investigations were performed by the Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens on Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in England and Wales from 1992-4. Bacterial isolates, faeces and sera obtained from patients with diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome were examined. Using serotyping, Vero cytotoxin gene probing and serodiagnostic tests for E. coli O157, evidence of infection was detected in 543, 434 and 491 individuals in 1992, 1993 and 1994 respectively; VTEC of serogroup O157 were isolated from 470, 385 and 411 cases. The O157 VTEC strains belonged to at least 19 different phage types (PT) although 84% belonged to PT2, PT49, PT8, PT1 or PT4. Antibodies to E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide were detected in 13% of the cases. The average annual rate of infection with O157 VTEC was 0.83/100000 and 12% of the 1458 individuals with evidence of infection with VTEC or E. coli O157 developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. There were at least 18 general outbreaks and many family outbreaks. PMID:8760944

Thomas, A.; Cheasty, T.; Frost, J. A.; Chart, H.; Smith, H. R.; Rowe, B.

1996-01-01

259

Cyclic AMP stimulation of transferrin secretion by breast cancer cell grown on extracellular matrix or in two-compartment culture chambers  

SciTech Connect

Extrahepatic synthesis and secretion of transferrin (Tf), the major iron-carrying protein, have been described in normal and tumoral tissues suggesting a potential role for paracrine or autocrine function. In breast tumor cell MCF-7, we have previously shown a Tf secretion stimulated by estradiol which might confer selective growth advantages of these rapidly proliferating cells. The present work refers to possible additional Tf functions related to differentiation of breast tumor cells. We induced MCF-7 cell differentiation by the cyclic AMP derivative, dibutyryl cAMP (dB cAMP) and studied Tf secretion in different culture conditions after labeling with (35S) methionine. Our results demonstrate that dB cAMP stimulates Tf secretion only in culture environment that permits access to the basolateral surface and caters to the polarity requirements of the cell. These results suggest that Tf may also act as a modulator of cellular differentiation in breast cancer cells.

Vandewalle, B.; Hornez, L.; Revillion, F.; Lefebvre, J. (Lab. d'Endocrinologie Experimentale, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France))

1991-06-28

260

RICKETTSIAL PHOSPHOLIPASE A 2 AS A PATHOGENIC MECHANISM IN A MODEL OF CELL INJURY BY TYPHUS AND SPOTTED FEVER GROUP RICKETTSIAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholipase A2 activity by typhus group rickettsiae causes hemolysis in vitro. Rickettsial phospholi- pase A2 has been proposed to mediate entry into the host cell, escape from the phagosome, and cause injury to host cells by both typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiae. In a rickettsial contact-associated cytotoxicity model, the interaction of Rickettsia prowazekii or R. conorii with Vero cells

DAVID H. WALKER; HUI-MIN FENG; VSEVOLOD L. POPOV

2001-01-01

261

Differences in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E growth rate in polarized endometrial and endocervical epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture.  

PubMed

In vitro studies of obligate intracellular chlamydia biology and pathogenesis are highly dependent on the use of experimental models and growth conditions that mimic the mucosal architecture and environment these pathogens encounter during natural infections. In this study, the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis genital serovar E was monitored in mouse fibroblast McCoy cells and compared to more relevant host human epithelial endometrium-derived HEC-1B and cervix-derived HeLa cells, seeded and polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, using a three-dimensional culture system. Microscopy analysis of these cell lines prior to infection revealed morphological differences reminiscent of their in vivo architecture. Upon infection, early chlamydial inclusion distribution was uniform in McCoy cells but patchy in both epithelial cell lines. Although no difference in chlamydial attachment to or entry into the two genital epithelial cell lines was noted, active bacterial genome replication and transcription, as well as initial transformation of elementary bodies to reticulate bodies, were detected earlier in HEC-1B than in HeLa cells, suggesting a faster growth, which led to higher progeny counts and titers in HEC-1B cells upon completion of the developmental cycle. Chlamydial development in the less relevant McCoy cells was very similar to that in HeLa cells, although higher progeny counts were obtained. In conclusion, this three-dimensional bead culture system represents an improved model for harvesting large quantities of infectious chlamydia progeny from their more natural polarized epithelial host cells. PMID:17088348

Guseva, Natalia V; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

2007-02-01

262

Interface ferroelectric transition near the gap-opening temperature in a single-unit-cell FeSe film grown on Nb-Doped SrTiO3 substrate.  

PubMed

We report findings of strong anomalies in both mutual inductance and inelastic Raman spectroscopy measurements of single-unit-cell FeSe film grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3, which occur near the temperature where the superconductinglike energy gap opens. Analysis suggests that the anomaly is associated with a broadened ferroelectric transition in a thin layer near the FeSe/SrTiO3 interface. The coincidence of the ferroelectric transition and gap-opening temperatures adds credence to the central role played by the film-substrate interaction on the strong Cooper pairing in this system. We discuss scenarios that could explain such a coincidence. PMID:25659015

Cui, Y-T; Moore, R G; Zhang, A-M; Tian, Y; Lee, J J; Schmitt, F T; Zhang, W-H; Li, W; Yi, M; Liu, Z-K; Hashimoto, M; Zhang, Y; Lu, D-H; Devereaux, T P; Wang, L-L; Ma, X-C; Zhang, Q-M; Xue, Q-K; Lee, D-H; Shen, Z-X

2015-01-23

263

Antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of puumala virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in insect cells.  

PubMed Central

Puumala virus (PUU) is a member of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae and the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, a European form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Sera of nephropathia epidemica patients react specifically with PUU nucleocapsid (N) protein. In order to safely provide large quantities of antigen for diagnostic purposes, PUU Sotkamo strain N protein was expressed by using the baculovirus system in Sf9 insect cells to up to 30 to 50% of the total cellular protein. The recombinant N protein (bac-PUU-N) was solubilized with 6 M urea, dialyzed, and purified by anion-exchange liquid chromatography. In an immunoglobulin M mu-capture assay purified and unpurified bac-PUU-N antigen showed identical results compared with the results of a similar assay based on native PUU antigen grown in Vero E6 cells. An immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibody-capture assay based on unpurified bac-PUU-N also showed results identical to those of an assay with native PUU-N antigen. Moreover, a panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive with eight different epitopes showed identical reactivity patterns with both natural and bac-PUU-N antigen, while two epitopes in PUU-N expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli were not recognized. Puumala hantavirus N protein expressed by the baculovirus system offers a safe and inexpensive source of specific antigen for large-scale diagnostic and seroepidemiological purposes. PMID:8748286

Vapalahti, O; Lundkvist, A; Kallio-Kokko, H; Paukku, K; Julkunen, I; Lankinen, H; Vaheri, A

1996-01-01

264

Sustained high-yield production of recombinant proteins in transiently transfected COS-7 cells grown on trimethylamine-coated (hillex) microcarrier beads.  

PubMed

The present study shows that COS-7 cells transiently transfected and maintained on positively charged (trimethylamine-coated) microcarrier beads synthesize recombinant protein at higher levels and for longer periods of time than cells transfected and maintained on polystyrene flasks in monolayer culture. Sustained, high-level synthesis was observed with secreted chimeric proteins (murine E-selectin- and P-selectin-human IgM chimeras) and a secreted hematopoietic growth factor (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Studies with green fluorescent protein indicated that the transfected cells attached more firmly to the trimethylamine-coated microcarriers than to polystyrene flasks. After 10-14 days in culture, most of the transfected cells detached from the surface of the polystyrene flasks, whereas most transfected cells remained attached to the microcarriers. The transiently transfected microcarrier cultures produced higher levels of protein per transfected cell due to this prolonged attachment. The prolonged attachment and higher output of transfected cells on microcarriers resulted in a 5-fold increase in protein production from a single transfection over two weeks. Thus, microcarrier-based transient transfection yields quantities of recombinant proteins with a significant savings of time and reagents over monolayer culture. PMID:12573000

Knibbs, Randall N; Dame, Michael; Allen, Melissa R; Ding, Yunhong; Hillegas, William J; Varani, James; Stoolman, Lloyd M

2003-01-01

265

High Efficiency GaAs/Si Monolithic Three-Terminal Cascade Solar Cells Grown by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-efficiency GaAs/Si monolithic three-terminal cascade solar cell is proposed and fabricated by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method and thermal diffusion method. The quantum efficiency in the long wavelength region was improved by using p-Si substrates with the resistivity of 10 ? ·cm as the Si bottom cells. Adopting a graded band-gap layer (GBL) of Al xGa1- xAs, the collection efficiency of the GaAs top cell was increased considerably. A total conversion efficiency of 19.1% was achieved at the AM0 condition for the GaAs/Si three-terminal cascade solar cell.

Yang, Mingju; Soga, Tetsuo; Egawa, Takashi; Jimbo, Takashi; Umeno, Masayoshi

1994-05-01

266

Human Umbilical Cord Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cells Undergo Enhanced Chondrogenic Differentiation when Grown on Nanofibrous Scaffolds and in a Sequential Two-stage Culture Medium Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current treatments used for osteoarthritis from cartilage damage have their disadvantages of donor site morbidity, complicated\\u000a surgical interventions and risks of infection and graft rejection. Recent advances in tissue engineering have offered much\\u000a promise in cartilage repair but the best cell source and in vitro system have not as yet been optimised. Human bone marrow\\u000a mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs)

Chui-Yee Fong; Arjunan Subramanian; Kalamegam Gauthaman; Jayarama Venugopal; Arijit Biswas; Seeram Ramakrishna; Ariff Bongso

267

Studies on the respiratory system of aerobically (Dark) and anaerobically (Light) grown Rhodospirillum rubrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A major part of the respiratory activity of light grown cells of Rhodospirillum rubrum is associated with a system identical with that found in dark grown cells.2.The specific activity of NADH and succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c reductase on a protein basis is the same in the particulate fraction from photosynthetic and aerobic cells. In contrast, the NADH and succinate

A. Thore; D. L. Keister; A. San Pietro

1969-01-01

268

Developmental transitions of Coxiella burnetii grown in axenic media  

PubMed Central

Coxiella burnetii undergoes a biphasic developmental cycle within its host cell that generates morphologically and physiologically distinct large cell variants (LCV) and small cell variants (SCV). During the lag phase of the C. burnetii growth cycle, non-replicating SCV differentiate into replicating LCV that in turn differentiate back into SCV during stationary phase. Nearly homogeneous SCV are observed in infected Vero cells after extended incubation (21 to 28 days). In the current study, we sought to establish whether C. burnetii developmental transitions in host cells are recapitulated during host cell-free (axenic) growth in first and second generation acidified citrate cysteine media (ACCM-1 and ACCM-2, respectively). We show that ACCM-2 supported developmental transitions and viability. Although ACCM-1 also supported SCV to LCV transition, LCV to SCV transition did not occur after extended incubation (21 days). Instead, C. burnetii exhibited a ghost-like appearance with bacteria containing condensed chromatin but otherwise devoid of cytoplasmic content. This phenotype correlated with a near total loss in viability between 14 and 21 days of cultivation. Transcriptional profiling of C. burnetii following 14 days of incubation revealed elevated expression of oxidative stress genes in ACCM-1 cultivated bacteria. ACCM-2 differs from ACCM-1 by the substitution of methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?-CD) for fetal bovine serum. Addition of M?-CD to ACCM-1 at 7 days post-inoculation rescued C. burnetii viability and lowered expression of oxidative stress genes. Thus, M?-CD appears to alleviate oxidative stress in ACCM-2 to result in C. burnetii developmental transitions and viability that mimic host cell-cultivated organisms. Axenic cultivation of C. burnetii in ACCM-2 and new methods of genetic manipulation now allow investigation of the molecular basis of C. burnetii biphasic development. PMID:24286928

Sandoz, Kelsi M.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Hansen, Bryan; Heinzen, Robert A.

2014-01-01

269

Analysis of thymic stromal cell subpopulations grown in vitro on extracellular matrix in defined medium. IV. Cytokines secreted by human thymic epithelial cells in culture and their activities on murine thymocytes and bone marrow cells.  

PubMed Central

In previous reports we described our approach to the cultivation of murine and human thymic epithelial cells in primary cultures, using defined, serum-free growth factor-supplemented medium and extracellular matrix-coated culture plates. The cells in these cultures displayed high metabolic activity and their supernatant was highly active on thymocytes. In the study reported here we analysed cytokine activities in the supernatant of human thymic epithelial cell cultures (HTES), by using the respective cytokine-dependent cell lines and by neutralization with specific monoclonal antibodies. Three cytokine activities were detected--interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage (M)-CSF. Other cytokine activities tested for [IL-1, IL-2, IL-7, interferon (IFN) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)] were negative. The effect of HTES on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation of murine thymocytes could be completely abolished by anti-IL-6 antibodies, but not by antibodies to CSF, whereas enhancement of bone marrow cell proliferation by HTES was partially inhibited by either anti-G-CSF or anti-M-CSF antibodies and completely inhibited by both antibodies, but not at all by anti-IL-6. We can thus distinguish between thymocyte-related cytokines (IL-6) and bone marrow (myeloid/monocyte) related ones (G-CSF, M-CSF) in HTES. PMID:1385312

Meilin, A; Shoham, J; Sharabi, Y

1992-01-01

270

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

271

Deuterium isotope effects on the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli cells grown on a D2O-containing minimal medium.  

PubMed

Isotope effects on the central carbon metabolism due to the addition of variable amounts of D2O (0 to 70%) were investigated with biosynthetically directed fractional 13C-labeling for Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells during exponential growth on a M9 minimal medium containing a mixture of 70% unlabeled and 30% uniformly 13C-labeled glucose as the sole carbon source. The resulting 13C-labeling patterns in the amino acids were analysed by two-dimensional [13C,1H]-correlation spectroscopy. With the aforementioned growth conditions, higher D2O contents resulted in an increase of the anaplerotic supply of the tricarboxylic acid cycle via carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate when compared to the influx of acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the addition of D2O affected the C1 metabolic pathways that involve Ser and Gly. Otherwise the E. coli cells showed identical topologies of the active biosynthetic pathways in H2O and at elevated D2O contents, and the metabolic flux ratios characterizing glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway were not measurably affected by the addition of D2O. Cells that had been adapted for growth in D2O exhibited the same response to the presence of D2O in the nutrient medium as non-adapted cells. Implications of these data for the preparation of recombinant deuterated proteins for NMR studies are discussed. PMID:10909864

Hochuli, M; Szyperski, T; Wüthrich, K

2000-05-01

272

Freestanding aligned carbon nanotube array grown on a large-area single-layered graphene sheet for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

A novel carbon nanomaterial with aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) chemically bonded to a single-layered, large area graphene sheet is designed and fabricated, showing remarkable electronic and electrocatalytic properties. When the carbon nanomaterial is used as a counter electrode, the resulting dye-sensitized solar cell exhibits ?11% enhancement of energy conversion efficiency than aligned CNT array. PMID:24889384

Qiu, Longbin; Wu, Qiong; Yang, Zhibin; Sun, Xuemei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Peng, Huisheng

2015-03-01

273

Feasibility evaluation of a new irradiation technique: three-dimensional unicursal irradiation with the Vero4DRT (MHI-TM2000)  

PubMed Central

The Vero4DRT (MHI-TM2000) is a newly designed unique image-guided radiotherapy system consisting of an O-ring gantry. This system can realize a new irradiation technique in which both the gantry head and O-ring continuously and simultaneously rotate around the inner circumference of the O-ring and the vertical axis of the O-ring, respectively, during irradiation. This technique creates three-dimensional (3D) rotational dynamic conformal arc irradiation, which we term ‘3D unicursal irradiation’. The aim of this study was to present the concept and to estimate feasibility and potential advantages of the new irradiation technique. Collision maps were developed for the technique and a 3D unicursal plan was experimentally created in reference to the collision map for a pancreatic cancer case. Thereafter, dosimetric comparisons among the 3D unicursal, a two-dimensionally rotational dynamic conformal arc irradiation (2D–DCART), and an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan were conducted. Dose volume data of the 3D unicursal plan were comparable or improved compared to those of the 2D–DCART and IMRT plans with respect to both the target and the organs at risk. The expected monitor unit (MU) number for the 3D unicursal plan was only 7% higher and 22.1% lower than the MUs for the 2D–DCART plan and IMRT plan, respectively. It is expected that the 3D unicursal irradiation technique has potential advantages in both treatment time and dose distribution, which should be validated under various conditions with a future version of the Vero4DRT fully implemented the function. PMID:22923744

Mizowaki, Takashi; Takayama, Kenji; Nagano, Kazuo; Miyabe, Yuki; Matsuo, Yukinori; Kaneko, Shuji; Kokubo, Masaki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

2013-01-01

274

Pachytene spermatocyte protein(s) stimulate sertoli cells grown in bicameral chambers: Dose-dependent secretion of ceruloplasmin, sulfated glycoprotein-1, sulfated glycoprotein-2, and transferrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Interactions between pachytene spermatocytes and Sertoli cells were investigated using the bicameral culture chamber system.\\u000a Pachytene spermatocytes were isolated from adult rats with a purity in excess of 90% by centrifugal elutriation. The pachytene\\u000a spermatocytes were cultured in a defined media and pachytene spermatocyte protein prepared from the conditioned media by dialysis\\u000a and lyophilization. This pachytene spermatocyte protein was reconstituted

Makoto Onoda; Daniel Djakiew

1991-01-01

275

Angiogenic tube formation of bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on patterns formed by H2/He plasma treatment of the plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane film.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis, the process to generate new vessels, is necessary for normal development in children as well as the wound healing and the tumor growth in adults. Therefore, it is physiologically and/or pathophysiologically significant to monitor angiogenesis. However, classical in vitro methods to evaluate angiogenesis take a long time and are expensive. Here, the authors developed a novel method to analyze the angiogenesis in a simple and economical way, using patterned films. In this study, the authors fabricated a plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) thin film deposited by capacitively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system with various plasma powers. The patterned PPHMDSO film was plasma treated by 10:90 H2/He mixture gas through a metal shadow mask. The films were characterized by water contact angle, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Our results show that the PPHMDSO film suppresses the cell adhesion, whereas surface modified PPHMDSO film enhances the cell adhesion and proliferation. From cell culture experiments, the authors found that the patterned film with 300??m line interval was most efficient to evaluate the tube formation, a sapient angiogenic indicator. This patterned film will provide an effective and promising method for evaluating angiogenesis. PMID:25724221

Park, Jisoo; Ha, Myunghoon; Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Heonyong; Yu, Jung-Hoon; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Jung, Donggeun

2015-01-01

276

Herpesvirus simiae (B virus): Replication of the virus and identification of viral polypeptides in infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The events and products of replication ofHerpesvirus simiae (B virus) in Vero cells were studied. The time course of the synthetic events of DNA replication and protein synthesis were found to be similar to the processes of the herpes simplex viruses and SA 8. Infectious progeny virus were detected by 4 hours post infection and were first found extracellularly

J. K. Hilliard; R. Eberle; S. L. Lipper; R. M. Munoz; S. A. Weiss

1987-01-01

277

Phyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries  

E-print Network

, Alnarp Print: SLU Service/Repro, Alnarp 2013 #12;Phyllosphere of Organically Grown StrawberriesPhyllosphere of Organically Grown Strawberries Interactions between the Resident Microbiota (print version) 978-91-576-7908-6 ISBN (electronic version) 978-91-576-7909-3 © 2013 Justine Sylla

278

An animal component free medium that promotes the growth of various animal cell lines for the production of viral vaccines.  

PubMed

IPT-AFM is a proprietary animal component free medium that was developed for rabies virus (strain LP 2061) production in Vero cells. In the present work, we demonstrated the versatility of this medium and its ability to sustain the growth of other cell lines and different virus strains. Here, three models were presented: Vero cells/rabies virus (strain LP 2061), MRC-5 cells/measles virus (strain AIK-C) and BHK-21 cells/rabies virus (strain PV-BHK21). The cell lines were first adapted to grow in IPT-AFM, by progressive reduction of the amount of serum in the culture medium. After their adaptation, BHK-21 cells grew in suspension by forming clumps, whereas MRC-5 cells remained adherent. Then, kinetics of cell growth were studied in agitated cultures for both cell lines. In addition, kinetics of virus replication were investigated. PMID:24583007

Rourou, Samia; Ben Ayed, Yousr; Trabelsi, Khaled; Majoul, Samy; Kallel, Héla

2014-05-19

279

Alterations of leaf cell ultrastructures and AFLP DNA profiles in Earth-grown tomato plants propagated from long-term six years Mir-flown seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf cell ultrastructures and DNA variations in the firstand the second-generation of Earthgrown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill) plants that had been endured a long-term six years spaceflight in the Mir were compared to their ground-based control plants, under observations with a Transmission Electron Microscope and the Amplification Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. For alterations in the morphological ultrastructures, one plant among the 11 first-generation plants generated from 30 Mir-flown seeds had a three-layered palisade cell structure, while other 10 first-generation plants and all ground-based controls had one-layered palisade cell structure in leaves. Starch grains were larger and in clusters, numbers of starch grains increased in the chloroplasts in the Mir-flown plants. Leaf cells became contracted and deformed, and cell shape patterns were different in the Mir-flown plants. For the leaf genomic DNA alterations, 34 DNA bands were polymorphic with a 1.32% polymorphism among 2582 DNA bands in the first-generation Mir-flown plants. Band types in the spaceflight treated plants were also different from those in the ground-based control. Of 11 survived first-generation plants, 7 spaceflight treated plants (Plant Nos. 1-6 and No. 9) had a same 7 polymorphic bands and a same 0.27%DNA mutation. The DNA mutation rate was greatest in Plants No.10 and No.7 (0.90% and 0.94%), less in Plant No.11 (0.31%) and least in Plant No.8 (0.20%). For the 38 send-generation plants propagated from the No. 5 Mir-flown seed, 6 DNA bands were polymorphic with a 0.23% polymorphism among 2564 amplified DNA bands. Among those 38 second-generation plants amplified by primer pair (E4: ACC, M8: CTT), one DNA band disappeared in 29 second-generation plants and in the original Mir-flown No. 5 plant, compared to the ground-base controls. Among the 38 second-generation plants generated from the Mir-flown No. 5 seed, the DNA band types of 29 second-generation plants were different from that of the ground-base controls and had a same 6 polymorphic bands and a same 0.23% DNA mutation. For the 49 second-generation plants derived from the Mir-flown No. 6 seed, 7 DNA bands were polymorphic with 0.27% polymorphism among 2564 amplified DNA bands. With only one exception among those 49 second-generation plants amplified by primer pair (E3: ACA, M3: CAG), one DNA band disappeared in 48 second-generation plants and in the original Mir-flown No. 6 plant, compared to the ground-based controls. Among the 49 second-generation plants generated from the Mir-flown No. 6 seed, the DNA band types of 48 second-generation plants were different from that of the ground-base controls and had a same 7 polymorphic bands and a same 0.27% DNA mutation. Our results indicated that leaf cell ultrastructures had been altered and heredity variations had been induced by seeds being exposed to a long-term outer-space environment. Further research is needed to elucidate the dynamics and mechanisms resulting in such variations. Plant biology studies in the space environment may open potential approaches to induce mutations and to screen new plant varieties by ground-based selections among spaceflight treated seeds or seedlings.

Liu, Min; Xue, Huai; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Chunhua; Lu, Jinying

280

Floc Formation by Azospirillum lipoferum Grown on Poly-?-Hydroxybutyrate †  

PubMed Central

Azospirillum lipoferum RG6xx was grown under conditions similar to those resulting in encystment of Azotobacter spp. A. lipoferum produced cells of uniform shape when grown on nitrogen-free ?-hydroxybutyrate agar. Cells accumulated poly-?-hydroxybutyrate and often grew as chains or filaments that eventually lost motility and formed capsules. Within 1 week, vegetative A. lipoferum inocula were converted into microflocs arising from filaments or chains. Cells within microflocs were pleomorphic, contained much poly-?-hydroxybutyrate, and were encapsulated. Some cells had a cystlike morphology. Up to 57% of the dry weight of encapsulated flocs was poly-?-hydroxybutyrate, whereas vegetative cells grown in broth with combined nitrogen had only 3% of their dry weight as poly-?-hydroxybutyrate. Neither encapsulated cells in flocs nor nonencapsulated vegetative cells were significantly desiccation resistant. Under starvation conditions (9 days) only 25% of encapsulated cells remained viable, whereas vegetative cells multiplied severalfold. In short-term germination experiments with encapsulated flocs, nitrate, ammonium, and soil extract promoted formation of motile vegetative cells. Most cells in treatments lacking combined nitrogen eventually depleted their visible poly-?-hydroxybutyrate reserves without germinating. The remaining cells retained the reserve polymer and underwent size reduction. Images PMID:16347792

Bleakley, Bruce H.; Gaskins, Murray H.; Hubbell, David H.; Zam, Stephan G.

1988-01-01

281

Enhancement of chemotaxis in Spirochaeta aurantia grown under conditions of nutrient limitation.  

PubMed

Spirochaeta aurantia M1 cells were grown in a chemostat under conditions of energy and carbon source limitation. The chemotactic responses of the chemostat-grown cells were compared with those of S. aurantia cells grown in batch culture in the presence of excess energy and carbon source. Chemotactic responses were measured by determining the number of cells that entered a capillary tube containing a solution of attractant. S. aurantia cells grown in the chemostat under energy and carbon source limitation exhibited enhanced chemotactic responses and detected lower concentrations of attractant, as compared with cells grown in batch culture. The chemotactic response toward an attractant was specifically enhanced when that attractant was the growth-limiting energy and carbon source. The medium used contained either D-glucose or D-xylose as the sole energy and carbon source. Cells had the greatest chemotactic response toward glucose when grown at a dilution rate (D) of 0.045 h-1 under glucose limitation and toward xylose when grown at D = 0.06 h-1 under xylose limitation. When cells were grown under glucose limitation (D = 0.045 h-1), they sensed concentrations of attractant (glucose) ca. 1,000 times lower than those sensed by batch-grown cells. A similar enhancement of sensing ability (toward xylose) was observed in cells grown under xylose limitation. The results indicated that S. aurantia cells are able to regulate their chemosensory system in response to nutrient limitation. Maximum enhancement of chemotaxis occurs in cells growing at very low concentrations of energy and carbon source. Most likely, this property provides the spirochetes with competitive advantages when the availability of nutrients becomes severely limited in their habitats. PMID:6735977

Terracciano, J S; Canale-Parola, E

1984-07-01

282

Quantitation of dengue virus specific CD4+ T cells by intracellular cytokine staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an intracellular cytokine staining assay to quantify dengue specific memory T cells elicited by a primary dengue virus (DEN) infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of volunteers who received experimental live attenuated monovalent DEN vaccines were stimulated with glutaraldehyde-inactivated dengue-infected Vero cell culture lysates from all four DEN serotypes. CD4+ T cell frequencies to previously identified MHC class

Marlou M. Mangada; Francis A. Ennis; Alan L. Rothman

2004-01-01

283

Inhibition of in vitro cell adherence of Clostridium difficile by Saccharomyces boulardii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence on the adherence of Clostridium difficile to Vero cells of the yeastSaccharomyces boulardii , the yeast fractions (cytoplasm and cell wall) and the culture supernatant was investigated in vitro. C. difficile adherence was significantly inhibited when bacteria were pre-incubated with the whole yeast and the cell wall fraction; this adherence inhibition was dose-dependent. The cell wall fraction also

Albert Tasteyre; Marie-Claude Barc; Tuomo Karjalainen; Pierre Bourlioux; Anne Collignon

2002-01-01

284

Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-decorated reduced graphene oxide with ZnO grown in situ as a cathode buffer layer for polymer solar cells.  

PubMed

A ZnO@reduced graphene oxide-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (ZnO@RGO-PVP) nanocomposite, prepared by in situ growth of ZnO nanoparticles on PVP-decorated RGO (RGO-PVP) was developed as a cathode buffer layer for improving the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). PVP not only favors homogeneous distribution of the RGO through the strong ?-? interactions between graphene and PVP molecules, but also acts as a stabilizer and bridge to control the in situ growth of sol-gel-derived ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene. At the same time, RGO provides a conductive connection for independent dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles to form uniform nanoclusters with fewer domain boundaries and surface traps. Moreover, the LUMO level of ZnO is effectively improved by modification with RGO-PVP. Compared to bare ZnO, a ZnO@RGO-PVP cathode buffer layer substantially reduces the recombination of carriers, increases the electrical conductivity, and enhances electron extraction. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency of an inverted device based on thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl C71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM) with ZnO@RGO-PVP as cathode buffer layer was greatly improved to 7.5?% with improved long-term stability. The results reveal that ZnO@RGO-PVP is universally applicable as a cathode buffer layer for improving the performance of PSCs. PMID:25345881

Hu, Ting; Chen, Lie; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Yiwang

2014-12-15

285

Nucleolus in clinostat-grown plants  

SciTech Connect

The clinostat is an apparatus that is used to mimic zero gravity in studies of plant growth in the absence of gravitropic response. Clinostat-grown tissue cultures of carrot exhibit significant increases both in the number of nuclei containing more than one nucleolus and in nucleolar volume. Oat seedlings germinated and grown on clinostats exhibit a decreased rate of shoot elongation, increased tissue sensitivity to applied auxin, and an increased response to gravitropic stimulation. Clinostat treatment clearly affects plant metabolism. The nucleolus is the region in the nucleus where ribosome synthesis and assembly take place. The 18S, 5.8S, and 25S ribosomal genes, in tandem units, are located in the nucleolus. Ribosomes orchestrate the production of all proteins that are necessary for the maintenance of cell growth, development, and survival. A full study of the effects of nullification of gravitropism, by clinostat rotation, on nucleolar development in barley has been initiated. The authors study developmental changes of nucleolar number and diameter in clinostat-grown root tissues. Preliminary results show that barley roots exhibit changes in nucleolar number and diameter. Growth rates of barley root and shoot also appear to be reduced, in measurements of both length and weight.

Shen-Miller, J.; Dannenhoffer, J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Hinchman, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-05-01

286

Use of SLAM and PVRL4 and identification of pro-HB-EGF as cell entry receptors for wild type phocine distemper virus.  

PubMed

Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) has been identified as an immune cell receptor for the morbilliviruses, measles (MV), canine distemper (CDV), rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) viruses, while CD46 is a receptor for vaccine strains of MV. More recently poliovirus like receptor 4 (PVRL4), also known as nectin 4, has been identified as a receptor for MV, CDV and PPRV on the basolateral surface of polarised epithelial cells. PVRL4 is also up-regulated by MV in human brain endothelial cells. Utilisation of PVRL4 as a receptor by phocine distemper virus (PDV) remains to be demonstrated as well as confirmation of use of SLAM. We have observed that unlike wild type (wt) MV or wtCDV, wtPDV strains replicate in African green monkey kidney Vero cells without prior adaptation, suggesting the use of a further receptor. We therefore examined candidate molecules, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and the tetraspan proteins, integrin ? and the membrane bound form of heparin binding epithelial growth factor (proHB-EGF),for receptor usage by wtPDV in Vero cells. We show that wtPDV replicates in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing SLAM and PVRL4. Similar wtPDV titres are produced in Vero and VeroSLAM cells but more limited fusion occurs in the latter. Infection of Vero cells was not inhibited by anti-CD46 antibody. Removal/disruption of GAG decreased fusion but not the titre of virus. Treatment with anti-integrin ? antibody increased rather than decreased infection of Vero cells by wtPDV. However, infection was inhibited by antibody to HB-EGF and the virus replicated in CHO-proHB-EGF cells, indicating use of this molecule as a receptor. Common use of SLAM and PVRL4 by morbilliviruses increases the possibility of cross-species infection. Lack of a requirement for wtPDV adaptation to Vero cells raises the possibility of usage of proHB-EGF as a receptor in vivo but requires further investigation. PMID:25171206

Melia, Mary M; Earle, John Philip; Abdullah, Haniah; Reaney, Katherine; Tangy, Frederic; Cosby, Sara Louise

2014-01-01

287

Use of SLAM and PVRL4 and Identification of Pro-HB-EGF as Cell Entry Receptors for Wild Type Phocine Distemper Virus  

PubMed Central

Signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) has been identified as an immune cell receptor for the morbilliviruses, measles (MV), canine distemper (CDV), rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) viruses, while CD46 is a receptor for vaccine strains of MV. More recently poliovirus like receptor 4 (PVRL4), also known as nectin 4, has been identified as a receptor for MV, CDV and PPRV on the basolateral surface of polarised epithelial cells. PVRL4 is also up-regulated by MV in human brain endothelial cells. Utilisation of PVRL4 as a receptor by phocine distemper virus (PDV) remains to be demonstrated as well as confirmation of use of SLAM. We have observed that unlike wild type (wt) MV or wtCDV, wtPDV strains replicate in African green monkey kidney Vero cells without prior adaptation, suggesting the use of a further receptor. We therefore examined candidate molecules, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and the tetraspan proteins, integrin ? and the membrane bound form of heparin binding epithelial growth factor (proHB-EGF),for receptor usage by wtPDV in Vero cells. We show that wtPDV replicates in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing SLAM and PVRL4. Similar wtPDV titres are produced in Vero and VeroSLAM cells but more limited fusion occurs in the latter. Infection of Vero cells was not inhibited by anti-CD46 antibody. Removal/disruption of GAG decreased fusion but not the titre of virus. Treatment with anti-integrin ? antibody increased rather than decreased infection of Vero cells by wtPDV. However, infection was inhibited by antibody to HB-EGF and the virus replicated in CHO-proHB-EGF cells, indicating use of this molecule as a receptor. Common use of SLAM and PVRL4 by morbilliviruses increases the possibility of cross-species infection. Lack of a requirement for wtPDV adaptation to Vero cells raises the possibility of usage of proHB-EGF as a receptor in vivo but requires further investigation. PMID:25171206

Reaney, Katherine; Tangy, Frederic; Cosby, Sara Louise

2014-01-01

288

Development of a novel, multi-analyte biosensor system for assaying cell division: Identification of cell proliferation\\/death precursor events  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, miniaturized biosensor system was created by combining the electrophysiological response of immobilized cells with superoxide-sensing technology, optical and fluorescence microscopy. Vero cells were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix (at a density of 1.7×106cellsml?1). A 0.5cm×0.5cm piece of cell-containing gel matrix was aseptically adhered on a glass microscope slide with a microfabricated gold electrode array, sealed with a

S. Kintzios; I. Marinopoulou; G. Moschopoulou; O. Mangana; K. Nomikou; K. Endo; I. Papanastasiou; A. Simonian

2006-01-01

289

Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields aren’t considered as a real carcinogenic agent despite the fact that some studies have showed impairment of the DNA integrity in different cells lines. The aim of this study was evaluation of the late effects of a 100 Hz and 5.6 mT electromagnetic field, applied continuously or discontinuously, on the DNA integrity of Vero cells assessed by alkaline Comet assay and by cell cycle analysis. Normal Vero cells were exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (100 Hz, 5.6 mT) for 45 minutes. The Comet assay and cell cycle analysis were performed 48 hours after the treatment. Results Exposed samples presented an increase of the number of cells with high damaged DNA as compared with non-exposed cells. Quantitative evaluation of the comet assay showed a significantly (<0.001) increase of the tail lengths, of the quantity of DNA in tail and of Olive tail moments, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase of the frequency of the cells in S phase, proving the occurrence of single strand breaks. The most probable mechanism of induction of the registered effects is the production of different types of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The analysis of the registered comet indices and of cell cycle showed that extremely low frequency electromagnetic field of 100 Hz and 5.6 mT had a genotoxic impact on Vero cells. PMID:24401758

2014-01-01

290

Characterization of silicon crystals grown by the heat exchanger method  

SciTech Connect

Silicon ingots grown by the Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) as large as 45 kg in mass (34 cm x 34 cm x 17 cm) are characterized electrically and structurally. The defect state in the crystal is related to the solar cell efficiency. Such characterization indicates that the solar cell efficiency of HEM crystals is limited by the crystal perfection, but that HEM silicon has the potential to yield silicon with quality comparable to Cz grown silicon. A new approach to grow HEM material of better quality is discussed.

Hyland, S.; Dumas, K.A.; Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Leung, D.; Schwuttke, G.M.

1983-05-01

291

Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO/sub 2/-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas. [Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO/sub 2/. Both air-grown cells, that have a CO/sub 2/ concentrating system, and 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO/sub 2/-grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO/sub 2/ fixation by high CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO/sub 2/-grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase.

Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

1987-07-01

292

Apoptosis as a Cause of Death in Measles Virus-Infected Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the mechanism of measles virus-induced cell death, we studied the infection of Vero cells and monocytic cell lines with wild-type (Chicago-1) and vaccine (Edmonston) strains of measles virus. DNA fragmentationindicativeofapoptosiswasapparentbyflowcytometry,agarosegelelectrophoresis,andelectron microscopy. Within syncytia, DNA strand breaks were demonstrated by end labeling with terminal transferase and then by visualization. A number of viruses have recently been shown to cause

LISA M. ESOLEN; SUK W. PARK; J. MARIE HARDWICK; ANDDIANE E. GRIFFIN

1995-01-01

293

Investigation of the uptake of drugs, carcinogens and mutagens by individual mammalian cells using a scanning proton microprobe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of micro-PIXE [1] in measuring the quantitative uptake of drugs containing metal atoms by individual Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cell line) and V79 Chinese hamster lung cells is demonstrated. One class of drugs, heteropolytungstates, which are being assessed for activity against the HIV virus, were studied using Vero cells. The cellular uptake of a series of chromium compounds, including carcinogens and mutagens, in which the metal oxidation state was either (III), (V) or (VI), was measured using V79 cells. It was found that, unlike any other techniques, scanning proton microprobe (SPM) offers both the sensitivity and spatial resolution to carry out unicellular analysis. The use of cultured cell lines in these analyses was shown to have distinct advantages over cells such as peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs).

Cholewa, M.; Turnbull, I. F.; Legge, G. J. F.; Weigold, H.; Marcuccio, S. M.; Holan, G.; Tomlinson, E.; Wright, P. J.; Dillon, C. T.; Lay, P. A.; Bonin, A. M.

1995-09-01

294

Deletion of the S component inverted repeat sequence c ? and the nonessential genes U s 1 through U s 5 from the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome substantially impairs productive viral infection in cell culture and pathogenesis in the rat central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinctive feature of the genetic make-up of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a human neurotropic virus, is that approximately half of the 81 known viral genes are not absolutely required for productive infection in Vero cells, and most can be individually deleted without substantially impairing viral replication in cell culture. If large blocks of contiguous viral genes could

Siyamak Rasty; P Luigi Poliani; David J Fink; Joseph C Glorioso

1997-01-01

295

Protein Crystals Grown in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

296

Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing

S. E. Duailibi; M. T. Duailibi; W. Zhang; R. Asrican; J. P. Vacanti; P. C. Yelick

2008-01-01

297

Penetration and intracellular growth of Brucella abortus in nonphagocytic cells in vitro.  

PubMed Central

In pregnant ruminants, Brucella abortus localizes and replicates within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of trophoblastic epithelial cells. In this study, Vero cells were exposed to B. abortus to investigate its internalization and intracellular growth in nonphagocytic cells. A new double-fluorescence staining procedure to discriminate between extracellular and intracellular bacteria was developed. Studies with the double-fluorescence staining procedure and quantitative bacteriologic culture of disrupted host cells showed that various B. abortus strains replicated within Vero cells, including smooth virulent (strains 2308S and 544), smooth attenuated (strain 19), and rough (strains 45/20 and 2308R) strains. Rough brucellae were more adherent and entered a greater number of Vero cells. Intracellular replication occurred in a larger percentage of cells with smooth virulent (2308S and 544) strains than with smooth attenuated (19) or rough (45/20 and 2308R) strains. Differences in adhesiveness and invasiveness were correlated to hydrophobicity of the organism, as measured by hydrocarbon adherence. Ultrastructurally, intracellular smooth (2308S) and rough (45/20) brucellae were consistently found within cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope. The results suggest that transfer to the rough endoplasmic reticulum is the limiting step in the infection of nonphagocytic cells by B. abortus. Images PMID:2114362

Detilleux, P G; Deyoe, B L; Cheville, N F

1990-01-01

298

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

299

Characterization of thin film cadmium sulfide grown using a modified chemical bath deposition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium sulfide polycrystalline films with potential for application as a solar cell window layer have been grown by a modified chemical bath deposition process, using ethylenediamine as a complexing agent and employing direct heating of the substrate. Films have been characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, photoconductivity, and optical absorption. Both as-grown films

M. D. Archbold; D. P. Halliday; K. Durose; T. P. A. Hase; D. Smyth-Boyle; K. Govender

2005-01-01

300

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

301

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

1998-01-01

302

Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) plays a role in SV40 infection  

SciTech Connect

Recent evidence highlighted a role for the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), in the transcription of the human polyomavirus JCV. Here we show that NFAT is also important in the transcriptional control of the related polyomavirus, Simian Virus 40 (SV40). Inhibition of NFAT activity reduced SV40 infection of Vero, 293A, and HeLa cells, and this block occurred at the stage of viral transcription. Both NFAT3 and NFAT4 bound to the SV40 promoter through {kappa}B sites located within the 72 bp repeated enhancer region. In Vero cells, NFAT was involved in late transcription, but in HeLa and 293A cells both early and late viral transcription required NFAT activity. SV40 large T-Ag was found to increase NFAT activity and provided a positive feedback loop to transactivate the SV40 promoter.

Manley, Kate [Graduate Program in Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); O'Hara, Bethany A. [Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Atwood, Walter J. [Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)], E-mail: Walter_Atwood@Brown.edu

2008-03-01

303

Response to copper of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 grown in elemental sulfur.  

PubMed

The response of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 to copper was analyzed in sulfur-grown cells by using quantitative proteomics. Forty-seven proteins showed altered levels in cells grown in the presence of 50 mM copper sulfate. Of these proteins, 24 were up-regulated and 23 down-regulated. As seen before in ferrous iron-grown cells, there was a notorious up-regulation of RND-type Cus systems and different RND-type efflux pumps, indicating that these proteins are very important in copper resistance. Copper also triggered the down-regulation of the major outer membrane porin of A. ferrooxidans in sulfur-grown bacteria, suggesting they respond to the metal by decreasing the influx of cations into the cell. On the contrary, copper in sulfur-grown cells caused an overexpression of putative TadA and TadB proteins known to be essential for biofilm formation in bacteria. Surprisingly, sulfur-grown microorganisms showed increased levels of proteins related with energy generation (rus and petII operons) in the presence of copper. Although rus operon is overexpressed mainly in cells grown in ferrous iron, the up-regulation of rusticyanin in sulfur indicates a possible role for this protein in copper resistance as well. Finally, copper response in A. ferrooxidans appears to be influenced by the substrate being oxidized by the microorganism. PMID:25041950

Almárcegui, Rodrigo J; Navarro, Claudio A; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; von Bernath, Diego; Jerez, Carlos A

2014-11-01

304

Thermal Stability of Corrugated Epitaxial Graphene Grown on Re(0001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a novel approach to determine the relationship between the corrugation and the thermal stability of epitaxial graphene grown on a strongly interacting substrate. According to our density functional theory calculations, the C single layer grown on Re(0001) is strongly corrugated, with a buckling of 1.6 Å, yielding a simulated C 1s core level spectrum which is in excellent agreement with the experimental one. We found that corrugation is closely knit with the thermal stability of the C network: C-C bond breaking is favored in the strongly buckled regions of the moiré cell, though it requires the presence of diffusing graphene layer vacancies.

Miniussi, E.; Pozzo, M.; Baraldi, A.; Vesselli, E.; Zhan, R. R.; Comelli, G.; Mente?, T. O.; Niño, M. A.; Locatelli, A.; Lizzit, S.; Alfè, D.

2011-05-01

305

The expression of native and cultured RPE grown on different matrices.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to determine the expression profiles of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown on different matrices and to assess the degree of culture-induced artifact by comparing the profiles to native RPE. Visually confluent ARPE-19 cells were grown on plastic, Matrigel, collagen I, collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin for 1 wk, and serum was withdrawn for 3 days. Morphologically normal, macular RPE cells were laser-capture microdissected from three human eye globes. Total RNA was extracted from 5,000 cells and reverse transcribed, and radiolabeled cDNA probes were hybridized to an array containing 4,325 known genes. Arrays were assessed by cluster analysis and significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). Real-time RT-PCR was used to validate differentially expressed genes. Despite similar morphology, ARPE-19 demonstrated different expression profiles when grown on different matrices. Cluster analysis showed that cells grown on collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin had similar profiles that were distinct from cells grown on collagen I. Cells grown on plastic clustered closest to native RPE. This expression pattern was confirmed with supervised cluster analyses. The number of differentially expressed genes, function of differentially expressed genes, and profile of expressed and unexpressed genes suggest that the overall expression profile of cultured cells is significantly different from native RPE. RPE cells grown on collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin have profiles more similar than cells grown on plastic, Matrigel, or collagen I. The overall mRNA phenotype, however, is different from morphologically normal, native macular RPE. PMID:14982971

Tian, Jane; Ishibashi, Kazuki; Handa, James T

2004-04-13

306

In situ quantification of microcarrier animal cell cultures using near-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-line monitoring tools are still required to understand and control animal cell processes, particularly in the case of vaccine production. Here, in situ near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) quantification of components in culture media was performed using microcarrier-based cultivations of adherent Vero cells. Because microcarriers were found to interfere with NIRS spectra acquisition, a suitable and innovative in situ calibration was developed

Emma Petiot; Patrick Bernard-Moulin; Thierry Magadoux; Cécile Gény; Hervé Pinton; Annie Marc

2010-01-01

307

Cytotoxic effects of mycotoxin combinations in mammalian kidney cells.  

PubMed

The cytotoxicity of three Fusarium mycotoxins (beauvericin, deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin) has been investigated using the NR assay, after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation. The IC(50) values ranged from 6.77 to 11.08, 3.30 to 10.00 and 0.004 to 0.005 for beauvericin, deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin, respectively. Once the potential interaction has been detected, a quantitative assessment is necessary to ensure and characterize these interactions, that is, each mycotoxin contributes to the toxic effect in accord with its own potency. Combination of mycotoxins was determined in Vero cells after 24, 48 and 72h of exposure. Isobolograms and median effect method of Chou and Talalay were used to assess the nature and quantitative aspects of interaction observed between studied mycotoxins. Median effect analysis was used to calculate the combination index (CI) with values >1 indicating synergism, 1 additive effect, and <1 antagonism. CI values of BEA+DON (1.22-2.74), BEA+T-2 toxin (1.43-5.89), DON+T-2 toxin (3.13-7.62) and BEA+DON+T-2 toxin (1.32-2.68) for 24, 48 and 72h produced antagonistic effects in Vero cells. The highest antagonistic effect in Vero cells was observed with binary DON and T-2 toxin mixture. PMID:21798303

Ruiz, María-José; Macáková, Petra; Juan-García, Ana; Font, Guillermina

2011-10-01

308

Fast Plants Grown in Light and Dark  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photograph of two five-day-old Standard Fast Plants grown in Bottle Growing Systems--one grown with full light, one grown in the dark. This is a good example of a quick way to stimulate discussion about the matter and energy sources and needs that germinating seeds have in comparison to seedlings or plants.

Lauffer, Hedi Baxter

309

Entrapment of Bacteria in Fluid Inclusions in Laboratory-Grown Halite  

E-print Network

Cells of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which were genetically modified to produce green fluorescent protein, were entrapped in fluid inclusions in laboratory-grown halite. The bacteria were used to inoculate NaCl-saturated aqueous solutions...

Adamski, J.C.; Roberts, Jennifer A.; Goldstein, Robert H.

2006-08-17

310

Physical and Microstructural Properties of Radio-Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown n-Type Phosphorus Doped Amorphous Carbon Films on the Contribution to Carbon-Based Solar Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and microstructural properties of phosphorus doped n-type amorphous carbon (n-C:P) films grown from a radio-frequency (rf) discharge in methane gas as a function of rf power (Prf) was previously determined, and their influence on the electronic properties is now analyzed. It is shown that Prf plays a major role in the deposition of n-C:P films. The Raman scattering,

Mohamad Rusop; Hiroshi Ebisu; Mitsuhiro Adachi; Tetsuo Soga; Takashi Jimbo

2005-01-01

311

High-efficiency solar cells fabricated from direct-current magnetron sputtered n-indium tin oxide onto p-InP grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt is made to improve device efficiencies by depositing indium tin oxide onto epitaxially grown p-InP on p(+)-InP substrates. This leads to a reduction in the device series resistance, high-quality reproducible surfaces, and an improvement in the transport properties of the base layer. Moreover, many of the facets associated with badly characterized bulk liquid encapsulated Czochralski substrates used in previous investigations are removed in this way.

Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

1989-01-01

312

Mixed infections in vitro with different Chlamydiaceae strains and a cell culture adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming a synergistic or additive effect of Chlamydiaceae in coexistence with other enteropathogenic agents, the viral\\/bacterial interaction between a cell culture adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (ca-PEDV) and different Chlamydiaceae strains was studied in vitro. Vero cells were dually infected with ca-PEDV and one of the three chlamydial strains Chlamydia trachomatis S45, Chlamydophila abortus S26\\/3 or Chlamydophila pecorum 1710S. Three

Angela Stuedli; Paula Grest; Irene Schiller; Andreas Pospischil

2005-01-01

313

Antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and Euphorbia hirta on Shigella spp.--a cell culture study.  

PubMed

Antibacterial effect of compounds extracted from Camellia sinensis L. and the methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L. were studied against dysentery causing Shigella spp. using the Vero cell line. Cytotoxicity studies of the extracts were performed using the cell line and the non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract was tested for antibacterial activity against the cytopathic dose of the pathogen. These extracts were found to be non-cytotoxic and effective antibacterial agents. PMID:8847884

Vijaya, K; Ananthan, S; Nalini, R

1995-12-01

314

Phase I clinical trial with IL-2-transfected xenogeneic cells administered in subcutaneous metastatic tumours: clinical and immunological findings  

PubMed Central

Various studies have emphasized an immunodepression state observed at the tumour site. To reverse this defect and based upon animal studies, we initiated a phase I clinical trial of gene therapy in which various doses of xenogeneic monkey fibroblasts (Vero cells) genetically engineered to produce human IL-2 were administered intratumorally in 8 patients with metastatic solid tumours. No severe adverse effect was observed in the 8 patients analysed during this clinical trial even in the highest dose (5 ¥ 107 cells) group. This absence of toxicity seems to be associated with rapid elimination of Vero-IL-2 cells from the organism. Indeed, exogenous IL-2 mRNA could no longer be detected in the peripheral whole blood 48 hours after Vero-IL-2 cell administration. In addition, we did not find any expression of exogenous IL-2 mRNA in post-therapeutic lesions removed 29 days after the start of therapy. A major finding of this trial concerns the two histological responses of two treated subcutaneous nodules not associated with an apparent clinical response. The relationship between local treatment and tumour regression was supported by replacement of tumour cells by inflammatory cells in regressing lesions and marked induction of T and natural killer cell derived cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IFNg …) in post-therapeutic lesions analysed 28 days after the start of Vero-IL-2 administration. Gene therapy using xenogeneic cells as vehicle may therefore present certain advantages over other vectors, such as its complete absence of toxicity. Furthermore, the in vivo biological effect of immunostimulatory genes, i.e IL-2-, may be potentiated by the xenogeneic rejection reaction. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11076653

Tartour, E; Mehtali, M; Sastre-Garau, X; Joyeux, I; Mathiot, C; Pleau, J M; Squiban, P; Rochlitz, C; Courtney, M; Jantscheff, P; Herrmann, R; Pouillart, P; Fridman, W H; Dorval, T

2000-01-01

315

Generation of influenza vaccine viruses on Vero cells by reverse genetics: an H5N1 candidate vaccine strain produced under a quality system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human influenza vaccine reference strains are prepared as required when an antigenically new strain is recommended by WHO for inclusion in the vaccine. Currently, for influenza A, these strains are produced by a double infection of embryonated hens’ eggs using the recommended strain and the laboratory strain PR8 which grows to high titre in eggs, in order to produce a

Carolyn Nicolson; Diane Major; John M. Wood; James S. Robertson

2005-01-01

316

Carbonic anhydrase activity in acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell extracts (27000xg supernatant) of acetate grown Methanosarcina barkeri were found to have carbonic anhydrase activity (0.41 U\\/mg protein), which was lost upon heating or incubation with proteinase K. The activity was inhibited by Diamox (apparent Ki=0.5 mM), by azide (apparent Ki=1 mM), and by cyanide (apparent Ki=0.02 mM). These and other properties indicate that the archaebacterium contains the enzyme

Marion Karrasch; Michael Bott; Rudolf K. Thauer

1989-01-01

317

Listeria monocytogenes grown at 7° C shows reduced acid survival and an altered transcriptional response to acid shock compared to L. monocytogenes grown at 37° C.  

PubMed

Survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in acidic environments (e.g., in the human stomach) is vital to its transmission. Refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods have been sources of listeriosis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth at a low temperature (i.e., 7°C) affects L. monocytogenes survival or gene transcription after exposure to a simulated gastric environment (i.e., acid shock at 37°C). L. monocytogenes cells grown at 7°C were less resistant to artificial gastric fluid (AGF) or acidified brain heart infusion broth (ABHI) than bacteria grown at higher temperatures (i.e., 30°C or 37°C). For L. monocytogenes grown at 7°C, stationary-phase cells were more resistant to ABHI than log-phase cells, indicating that both temperature and growth phase affect acid survival. Microarray transcriptomic analysis revealed that the number and functional categories of genes differentially expressed after acid shock differed according to both growth temperature and growth phase. The acid response of L. monocytogenes grown to log phase at 37°C involved stress-related transcriptional regulators (i.e., ?(B), ?(H), CtsR, and HrcA), some of which have been implicated in adaptation to the intracellular environment. In contrast, for bacteria grown at 7°C to stationary phase, acid exposure did not result in differential expression of the stress regulons examined. However, two large operons encoding bacteriophage-like proteins were induced, suggesting lysogenic prophage induction. The adaptive transcriptional response observed in 37°C-grown cells was largely absent in 7°C-grown cells, suggesting that temperatures commonly encountered during food storage and distribution affect the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive gastric passage and ultimately cause disease. PMID:22447604

Ivy, R A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

2012-06-01

318

Strain Variation in Glycosaminoglycan Recognition Influences Cell-Type-Specific Binding by Lyme Disease Spirochetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyme disease, a chronic multisystemic disorder that can affect the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Lyme disease spirochetes were previously shown to bind glycosamino- glycans (GAGs). In the current study, the GAG-binding properties of eight Lyme disease strains were deter- mined. Binding by two high-passage HB19 derivatives to Vero cells could not

NIKHAT PARVEEN; DOUGLAS ROBBINS; JOHN M. LEONG

1999-01-01

319

Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.  

PubMed

The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. PMID:23648758

Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

2013-07-01

320

African Swine Fever Virus IAP Homologue Inhibits Caspase Activation and Promotes Cell Survival in Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

African swine fever virus (ASFV) A224L is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. We have investigated the antiapoptotic function of the viral IAP both in stably transfected cells and in ASFV-infected cells. A224L was able to substantially inhibit caspase activity and cell death induced by treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha and cycloheximide or staurosporine when overexpressed in Vero cells by gene transfection. We have also observed that ASFV infection induces caspase activation and apoptosis in Vero cells. Furthermore, using a deletion mutant of ASFV lacking the A224L gene, we have shown that the viral IAP modulates the proteolytic processing of the effector cell death protease caspase-3 and the apoptosis which are induced in the infected cells. Our findings indicate that A224L interacts with the proteolytic fragment of caspase-3 and inhibits the activity of this protease during ASFV infection. These observations could indicate a conserved mechanism of action for ASFV IAP and other IAP family members to suppress apoptosis. PMID:11222676

Nogal, María L.; González de Buitrago, Gonzalo; Rodríguez, Clara; Cubelos, Beatriz; Carrascosa, Angel L.; Salas, María L.; Revilla, Yolanda

2001-01-01

321

The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Regulatory Protein ICP27 Is Required for the Prevention of Apoptosis in Infected Human Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP27 protein is an immediate-early or a protein which is essential for the optimal expression of late genes as well as the synthesis of viral DNA in cultures of Vero cells. Our specific goal was to characterize the replication of a virus incapable of synthesizing ICP27 in cultured human cells. We found that

MARTINE AUBERT; JOHN A. BLAHO

1999-01-01

322

Microcarriers for high-pressure freezing and cryosectioning of adherent cells.  

PubMed

A method is described employing microcarrier spheres of cross-linked dextran for obtaining ultra- and semithin vitreous sections from high-pressure frozen anchorage-dependent (mammalian) cells. Avoiding trypsination or scraping cells off from the culture surface, the presented approach allows for cryoimmobilization, cryosectioning and cryoelectron microscopy/tomography of frozen-hydrated cells in an unperturbed manner which is important to preserve the native state of, for instance, the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, our studies on the 'life cycle' of Herpes simplex virus in Vero cells demonstrate that cell monolayers on microcarrier beads are well suited for fluorescence microscopic characterization of the sample prior to high-pressure freezing. PMID:18445159

Hagen, C; Grünewald, K

2008-05-01

323

Nectin4 Is an Epithelial Cell Receptor for Canine Distemper Virus and Involved in Neurovirulence  

PubMed Central

Canine distemper virus (CDV) uses signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), expressed on immune cells, as a receptor. However, epithelial and neural cells are also affected by CDV in vivo. Wild-type CDV strains showed efficient replication with syncytia in Vero cells expressing dog nectin4, and the infection was blocked by an anti-nectin4 antibody. In dogs with distemper, CDV antigen was preferentially detected in nectin4-positive neurons and epithelial cells, suggesting that nectin4 is an epithelial cell receptor for CDV and also involved in its neurovirulence. PMID:22761370

Pratakpiriya, Watanyoo; Seki, Fumio; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Sakai, Kouji; Fukuhara, Hideo; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hirai, Takuya; Maenaka, Katsumi; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Takeda, Makoto

2012-01-01

324

SU-E-J-70: Feasibility Study of Dynamic Arc and IMRT Treatment Plans Utilizing Vero Treatment Unit and IPlan Planning Computer for SRS/FSRT Brain Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of utilizing Dynamic Arc (DA) and IMRT with 5mm MLC leaf of VERO treatment unit for SRS/FSRT brain cancer patients with non-invasive stereotactic treatments. The DA and IMRT plans using the VERO unit (BrainLab Inc, USA) are compared with cone-based planning and proton plans to evaluate their dosimetric advantages. Methods: The Vero treatment has unique features like no rotational or translational movements of the table during treatments, Dynamic Arc/IMRT, tracking of IR markers, limitation of Ring rotation. Accuracies of the image fusions using CBCT, orthogonal x-rays, and CT are evaluated less than ? 0.7mm with a custom-made target phantom with 18 hidden targets. 1mm margin is given to GTV to determine PTV for planning constraints considering all the uncertainties of planning computer and mechanical uncertainties of the treatment unit. Also, double-scattering proton plans with 6F to 9F beams and typical clinical parameters, multiple isocenter plans with 6 to 21 isocenters, and DA/IMRT plans are evaluated to investigate the dosimetric advantages of the DA/IMRT for complex shape of targets. Results: 3 Groups of the patients are divided: (1) Group A (complex target shape), CI's are same for IMRT, and DGI of the proton plan are better by 9.5% than that of the IMRT, (2) Group B, CI of the DA plans (1.91+/?0.4) are better than cone-based plan, while DGI of the DA plan is 4.60+/?1.1 is better than cone-based plan (5.32+/?1.4), (3) Group C (small spherical targets), CI of the DA and cone-based plans are almost the same. Conclusion: For small spherical targets, cone-based plans are superior to other 2 plans: DS proton and DA plans. For complex or irregular plans, dynamic and IMRT plans are comparable to cone-based and proton plans for complex targets.

Huh, S; Lee, S; Dagan, R; Malyapa, R; Mendenhall, N; Mendenhall, W; Ho, M; Hough, D; Yam, M; Li, Z [UFPTI, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2014-06-01

325

Vitamin C content of organically grown produce  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organically grown produce is the fastest growing sector of fresh market sales in the U.S. While accounting for only 3% of total produce sales, it is growing by 20% per year. There has been much debate over the relative health merits of organically grown fruits and vegetables. Most consumers believ...

326

Variations of two pools of glycogen and carbohydrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown with various ethanol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycogen, a major reservoir of energy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is found to be present as soluble and membrane-bound insoluble pools. Yeast cells can store excess glycogen when grown in\\u000a media with higher concentration of sugar or when subjected to nutritional stress conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM-3300 was grown in media having ethanol concentrations up to 12% (v\\/v). The effects of externally

M. S. Dake; J. P. Jadhv; N. B. Patil

2010-01-01

327

Ear Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spindly cells in the inner ear, called "hair" cells, are critical for both hearing and balance. Now, in a boon for research, neuro-scientists Jeffrey Corwin and Zhenqing Hu at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have finally grown and multiplied these cells in the lab.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-05-06

328

Dihydroxyacetone synthase is localized in the peroxisomal matrix of methanol-grown Hansenula polymorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcellular localization of dihydroxyacetone synthase (DHAS) in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha was studied by various biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. After cell fractionation involving differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of protoplast homogenates prepared from methanol-grown cells, DHAS cosedimented with the peroxisomal enzymes alcohol oxidase and catalase. Electron microscopy of this fraction showed that it contained mainly intact peroxisomes, whereas

Anneke C. Douma; Marten Veenhuis; Wim de Koning; Melchior Evers; Wire Harder

1985-01-01

329

MBE grown iron-based nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in magnetic nanostructures has increased rapidly because of their potential applications in a number of magnetic nanotechnologies such as high-density magnetic recording media, magnetic field sensors, magnetic nanoprobes for spin-polarized microscopy and cell manipulation in biomedical technology. Successful incorporation of ferromagnetic nanostructures in semiconductors may open a new area in spintronic applications. In this study, two kinds of Fe-based nanostructures were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technique, namely, Fe quantum dots (QDs) and Fe nanowires (NWs). For Fe QDs, a multilayer magnetic QD sample containing 5 layers of Fe QDs embedded in 6 layers of ZnS spacer was grown on a GaP(100) substrate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations reveal that the Fe QDs are single crystalline with spherical shape of diameters around 3 to 4 nm and area density of 1.5 x 1012 cm-2 . Its zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) curves measured at low field (100 Oe) show the magnetic relaxation effect with a blocking temperature around 26 K. The hysteresis loop measured at 5 K shows a coercivity of 83 Oe, confirming the slow relaxation process and coercivity enhancement attributed to the nanoparticle nature of the sample. To study the transport property of Fe QDs, a Au/ZnS/Fe-QDs/ZnS/n+-GaAs Schottky-barrier structure containing 5 layers of Fe QDs was fabricated on a n+-GaAs(100) substrate. Its current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measured from 5 to 295 K display negative differential resistance (NDR) for temperature . 50 K, which is caused by the presence of Fe QDs. The highest peak-to-valley current ratio obtained at 5 K is as high as 15:1. Staircase-like I-V characteristic was also observed at low temperature in some devices fabricated from this structure. Possible mechanisms that can account for the observed unusual I-V characteristics in this structure were discussed. Two types of self-assembled Fe NWs were grown on ZnS/GaP(100) surface under high growth/annealing temperature. The Type-A Fe NWs orient along the ZnS[110] direction with irregular shape, while the type-B Fe NWs orient along either the ZnS[180] or [810] direction with seemingly straight shape. Detailed HRTEM and selected area diffraction (SAD) studies reveal that both types were single-crystalline with their elongated axis along the Fe<100> direction family possibly due to the fact that the easy axis of Fe is along this direction. We have proposed a mean-field model to explain the slight misalignment of the type-B Fe NWs. The I-V characteristic of a single type-B Fe NW measured at room temperature displays a straight line nature corresponding to a resistivity about 2.3 x 10-7Om.

Lok, Shu Kin

330

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2012-01-01

331

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2010-01-01

332

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2011-01-01

333

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2013-01-01

334

7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section...AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown...

2014-01-01

335

A recombinant measles vaccine virus expressing wild-type glycoproteins: consequences for viral spread and cell tropism.  

PubMed

Wild-type, lymphotropic strains of measles virus (MV) and tissue culture-adapted MV vaccine strains possess different cell tropisms. This observation has led to attempts to identify the viral receptors and to characterize the functions of the MV glycoproteins. We have functionally analyzed the interactions of MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of vaccine (Edmonston) and wild-type (WTF) strains in different combinations in transfected cells. Cell-cell fusion occurs when both Edmonston F and H proteins are expressed in HeLa or Vero cells. The expression of WTF glycoproteins in HeLa cells did not result in syncytia, yet they fused efficiently with cells of lymphocytic origin. To further investigate the role of the MV glycoproteins in virus cell entry and also the role of other viral proteins in cell tropism, we generated recombinant vaccine MVs containing one or both glycoproteins from WTF. These viruses were viable and grew similarly in lymphocytic cells. Recombinant viruses expressing the WTFH protein showed a restricted spread in HeLa cells but spread efficiently in Vero cells. Parental WTF remained restricted in both cell types. Therefore, not only differential receptor usage but also other cell-specific factors are important in determining MV cell tropism. PMID:10400788

Johnston, I C; ter Meulen, V; Schneider-Schaulies, J; Schneider-Schaulies, S

1999-08-01

336

Molecule diagram from space-grown crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers' at Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, in Buffalo, N.Y. have analyzed the molecular structures of insulin crystals grown during Space Shuttle experiments and are unlocking the mystery of how insulin works.

2004-01-01

337

Nutrition of container?grown freesias  

Microsoft Academic Search

As limited information is available on the nutrition of freesias an experiment was carried out to examine the influence of nutrients on foliage and corm growth, and flowering of container?grown plants. The experiment ran for 10 months using seedlings grown in a peat:sand (3:1,v:v) medium with combinations of varying levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and lime. Nitrogen

M. Thomas; S. Matheson; M. Spurway

1998-01-01

338

Microwave Heating Inactivates Shiga Toxin (Stx2) in Reconstituted Fat-Free Milk and Adversely Affects the Nutritional Value of Cell Culture Medium.  

PubMed

Microwave exposure is a convenient and widely used method for defrosting, heating, and cooking numerous foods. Microwave cooking is also reported to kill pathogenic microorganisms that often contaminate food. In this study, we tested whether microwaves would inactivate the toxicity of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) added to 5% reconstituted fat-free milk administered to monkey kidney Vero cells. Heating of milk spiked with Stx2 in a microwave oven using a 10% duty cycle (cycle period of 30 s) for a total of 165 kJ energy or thermal heating (pasteurization), widely used to kill pathogenic bacteria, did not destroy the biological effect of the toxin in the Vero cells. However, conventional heating of milk to 95 °C for 5 min or at an increased microwave energy of 198 kJ reduced the Stx2 activity. Gel electrophoresis showed that exposure of the protein toxin to high-energy microwaves resulted in the degradation of its original structure. In addition, two independent assays showed that exposure of the cell culture medium to microwave energy of 198 kJ completely destroyed the nutritional value of the culture medium used to grow the Vero cells, possibly by damaging susceptible essential nutrients present in the medium. These observations suggest that microwave heating has the potential to destroy the Shiga toxin in liquid food. PMID:24669932

Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

2014-03-26

339

The changes in Tps1 activity, trehalose content and expression of TPS1 gene in the psychrotolerant yeast Guehomyces pullulans 17-1 grown at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The psychrotolerant yeast Guehomyces pullulans 17-1 grows the best at 15 °C. When the yeast cells grown at 15 °C for 48 h were transferred to new medium and grown at 10, 15, and 25 °C, respectively, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) activity and trehalose content of the yeast cells grown at 25 °C were higher than those of the yeast cells grown at 10 and 15 °C. However, Tps1 activity and trehalose content of the yeast cells grown at 10 °C were lower than those of the yeast cells grown at 15 °C. This may suggest that trehalose synthesized by G. pullulans 17-1 only can play more important role in its adaption to high temperature than in its adaption to low temperature. After the GPTPS1 gene encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase was cloned from the psychrotolerant yeast, it was found that the promoter of the gene contained several stress-response elements such as C4T and AG4, indicating that the gene expression might be regulated by heat shock. It was also found that the transcriptional level of the GPTPS1 gene in the yeast cells grown at 25 °C was higher than that of the GPTPS1 gene in the yeast cells grown at 10 and 15 °C. However, the transcriptional level of the GPTPS1 gene in the yeast cells grown at 10 °C was lower than that of the yeast cells grown at 15 °C. This meant that expression of the GPTPS1 gene was constant with the changes in Tps1 activity and trehalose content of the yeast cells. PMID:23334305

Zhang, Fang; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Chi, Zhe; Raoufi, Zeinab; Abdollahi, Sajad; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2013-03-01

340

Some karyological observations on plants grown in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to assess whether cell division in a plant root would be affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Root materials from sunflower, oat, and mung bean plants grown on STS-2 and STS-3 were utilized for the experiments. It is found that all oat, sunflower, and mung seedlings showed a reduced number of cells in division as they went through their first cell division cycle on earth when compared to their ground controls. A significant number of oat, mung, and sunflower plantlets exhibited random root orientation and the lack of strictly orthotropic growth of their shoot systems in the flight samples. In addition, it is found that the mung roots were apparently least affected in terms of their cytology despite the fact that their roots were often randomly oriented.

Krikorian, A. D.; Oconnor, S. A.

1982-01-01

341

Dengue Virus Type 1 Nonstructural Glycoprotein NS1 Is Secreted from Mammalian Cells as a Soluble Hexamer in a Glycosylation-Dependent Fashion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonstructural glycoprotein NS1, specified by dengue virus type 1 (Den-1), is secreted from infected green monkey kidney (Vero) cells in a major soluble form characterized by biochemical and biophysical means as a unique hexameric species. This noncovalently bound oligomer is formed by three dimeric subunits and has a molecular mass of 310 kDa and a Stokes radius of 64.4 Å.

MARIE FLAMAND; FRANCOISE MEGRET; MAGALI MATHIEU; JEAN LEPAULT; FELIX A. REY; VINCENT DEUBEL; Biochimie Structurales

1999-01-01

342

Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use websites to review about cells and cell processes. The Cell Look inside a cell The Virtual Cell Another inside view of a cell. Click on the worksheet. Cells of the body Look inside cells of the body Cells Flash cards Practice cell parts with functions. Cell Concentration Play concentration matching game. Cell Differentiation Movie Watch how cells change as an organism develops. Cell Organelle Table Review Cell Organelles Inside a Cell Look Inside a Cell Nobel Prize Educational Games Play games while learning about ...

Mrs. McNees

2010-09-28

343

Human Colon Cancer Cells Cultivated in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within five days, bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells (shown) grown in Microgravity on the STS-70 mission in 1995, had grown 30 times the volume of the control specimens on Earth. The samples grown in space had a higher level of cellular organization and specialization. Because they more closely resemble tumors found in the body, microgravity grown cell cultures are ideal for research purposes.

1995-01-01

344

Cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 export to uninfected cells exosomes containing STING, viral mRNAs, and microRNAs.  

PubMed

STING (stimulator of IFN genes) activates the IFN-dependent innate immune response to infection on sensing the presence of DNA in cytosol. The quantity of STING accumulating in cultured cells varies; it is relatively high in some cell lines [e.g., HEp-2, human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL), and HeLa] and low in others (e.g., Vero cells). In a preceding publication we reported that STING was stable in four cell lines infected with herpes simplex virus 1 and that it was actively stabilized in at least two cell lines derived from human cancers. In this report we show that STING is exported from HEp-2 cells to Vero cells along with virions, viral mRNAs, microRNAs, and the exosome marker protein CD9. The virions and exosomes copurified. The quantity of STING and CD9 exported from one cell line to another was inoculum-size-dependent and reflected the levels of STING and CD9 accumulating in the cells in which the virus inoculum was made. The export of STING, an innate immune sensor, and of viral mRNAs whose major role may be in silencing viral genes in latently infected neurons, suggests that the virus has evolved mechanisms that curtail rather than foster the spread of infection under certain conditions. PMID:25368198

Kalamvoki, Maria; Du, Te; Roizman, Bernard

2014-11-18

345

Using Speckle Dynamics for Comparison of the Metabolic Activity of Different Cell Cultures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of speckles in the image plane of a monolayer of cells cultivated on a glass substrate has been recorded. Cell cultures HEL-3, L-41, and Vero were selected as the objects of research. The digitized value of the radiation intensity I in one pixel and the parameter ? characterizing the change in the intensity distribution on an 10 × 10 pixel area was recorded for 24 hours. The multiple determinacy coefficient of three cell cultures, which was obtained from the time dependences of ?, was equal to 0.94.

Vladimirov, A. P.; Malygin, A. S.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.; Borodin, E. M.; Bakharev, A. A.; Poryvaeva, A. P.

2015-01-01

346

Changes in fatty acids, amino acids and carbon\\/nitrogen biomass during nitrogen starvation of ammonium- and nitrate-grown Isochrysis galbana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of cells ofIsochrysis galbana with either nitrate or ammonium as the N-source, and the effects of subsequent N-starvation of these cells, were compared.\\u000a During exponential N-sufficient growth nitrate-grown cells had double the fatty acid content of the ammonium-grown cells but\\u000a lower concentrations of a few amino acids. Following resuspension in N-free medium the fatty acid content of the ammonium-grown

K. J. Flynn; J. L. Garrido; M. Zapata; H. Öpik; C. R. Hipkin

1992-01-01

347

Single-fraction spine SBRT end-to-end testing on TomoTherapy, Vero, TrueBeam, and CyberKnife treatment platforms using a novel anthropomorphic phantom.  

PubMed

Spine SBRT involves the delivery of very high doses of radiation to targets adjacent to the spinal cord and is most commonly delivered in a single fraction. Highly conformal planning and accurate delivery of such plans is imperative for successful treatment without catastrophic adverse effects. End-to-end testing is an important practice for evaluating the entire treatment process from simulation through treatment delivery. We performed end-to-end testing for a set of representative spine targets planned and delivered using four different treatment planning systems (TPSs) and delivery systems to evaluate the various capabilities of each. An anthropomorphic E2E SBRT phantom was simulated and treated on each system to evaluate agreement between measured and calculated doses. The phantom accepts ion chambers in the thoracic region and radiochromic film in the lumbar region. Four representative targets were developed within each region (thoracic and lumbar) to represent different presentations of spinal metastases and planned according to RTOG 0631 constraints. Plans were created using the TomoTherapy TPS for delivery using the Hi·Art system, the iPlan TPS for delivery using the Vero system, the Eclipse TPS for delivery using the TrueBeam system in both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF), and the MultiPlan TPS for delivery using the CyberKnife system. Delivered doses were measured using a 0.007 cm3 ion chamber in the thoracic region and EBT3 GAFCHROMIC film in the lumbar region. Films were scanned and analyzed using an Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner in conjunction with FilmQAPro2013. All treatment platforms met all dose constraints required by RTOG 0631. Ion chamber measurements in the thoracic targets delivered an overall average difference of 1.5%. Specifically, measurements agreed with the TPS to within 2.2%, 3.2%, 1.4%, 3.1%, and 3.0% for all three measureable cases on TomoTherapy, Vero, TrueBeam (FFF), TrueBeam (flattened), and CyberKnife, respectively. Film measurements for the lumbar targets resulted in average global gamma index passing rates of 100% at 3%/3 mm, 96.9% at 2%/2mm, and 61.8% at 1%/1 mm, with a 10% minimum threshold for all plans on all platforms. Local gamma analysis was also performed with similar results. While gamma passing rates were consistently accurate across all platforms through 2%/2 mm, treatment beam-on delivery times varied greatly between each platform with TrueBeam FFF being shortest, averaging 4.4 min, TrueBeam using flattened beam at 9.5 min, TomoTherapy at 30.5 min, Vero at 19 min, and CyberKnife at 46.0 min. In spite of the complexity of the representative targets and their proximity to the spinal cord, all treatment platforms were able to create plans meeting all RTOG 0631 dose constraints and produced exceptional agreement between calculated and measured doses. However, there were differences in the plan characteristics and significant differences in the beam-on delivery time between platforms. Thus, clinical judgment is required for each particular case to determine most appropriate treatment planning/delivery platform. PMID:25679169

Gallo, John J; Kaufman, Isaac; Powell, Rachel; Pandya, Shalini; Somnay, Archana; Bossenberger, Todd; Ramirez, Ezequiel; Reynolds, Robert; Solberg, Timothy; Burmeister, Jay

2015-01-01

348

Morphology of fibroblasts grown on substrates formed by dielectrophoretically aligned carbon nanotubes  

PubMed Central

Multiwall carbon nanotube templates formed on the surfaces of planar interdigitated microelectrode arrays by means of AC electric field-guided assembly are being explored as potential substrates for tissue engineering. The objective of the present study is to examine whether surface patterns of aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes can have an effect on cell growth, morphology, and alignment. Bovine fibroblasts grown on aligned carbon nanotubes for a period of 2 weeks were found to have raised bodies and pronounced cell extensions for anchoring themselves to the substrate similar to that of the cells found in native tissues. On the other hand, cells grown on various control surfaces had a flat, circular morphology. The cell cultures were visualized by means of SEM imaging and the resulting morphologies were statistically analyzed and compared. PMID:19002836

Yuen, Felix L.-Y.; Zak, Gene; Waldman, Stephen D.

2007-01-01

349

Unstable Expression and Thermal Instability of a Species-Specific Cell Surface Epitope Associated with a 66-Kilodalton Antigen Recognized by Monoclonal Antibody EM7G1 within Serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes Grown in Nonselective and Selective Broths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions that resulted in unstable expression and heat instability of a cell surface epitope associated with a 66-kDa antigen in Listeria monocytogenes serotypes were identified with the probe monoclonal antibody (MAb) EM-7G1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This epitope appeared to be absent in three serotypes (serotypes 3b, 4a, and 4c), which did not react with MAb EM-7G1 irrespective of

RAMAKRISHNA NANNAPANENI; ROBERT STORY; ARUN K. BHUNIA; MICHAEL G. JOHNSON

1998-01-01

350

Automorphogenesis and gravitropism of plant seedlings grown under microgravity conditions.  

PubMed

Plant seedlings exhibit automorphogenesis on clinostats. The occurrence of automorphogenesis was confirmed under microgravity in Space Shuttle STS-95 flight. Rice coleoptiles showed an inclination toward the caryopsis in the basal region and a spontaneous curvature in the same adaxial direction in the elongating region both on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat and in space. Both rice roots and Arabidopsis hypocotyls also showed a similar morphology in space and on the 3-D clinostat. In rice coleoptiles, the mechanisms inducing such an automorphic curvature were studied. The faster-expanding convex side of rice coleoptiles showed a higher extensibility of the cell wall than the opposite side. Also, in the convex side, the cell wall thickness was smaller, the turnover of the matrix polysaccharides was more active, and the microtubules oriented more transversely than the concave side, and these differences appear to be causes of the curvature. When rice coleoptiles grown on the 3-D clinostat were placed horizontally, the gravitropic curvature was delayed as compared with control coleoptiles. In clinostatted coleoptiles, the corresponding suppression of the amyloplast development was also observed. Similar results were obtained in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Thus, the induction of automorphogenesis and a concomitant decrease in graviresponsiveness occurred in plant shoots grown under microgravity conditions. PMID:11596636

Hoson, T; Saiki, M; Kamisaka, S; Yamashita, M

2001-01-01

351

Graphene Films Grown on Insulating Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a method of direct CVD growth of carbon films on quartz substrates. The films are grown at temperatures from 650 to 1200 ^oC in a graphite container filled with methane. Films grown at 1200 ^oC reveal clear G and 2D Raman bands characteristic of graphene. A combination of Raman, absorption and electrical measurements allows us to conclude that carbon films grown by this method are polycrystalline graphene, large areas of which may be composed of single carbon layer. Sheet resistivity of these graphene films is low enough to make them interesting objects for electronic applications. Advantages of our synthetic approach include simplicity and the ability to deposit films on any insulating substrate, which can stand temperature of at least 650 ^oC. Thus far, no factors limiting the area of deposition and uniformity of the deposited graphene films have been identified.

Samsonau, Siarhei V.; Exarhos, Annemarie L.; Turk, Michael E.; Cai, Jing; Deshko, Yury; Gorokhovsky, Anshel A.; Kikkawa, Jay M.; Zaitsev, Alexander M.

2011-03-01

352

Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

353

Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be discussed in detail.

Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

354

Ion implanted epitaxially grown ZnSe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The epitaxial growth of ZnSe on (100) Ge using the close-spaced transport process is described. Substrate temperature of 575 C and source temperatures of 675 C yield 10 micron, single crystal layers in 10 hours. The Ge substrates provides a nonreplenishable chemical transport agent and the epitaxial layer thickness is limited to approximately 10 microns. Grown epitaxial layers show excellent photoluminescence structure at 77 K. Grown layers exhibit high resistivity, and annealing in Zn vapor at 575 C reduces the resistivity to 10-100 ohms-cm. Zinc vapor annealing quenches the visible photoluminescence.

1974-01-01

355

Molecule diagram from earth-grown crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like many chemicals in the body, the three-dimensional structure of insulin is extremely complex. When grown on the ground, insulin crystals do not grow as large or as ordered as researchers desire--obscuring the blueprint of the insulin molecules.

2004-01-01

356

AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN TRANSGENIC  

E-print Network

108 AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN TRANSGENIC BT COTTONSEED P.J. Cotty and C. Bock cotton may have reduced susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination as a result of pink bollworm resistance) from one highly contaminated (>6,000 ppb aflatoxin B1) Bt seed lot indicated that most contamination

Cotty, Peter J.

357

Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

1992-01-01

358

Rice Plants Grown With and Without Endophytes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These rice plants show the difference in growth of rice plants exposed to salt when grown with and without endophytes, which are mutually beneficial microscopic fungi that live in most plants. The plant on the left was colonized with a fungi that made it salt-tolerant, but it wasn't exposed to ...

359

Grown-ups Ought To Know Better.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the articles by Sam Brightman collected in this volume from the newsletter, "Adult & Continuing Education Today (ACET)" are the following: "Grown-Ups Ought to Know Better"; "Adult Education: The Only Sure Factor Is Growth"; "Adult Education Important in This Election Year"; "Will Nursery School External Degree Programs Come Next?";…

Brightman, Samuel C.

360

Vapor-grown atomic filaments of graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field emission transmission electron microscopy has revealed the presence of atomic filaments extending from the open edge of a graphite cage formed in a glow-discharge plasma. The filaments are vapor grown, presenting complicated deformations such as curling, waving, and looping in the free space. The filaments correspond well to one carbon atom in diameter, strongly indicating that they are linear

F. Okuyama; T. Hayashi; M. Kawasaki; K. Ibe

2000-01-01

361

Transport studies on CVD-grown graphene  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we report transport studies performed on CVD-grown graphene. We perform resistivity and hall measurements on a large-area sample at 4' K. We measure the carrier mobility of the sample and find it to be on ...

Huntley, Miriam Hanna

2009-01-01

362

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Rapidly Indicates Vessel Regression in Human Squamous Cell Carcinomas Grown in Nude Mice Caused by VEGF Receptor 2 Blockade with DC1011  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of our study was the investigation of early changes in tumor vascularization during antiangiogenic therapy with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 antibody (DC101) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI). Subcutaneous heterotransplants of human skin squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice were treated with DC101. Animals were examined before and repeatedly during 2 weeks of antiangiogenic treatment using Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted MRI. With a two-compartment model, dynamic data were parameterized in “amplitude” (increase of signal intensity relative to precontrast value) and kep (exchange rate constant). Data obtained by MRI were validated by parallel examinations of histological sections immunostained for blood vessels (CD31). Already 2 days after the first DC101 application, a decrease of tumor vascularization was observed, which preceded a reduction of tumor volume. The difference between treated tumors and controls became prominent after 4 days, when amplitudes of treated tumors were decreased by 61% (P = .02). In line with change of microvessel density, the decrease in amplitudes was most pronounced in tumor centers. On day 7, the mean tumor volumes of treated (153 ± 843 mm3) and control animals (596 ± 384 mm3) were significantly different (P = .03). After 14 days, treated tumors showed further growth reduction (83 ± 93 mm3), whereas untreated tumors (1208 ± 822 mm3) continued to increase (P = .02). Our data underline the efficacy of DC101 as antiangiogenic treatment in human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and indicate DCE MRI as a valuable tool for early detection of treatment effects before changes in tumor volume become apparent. PMID:15153333

Kiessling, Fabian; Farhan, Nabeel; Lichy, Matthias P; Vosseler, Silvia; Heilmann, Melanie; Krix, Martin; Bohlen, Peter; Miller, Dan W; Mueller, Margareta M; Semmler, Wolfhard; Fusenig, Norbert E; Stefan, Delorme

2004-01-01

363

Auxin represses stomatal development in dark-grown seedlings via Aux/IAA proteins.  

PubMed

Stomatal development is tightly regulated through internal and external factors that are integrated by a complex signalling network. Light represents an external factor that strongly promotes stomata formation. Here, we show that auxin-resistant aux/iaa mutants, e.g. axr3-1, exhibit a de-repression of stomata differentiation in dark-grown seedlings. The higher stomatal index in dark-grown axr3-1 mutants when compared with the wild type is due to increased cell division in the stomatal lineage. Excessive stomata in dark-grown seedlings were also observed in mutants defective in auxin biosynthesis or auxin perception and in seedlings treated with the polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA. Consistent with these findings, exogenous auxin repressed stomata formation in light-grown seedlings. Taken together, these results indicate that auxin is a negative regulator of stomatal development in dark-grown seedlings. Epistasis analysis revealed that axr3-1 acts genetically upstream of the bHLH transcription factors SPCH, MUTE and FAMA, as well as the YDA MAP kinase cascade, but in parallel with the repressor of photomorphogenesis COP1 and the receptor-like protein TMM. The effect of exogenous auxin required the ER family of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, suggesting that auxin acts at least in part through the ER family. Expression of axr3-1 in the stomatal lineage was insufficient to alter the stomatal index, implying that cell-cell communication is necessary to mediate the effect of auxin. In summary, our results show that auxin signalling contributes to the suppression of stomatal differentiation observed in dark-grown seedlings. PMID:25063454

Balcerowicz, Martin; Ranjan, Aashish; Rupprecht, Laura; Fiene, Gabriele; Hoecker, Ute

2014-08-01

364

[Safety assessment of stevia rebaudiana bertoni grown in southeastern Mexico as food sweetener].  

PubMed

Stevia rebaudiana leaves and their glycosides have been recently and significantly used so important as sweeteners. However, it has been reported an antihyperglycemic effect of the extract and a glycoside. The aim of this study was to quantify S. rebaudiana glycosides, assess cytotoxicity of the extract and its acute and chronic effect on blood glucose in animal models and in human. The glycosides of the Morita II and Criolla extract were quantified by HPLC, using a C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm and particle size of 5 uM) with UV detection at 210 nm, mobile phase of acetonitrile/sodium phosphate buffer 10 mmol/L, pH 2.6 (32:68 v/v). Cytotoxicity study was performed in Vero cells, whereas an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and a chronic consumption assay (4 weeks) were executed in an animal model of diabetes; finally the glycemic index (G.I.) was determined in healthy individuals. The glycoside content is higher in the Morita variety II although both had a CC50 >300 ?g/mL. The areas under the curve of the IPGTT and fasting glucose of the animals were not significantly different (p> 0.05) and the I.G. extract was 11.11 %, which classifies the extract as low I.G. The extract of S. rebaudiana Morita II has a low glycemic index and, in the doses tested, is not cytotoxic nor has acute or chronic effect on blood sugar, which makes it a safe sweetener. PMID:25238836

Aranda-González, Irma; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Toraya-Avilés, Rocío; Segura-Campos, Maira; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda; Betancur-Ancona, David

2014-01-01

365

Sulfated proteoglycan synthesis by confluent cultures of rabbit costal chondrocytes grown in the presence of fibroblast growth factor  

PubMed Central

We examined the effect of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on proteoglycan synthesis by rabbit costal chondrocyte cultures maintained on plastic tissue culture dishes. Low density rabbit costal chondrocyte cultures grown in the absence of FGF gave rise at confluency to a heterogeneous cell population composed of fibroblastic cells and poorly differentiated chondrocytes. When similar cultures were grown in the presence of FGF, the confluent cultures organized into a homogenous cartilage-like tissue composed of rounded cells surrounded by a refractile matrix. The cell ultrastructure and that of the pericellular matrix were similar to those seen in vivo. The expression of the cartilage phenotype in confluent chondrocyte cultures grown from the sparse stage in the presence vs. absence of FGF was reflected by a fivefold increase in the rate of incorporation of [35S]sulfate into proteoglycans. These FGF effects were only observed when FGF was present during the cell logarithmic growth phase, but not when it was added after chondrocyte cultures became confluent. High molecular weight, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans synthesized by confluent chondrocyte cultures grown in the presence of FGF were slightly larger in size than that produced by confluent cultures grown in the absence of FGF. The major sulfated glycosaminoglycans associated with low molecular weight proteoglycan in FGF-exposed cultures were chondroitin sulfate, while in cultures not exposed to FGF they were chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Regardless of whether or not cells were grown in the presence or absence of FGF, the 6S/4S disaccharide ratio of chondroitin sulfate chains associated with high and low molecular weight proteoglycans synthesized by confluent cultures was the same. These results provide evidence that when low density chondrocyte cultures maintained on plastic tissue culture dishes are grown in the presence of FGF, it results in a stimulation of the expression and stabilization of the chondrocyte phenotype once cultures become confluent. PMID:3968172

1985-01-01

366

In vitro inactivation of the rabies virus by ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current recommended inactivating agent for the rabies virus, beta propiolactone (BPL) is very expensive and potentially carcinogenic. There is a need to evaluate alternative chemicals, which will inactivate the virus without affecting its antigenicity. In this study the effect of ascorbic acid on the infectivity of the rabies virus has been investigated.Method: Vero cell grown fixed rabies virus

Shampur Narayan Madhusudana; Ranjini Shamsundar; Saraswati Seetharaman

2004-01-01

367

Characterization of cellulolytic bacterial cultures grown in different substrates.  

PubMed

Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200?rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1?:?0.2, 1?:?0.3, 1?:?0.4, and 1?:?0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067?DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885?ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248?DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842?ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2013-01-01

368

Characterization of Cellulolytic Bacterial Cultures Grown in Different Substrates  

PubMed Central

Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200?rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1?:?0.2, 1?:?0.3, 1?:?0.4, and 1?:?0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067?DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885?ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248?DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842?ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2013-01-01

369

Learning about Cancer by Studying Stem Cells  

MedlinePLUS

... Science Home Page Learning About Cancer by Studying Stem Cells By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 8, 2014 Normally, ... of them are exploring the process by studying stem cells. Modeling Early Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer cells grown ...

370

76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-11-0010; FV11-946-1 CR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance...conducted among eligible Washington potato growers to determine whether they...order regulating the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Washington....

2011-03-23

371

Three distinct quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are expressed when Pseudomonas putida is grown on different alcohols.  

PubMed Central

A bacterial strain that can utilize several kinds of alcohols as its sole carbon and energy sources was isolated from soil and tentatively identified as Pseudomonas putida HK5. Three distinct dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), each of which contained the prosthetic group pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), were formed in the soluble fractions of this strain grown on different alcohols. ADH I was formed most abundantly in the cells grown on ethanol and was similar to the quinoprotein ADH reported for P. putida (H. Görisch and M. Rupp, Antonie Leeuwenhoek 56:35-45, 1989) except for its isoelectric point. The other two ADHs, ADH IIB and ADH IIG, were formed separately in the cells grown on 1-butanol and 1,2-propanediol, respectively. Both of these enzymes contained heme c in addition to PQQ and functioned as quinohemoprotein dehydrogenases. Potassium ferricyanide was an available electron acceptor for ADHs IIB and IIG but not for ADH I. The molecular weights were estimated to be 69,000 for ADH IIB and 72,000 for ADH IIG, and both enzymes were shown to be monomers. Antibodies raised against each of the purified ADHs could distinguish the ADHs from one another. Immunoblot analysis showed that ADH I was detected in cells grown on each alcohol tested, but ethanol was the most effective inducer. ADH IIB was formed in the cells grown on alcohols of medium chain length and also on 1,3-butanediol. Induction of ADH IIG was restricted to 1,2-propanediol or glycerol, of which the former alcohol was more effective. These results from immunoblot analysis correlated well with the substrate specificities of the respective enzymes. Thus, three distinct quinoprotein ADHs were shown to be synthesized by a single bacterium under different growth conditions. PMID:7730276

Toyama, H; Fujii, A; Matsushita, K; Shinagawa, E; Ameyama, M; Adachi, O

1995-01-01

372

Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers  

SciTech Connect

We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

Plaut, Annette S. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Wurstbauer, Ulrich [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Pinczuk, Aron [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States) [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Garcia, Jorge M. [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain)] [MBE Lab, IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, E-28760 (Spain); Pfeiffer, Loren N. [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2013-06-17

373

Mineral composition of organically grown tomato  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

Ghambashidze, Giorgi

2014-05-01

374

Electrical currents through full-grown and maturing Xenopus oocytes.  

PubMed Central

An extracellular vibrating electrode was used to map the current pattern around Xenopus laevis oocytes. Current was found to enter the animal hemisphere and leave the vegetal hemisphere; in fully grown oocytes from which the follicle cells had been removed, the maximal current density was about 1 microamperemeter/cm2. This current decreased to nearly zero in response to progesterone and several other maturation-producing agents. In the case of progesterone, the decline began within a few minutes of the addition of the hormone and proceeded with a half-time of about 20 min. An analysis of the effects on the current of the removal or addition of various ions and drugs led to the inference that the major current-carrying ion was chloride and that the chloride permeability was controlled by calcium. PMID:284407

Robinson, K R

1979-01-01

375

Lipid accumulation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous grown on glucose.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from costly vegetable oil feedstocks. Some microorganisms can accumulate lipids when nutrients are limited and carbon is in excess. Rhodococcus rhodochrous is a gram-positive bacterium most often used in bioremediation or acrylamide production. The purpose of this study was to investigate and characterize the lipid accumulation capabilities of R. rhodochrous. Shake flasks and a large-scale fermentation were used to cultivate R. rhodochrous in varying concentrations of glucose. R. rhodochrous achieved almost 50 % of dry cell mass as lipid when grown in 20 g/L of glucose. Wax esters and triglycerides were identified in R. rhodochrous lipid extract. The transesterified extractables of R. rhodochrous consisted of mostly palmitic (35 %) and oleic (42 %) acid methyl esters. This study shows R. rhodochrous to be an oleaginous bacterium with potential for application in alternative fuels. PMID:25656153

Shields-Menard, Sara A; Amirsadeghi, Marta; Sukhbaatar, Badamkhand; Revellame, Emmanuel; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet R; French, W Todd

2015-05-01

376

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics  

E-print Network

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO 3 films and their electrochromic characteristics.1088/0022-3727/43/28/285501 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics Zhihui Jiao1 , Xiao Wei and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

377

Chemical composition of sewage-grown Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Spirulina platensis has been grown in an outdoor pilot production unit, with an exposed surface area of 450 m2, on a medium consisting of raw domestic sewage supplemented with sodium bicarbonate and nitrate or urea fertilizer. The chemical composition and yield of the biomass grown on sewage-nitrate was comparable to that grown on synthetic medium. The protein content was

P. N. Saxena; M. R. Ahmad; R. Shyam; P. S. Misra

1982-01-01

378

Time Resolved Photoluminescence of Si-doped High Al Mole Fraction AlGaN Epilayers Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

E-print Network

in these epilayers. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS The Si-doped AlGaN epilayers were grown in a turbomolecular Varian Gen II MBE system which uses standard effusion cells for the group III elements. An EPI RF plasma source

Cartwright, Alexander N.

379

Akabane Virus Utilizes Alternative Endocytic Pathways to Entry into Mammalian Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The entry mechanisms of Akabane virus (AKAV), Bunyaviridae family, have not yet been determined. In this study, chemical inhibitors were used to analyze endocytic mechanisms during AKAV infection of mammalian cell lines. The analyses using drug treatments followed by quantitative measurement of viral RNA and N protein revealed that AKAV enters non-bovine-derived cell lines (Vero, HmLu-1 and BHK cells) in a manner indicative of clathrin endocytosis. By contrast, AKAV infection in bovine-derived cell lines (LB9.K and MDBK cells) is independent of this pathway. Further analyses indicated that AKAV entry into bovine cell lines involves a non-clathrin, non-caveolae endocytic pathway that is dependent on dynamin. We conclude that although both cell types require a low pH for AKAV penetration, AKAV utilizes alternative entry pathways into mammalian cell lines. PMID:25056673

BANGPHOOMI, Norasuthi; TAKENAKA-UEMA, Akiko; SUGI, Tatsuki; KATO, Kentaro; AKASHI, Hiroomi; HORIMOTO, Taisuke

2014-01-01

380

Akabane virus utilizes alternative endocytic pathways to entry into mammalian cell lines.  

PubMed

The entry mechanisms of Akabane virus (AKAV), Bunyaviridae family, have not yet been determined. In this study, chemical inhibitors were used to analyze endocytic mechanisms during AKAV infection of mammalian cell lines. The analyses using drug treatments followed by quantitative measurement of viral RNA and N protein revealed that AKAV enters non-bovine-derived cell lines (Vero, HmLu-1 and BHK cells) in a manner indicative of clathrin endocytosis. By contrast, AKAV infection in bovine-derived cell lines (LB9.K and MDBK cells) is independent of this pathway. Further analyses indicated that AKAV entry into bovine cell lines involves a non-clathrin, non-caveolae endocytic pathway that is dependent on dynamin. We conclude that although both cell types require a low pH for AKAV penetration, AKAV utilizes alternative entry pathways into mammalian cell lines. PMID:25056673

Bangphoomi, Norasuthi; Takenaka-Uema, Akiko; Sugi, Tatsuki; Kato, Kentaro; Akashi, Hiroomi; Horimoto, Taisuke

2014-11-01

381

Cell lines that support replication of a novel herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub L}31 deletion mutant can properly target U{sub L}34 protein to the nuclear rim in the absence of U{sub L}31  

SciTech Connect

Previous results indicated that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) U{sub L}31 gene is necessary and sufficient for localization of the U{sub L}34 protein exclusively to the nuclear membrane of infected Hep2 cells. In the current studies, a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the entire HSV-1 strain F genome was used to construct a recombinant viral genome in which a gene encoding kanamycin resistance was inserted in place of 262 codons of the 306 codon U{sub L}31 open reading frame. The deletion virus produced virus titers approximately 10- to 50-fold lower in rabbit skin cells, more than 2000-fold lower in Vero cells, and more than 1500-fold lower in CV1 cells, compared to a virus bearing a restored U{sub L}31 gene. The replication of the U{sub L}31 deletion virus was restored on U{sub L}31-complementing cell lines derived either from rabbit skin cells or CV1 cells. Confocal microscopy indicated that the majority of U{sub L}34 protein localized aberrantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of Vero cells and CV1 cells, whereas U{sub L}34 protein localized at the nuclear membrane in rabbit skin cells, and U{sub L}31 complementing CV1 cells infected with the U{sub L}31 deletion virus. We conclude that rabbit skin cells encode a function that allows proper localization of U{sub L}34 protein to the nuclear membrane. We speculate that this function partially complements that of U{sub L}31 and may explain why U{sub L}31 is less critical for replication in rabbit skin cells as opposed to Vero and CV1 cells.

Liang Li [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Tanaka, Michiko [Department of Virology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Yasushi [Department of Virology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Baines, Joel D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)]. E-mail: jdb11@cornell.edu

2004-11-10

382

Chloroplast DNA levels and the control of chloroplast division in light-grown wheat leaves.  

PubMed

Plastids at different stages of development were isolated from light-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Maris Dove) seedling leaves, and the average chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) per plastid at each developmental stage was measured directly. In the earliest stages of development, the number of plastids per cell and the amount of cpDNA per cell increased with cell age, but cpDNA per plastid remained constant at between 800 and 1,000 genome copies per plastid. After this phase, plastids per cell continued to increase, but cpDNA per plastid decreased. Subsequently, both plastids per cell and cpDNA per plastid remained constant as cell age increased, the final DNA content being approximately 300 genome copies per plastid. These results are related to previous reports of cpDNA changes during the development of dicotyledonous plants, and to theories about the regulation of chloroplast numbers per cell. PMID:16662409

Boffey, S A; Leech, R M

1982-06-01

383

Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water  

PubMed Central

In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of ?-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing ?-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

2013-01-01

384

Defect study in molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe films with activated and unactivated arsenic  

SciTech Connect

A defect study was performed on molecular beam epitaxy-grown HgCdTe films in situ doped with arsenic. Doping was performed from either effusion cell or cracker cell, and studied were both as-grown samples and samples subjected to arsenic activation annealing. Electrical properties of the films were investigated with the use of ion milling as a means of “stirring” defects in the material. As a result of the study, it was confirmed that the most efficient incorporation of electrically active arsenic occurs at the cracking zone temperature of 700?°C. Interaction between arsenic and tellurium during the growth was observed and is discussed in the paper.

Izhnin, I. I., E-mail: i.izhnin@carat.electron.ua [R and D Institute for Materials SRC “Carat,” Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Varavin, V. S. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Mynbaev, K. D. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Fitsych, O. I. [P. Sahaydachnyi Army Academy, Lviv 79012 (Ukraine); Pociask-Bialy, M.; Sheregii, E. [Center of Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Rzeszów University, Rzeszów 35-310 (Poland); Voitsekhovskii, A. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

2014-04-28

385

Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.  

PubMed

Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

2011-08-15

386

The virion N protein of infectious bronchitis virus is more phosphorylated than the N protein from infected cell lysates  

SciTech Connect

Because phosphorylation of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) nucleocapsid protein (N) may regulate its multiple roles in viral replication, the dynamics of N phosphorylation were examined. {sup 32}P-orthophosphate labeling and Western blot analyses confirmed that N was the only viral protein that was phosphorylated. Pulse labeling with {sup 32}P-orthophosphate indicated that the IBV N protein was phosphorylated in the virion, as well as at all times during infection in either chicken embryo kidney cells or Vero cells. Pulse-chase analyses followed by immunoprecipitation of IBV N proteins using rabbit anti-IBV N polyclonal antibody demonstrated that the phosphate on the N protein was stable for at least 1 h. Simultaneous labeling with {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and {sup 3}H-leucine identified a 3.5-fold increase in the {sup 32}P:{sup 3}H counts per minute (cpm) ratio of N in the virion as compared to the {sup 32}P:{sup 3}H cpm ratio of N in the cell lysates from chicken embryo kidney cells, whereas in Vero cells the {sup 32}P:{sup 3}H cpm ratio of N from the virion was 10.5-fold greater than the {sup 32}P:{sup 3}H cpm ratio of N from the cell lysates. These studies are consistent with the phosphorylation of the IBV N playing a role in assembly or maturation of the viral particle.

Jayaram, Jyothi [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3258 (United States); Youn, Soonjeon [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Collisson, Ellen W. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States)]. E-mail: ecollisson@cvm.tamu.edu

2005-08-15

387

Quantitative Schlieren analysis applied to holograms of crystals grown on Spacelab 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to extract additional information about crystals grown in the microgravity environment of Spacelab, a quantitative schlieren analysis technique was developed for use in a Holography Ground System of the Fluid Experiment System. Utilizing the Unidex position controller, it was possible to measure deviation angles produced by refractive index gradients of 0.5 milliradians. Additionally, refractive index gradient maps for any recorded time during the crystal growth were drawn and used to create solute concentration maps for the environment around the crystal. The technique was applied to flight holograms of Cell 204 of the Fluid Experiment System that were recorded during the Spacelab 3 mission on STS 51B. A triglycine sulfate crystal was grown under isothermal conditions in the cell and the data gathered with the quantitative schlieren analysis technique is consistent with a diffusion limited growth process.

Brooks, Howard L.

1986-01-01

388

Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene  

SciTech Connect

Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1?nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C., E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Amamou, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Kawakami, R. K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2014-05-07

389

Magnetic and structural properties of MBE-grown oxidic multilayers  

SciTech Connect

Multilayers composed of oxides including Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}O{sub 4}, CoO, NiO and MgO have been grown epitaxially by MBE on MgO(100) single crystal substrates. These structures can be grown with a high crystallinity in the form of flat layers having sharp interfaces. RHEED studies which commonly yielded sharp streaks accompanied by Kikuchi lines show that, for instance, growth of CoO on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} changes the RHEED pattern form from that consistent with a spinel structure to that of a rocksalt structure within about one and a half unit cell of CoO. STM studies on a 400 {angstrom} Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer displaying atomic resolution enabled us to identify the origin of the reconstruction that one commonly observes in the RHEED and LEED patterns for magnetite. Regarding important fundamental magnetic parameters, relevant thickness dependencies were mapped out using localized magneto-optical Kerr effect experiments performed on several samples that routinely included one or multiple wedge shaped layers. These studies revealed the existence of a region in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer near the interfaces which exhibits no net magnetic moment, strain driven perpendicular orientated magnetization for the CoO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(100) and CoO/Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}O{sub 4}(100) bilayer systems, and information on the thickness dependence of the magnetic interlayer coupling across an MgO spacer layer.

Bloemen, P.J.H.; Heijden, P.A.A. van der; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Jonge, W.J.M. de [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Physics; Wolf, R.M.; Stegge, J. aan de; Reinders, A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Zaag, P.J. van der [Philips Research Labs., Eindhoven (Netherlands)

1996-11-01

390

Revised stereochemistry of ficifolidione and its biological activities against insects and cells.  

PubMed

Ficifolidione (1), a moderately active insecticidal compound from two species of Myrtaceae, and its derivatives were synthesized to evaluate their insecticidal activity. X-ray crystallographic analyses and specific rotation values of ficifolidione and its C-4 (2) demonstrated that the structure of ficifolidione differs from the reported absolute structure; that is, the C-4 configuration of ficifolidione should have an S configuration. The reported insecticidal activity of ficifolidione (1) and its C-4 epimer (2) against adult houseflies (Musca domestica), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens), and cutworms (Spodoptera litura) was not observed. The cytotoxicities of ficifolidione and its derivatives (1-4) against four cell lines, Sf9, Colon26, HL60, and Vero, were also measured because ficifolidione has a phloroglucinol-derived moiety, a motif that is often present in the structure of cytotoxic chemicals. Compound 1 exhibited IC50 values of ca. 32, 9, 3, and 12 ?M for Sf9, Colon26, HL60, and Vero cells, respectively, indicating that ficifolidione possesses selective cytotoxicity against the four cell lines. In HL60 cells treated with 1, DNA fragmentation and the activation of procaspase 3 were observed, suggesting that the cytotoxicity is induced by apoptosis. PMID:25495518

Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Satomi; Wukirsari, Tuti; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Mori, Shigeki; Nishi, Kosuke; Sugahara, Takuya; Yamauchi, Satoshi; Shuto, Yoshihiro

2015-01-23

391

Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) extract induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through caspase-dependent pathways  

PubMed Central

Background Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer ssp. pruniflorum (Kurz) Gogel. (Hóng yá mù) (CF) has been used for treatment of fever, cough, and peptic ulcer. Previously, a 50% ethanol-water extract from twigs of CF was shown highly selective in cytotoxicity against cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptosis-inducing effect of CF. Methods The cytotoxicity of CF was evaluated in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cell line in comparison with a non-cancerous African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line (Vero) by a neutral red assay. The apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated through nuclear morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential alterations, and caspase enzyme activities. Results CF selectively induced HepG2 cell death compared with non-cancerous Vero cells. A 1.5-fold higher apoptotic effect compared with melphalan was induced by 120 ?g/mL of the 50% ethanol-water extract of CF. The apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells occurred via extrinsic and intrinsic caspase-dependent pathways in dose- and time-dependent manners by significantly increasing the activities of caspase 3/7, 8, and 9, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causing apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. Conclusions CF extract induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:24708784

2014-01-01

392

Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans grown diazotrophically on kerosene as sole carbon source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans was induced by its diazotrophic cultivation on kerosene. Its growth and nitrogenase activity were affected by kerosene in\\u000a comparison to cultures grown on sucrose. Electron microscopy of vegetative cells showed that when nitrogenase activity was\\u000a higher and the poly-?-hydroxybutyrate granules were not present to a significant extent, peripheral bodies were abundant.\\u000a After 8 days of culture on

Gabriela García-Esquivel; Graciano Calva-Calva; Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato; Luis Carlos Fernández-Linares; Refugio Rodríguez Vázquez; Fernando José Esparza-García

2009-01-01

393

Electron-transport chain and coupled oxidative phosphorylation in methanol-grown Paracoccus denitrificans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol dehydrogenase of Paracoccus denitrificans was shown to be very similar to the enzyme of Pseudomonas sp, M. 27. The Km value for methanol with excess activator (ammonium ions) is 35 µM. The pH optimum for enzyme activity with 2,6-dichlorophe-nolindophenol as electronacceptor was at 9.0 A CO-binding type of cytochrome c was present only in cells grown with methanol as

H. W. Van Verseveld; A. H. Stouthamer

1978-01-01

394

Method for Theoretical Prediction of Indium Composition in Coherently Grown InGaN Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

InxGa1-xN has attracted considerable interest as a material for multi junction solar cells. In this study, we performed thermodynamic analyses to calculate the relationship between the input In molar ratio and solid composition of a coherently grown InxGa1-xN thin film that is subjected to planar compressive or tensile stress. The theoretical approach incorporates energy loss of a thin-film system due

Tomoe Yayama; Yoshihiro Kangawa; Koichi Kakimoto; Akinori Koukitu

2009-01-01

395

Proton translocation coupled to dimethyl sulfoxide reduction in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli HB101  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton translocation coupled to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reduction was examined in Escherichia coli HB101 grown anaerobically on glycerol and DMSO. Rapid acidification of the medium was observed when an anaerobic suspension of cells, preincubated with glycerol, was pulsed with DMSO, methionine sulfoxide, nitrate, or trimethylamine N-oxide. The DMSO-induced acidification was sensitive to the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (60 microM) and

P. T. Bilous; J. H. Weiner

1985-01-01

396

Nine new diterpenes from the leaves of plantation-grown Cunninghamia lanceolata.  

PubMed

Nine new diterpenes named lanceolatanol hydroperoxide (1), epilanceolatanol hydroperoxide (2), lanceolatanoic acid hydroperoxide (3), epilanceolatanoic acid hydroperoxide (4), lanceolatanol (5), lanceolatanoic acid (6), 11-acetoxylanceolatanoic acid (7), 11-acetoxylanceolatanoic acid methyl ester (8) and epoxyhinokiol (13) were characterized from the leaves of plantation-grown Cunninghamia lanceolata along with twelve known compounds. The compounds were evaluated for their growth inhibitory activities against the human prostate cell line (PC-3). PMID:25736997

Zhao, Shuangshuang; Ling, Junhong; Li, Zhanlin; Wang, Silong; Hu, Jiangchun; Wang, Nan

2015-04-01

397

Chloroplasts of salt-grown Arabidopsis seedlings are impaired in structure, genome copy number and transcript levels.  

PubMed

The chloroplast is the most prominent and metabolically active plastid in photosynthetic plants. Chloroplasts differentiate from proplastids in the plant meristem. Plant plastids contain multiple copies of a small circular genome. The numbers of chloroplasts per mesophyll cell and of plastid genome copies are affected by developmental stage and environmental signals. We compared chloroplast structure, gene expression and genome copy number in Arabidopsis seedlings germinated and grown under optimal conditions to those in seedlings germinated and grown in the presence of NaCl. Chloroplasts of the NaCl-grown seedlings were impaired, with less developed thylakoid and granum membranes than control seedlings. In addition, chloroplasts of salt-grown Arabidopsis seedlings accumulated more starch grains than those in the respective control plants. Steady-state transcript levels of chloroplast-encoded genes and of nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins were reduced in salt-grown seedlings. This reduction did not result from a global decrease in gene expression, since the expression of other nuclear genes was induced or not affected. Average cellular chloroplast genome copy number was reduced in salt-grown seedlings, suggesting that the reduction in steady-state transcript levels of chloroplast-encoded genes might result from a decrease in template DNA. PMID:24340039

Peharec Štefani?, Petra; Koffler, Tal; Adler, Guy; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

2013-01-01

398

Chloroplasts of Salt-Grown Arabidopsis Seedlings Are Impaired in Structure, Genome Copy Number and Transcript Levels  

PubMed Central

The chloroplast is the most prominent and metabolically active plastid in photosynthetic plants. Chloroplasts differentiate from proplastids in the plant meristem. Plant plastids contain multiple copies of a small circular genome. The numbers of chloroplasts per mesophyll cell and of plastid genome copies are affected by developmental stage and environmental signals. We compared chloroplast structure, gene expression and genome copy number in Arabidopsis seedlings germinated and grown under optimal conditions to those in seedlings germinated and grown in the presence of NaCl. Chloroplasts of the NaCl-grown seedlings were impaired, with less developed thylakoid and granum membranes than control seedlings. In addition, chloroplasts of salt-grown Arabidopsis seedlings accumulated more starch grains than those in the respective control plants. Steady-state transcript levels of chloroplast-encoded genes and of nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins were reduced in salt-grown seedlings. This reduction did not result from a global decrease in gene expression, since the expression of other nuclear genes was induced or not affected. Average cellular chloroplast genome copy number was reduced in salt-grown seedlings, suggesting that the reduction in steady-state transcript levels of chloroplast-encoded genes might result from a decrease in template DNA. PMID:24340039

Adler, Guy; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

2013-01-01

399

Multicellularity and Antibiotic Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Grown Under Bloodstream-Mimicking Fluid Dynamic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background.?While the importance of fluid dynamical conditions is well recognized in the growth of biofilms, their role during bacteremia is unknown. We examined the impact of physiological fluid shear forces on the development of multicellular aggregates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods.?Wild-type and O-antigen or capsular mutants of K. pneumoniae were grown as broth culture in a Taylor-Couette flow cell configured to provide continuous shear forces comparable to those encountered in the human arterial circulation (ie, on the order of 1.0 Pa). The size distribution and antibiotic resistance of aggregates formed in this apparatus were determined, as was their ability to persist in the bloodstream of mice following intravenous injection. Results.?Unlike growth in shaking flasks, bacteria grown in the test apparatus readily formed aggregates, a phenotype largely absent in capsular mutants and to a lesser degree in O-antigen mutants. Aggregates were found to persist in the bloodstream of mice. Importantly, organisms grown under physiological shear were found to have an antibiotic resistance phenotype intermediate between that of fully planktonic and biofilm states. Conclusions.?When grown under intravascular-magnitude fluid dynamic conditions, K. pneumoniae spontaneously develops into multicellular aggregates that are capable of persisting in the circulation and exhibit increased antibiotic resistance. PMID:22711903

Thornton, Margaret M.; Chung-Esaki, Hangyul M.; Irvin, Charlene B.; Bortz, David M.; Solomon, Michael J.; Younger, John G.

2012-01-01

400

Phase-shifting interferometric holography of living cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a phase-shifting holographic set-up for the microscopic imaging of adherent cells. The superposition of an object wave field and a reference wave is recorded on a digital sensor with three reference wave phases. The reference phases are then recovered by statistical analysis of the recorded intensities. Subsequently, the object wave phase is calculated by the generalized phase shifting algorithm. After phase unwrapping and background subtraction, the phase shift introduced by the adherent cell culture is reconstructed. As the interferograms are recorded in the image plane of the microsope objective, the full lateral resolution is achieved in contrast to off-axis holography where the reconstruction requires numerical propagation for the separation of 0 th and 1 st order. Our approach uses three arbitrary unknown reference phases and poses thus minimum requirements on the mechanical and thermal stability of the set-up. We give preliminary results of images from a Vero cell line and pollen grains.

Giel, Dominik M.; Fratz, Markus; Brandenburg, Albrecht

2006-02-01

401

Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students look at the components of cells and their functions and discover the controversy behind stem cell research. The first lesson focuses on the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In the second lesson, students learn about the basics of cellular respiration. They also learn about the application of cellular respiration to engineering and bioremediation. The third lesson continues students' education on cells in the human body and how (and why) engineers are involved in the research of stem cell behavior.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

402

Perfect crystals grown from imperfect interfaces  

PubMed Central

The fabrication of advanced devices increasingly requires materials with different properties to be combined in the form of monolithic heterostructures. In practice this means growing epitaxial semiconductor layers on substrates often greatly differing in lattice parameters and thermal expansion coefficients. With increasing layer thickness the relaxation of misfit and thermal strains may cause dislocations, substrate bowing and even layer cracking. Minimizing these drawbacks is therefore essential for heterostructures based on thick layers to be of any use for device fabrication. Here we prove by scanning X-ray nanodiffraction that mismatched Ge crystals epitaxially grown on deeply patterned Si substrates evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface. We show that relaxing thermal and misfit strains result just in lattice bending and tiny crystal tilts. We may thus expect a new concept in which continuous layers are replaced by quasi-continuous crystal arrays to lead to dramatically improved physical properties. PMID:23880632

Falub, Claudiu V.; Medu?a, Mojmír; Chrastina, Daniel; Isa, Fabio; Marzegalli, Anna; Kreiliger, Thomas; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Isella, Giovanni; Miglio, Leo; Dommann, Alex; von Känel, Hans

2013-01-01

403

Compound semiconductor nanotube materials grown and fabricated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP compound semiconductor nanotube material structure was designed and fabricated in this work. A thin, InGaAs-strained material layer was designed in the nanotube structure, which can directionally roll up a strained heterostructure through a normal wet etching process. The compound semiconductor nanotube structure was grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. A good crystalline quality of InGaP, InGaAs, and GaAs materials was obtained through optimizing the growth condition. The fabricated GaAs/InGaAs/InGaP semiconductor nanotubes, with a diameter of 300 to 350 nm and a length of 1.8 to 2.0 ?m, were achieved through normal device fabrication.

Ai, Likun; Xu, Anhuai; Teng, Teng; Niu, Jiebin; Sun, Hao; Qi, Ming

2011-12-01

404

Cotton Fibers Can Undergo Cell Division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovular culture was used to determine the cell cycle aspects of cotton fiber cells. Each ovule (Gossypium hirsutum,cultivar, MD51 ne) grown under the conditions used has ;10 000 fiber cells at 4 d postanthesis. About 25% of these cells divide when ovules are cultured at 348C. Mitosis occurs after fiber cells differentiate, producing multicelled fibers. The basal and tip cells

Jack Van't Hof; Sukumar Saha

1997-01-01

405

Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

2010-08-01

406

MATERIALS AND METHODS Cell culture  

E-print Network

cell line hCMEC/D3 which retains the main characteristics of primary brain endothelial cells, has beenMATERIALS AND METHODS Reagents Cell culture The immortalized human brain microvessel endothelial previously described (S1). hCMEC/D3 were grown at a density of 25 000 cells per cm2 in flasks coated with 5

407

Ultraviolet photoconductive detectors based on Ga-doped ZnO films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy  

E-print Network

on in-depth studies of photoelectric properties and device performances are still few. In this paper, we study optical and photoelectric properties of Ga-doped ZnO films and the corresponding photoconductive was maintained at 550 °C during growth. Ga-doped ZnO film was grown using effusion cell temperatures of 350 °C

Yang, Zheng

408

[Development of a novel influenza vaccine derived from a continuous cell line].  

PubMed

Influenza viruses for production are presently produced in embryonated hen"s eggs. This conventional standard methodology is extremely cumbersome; it requires millions of eggs and an extensive purification to reduce the amount of contaminating egg proteins and to minimise the risk of allergies against egg albumin. The shortage of eggs in a pandemic situation, the selection of egg-adapted variants and the presence of adventitious viruses has emphasised the necessity for production of Influenza vaccines on a well characterised stable cell line. Our established serum and protein free Vero cell technology has been successfully adapted to large scale production of a huge variety of Influenza virus strains. The production in 1200 liter fermenter cultures under serum free conditions gave antigen yields comparable to the conventional embryonated egg technology. The development of a rapid and efficient purification scheme resulted in a safe high purity vaccine which was at least as immunogenic as conventional egg-derived vaccines in a mouse model. Clinical trials in the UK, Poland and Austria demonstrated that the Vero cell derived influenza vaccine is well tolerated, safe and highly immunogenic in humans. PMID:11248852

Kistner, O; Barrett, N; Mundt, W; Reiter, M; Schober-Bendixen, S; Eder, G; Dorner, F

2001-01-01

409

Plasma-Mediated Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Grown on Borosilicate Surfaces under Continuous Culture System  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are microbial communities attached to a surface and embedded in a matrix composed of exopolysaccharides and excreted nucleic acids. Bacterial biofilms are responsible for undesirable effects such as disease, prostheses colonization, biofouling, equipment damage, and pipe plugging. Biofilms are also more resilient than free-living cells to regular sterilization methods and therefore it is indispensable to develop better ways to control and remove them. The use of gas discharge plasmas is a good alternative since plasmas contain a mixture of reactive agents well-known for their decontamination potential against free microorganisms. We have previously reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were inactivated after a 1-min plasma exposure. We determined that the adhesiveness and the thickness of Pseudomonas biofilms grown on borosilicate were reduced. We also reported sequential morphological changes and loss of viability upon plasma treatment. However, the studies were carried out in batch cultures. The use of a continuous culture results in a more homogenous environment ensuring reproducible biofilm growth. The aim of this work was to study plasma-mediated inactivation of P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on borosilicate in a continuous culture system. In this paper we show that biofilms grown on glass under continuous culture can be inactivated by using gas discharge plasma. Both biofilm architecture and cell culturabilty are impacted by the plasma treatment. The inactivation kinetics is similar to previously described ones and cells go through sequential changes ranging from minimal modification without loss of viability at short plasma exposure times, to major structure and viability loss at longer exposure times. We report that changes in biofilm structure leading to the loss of culturability and viability are related to a decrease of the biofilm matrix adhesiveness. To our knowledge, there has been no attempt to evaluate the inactivation/sterilization of biofilms grown in a continuous system. PMID:25302815

Vandervoort, Kurt G.; Brelles-Mariño, Graciela

2014-01-01

410

Chloroplast Division and DNA Synthesis in Light-grown Wheat Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Light-grown 7-day-old wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, var. Maris Dove) showed an increase of 200% in plastids per cell between 1.7 and 4.5 centimeters from the leaf base. This increase was the result of divisions of young chloroplasts at various stages of development, and was well separated in distance, and therefore in time from the region of cell division in the basal meristem. [3H]Thymidine was incorporated into plastid DNA throughout the zone of plastid division, but not above it. Images PMID:16660998

Boffey, Stephen A.; Ellis, J. Raymond; Selldén, Gun; Leech, Rachel M.

1979-01-01

411

In vitro anticancer activity of fucoidan from Turbinaria conoides against A549 cell lines.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate the anticancer activity of fucoidan isolated from brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides. Extracted fucoidan contained 53 ± 0.69% of fucose and 38 ± 0.42% of sulphate, respectively. Functional groups and structural characteristics of the fucoidan were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR. In vitro anticancer effect was studied on A549 cell line. Fucoidan inhibited the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and potent anticancer activities were 24.9-73.5% in the concentrations of 31.25-500 ?g/ml. The CTC50 value against the cancer cell was found to be 45 ?g/ml and the CTC50 value of normal Vero cell line is 325 ?g/ml. This study suggests that the fucoidan from T. conoides could be significantly improved if the active component is further purified and tested for further investigation in various cancer cell lines. PMID:25451746

Marudhupandi, Thangapandi; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Lakshmanasenthil, Shanmugaasokan; Suja, Gunasekaran; Vinothkumar, Thirumalairaj

2015-01-01

412

Phyllosphere Microbiota Composition and Microbial Community Transplantation on Lettuce Plants Grown Indoors  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The aerial surfaces of plants, or phyllosphere, are microbial habitats important to plant and human health. In order to accurately investigate microbial interactions in the phyllosphere under laboratory conditions, the composition of the phyllosphere microbiota should be representative of the diversity of microorganisms residing on plants in nature. We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce. The bacterial diversity on laboratory-grown plants was also significantly lower and contained relatively higher proportions of Betaproteobacteria as opposed to the Gammaproteobacteria-enriched communities on field lettuce. Incubation of field-grown Romaine lettuce plants in environmental growth chambers for 2 weeks resulted in bacterial cell densities and taxa similar to those on plants in the field but with less diverse bacterial populations overall. In comparison, the inoculation of laboratory-grown Romaine lettuce plants with either freshly collected or cryopreserved microorganisms recovered from field lettuce resulted in the development of a field-like microbiota on the lettuce within 2 days of application. The survival of an inoculated strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was unchanged by microbial community transfer; however, the inoculation of E. coli O157:H7 onto those plants resulted in significant shifts in the abundance of certain taxa. This finding was strictly dependent on the presence of a field-associated as opposed to a laboratory-associated microbiota on the plants. Phyllosphere microbiota transplantation in the laboratory will be useful for elucidating microbial interactions on plants that are important to agriculture and microbial food safety. PMID:25118240

Williams, Thomas R.

2014-01-01

413

78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0037; FV13-955-2 CR] Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum...conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia to determine whether...that regulates the handling of Vidalia onions produced in the production area....

2013-07-30

414

29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780...STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet...Section 13(b)(15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities...

2012-07-01

415

Vapor grown silicon dioxide improves transistor base-collector junctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor grown silicon dioxide layer protects base-collector junction in silicon planar transistors during the emitter diffusion process. This oxide fills in any imperfections that exist in the thermally grown oxide layer and is of greater thickness than that layer. This process is used to deposit protective silicon dioxide coatings on optical surfaces.

Carley, D. R.; Duclos, R. A.

1966-01-01

416

Thermoelectic properties of CVD grown large area graphene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is based on experimental work on thermoelectric properties of CVD grown large area graphene. The thermoelectric power (TEP) of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) grown large area graphene transferred onto a Si\\/SiO 2_substrate was measured by simply attaching two miniature thermocouples and a resistive heater. Availability of such large area graphene facilitates straight forward TEP measurement without the use

Andriy Sherehiy

2010-01-01

417

78 FR 77367 - Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AMS-FV-13-0082; FV14-981-1 CR] Almonds Grown in California; Continuance Referendum...be conducted among eligible growers of almonds in California to determine whether they...marketing order that regulates the handling of almonds grown in California. DATES: The...

2013-12-23